Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry

Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 3 (2014)

Article

Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites

1Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 55-61
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rezaul K Khan, S. M. Shauddin, S. S. Dhar. Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):55-61. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: S.  M. Shauddin, Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: sms.baec@gmail.com

Abstract

Non-woven jute caddies (JC, jute wastage) reinforced unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and polypropylene (PP)-based randomly oriented discontinuous fibre composites with fibre loading 40-65% were fabricated by compression molding. The influence of the addition of fibre loadings on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength (TS) and tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS) and bending modulus (BM) and impact strength (IS) of the composites was investigated. Based on the fiber loading, around 55% JC reinforced UPR composite yielded better mechanical properties compared to the JC/PP composite. To improve the compatibility between fibre and matrix, the composites were irradiated with gamma rays (Co-60) of dose varied from 2.5 kGy to 12.5 kGy. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were found to be improved significantly after irradiation. TS and BS of JC/UPR composites increased 29.86 and 14.60% respectively at 7.5 kGy while for JC/PP composites the increments were 21.69 and 7.78% respectively at 5.0 kGy. Water uptake tests of untreated and irradiated composites were carried out in deionized water where, the water-resistance properties of both kinds of irradiated composites were found to improve almost equally. Degradation tests of the composites were performed in soil medium and it was observed that JC/UPR composites lost much of its original strength and modulus compared to that of the JC/PP composites.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  Mahapatra, B. S., M. Sabyasachi, M. K. Sinha and A. K. Ghorai, 2009. Research and development in jute (Corchorus sp.) and allied fibres in India: A review. Indian J. Agron., 54: 361-373.
 
[2]  Available online: http://www. jute. org (accessed on 20/09/2014).
 
[3]  Ganguly, P. K., S. K. Bhaduri and A. Day, 2004. Jute caddies: A potential raw material for handmade paper. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 63: 417-419.
 
[4]  J. T. Fang, B. Liao, S. Lee; New. Biotechnol, 2010, 27, 32.
 
[5]  C. Azeri, U. A. Tamer, M. Oskay; Afr. J. Biotech, 2010, 9, 72.
 
Show More References
[6]  Daniel, Isaac M., and Ori Ishai. Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006. Print
 
[7]  Mitra, B. C., R. K. Basak and M. Sarkar, 1998. Studies on jute-reinforced composites, it’s laminations and some solutions through chemical modifications of fibres. J. Applied Polym. Sci., 67: 1098-1100.
 
[8]  Rana, A. K., A. Mondal and K. Jayachandran, 1999. Jute composites: Properties and applications in packaging. Packag. India, 3: 15-19.
 
[9]  Bharat Dholakiya, September 26, 2012. Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Specialty Applications, Chapter-7: 167-202.
 
[10]  Zaman HU, Khan AH, Hossain MA, Khan MA, Khan RA. Mechanical and electrical properties of jute fabrics reinforced polyethylene/polypropylene composites: Role of gamma radiation. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 2009; 48: 760-6.
 
[11]  Khan MA, Hinrichsen G, Drzal LT. Influence of novel coupling agents on mechanical of jute reinforced polypropylene composite. Journal of Material Science Letters. 2001; 20: 1711-3.
 
[12]  Czvikovszky T. Reactive recycling of multiphase polymer systems. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 1995; 105: 233-7.
 
[13]  Karmaker AC, Hinrichen G. Processing and characterization of jute fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymers. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 1991; 30 (5-6): 609-29.
 
[14]  A. A. Kafi, M. Z. Abedin, M. D. H. Beg, K. L. Pickering and M. A. Khan, “Study on the Mechanical Properties of Jute/Glass Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Hy-brid Composite: Effect of Surface Modification by Ultra-violet Radiation,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2006, pp. 575-588.
 
[15]  Indicula, M. and Thomas, S. (2004). Effect of Fiber Loading and Fiber Ration on the Mechanical Properties of Intimately Mixed Banana/Sisal Hybrid Fiber reinforced Composites, In: 5th Global Wood and Natural Fiber Composites Symposium, 27-28 April, Kessel/Germany.
 
[16]  Saheb, D. N., Jog, J. P., 1999. Natural fiber polymer composites: a review. Adv. Polym. Technol. 18 (4), 351-363.
 
[17]  Valdez-Gonzalez, A., Cervantes-Uea, J. M., Oleyob, R., Herrera-Franco, P. J., 1999. Effect of fiber-surface treatment on the fiber-matrix bond strength of natural fiber reinforced composites. Composites: Part B 3, 309-320.
 
[18]  Wolcott, M. P., 1993. Wood-Fiber/Polymer Composites. Forest Product Society, Madison, WI, USA 24-32.
 
[19]  Haydaruzzaman, Ruhul A. Khan, Mubarak A. Khan, A. H. Khan, M. A. Hossain Effect of gamma radiation on the performance of jute fabrics-reinforced polypropylene composites, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 78 (2009) 986-993
 
[20]  Mubarak A. Khan, Ruhul A. Khan, Haydaruzzaman, Abul Hossain and A. H. Khan “Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Physico-Mechanical and Electrical Properties Jute Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2009; 28; 1651 originally published online Jul 31, 2008.
 
[21]  M. A. Khan, C. Kopp and G. Hinrichsen, “Effect of Vinyl and Silicon Monomer on Mechanical and Degradation Properties of Bio-Degradable Jute-Biopol® Composite,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 20, No. 16, 2001, pp. 1414-1429.
 
Show Less References

Article

Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers

1Department of Environmental Engineering/Industrial Safety, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria

2Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 50-54
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O.U. Nwosu, C. M. Ewulonu. Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):50-54. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: C.  M. Ewulonu, Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: cm.ewulonu@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract

The rheological properties of drilling fluids modified with three biopolymers – carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum polysaccharide (xanplex D), and polyanionic cellulose (PAC-R) have been studied. The effect of concentration of the biopolymers on the drilling fluid was also reported. The modified drilling fluids were found to obey Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The fluids were also found to be pseudo-plastic with shear thinning behaviour. Polyanionic cellulose showed the highest shear rate and shear stress than carboxylmethyl cellulose and xanplex D. This can be attributed to the straight open long chain structure of PAC-R and its ability to interact with water, solids and with itself. It also acted as a better viscosifier because of the more negative charge it carries. Also, the formulation of biopolymer drilling fluid with bentonite has proven to improve the viscosity than that encountered in normal conventional drilling fluids.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  R. B. Watson, P. Viste, and J. R. Lauritzen, “The influence of fluid loss additives in high temperature reservoirs”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 2012.
 
[2]  B. K. Warren, T. R. Smith, K. M. Ravi, “Static and dynamic fluid-loss characteristics of drilling fluids in a full-scale wellbore”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 1993.
 
[3]  National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) manual, “Drilling formation”, Department of Drilling Chemistry, Ahwaz, Iran, 2002.
 
[4]  S. Z. Kassab, A. S. Ismail, and M. M. Elessawi, “Drilling fluid rheology and hydraulics for oil fields”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 57, Issue 1, p68, 2011.
 
[5]  Deily et al., “New biopolymer low-solids mud speeds drilling operation”, The Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 65, No. 26, pp. 62-70, 1967.
 
Show More References
[6]  H. C. H. Darley, and G. R. Gray, “Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids”, 5th ed. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston, USA, pp. 66-67, 561-562, 1988.
 
[7]  J. L. Lummus, and J. J. Azar, “Drilling fluids optimization: A practical field approach”, PennWell Books, Tulsa-Oklahoma, USA, pp. 3-5, 1986.
 
[8]  J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gas-lorek, and J. A. Swaffield, “Fluid mechanics”, 3rd ed. ELBS with Longman, 1995.
 
[9]  American Petroleum Institute, “Drilling fluid testing procedure manual”, USA, 2000.
 
[10]  TEAP-ENIAgip Division, “Drilling fluid and waste disposal manual”, Nigeria, 2000.
 
[11]  T. Hamida, E. Kuru, and M. Pickard, “Rheological characteristics of aqueous waxy hull-less barley (WHB) solutions”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 69, pp 163-173, 2009.
 
[12]  T. Adam, Jr. Bourgoyne, E. C. Martin, F. S. Keithk, and Jr. Young, “Applied drilling engineering”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Text Book Series, Vol. 2, pp. 4082, 1991.
 
[13]  L. M. Zhang, Y. B. Tan, and Z. M. Li, “New water-soluble ampholytic polysaccharides for oilfield drilling treatment: A preliminary study” Carbohydr. Polym.44, pp. 255-260, 2001.
 
[14]  E. Lucas, C. Mansur, and L. Spinelli, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 81, pp. 473, 2009,
 
[15]  A. Przepasniak and P. Clark, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-39461, Lafayette, EUA, 1998.
 
[16]  A. Martins, A. Waldman, and D. Ribeiro, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-94287, Madrid, Spain, 2005.
 
[17]  N. J. Alderman, D. R. Babu, T. L. Hughes, and G. C. Maitland, “Rheological properties of water-based drilling muds”, in 4th International Congress on Rheology, Sydney, 1988.
 
[18]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Rheological evaluation of polymers as drilling fluids”, Petroleum Science Technology, Vol. 21, Nos. 1-2, pp. 133, 2003.
 
[19]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Effect of polymers on the rheological properties of KCl/polymer type drilling fluid”, Energy Sources, 27: 405, 2005.
 
[20]  F. H. D Outmans, “Mechanics of static and dynamic filtration”, Society of Petroleum Engineer Journal, 63: 210, 1963.
 
[21]  J. Mewis, J. F. Willaim, A. S. Trevor, and W. B. Russel, “Rheology of suspensions containing polymerically stabilized particles”, Journal of Chemical Engineering Research Development, 19: 415, 1989.
 
[22]  G. V. Chilingarian, and P. Varabutre, “Drilling and drilling muds” Development in Petroleum Science, 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000.
 
[23]  M. N. Okafor, and J. F. Evers, “Experimental comparison of rheology models for drilling fluids”, SPE Western Regional Meeting, California, Paper ID. SPE-24086-MS, 1992.
 
[24]  T. Hemphill, W. Campos and A. Pilehvari, "Yield-power law model more accurately predicts mud rheology”, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 91, No. 34, pp. 45-50, 1993.
 
[25]  M. Khalil, and B. M. Jan, “Herschel-Bulkley rheological parameters of a novel environmentally friendly lightweight biopolymer drilling fluid from xanthan gum and starch”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 124, Issue 1, pp. 595-606, 2012.
 
[26]  C. O. Chike–Onyegbula, O. Ogbobe, and S. C. Nwanonenyi, “Biodegradable polymer drilling mud prepared from guinea corn”, Journal of Brewing and Distilling Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 6-14, 2012.
 
[27]  C. W. Hoogendam, A. de Keizer, M. A. Cohen Stuart, B. H. Bijsterbosch, J. A. M. Smit, J. A. P. P. Van Dijk, P. M. Vander Horst and J. G. Batelann (1998). “Persistence length of carboxymethyl cellulose as evaluated from size exclusion chromatography and potentiometric titrations.” Macromolecules 31, 6297-6309.
 
[28]  J. Kelly and J. John (1983). “Drilling fluid selection, performance and quality control.”Petroleum Technology, p889.
 
[29]  B. L. Browning (1967). “Viscosity and molecular weight.”In Methods of wood chemistry, Vol. 2. B. L. Browning ed., Interscience Publishers, New York, Ch. 25, 519-557.
 
Show Less References

Article

Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton

1Department of Textile Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, South Wollo, Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 44-49
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karthikeyan M. R, Omprakash Sahu. Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):44-49. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

An Investigation of the properties of weft knitted fabrics produced from organically made cotton vis-à-vis regular cotton knitted fabric is reported. The yarn is made with organically produced cotton and regular cotton and the fabric was knitted using single jersey machines. The fabrics were subsequently dyed using natural dyes. The naturally dyed knitted fabrics were examined for shrinkage, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, colour fastness properties. The result show that the knitted fabrics produced from organically grown cotton is superior in performance in comparing with fabrics produced from regular cotton.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  AATCC, (1995), ‘Technical manual of the American Association of Textile Chemist and Colorist’, Col 70, American associations of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Canada. P. 23.
 
[2]  Bhavasar. A.M, (2004),’Dyeing and Finishing of Cotton’, Man Made Textile in India Journal, L. Simson publications, pp. 580.
 
[3]  Chemical finishing of textiles (2004), edited by S.D. Wolfgang, Wood Head Publishing.
 
[4]  Wickens hetty, ‘Natural Dye for Spinners and Weavers’, BT Batsford Limited, London.
 
[5]  Priyank Dasgupta Brahma, ‘Cotton Organic Orientations’, Modern Textile Journal, Oct-Nov. 2007, pp. 19-23.
 
Show More References
[6]  Natural dyes February 2008, ‘Colourage’ – Gahlot, Mumbai-79.
 
[7]  Environment production –April 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 52-54.
 
[8]  Organic cotton – July 2006, ‘Asian Textile Journal’, pp. 75-79.
 
[9]  Ravichandran. P, (2002), Colourage, Vol – XLIX. No. 11, The Future of Cotton, p. 1.
 
[10]  Kaplan. N. S (2001), Textile Fibers, Abshishek Publication, Chandigar, pp. 203.
 
[11]  Mary D. Boundrea and Frenderick A. Beleand (2006), the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, pp. 103-154.
 
[12]  Mishra. S. P (2000), A Text Book of Fiber Science and Technology, New Age International Publishers, pp. 2.
 
[13]  Natural Colored Cotton – July 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 57.
 
[14]  Globalize Organic Cotton – November 2006, ‘Apparel Online’, pp. 16-30.
 
[15]  Environment production – November 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 38-42.
 
[16]  Iyer. N. D, (2001), ‘Cotton the King of Fibers’, Colourage, May, Colourage publications, pp. 75-76.
 
[17]  Teli. M. D, Paul Roshan, Pardeshi. P.P, (2001) Natural Dyes, Classification Chemistry and Extraction Methods, Colourage, April 2001, 51.
 
Show Less References