Journal of Food Security

Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 3 (2014)

Article

Enhancing Food Security and Economic Welfare through Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe

1Geography Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe

2Geo-information and Remote Sensing Institute, Scientific and Industrial Research and Development Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe

3Mashonaland Central Region, Zimbabwe Open University, Bindura, Zimbabwe


Journal of Food Security. 2014, 2(3), 79-86
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezra Pedzisai, Pedzisai Kowe, Caxton H. Matarira, Anyway Katanha, Ronald Rutsvara. Enhancing Food Security and Economic Welfare through Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe. Journal of Food Security. 2014; 2(3):79-86. doi: 10.12691/jfs-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Ezra  Pedzisai, Geography Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe. Email: ezpedzisai@yahoo.com

Abstract

Despite the perceived white-collar and industry-based formal employment gravity of urban areas of developing countries, poverty and food insecurity persists. Therefore, urban agriculture, a predominantly rural economic activity, emerges as a lucrative livelihood strategy used to curb urban food insecurity. We assessed the contributions of urban agriculture to household food security and income in Cold Stream, a low income residential area in Chinhoyi town in Zimbabwe. Weadministered 20 questionnaires to a convenient sample of urban farmers, interviewed five purposively sampled informants from key institutions and carried out three temporally spaced fieldworks. The results clearly show that urban agriculture is a prominent livelihood of the poor unemployed majority (53%) who dominate the economic category. Key informants interviews indicated that although local non-governmental organisations boost urban agriculture by providing farm inputs and technical advice free of charge, there is no government support this activity. Furthermore, results from questionnaires show that yields as well as income from their sales is used primarily for acquiring basic necessities rather than for luxury thereby confirming that the farmers are poor. All urban farmers (100%) consume their farm produce indicating that urban agriculture enhances food security. Moreover, a majority (80%) overwhelmingly concurred that urban farming makes food cheaper hence improves food accessibility, which is an important pillar of food security. Additionally, a majority (60%) earn significant income from selling farm produce, of which 84% sale to informal markets while remaining minority 16% to the formal markets. Notably, about half the sample (48%) also concurred that urban agriculture reduce food insecurity even in their rural homes where they also remit some of their farm produce. However, there are challenges negatively affecting urban agriculture. Some of the challenges include lack of credit lines for inputs and unfavourable policy arrangements that classifies urban agriculture as illegal activity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Challenges of Food Security for Migrants Living in a Regional Area of Australia: Food Availability, Accessibility and Affordability

1Centre for Rural Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston Tasmania, Australia


Journal of Food Security. 2014, 2(3), 72-78
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Daniel R Terry, Rosa McManamey. Challenges of Food Security for Migrants Living in a Regional Area of Australia: Food Availability, Accessibility and Affordability. Journal of Food Security. 2014; 2(3):72-78. doi: 10.12691/jfs-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Joanne  Sin Wei Yeoh, Centre for Rural Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston Tasmania, Australia. Email: Joanne.Yeoh@utas.edu.au

Abstract

Background: Food security is a vital element for all, particularly people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) group such as migrants who have been identified as food insecure people in previous studies. However, there is limited understanding on migrants’ food security in the regional area of Australia, Tasmania. This paper reports on a study, which aimed to examine the experiences of migrants on food security in the regional area of Australia. Methods: The cross-sectional study used questionnaires and interviews as a mixed method approach. The data was collected from 301 respondents and 33 interviewee migrants recruited via Migrant Resource Centers, cultural associations and snowball sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square tests and ordinal logistic regressions were employed as quantitative data analysis; while, thematic analysis was utilized in qualitative analysis. Results/discussion: The majority (91.0%) of respondents did not encounter circumstance where they experienced having no food to eat. Half (50.2%) of respondents travelled more than 4 km to purchase food. In terms of food affordability, over half (55.8%) of respondents indicated the high food cost; nevertheless, a high proportion were neutral regarding their satisfaction with food cost. In addition, gender, length of stay in Tasmania and region of origin were significantly associated with a migrant’s experiences with food security. In interview data, three themes were identified: food availability, accessibility, and affordability. Interviewees expressed concern about the lack of certain cultural food in Tasmania. The strategic location of shops and living places eased the ability to access food. Additionally, the cost of food particularly cultural food, were much higher in Tasmania than in big cities of Australia. Conclusion: The findings provide insight and understanding of migrants’ food security in Tasmania. There is a growing need to address food security policy related to migrants in order to improve the health and well-being of migrants in Australia.

Keywords

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