Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry

Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 3 (2014)

Article

Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers

1Department of Environmental Engineering/Industrial Safety, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria

2Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 50-54
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O.U. Nwosu, C. M. Ewulonu. Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):50-54. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: C.  M. Ewulonu, Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: cm.ewulonu@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract

The rheological properties of drilling fluids modified with three biopolymers – carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum polysaccharide (xanplex D), and polyanionic cellulose (PAC-R) have been studied. The effect of concentration of the biopolymers on the drilling fluid was also reported. The modified drilling fluids were found to obey Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The fluids were also found to be pseudo-plastic with shear thinning behaviour. Polyanionic cellulose showed the highest shear rate and shear stress than carboxylmethyl cellulose and xanplex D. This can be attributed to the straight open long chain structure of PAC-R and its ability to interact with water, solids and with itself. It also acted as a better viscosifier because of the more negative charge it carries. Also, the formulation of biopolymer drilling fluid with bentonite has proven to improve the viscosity than that encountered in normal conventional drilling fluids.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  R. B. Watson, P. Viste, and J. R. Lauritzen, “The influence of fluid loss additives in high temperature reservoirs”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 2012.
 
[2]  B. K. Warren, T. R. Smith, K. M. Ravi, “Static and dynamic fluid-loss characteristics of drilling fluids in a full-scale wellbore”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 1993.
 
[3]  National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) manual, “Drilling formation”, Department of Drilling Chemistry, Ahwaz, Iran, 2002.
 
[4]  S. Z. Kassab, A. S. Ismail, and M. M. Elessawi, “Drilling fluid rheology and hydraulics for oil fields”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 57, Issue 1, p68, 2011.
 
[5]  Deily et al., “New biopolymer low-solids mud speeds drilling operation”, The Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 65, No. 26, pp. 62-70, 1967.
 
Show More References
[6]  H. C. H. Darley, and G. R. Gray, “Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids”, 5th ed. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston, USA, pp. 66-67, 561-562, 1988.
 
[7]  J. L. Lummus, and J. J. Azar, “Drilling fluids optimization: A practical field approach”, PennWell Books, Tulsa-Oklahoma, USA, pp. 3-5, 1986.
 
[8]  J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gas-lorek, and J. A. Swaffield, “Fluid mechanics”, 3rd ed. ELBS with Longman, 1995.
 
[9]  American Petroleum Institute, “Drilling fluid testing procedure manual”, USA, 2000.
 
[10]  TEAP-ENIAgip Division, “Drilling fluid and waste disposal manual”, Nigeria, 2000.
 
[11]  T. Hamida, E. Kuru, and M. Pickard, “Rheological characteristics of aqueous waxy hull-less barley (WHB) solutions”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 69, pp 163-173, 2009.
 
[12]  T. Adam, Jr. Bourgoyne, E. C. Martin, F. S. Keithk, and Jr. Young, “Applied drilling engineering”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Text Book Series, Vol. 2, pp. 4082, 1991.
 
[13]  L. M. Zhang, Y. B. Tan, and Z. M. Li, “New water-soluble ampholytic polysaccharides for oilfield drilling treatment: A preliminary study” Carbohydr. Polym.44, pp. 255-260, 2001.
 
[14]  E. Lucas, C. Mansur, and L. Spinelli, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 81, pp. 473, 2009,
 
[15]  A. Przepasniak and P. Clark, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-39461, Lafayette, EUA, 1998.
 
[16]  A. Martins, A. Waldman, and D. Ribeiro, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-94287, Madrid, Spain, 2005.
 
[17]  N. J. Alderman, D. R. Babu, T. L. Hughes, and G. C. Maitland, “Rheological properties of water-based drilling muds”, in 4th International Congress on Rheology, Sydney, 1988.
 
[18]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Rheological evaluation of polymers as drilling fluids”, Petroleum Science Technology, Vol. 21, Nos. 1-2, pp. 133, 2003.
 
[19]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Effect of polymers on the rheological properties of KCl/polymer type drilling fluid”, Energy Sources, 27: 405, 2005.
 
[20]  F. H. D Outmans, “Mechanics of static and dynamic filtration”, Society of Petroleum Engineer Journal, 63: 210, 1963.
 
[21]  J. Mewis, J. F. Willaim, A. S. Trevor, and W. B. Russel, “Rheology of suspensions containing polymerically stabilized particles”, Journal of Chemical Engineering Research Development, 19: 415, 1989.
 
[22]  G. V. Chilingarian, and P. Varabutre, “Drilling and drilling muds” Development in Petroleum Science, 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000.
 
[23]  M. N. Okafor, and J. F. Evers, “Experimental comparison of rheology models for drilling fluids”, SPE Western Regional Meeting, California, Paper ID. SPE-24086-MS, 1992.
 
[24]  T. Hemphill, W. Campos and A. Pilehvari, "Yield-power law model more accurately predicts mud rheology”, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 91, No. 34, pp. 45-50, 1993.
 
[25]  M. Khalil, and B. M. Jan, “Herschel-Bulkley rheological parameters of a novel environmentally friendly lightweight biopolymer drilling fluid from xanthan gum and starch”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 124, Issue 1, pp. 595-606, 2012.
 
[26]  C. O. Chike–Onyegbula, O. Ogbobe, and S. C. Nwanonenyi, “Biodegradable polymer drilling mud prepared from guinea corn”, Journal of Brewing and Distilling Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 6-14, 2012.
 
[27]  C. W. Hoogendam, A. de Keizer, M. A. Cohen Stuart, B. H. Bijsterbosch, J. A. M. Smit, J. A. P. P. Van Dijk, P. M. Vander Horst and J. G. Batelann (1998). “Persistence length of carboxymethyl cellulose as evaluated from size exclusion chromatography and potentiometric titrations.” Macromolecules 31, 6297-6309.
 
[28]  J. Kelly and J. John (1983). “Drilling fluid selection, performance and quality control.”Petroleum Technology, p889.
 
[29]  B. L. Browning (1967). “Viscosity and molecular weight.”In Methods of wood chemistry, Vol. 2. B. L. Browning ed., Interscience Publishers, New York, Ch. 25, 519-557.
 
Show Less References

Article

Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton

1Department of Textile Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, South Wollo, Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 44-49
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karthikeyan M. R, Omprakash Sahu. Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):44-49. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

An Investigation of the properties of weft knitted fabrics produced from organically made cotton vis-à-vis regular cotton knitted fabric is reported. The yarn is made with organically produced cotton and regular cotton and the fabric was knitted using single jersey machines. The fabrics were subsequently dyed using natural dyes. The naturally dyed knitted fabrics were examined for shrinkage, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, colour fastness properties. The result show that the knitted fabrics produced from organically grown cotton is superior in performance in comparing with fabrics produced from regular cotton.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  AATCC, (1995), ‘Technical manual of the American Association of Textile Chemist and Colorist’, Col 70, American associations of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Canada. P. 23.
 
[2]  Bhavasar. A.M, (2004),’Dyeing and Finishing of Cotton’, Man Made Textile in India Journal, L. Simson publications, pp. 580.
 
[3]  Chemical finishing of textiles (2004), edited by S.D. Wolfgang, Wood Head Publishing.
 
[4]  Wickens hetty, ‘Natural Dye for Spinners and Weavers’, BT Batsford Limited, London.
 
[5]  Priyank Dasgupta Brahma, ‘Cotton Organic Orientations’, Modern Textile Journal, Oct-Nov. 2007, pp. 19-23.
 
Show More References
[6]  Natural dyes February 2008, ‘Colourage’ – Gahlot, Mumbai-79.
 
[7]  Environment production –April 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 52-54.
 
[8]  Organic cotton – July 2006, ‘Asian Textile Journal’, pp. 75-79.
 
[9]  Ravichandran. P, (2002), Colourage, Vol – XLIX. No. 11, The Future of Cotton, p. 1.
 
[10]  Kaplan. N. S (2001), Textile Fibers, Abshishek Publication, Chandigar, pp. 203.
 
[11]  Mary D. Boundrea and Frenderick A. Beleand (2006), the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, pp. 103-154.
 
[12]  Mishra. S. P (2000), A Text Book of Fiber Science and Technology, New Age International Publishers, pp. 2.
 
[13]  Natural Colored Cotton – July 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 57.
 
[14]  Globalize Organic Cotton – November 2006, ‘Apparel Online’, pp. 16-30.
 
[15]  Environment production – November 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 38-42.
 
[16]  Iyer. N. D, (2001), ‘Cotton the King of Fibers’, Colourage, May, Colourage publications, pp. 75-76.
 
[17]  Teli. M. D, Paul Roshan, Pardeshi. P.P, (2001) Natural Dyes, Classification Chemistry and Extraction Methods, Colourage, April 2001, 51.
 
Show Less References