Journal of Food Security

ISSN (Print): 2372-0115

ISSN (Online): 2372-0107

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFS

Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)

Article

Spatial Distribution of Food Poverty Incidence in Juba Town: A geo-statistical Assessment

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, CNRES, University of Juba, P.O. Box 82 Juba, South Sudan

2Graduate Student, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Juba, P.O Box 82 Juba, South Sudan


Journal of Food Security. 2015, 3(1), 11-24
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
David Lomeling, Rita Nyoka Wani. Spatial Distribution of Food Poverty Incidence in Juba Town: A geo-statistical Assessment. Journal of Food Security. 2015; 3(1):11-24. doi: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: David  Lomeling, Department of Agricultural Sciences, CNRES, University of Juba, P.O. Box 82 Juba, South Sudan. Email: dr.david_lomeling@gmx.net

Abstract

Food and nutrition security survey based on a representative sample of the population of Juba Town was conducted from October to November 2010. The survey covered four localities: Gudele, Juba na Bari, Kator and Munuki. Daily calorie intake using a one day 24-hour dieter call varied between 500 to 3,500 Kcal as a function of monthly income. Spatial distribution of food poverty incidence as well as daily calorific values were geo-statistically analyzed using a GS+TM Version 9software. Results showed that about 13.2% of the households with incomes less than 500 SDG/month were severely food insecure with constant hunger,41.5% of the households with incomes between 350-800 SDG/month were food insecure with moderate hunger; 35.8% of the households with incomes between 850-1850 SDG/month were food insecure but without hunger; and 9.4% of the households with incomes between 1,850 and 4,000 SDG/month were food secure. Isotropic variogram of food poverty incidence showed a 46.6% moderate spatial dependency with a relatively low correlation coefficient of r²=0.15 and a range A0 of 8.8 km suggesting a wide radius of even food poverty levels across much of Juba Town. Meanwhile the estimated daily per capita calorific values also showed moderate spatial dependency of 60.3% and a small range A0at 2.3 km. Food poverty incidence at low correlation coefficient r²=0.02 positively correlated with family size and negatively correlated at r²=0.17 with the per capita food consumption. Monetary indicator was used to assess food poverty with the Gini coefficient at 0.32. This unequal income distribution suggested the vulnerability of most households to food insecurity. However, most low income households with less freedom of choice easily compensated their dietary diversity and calorific values through appropriate food preparation methods.

Keywords

References

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Article

Coping Strategies Adopted by Households to Prevent Food Insecurity in Urban Slums of Delhi, India

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

2Urban Health Resource Center, New Delhi, India


Journal of Food Security. 2015, 3(1), 6-10
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Palak Gupta, Kalyani Singh, Veenu Seth, Sidharth Agarwal, Pulkit Mathur. Coping Strategies Adopted by Households to Prevent Food Insecurity in Urban Slums of Delhi, India. Journal of Food Security. 2015; 3(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Palak  Gupta, Department of Food and Nutrition, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India. Email: palgupta87@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: The study tried to identify coping strategies adopted by urban slum dwellers to prevent the situation of food insecurity. Methods: A household-based cross-sectional study on a sample of 446 households was conducted. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data on coping strategies along with group discussions. Standard univariate analysis was done using SPSS (version-16). Results: Unique coping strategies were found to be adopted by households. Strategies included relying on less expensive foods like seasonal or locally available vegetables, limiting portion size of meals and reducing numbers of meals eaten in a day. To increase short-term availability of food, households borrowed food or lend money from friends or relatives, bought food on credit from private grocery shops, used reserves, and relied on food aid. Households ate at religious places in an attempt to increase access to food, withdrew children from school to save money on the school fees and also sent children to work. In case of extreme insecurity, migration was observed. Conclusions: Coping strategies used by the households can be seen as an expression of negotiated decisions to minimize the impact of food insecurity in the households. Hence, understanding these food insecurity coping strategies could be a good starting point to develop and formulate community based contextually sensitive interventions to improve household food insecurity.

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Article

Towards Sustainable Intensification of Sesame-based Cropping Systems Diversification in Northwestern India

1Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India

2Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture, New Delhi, India

3Department of Agronomy, SardarkrushinagarDantiwada Agricultural University, Gujarat, India


Journal of Food Security. 2015, 3(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anthony Oyeogbe, Ranti Ogunshakin, Shravansinh Vaghela, Babubhai Patel. Towards Sustainable Intensification of Sesame-based Cropping Systems Diversification in Northwestern India. Journal of Food Security. 2015; 3(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Anthony  Oyeogbe, Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. Email: tutony22@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite being largely self-sufficient in food production, Indian agriculture currently faces a slew of problems- productivity is in decline; income gap between farmers and the rest of the workforce is widening and the incessant conversion of agricultural lands into urban landscapes is threatening agricultural intensification. This rapid urbanization coupled with unpredictable climate changes, will put added pressures on land and food. Sesame (SesamumindicumL.) is one of the most versatile and survivor crops that can be grown in semi-arid and arid regions. It has unique attributes that can fit almost any cropping system being a short duration crop with a potential to sustainable intensify crop production through crop diversification.This evidently indicates the potentiality for improvement in yield. We investigated the productivity of sesame sown as sole crop, intercrop and as a sequence crop to enhance its cropping system intensification with the following objectives (i) to identify different sesame-based cropping systems with high productivity and profitability to suit the specific needs of North Gujarat agro ecosystems (ii) the best sustainableland use efficiency as influenced by sesame-based cropping systems intensification. Our result showed that higher system productivity based on sesame equivalent yield (SEY), system profitabilityin terms of net realization to the growing year and land use efficiency was recorded in sesame + groundnut – castor (8.0 kg/ha/day;Rs. 298.3/ha/dayand 79.7%), sesame + greengram – castor systems (7.9 kg/ha/day;Rs. 297.0/ha/dayand 74%), sesame – castor (7.3 kg/ha/day;Rs. 274.7/ha/dayand 74%) and sesame + hybrid cotton (5.3kg/ha/day;Rs. 204.5/ha/dayand 86%) cropping systems respectively. We concluded that the intensification of sesame-based cropping system could help farmers adapt to the changing climate with greater resilience, net primary productivity and enhanced income through crop(s) diversification. One that emphasizes a climate-smart agriculture strategy for food security, mitigation and adaptation.

Keywords

References

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