ISSN (Print): 2372-0115

ISSN (Online): 2372-0107

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 2, 2016


The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Health of Colombian Refugees in Ecuador

1College of Nursing, New York University, New York, USA

2School of Arts and Science, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, USA

3Fundacion Salud Ambiente y Desarrollo (FUNSAD), Quito, Ecuador

4Bucknell University, Lewisburg, USA

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(2), 42-51
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Michele G. Shedlin, Carlos U. Decena, Hugo Noboa, Oscar Betancourt, Stacia B. Birdsall, Kaitlyn M. Smith. The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Health of Colombian Refugees in Ecuador. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(2):42-51. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Michele  G. Shedlin, College of Nursing, New York University, New York, USA. Email:


This paper illustrates the salience of the specific factors challenging the food security of a refugee population and the effects on their health and wellbeing. Data presented are part of an NIH/NIDA study that explored the health implications of the forced migration of Colombian refugees in Ecuador. The two-year investigation utilized a qualitative approach and methods including in-depth interviews with refugees (n=96), focus groups (n=5) and interviews with key informants (n=21), permitting the triangulation of data sources and methods. Ethnographic observations and media analysis of the refugee situation were carried out as well. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software. Food insecurity emerged as a primary factor affecting all aspects of refugee life, the result of a complex interplay of socio-political forces such as discrimination and high rates of unemployment. The results of the study suggest the need to develop grounded, informed, and situation-specific guidelines to address the burgeoning epidemic of food insecurity in Ecuador and among refugee communities.



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Influence of Food Culture and Practices on Household Food Security in North Central Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(2), 36-41
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mary Agada, Edwin Igbokwe. Influence of Food Culture and Practices on Household Food Security in North Central Nigeria. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(2):36-41. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Mary  Agada, Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Email:


The culture of a place and the cultural practices contribute directly or indirectly to the food security situation of a given society. This study assessed the influence of food culture and practices on household food security among Tiv, Igala and Eggon ethnic groups in North Central Nigeria in 2011. A sample of 120 Tiv, 108 Igala and 112 Eggon households was interviewed using a structured questionnaire and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a logistic regression procedure. Findings revealed that all households consumed carbohydrate based foods, men (93%) dominated agricultural decision making and undertake land preparation and ridging while women carried out weeding and food processing. All households practiced subsistence farming, 94.7% practiced mixed cropping, 93% acquired farmland through inheritance and 67 % sourced farm labour from the family. Males controlled household income (95%) and had preference in household food sharing (78%). Food culture and practices that significantly influenced household food security were control over household income (-1.056; p ≤ 0.05) and preference over household food sharing (0.834; p ≤ 0.05). The study concluded that culture was a dominant factor in number of meals consumed per day, household food choices, agricultural decision making, cropping system, division of labour, land acquisition, control over household income, preference in household food sharing and hence food security. It is recommended that both male and female farmers should be encouraged to diversify their income sources and make more money accessible for food purchases. Also, both gender should be provided access to productive resources for increased agricultural production and productivity for food security. Furthermore, farmers should be encouraged to produce and consume food of increased quality and diversity for improved nutrition and food security and household food should be fairly distributed in order to take care of the nutritional needs of all family members.



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Gender Role, Input Use and Technical Efficiency among Rice Farmers at Ahafo Ano North District in Ashanti Region of Ghana

1Bureau of Integrated Rural Development (BIRD), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana

Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(2), 27-35
doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Monica Addison, Kwasi Ohene-Yankyera, Ernestina Fredua-Antoh. Gender Role, Input Use and Technical Efficiency among Rice Farmers at Ahafo Ano North District in Ashanti Region of Ghana. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(2):27-35. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Monica  Addison, Bureau of Integrated Rural Development (BIRD), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Email:


This paper examined gender role, input use and technical efficiency between male and female rice farmers. Similar studies have been conducted, however, the relationships between gender role, input use and farmer efficiency remains neglected and under researched. The question addressed in this study is ‘Does gender role influence input use and farmer efficiency? Structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data from one hundred (100) households, and stochastic frontier model was used to estimate the technical efficiency levels among male and female rice farmers. Our study finds labour, land and fertilizer significant contributors to higher output and yield, and that male labour input tends to promote higher rice output than that of their female counterparts. We also show that males are more efficient in rice production than their female counterparts. Furthermore, farm labour, extension contacts and land size tend to reduce inefficiency in rice production in the study area. Since labour participation was found to be among the variables that contributed to the differences in farm output and efficiency, the study suggests the promotion of multipurpose labour-saving household and farm tools to free up females labour time to improve female output and efficiency to ensure food security in in Ghana.



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