ISSN (Print): 2372-0115

ISSN (Online): 2372-0107

Currrent Issue: Volume 5, Number 1, 2017

Article

Pesticidal Activity of Wild Mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (FR) Extracts against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Stored Maize Grains

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

2Department of Physical Sciences, Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

3Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

4Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(1), 13-18
doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nelson E. Masota, Joseph Sempombe, Matobola Mihale, Leonia Henry, Veronica Mugoyela, Fortunatus Sung'hwa. Pesticidal Activity of Wild Mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (FR) Extracts against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Stored Maize Grains. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(1):13-18. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-3.

Correspondence to: Matobola  Mihale, Department of Physical Sciences, Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email: matobola.mihale@gmail.com

Abstract

Grain damage due to pest infestation is among the top challenges facing cereals production. Maize grains being among the staple food in different parts of the world is prone to destruction by pests such as vertebrates, fungi and insects who are known to affect maize before harvest and during post harvest storage. Sitophilus zeamais is among the potential maize grains infestants. The efforts to control the pest highly depends on the application of synthetic pesticides which are faced by challenges of limited access, fear for toxicity, development of resistance among the pests and environmental pollution. This study aimed at assessing the toxicity, anti-feedant and repellence activities of crude methanol extracts of wild mushroom Cantharellus cibarius on Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize grains towards searching for alternative means of pest control. Assessments were conducted using six levels of concentrations ranging between 0.05 to 0.5 % w/w. Nontreated grains and treated grains with 2% Actellic gold TM 2% dust (0.05% w/w) were used as negative and positive controls respectively. Three replicates were made for each treatment and experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. The methanol extract at 0.5% w/w concentration demonstrated high toxicity 21 days after treatment killing 66.7% of the pest. Similarly, a 92.5% reduction in grain damage was observed at 0.5% w/w 21 days after treatment compared to nontreated controls. Furthermore, the extracts indicated pest repellence of 98.3% after 24 hours of exposure. The findings render C. cibarius a potential biopesticide for use by subsistence farmers against maize storage pests to support the ongoing Integrated Pests Management strategies. Further studies are recommended on the appropriate frequency and rate of application as well as the maximum duration of protection that can be offered by the extracts.

Keywords

References

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Article

Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Some New Groundnut Accessions

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Crops Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Fumesua-Kumasi, Ghana

3Department of Hospitality and Tourism Education, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana


Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(1), 9-12
doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khalid Alhassan, Jacob K. Agbenorhevi, James Y. Asibuo, Gilbert O. Sampson. Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Some New Groundnut Accessions. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(1):9-12. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Jacob  K. Agbenorhevi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: jkagbenorhevi.cos@knust.edu.gh, jkagbenorhevi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Ten new accessions of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) were oven dried and processed into full fat powdered forms and analysed for the proximate and functional properties using AOAC official methods. The crude protein ranged 20.7-25.3%, crude fat 31- 46%, ash 1.2-2.3%, crude fiber 1.4 -3.9%, carbohydrate 21-37% and moisture 4.9-6.8 %. Energy values of the groundnut accessions were between 525 kcal/100g and 606 kcal/100g. The ash, moisture, carbohydrate, fat and fiber values of all groundnut accessions proved to be significantly different whereas there was no significant difference amongst the protein values at p ≤ 0.05. The bulk density ranged between 0.63 g/cm3 and 0.88 g/cm3 whereas water absorption capacities were between 20 % and 30 %. Swelling power ranged from 2.98 g/g to 4.18g/g and solubility index was between 26.5% and 57% with no significant difference at p ≤ 0.05. Foaming capacity ranged from 4.0-16.2 % and stability 94-100%. Samples showed a significant difference in terms of bulk density at p ≤ 0.05. The relatively high protein content of all the accessions as well as their functional properties make them a valuable protein supplement in weaning foods as well as the treatment of protein energy malnutrition cases.

Keywords

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Article

The Promises and Challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals for Caricom Caribbean Countries

1International Consultant, Loxahatchee, Florida, USA


Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(1), 1-8
doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tigerjeet Ballayram. The Promises and Challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals for Caricom Caribbean Countries. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Tigerjeet  Ballayram, International Consultant, Loxahatchee, Florida, USA. Email: Ramballay@yahoo.com

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to show that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), present a timely opportunity for CARICOM Caribbean countries to successfully advance along a sustainable and transformative developmental path. Country-relevant SDGs can be designed to address the root causes of the current developmental challenges, and reactivate economic growth along a development trajectory to end hunger, poverty, unemployment, food and nutrition insecurity, and appreciably enhance the general living standards of the population in these countries. Despite making much social and economic progress since independence, CARICOM Caribbean countries still face enduring developmental challenges, including achieving sustainable development and genuine economic transformation. The SDGs promise a truly transformative development agenda that is both universal and adaptable to country-specific conditions. But financing will be a huge challenge, and countries are cautioned about the need for good governance for the SDGs. Countries will require large and sustained amounts of investment funds. Governments cannot, and should not do this alone. Much of this financing will have to be sourced from domestic resource mobilization (DRM), including public-private-partnerships, in addition to traditional Overseas Development Assistance (ODAs), Multilateral Development Bank Funding, and Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs). But the process of development must involve a paradigm change, by both the public and private sectors, on the type of transformation that is required to transition these economies to sustainable development. The methodology adopted in the paper is a rigorous analysis of the economic and social statistics, and the development experiences of these countries, through the lens of the growth and development literature.

Keywords

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