ISSN (Print): 2372-0115

ISSN (Online): 2372-0107

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 6, 2016


Pesticidal Activity of Phytolacca Dodecandra Extracts against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae) Storage Pests in Maize

1Department of Physical Sciences, Open University of Tanzania (OUT), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

2Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

4Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(6), 147-155
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-4
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Michael Qwarse, Matobola J. Mihale, Leonia Henry, Joseph Sempombe, Veronica Mugoyela, Fortunatus Sung'hwa. Pesticidal Activity of Phytolacca Dodecandra Extracts against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae) Storage Pests in Maize. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(6):147-155. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Matobola  J. Mihale, Department of Physical Sciences, Open University of Tanzania (OUT), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email:


This study assessed the pesticidal activities of Phytolacca dodecandra extracts in controlling Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum pests in stored maize grains. The study was conducted at ambient conditions (25–30°C and 65–70% relative humidity) and designed in a completely randomised design with 8 treatments in triplicate. Contact toxicity, percent mortality, feeding deterrence and grains weight loss were assessed using developed procedures for 21 days and first filial generation progeny was assessed for 42 days of post-pest introduction. Both ethanolic root and leaf extracts of P. dodecandra demonstrated significant bioactivities against both S. zeamais and T. castaneum, with the leaf extract being more active than the root extracts. P. dodecandra leaf extracts killed 98% of S. zeamais and 99% of T. castaneum at concentration of 150 mg/mL on day 3. Similarly, P. dodecandra leaf extracts reduced grain damage to 0% and had moderate repellence of 57% and 66% to S. zeamais and T. castaneum, respectively. Hence, after biosafety studies this plant-based products can be included in the Integrated Pest Management strategies and can be recommended as an alternative remedy in treating maize storage pests in subsistence agriculture. Further isolation and structure elucidation of bioactive ingredients in the plant species are recommended and are underway.



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Half a Century of Consensus and Controversies about Food Security

1Rural Development Institute, Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(6), 138-146
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Patrice Zidouemba. Half a Century of Consensus and Controversies about Food Security. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(6):138-146. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Patrice Zidouemba, Rural Development Institute, Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Email:


Food Security is now recognized as a concept centered on the individual. This is the result of an evolution, in the last half century, of the economic thought and the place of food security in that thought. Today, the consensus is that the improvement of food security goes mainly through the reduction of poverty. However, the policies to be implemented to achieve sustainable food security remain controversial. This is mainly due to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in determining the food and nutritional status of individuals: many variables are nested at different levels (macro, meso, and micro) with direct and indirect effects, while natural resources play a major role. In this context any attempt to generalize a policy is doomed to failure. The identification of bottlenecks in each context is the prerequisite for the success of policies intended to fight against food insecurity.



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Preliminary Insights on Household Food Wastage in Lebanon

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon

2Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Department, International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies of Bari (CIHEAM-Bari), via Ceglie 9, 70010, Valenzano (Bari), Italy

3Khatib & Alami Consolidated Engineering Company, Jnah, Beirut, Lebanon

4General Chaplaincy of Prisons, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon

5Parthenope University of Naples, Department of Science and Technology, Naples, Italy

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(6), 131-137
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laurence CHARBEL, Roberto CAPONE, Leyla GRIZI, Philipp DEBS, Dunia KHALIFE, Hamid EL BILALI, Francesco BOTTALICO. Preliminary Insights on Household Food Wastage in Lebanon. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(6):131-137. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: Laurence  CHARBEL, Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon. Email:


Food losses and waste, generated across the whole food chain, implies serious environmental, social and economic costs. Lebanon suffers from lack of information about food waste. There is no national legislation related to food waste (FW). The paper provides insights on household FW in Lebanon with a focus on perceived importance of FW, attitude towards FW, quantity and value of food wasted. An online survey was conducted in the period January-March 2015 with 215 adult consumers. Sample is not gender-balanced, rather young and with high education level. Household’s planning and shopping activities are important predictors of FW. Fruits, vegetables, and milk and dairy products are the most wasted food products. Most of the respondents have a good understanding of “use by” label while just the quarter know exactly the meaning of “best before” label. About 42% of respondents declare that their households throw away at least 250 g of still consumable food each week. The economic value of FW generated each month is more than 6 United States dollar (US$) for 80% of respondents’ households. Lebanese households show a positive attitude regarding FW and are willing to change behaviour to reduce it. An integrated policy mix is needed to foster transition towards zero-waste consumption patterns.



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Physiology of Legume Grain in Informal Markets Used As Seed: Implications for Food and Nutrition Security

1Lupane State University, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Box AC255, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(6), 126-130
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ncube O., Ndlovu E, Maphosa M. Physiology of Legume Grain in Informal Markets Used As Seed: Implications for Food and Nutrition Security. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(6):126-130. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: Maphosa  M, Lupane State University, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Box AC255, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Email:


Grain legumes are a key source of nitrogen-rich edible seeds, providing a wide variety of high-protein products that constitute the major source of protein in the diets of the poor within the smallholder farming sector in Zimbabwe. However, low yields are realised in these legumes due to a variety of reasons that include poor quality planting material, biotic and abiotic factors. Understanding of physiology of legume grain in local markets will bring to light the planting worth of grain from these self pollinated crops and help to strengthen approaches to improve legume yield culminating in food and nutrition security for smallholder farmers particularly in drought prone Matabeleland region of Zimbabwe. The objectives of this study were to evaluate grain of selected legumes from local markets for physiological attributes critical for crop establishment and to assess the emergence of legume grain from local markets under field conditions. The experimental design adopted was a two-factorial in a Randomised Complete Block Design. Treatments in the experiment comprised of four legume species, Arachis hypogea, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna subterrenea, Phaseolus vulgaris and four markets around the city of Bulawayo which is the key market in Matabeleland region. The results indicated poor vigour, low germination percentage, low viability and marked incidences of seed borne diseases in all the samples assessed. In addition, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between grain sourced from the local market and seed sourced from the commercial market. Poor quality legume planting material available predisposes smallholder farmers to low yields and food insecurity. Accordingly there is need to foster investment in research, development and introduction of quality legume seed that guarantees increased plant performance.



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