Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240



Overnight Access to Sugar Solutions Affects mRNA Expression of Several Neuropeptides in Different Hypothalamic Regions in Rats

1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 69-76
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-12
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Changhui Zhao, Eric S. Campbell, Anna E. Tschiffely, Thomas W. Castonguay. Overnight Access to Sugar Solutions Affects mRNA Expression of Several Neuropeptides in Different Hypothalamic Regions in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):69-76. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-12.

Correspondence to: Thomas  W. Castonguay, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park. Email:


It has been known for years that free access to sugar solutions can cause weight gain and/or obesity in rats. We recently reported that brief access to sugar solutions can affect the hypothalamic neuropeptides that help to regulate energy balance. In this paper, we present the results in which we examined the effects of these sugars on the expression of several neuropeptides within specific hypothalamic regions. We provided Sprague Dawley rats 24 h access to 15% solutions of glucose, fructose, sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and then dissected portions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). We then evaluated the expression of several neuropeptides in these tissues, all of which were previously shown to be influenced by free access to sugar solutions using PCR array. Of the four sugar solutions tested, only fructose decreased expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) significantly, and only in the PVN. Glucose and sucrose significantly increased the expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) only in the PVN. Fructose and sucrose decreased Growth Hormone (GH) in the VMH. Further analysis indicated that it was fructose intake that was negatively correlated with both CCK and GH expression. Rats that had access to sugar solutions consumed less chow but maintained control levels of total caloric intake. We conclude that 24 h free access to different sugars can influence the expression of several hypothalamic neuropeptides in different ways. Changes in the expression of these neuropeptides do not disrupt total daily energy intake immediately but may nevertheless contribute to the obesity caused by long term access to sugar solutions.



[1]  Castonguay TW, Hirsch E, Collier G. Palatability of sugar solutions and dietary selection? Physiology & Behavior 1981; 27: 7-12.
[2]  Kanarek RB, Orthen-Gambill N. Differential effects of sucrose, fructose and glucose on carbohydrate-induced obesity in rats. The Journal of nutrition 1982; 112: 1546-54.
[3]  Bocarsly ME, Powell ES, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2010; 97: 101-6.
[4]  Schwartz MW, Woods SC, Porte D, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 2000; 404: 661-71.
[5]  Campbell ES, Castonguay TW. Fructose intake and circulating triglycerides: an examination of the roles of APOC 3 and FOXO1. The FASEB Journal 2013; 27: 1074.8.
Show More References
[6]  London E, Castonguay TW. High Fructose Diets Increase 11β‐Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Liver and Visceral Adipose in Rats Within 24‐h Exposure. Obesity 2011; 19: 925-32.
[7]  Masuzaki H, Flier J. Tissue-specific glucocorticoid reactivating enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1)--a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Current drug targets. Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders 2003; 3: 255-62.
[8]  Masuzaki H, Paterson J, Shinyama H, Morton NM, Mullins JJ, Seckl JR, Flier JS. A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Science 2001; 294: 2166-70.
[9]  Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-DeAguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT. Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward PathwaysFructose Consumption and Weight Gain. JAMA 2013; 309: 63-70.
[10]  Stellar E. The physiology of motivation. Psychological review 1954; 61: 5.
[11]  Weingarten HP, Chang P, McDonald T. Comparison of the metabolic and behavioral disturbances following paraventricular-and ventromedial-hypothalamic lesions. Brain research bulletin 1985; 14: 551-9.
[12]  Colley DL, Castonguay TW. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation (in press). Physiology & Behavior 2014.
[13]  Clément-Ziza M, Munnich A, Lyonnet S, Jaubert F, Besmond C. Stabilization of RNA during laser capture microdissection by performing experiments under argon atmosphere or using ethanol as a solvent in staining solutions. Rna 2008;14:2698-704.
[14]  Lindqvist A, Baelemans A, Erlanson-Albertsson C. Effects of sucrose, glucose and fructose on peripheral and central appetite signals. Regulatory Peptides 2008; 150: 26-32.
[15]  Ventura EE, Davis JN, Goran MI. Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content. Obesity 2011; 19: 868-74.
[16]  Walker RW, Dumke KA, Goran MI. Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup. Nutrition 2014; 30: 928-35.
[17]  Kraly FS, Carty WJ, Resnick S, Smith GP. Effect of cholecystokinin on meal size and intermeal interval in the sham-feeding rat. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology 1978; 92: 697.
[18]  Schwartz GJ, Whitney A, Skoglund C, Castonguay TW, Moran TH. Decreased responsiveness to dietary fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats lacking CCK-A receptors. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 1999; 277: R1144-R51.
[19]  Chen H, Kent S, Morris MJ. Is the CCK2 receptor essential for normal regulation of body weight and adiposity? European Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 24: 1427-33.
[20]  Weiland TJ, Voudouris NJ, Kent S. The role of CCK2 receptors in energy homeostasis: insights from the CCK2 receptor-deficient mouse. Physiology & Behavior 2004; 82: 471-6.
[21]  Chen J, Scott KA, Zhao Z, Moran TH, Bi S. Characterization of the feeding inhibition and neural activation produced by dorsomedial hypothalamic cholecystokinin administration. Neuroscience 2008; 152: 178-88.
[22]  Zhu G, Yan J, Smith WW, Moran TH, Bi S. Roles of dorsomedial hypothalamic cholecystokinin signaling in the controls of meal patterns and glucose homeostasis. Physiology & Behavior 2012; 105: 234-41.
[23]  Tebbe J, Mönnikes H, Pluntke K, Bauer C, Arnold R. Cholecystokinin (CCK) microinfused into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) inhibits gastric emptying and stimulates colonic motor activity in the conscious rat. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A1184-A5.
[24]  Abramov A, Kolesnik YM, Trzhetsinskii S, Orlovskii nM. Changes in the cholecystokinin-synthesizing system of the hypothalamus in experimental diabetes mellitus in rats. Neuroscience and behavioral physiology 1999; 29: 621-4.
[25]  De Fanti BA, Backus RC, Hamilton JS, Gietzen DW, Horwitz BA. Lean (Fa/Fa) but not obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats release cholecystokinin at PVN after a gavaged meal. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 275: E1-E5.
[26]  Mahony S, Tisdale M. Induction of weight loss and metabolic alterations by human recombinant tumour necrosis factor. British journal of cancer 1988; 58: 345.
[27]  Romanatto T, Cesquini M, Amaral ME, Roman ÉA, Moraes JC, Torsoni MA, Cruz-Neto AP, Velloso LA. TNF-α acts in the hypothalamus inhibiting food intake and increasing the respiratory quotient—effects on leptin and insulin signaling pathways. Peptides 2007; 28: 1050-8.
[28]  De Souza CT, Araujo EP, Bordin S, Ashimine R, Zollner RL, Boschero AC, Saad MJ, Velloso LcA. Consumption of a fat-rich diet activates a proinflammatory response and induces insulin resistance in the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 4192-9.
[29]  Swaroop JJ, Rajarajeswari D, Naidu J. Association of TNF-α with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Indian journal of medical research 2012;135:127.
[30]  Wang X, Ge A, Cheng M, Guo F, Zhao M, Zhou X, Liu L, Yang N. Increased hypothalamic inflammation associated with the susceptibility to obesity in rats exposed to high-fat diet. Experimental diabetes research 2012; 2012.
[31]  Jørgensen JOL, Pedersen SB, Børglum J, Møller N, Schmitz O, Christiansen JS, Richelsen B. Fuel metabolism, energy expenditure, and thyroid function in growth hormone-treated obese women: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Metabolism 1994; 43: 872-7.
[32]  Sakharova AA, Horowitz JF, Surya S, Goldenberg N, Harber MP, Symons K, Barkan A. Role of growth hormone in regulating lipolysis, proteolysis, and hepatic glucose production during fasting. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2008; 93: 2755-9.
[33]  Gahete MD, Córdoba-Chacón J, Luque RM, Kineman RD. The rise in growth hormone during starvation does not serve to maintain glucose levels or lean mass but is required for appropriate adipose tissue response in female mice. Endocrinology 2012; 154: 263-9.
[34]  Rosen T, Bosaeus I, TöIli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson B-Å. Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology 1993; 38: 63-71.
[35]  Coxam V, Davicco M-J, Barlet J-P. Effect of triglycerides on growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor-mediated GH secretion in newborn calves. Domestic animal endocrinology 1989; 6: 389-93.
[36]  Lutz TA. Control of energy homeostasis by amylin. Cellular and molecular life sciences 2012; 69: 1947-65.
[37]  Schuhler S, Warner A, Finney N, Bennett G, Ebling F, Brameld J. Thyrotrophin-Releasing Hormone Decreases Feeding and Increases Body Temperature, Activity and Oxygen Consumption in Siberian Hamsters. Journal of neuroendocrinology 2007; 19: 239-49.
[38]  Fekete C, Légrádi G, Mihály E, Huang Q-H, Tatro JB, Rand WM, Emerson CH, Lechan RM. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is contained in nerve terminals innervating thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prevents fasting-induced suppression of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. The Journal of Neuroscience 2000; 20: 1550-8.
[39]  Rumessen JJ. Fructose and related food carbohydrates: sources, intake, absorption, and clinical implications. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 1992; 27: 819-28.
[40]  Bray G, Popkin B. Calorie‐sweetened beverages and fructose: what have we learned 10 years later. Pediatric obesity 2013; 8: 242-8.
Show Less References


Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Mushroom, Chrysin, Curcumin and Omega-3 in Experimental Hypercholesterolemic Rats

1Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Turabah, Taif University, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

4Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

5Department of Biochemistry, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig Branch, Egypt

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 77-87
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
TAMER AHMED ISMAIL, MOHAMED MOHAMED SOLIMAN, MOHAMED ABDO NASSAN, DALIA IBRAHIM MOHAMED. Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Mushroom, Chrysin, Curcumin and Omega-3 in Experimental Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):77-87. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: TAMER  AHMED ISMAIL, Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Turabah, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Email:


Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are major risk factors that accelerate the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of widely known traditional medicinal herbs and omega-3 FA in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by Triton WR-1339. Experimental hypercholesterolemic rats were administered mushroom, chrysin, curcumin and omega-3 for 2 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic rats showed an increase in serum levels of lipid profiles and hepatic enzymes. Hypercholesterolemic rats showed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in both serum levels and mRNA expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reducatse. Moreover, hypercholesterolemic rats showed hepatic down regulation in the expression of genes related to fatty acids oxidation such as acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and synthetase (ACS), together with carnityl palmityl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-α (PPAR-α). Administration of mushroom, chrysin, curcumin and omega-3 to hypercholesterolemic rats for 2 weeks up-regulated significantly the down regulated genes. In contrast, expression of genes related to fatty acids biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism were increased in hypercholesterolemic rats compared to control group. Herbal medications and omega-3 administration down regulated genes of fatty acids biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism to normal expression. At cellular levels, hyperlipidemia induced fatty droplets accumulation, necrosis and presence of apoptotic hepatocytes together with leukocytic infiltration in necrotic area that are ameliorated and normalized after administration of herbs and omega-3. In conclusion, the current findings indicated that flavonoids (mushroom, chrysin, curcumin) and omega-3 possess antihypercholesterolemic effects at biochemical, molecular and histopathological levels and are useful in treatment of hypercholesterolemia with lower side effects compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drugs.



[1]  Formiguera X, Canton A. “Obesity: epidemiology and clinical aspects”, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol., 18. 1125-1146. 2004.
[2]  Dhaliya, S.A., Surya, A.S., Dawn, V.T., Betty, C., Arun, K. and Sunil, C. “A review of hyperlipidemia and medicinal plants”, Int.J.A.PS. BMS., 2(4). 219-237. 2013.
[3]  Freedman, J. E. “High-fat diets and cardiovascular disease. Are nutritional supplements useful?”, Journal of the American College of Cardiology., 41 (10).1750-1752. 2003.
[4]  Duarte MM, Rocha JB, Moresco RN, Duarte T, Da Cruz IB, Loro VL, Schetinger MR. “Association between ischemia-modified albumin, lipids and inflammation biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia”, Clinical Biochemistry, 42 (7-8). 666-671. 2009.
[5]  Hopps, E., Noto, D., Caimi, G. and Averna, M.R. “A novel component of the metabolic syndrome: the oxidative stress”, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis., 20. 72-77. 2010.
Show More References
[6]  Hamelet, J., Demluth, K., Paul, J.L., Delabar, J.M. and Janel, N. “Hyperhomo-cysteinemia due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency induces dysregulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid homeostasis in mice”, J Hepatol., 46(1). 151-159. 2007.
[7]  Kumar, S.A., Sudhahar, V. and Varalakshmi, P. “Protective role of eicosapentaenoate-lipoate (EPA-LA) derivative in combating oxidative hepatocellular injury in hypercholesterolemic atherogenesis”, Atherosclerosis, 189(1). 115-122. 2006.
[8]  Eghdamian, B. and Ghose, K. “Mode of action and adverse effects of lipid lowering drugs”, Drugs Today (Barc), 34. 943-956. 1998.
[9]  Kumar, A.S., Mazumder, A. and Saravanan, V.S. “Antihyperlipidemic activity of Camellia sinensis leaves in triton wr-1339 induced Albino rats”, Pharmacogn Mag., 4.60-64. 2008.
[10]  Khanna, P. and Garcha, H.S. “Pleurotus mushroom - a source of food protein”, Mushrooms News letter Tropical, 4.9-14. 1984.
[11]  Jayakumar, T., Thomas, P.A., and Geraldine, P. “In-vitro antioxidant activities of an ethanolic extract of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus”, Inn Food Sci Emerg Tech., 10.228-234. 2009.
[12]  Bae, J., Sinha, J., Park, J.P., Song, C.H. and Yun, J.W. “Optimization of submerged culture conditions for exobiopolymer production by Paecilomyces Japanica”, J Microbiol Biotechnol., 10(4). 482-487. 2000.
[13]  Kanagasabapathy, G., Malek, S.N.A., Mahmood, A.A., Chua, K.H., Vikineswary, S. and Kuppusamy, U.R. “Beta-Glucan-Rich Extract from Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Prevents Obesity and Oxidative Stress in C57BL/6J Mice Fed on a High-Fat Diet”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1-10. 2013.
[14]  Jegadeesh, R., Raaman, N., Hariprasath, L., Ramesh, V. and Srikumar, R. “Hypolipidemic Effect of Pleurotus djamor var. roseus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesteromic Rats”, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(2). 581-588. 2014.
[15]  Phan, T., Yu, X.M., Kunnimalaiyaan, M. and Chen, H. “Antiproliferative effect of chrysin on anaplastic thyroid cancer”, J Surg Res., 170(1). 84-88. 2011.
[16]  Pushpavalli, G., Veeramani, C. and Pugalendi, K.V. “Influence of chrysin on hepatic marker enzymes and lipid profile against d-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity rats”, Food Chem Toxicol., 48(6). 1654-1659. 2010.
[17]  Sobocanec, S., Sverko, V., Balog, T., Saric, A., Rusak, G., Likic, S., Kusic, B., Katalinic, V., Radic, S. and Marotti, T. “Oxidant/antioxidant properties of Croatian native propolis”, J Agric Food Chem., 54(21). 8018-8026. 2006.
[18]  Aggarwal, B.B. “Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals”, Annu Rev Nutr., 30. 173-199. 2010.
[19]  Meydani, M. and Hasan, S.T. “Dietary polyphenols and obesity. Nutrients, 2. 737. 2010.
[20]  Gao, S., Duan, X., Wang, X., Dong, D., Liu, D., Li, X., Sun, G. and Li, B. “Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion”, Food Chem Toxicol., 59. 739-747. 2013.
[21]  Bradford, P.G. “Curcumin and Obesity”, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc., 39(1). 78-87. 2013.
[22]  Bosch, J., Gerstein, H.C., Dagenais, G.R., Diaz, R., Dyal, L., Jung, H., Maggiono, A.P., Probstfield, J., Ramachandran, A., Riddle, M.C., Rydén, L.E. and Yusuf, S. “N-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia”, N Engl J Med., 367. 309-318. 2012.
[23]  Mozaffarian, D., Lemaitre, R.N., King, I.B., Song, X., Huang, H., Sacks, F.M., Rimm E.B., Wang, M. and Siscovick, D.S. “Plasma phospholipid long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: a cohort study”, Ann Intern Med., 158. 515-525. 2013.
[24]  Lorente-Cebrián, S., Costa, A.G.V., Navas-Carretero, S., Zabala, M., Martínez, J.A and Moreno-Aliaga, M.J. “Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence”, J Physiol Biochem., 69.633-651. 2013.
[25]  Rossmeisl, M., Medrikova, D., van Schothorst, E.M., Pavlisova, J., Kuda, O., Hensler, M., Bardova, K., Flachs, P., Stankova, B., Vecka, M., Tvrzicka, E., Zak, A., Keijer, J. and Kopecky, J. “Omega-3 phospholipids from fish suppress hepatic steatosis by integrated inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in dietary obese mice”, Biochim Biophys Acta - Mol Cell Biol. Lipid, 1841. 267-278. 2014.
[26]  Venkadeswaran, K., Muralidharan, A.R., Annadurai, T., Ruban, V.V., Sundararajan, M., Anandhi, R., Thomas, P.A. and Geraldine, P. “Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats”, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 1-11. 2014.
[27]  Anandhi, R., Annadurai, T., Anitha, T.S., Muralidharan, A.R., Najmunnisha, K., Nachiappan, V., Thomas, P.A. and Geraldine, P. “Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative effects of an extract of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, and its major constituent, chrysin, in Triton WR-1339-induced hypercholesterolemic rats”, J Physiol Biochem., 69(2).313-23. 2013.
[28]  Zarzecki, M.S., Araujo, S.M., Bortolotto, V.C., De Paula. M.T., Jesse, C.R. and Prigol, M. “Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-inducedhyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice”, Toxicology Reports, 1. 200-208. 2014.
[29]  Öner-İyidoğan Y, Koçak H, Seyidhanoğlu M, Gürdöl F, Gülçubuk A, Yildirim F, Çevik A, Uysal M. “Curcumin prevents liver fat accumulation and serum fetuin-A increase in rats fed a high-fat diet”, J Physiol Biochem. 2013, 69(4).677-86.
[30]  Flachs, P., Rossmeisl, M., Bryhn, M. and Kopecky. “Cellular and molecular effects of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on adipose tissue biology and metabolism”, Clinical Science., 116. 1-16. 2009.
[31]  Bancroft, J.D. and Gamble, M. “Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques”, 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier Philadelphia, 126-127. 2008.
[32]  Bertges, L.C., Souza Mourão, CAJr, J.B. and Cardoso, V.A.C. “Hyperlipidemiainduced by Triton WR1339 (Tyloxapol) in Wistar rats”, Rev. Bras. Cien.Med. Saúde., 1(1). 32-34. 2011.
[33]  Vijayaraj, P., Muthukumar, K., Sabarirajan, J. and Nachiappan, V. “Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia auriculata flowers in triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats”, Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011.
[34]  Thapa, B.R. and Walia, A. “Liver function tests and their interpretation”, Indian J Pediatr., 74. 663-671. 2007.
[35]  Dixon, J.B., Bhathal, P.S. O and Brien, P.E. “Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Predictors of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Liver Fibrosis in the Severely Obese”, Gastroenterology, 121(1). 91-100. 2001.
[36]  Hassoun, E.A. and Stohs, S.J. “Comparative studies on oxidative stress as a mechanism for the fetotoxic of TCDD, endrin and lindane in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice”, Teratology, 51. 186. 1995.
[37]  El-Demerdash, F.M., Yousef, M.I. and Zoheir, M.A. “Stannous chloride induces alterations in enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and histopathology in male rabbit: antioxidant role of vitamin C”, Food Chem Toxicol., 43(12). 1743-52. 2005.
[38]  Yadav, N.P. and Dixit, V.K. “Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers”, J Ethanopharmacol., 86, 197-202. 2003.
[39]  Kausar, S., Zaheer, Z., Saqib, M. and Zia, B. “The effect of Crataegus (Hawthorn) extract alone and in combination with simvastatin on serum lipid profile in hyperlipidemic albino rats”, Biomedica., 27. 140-147. 2011.
[40]  Wu, Y., Li, J., Wang, J., Si, Q., Zhang, J., Jiang, Y. and Chu, L. “Anti-atherogenic effects of centipede acidic protein in rats fed an atherogenic diet”, J Ethnopharmacol., 122(3). 509-516. 2009.
[41]  Benhizia, F., Lagrange, D., Malewiak, M.I.N. and Griglio, S. “In vivo regulation of hepatic lipase activity and mRNA levels by diets which modify cholesterol influx to the liver”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Lipids lipid Metabol., 1211(2). 181-188. 1994.
[42]  Waterman, I.J. and Zammit, V.A. “Differential effects of fenofibrate or simvastatin treatment of rats on hepatic microsomal overt and latent diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities”, Diabetes, 51(6). 1708-1713. 2002.
[43]  Prasad, K. and Kalra, J. “Oxygen free radicals and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis: effect of vitamin E”, Am Heart J., 125.958-973. 1993.
[44]  Halliwell, B. “Lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: how should we move forward?”, Cardiovasc Res., 47.410-418. 2000.
[45]  Oh, P.S., Lee, S.J. and Lim, K.T. “Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the plant glycoprotein (36 kDa) from Rhus verniciflua stokes fruitin Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice”, Biosci Biotechnol Biochem., 70(2). 447-456. 2006.
[46]  Wissler, R.W. “Theories and new horizons in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the mechanisms of clinical effects”, Arch Pathol Lab Med., 116.1281-1291. 1992.
[47]  Williams, C.A., Harborne, J.B., Newman, M., Greenham, J. and Eagles, J. “Chrysin and other leaf exudate flavonoids in the genus Pelargonium”, Phytochemistry, 46.1349-1353. 1997.
[48]  Ciftci, O., Ozdemir, I., Aydin, M. and Beytur, A. “Beneficial effects of chrysin on the reproductive system of adult male rats”, Andrologia, 44 (3). 181-186. 2012.
[49]  Rice-Evans, C.A. “Flavonoid antioxidants”, Curr Med Chem., 8 (7).797-807. 2001.
[50]  Palipoch, S., Punsawad, C., Koomhin, P. and Suwannalert, P. “Hepatoprotective effect of curcumin and alpha-tocopherol against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress”, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14.111. 2014.
[51]  Naik, S.R., Thakare, V.N. and Patil, S.R. “Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats. Evidence of its antioxidant property”, Exp Toxicol Pathol., 63(5).419-431. 2011.
[52]  Di Minno, M.N., Russolillo, A., Lupoli, R., Ambrosino, P., Di Minno, A. and Tarantino, G. “Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”, World J Gastroenterol., 18(41).5839-5847. 2012.
[53]  Johnston, C. “Functional foods as modifiers of cardiovascular disease”, Am. J. Life style Med., 3 (1). 39S-43S. 2009.
[54]  Patil, U.K., Saraf, S. and Dixit, VK. “Hypolipidemic activity of seeds of Cassia tora Linn”, J Ethnopharmacol., 90.249-252. 2004.
[55]  Miller, N.E., La Ville, A. and Crook, D. “Direct evidence that reverse cholesterol transport is mediated by high-density lipoprotein in rabbit”, Nature, 314.109-111. 1985.
[56]  Zhao, J., Sun, X.B., Ye, F. and Tian, W.X. “Suppression of fatty acid synthase, differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes by curcumin”, Mol Cell Biochem., 351. 19-28. 2011.
[57]  Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P. and Meydani, M. “Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice”, J Nutr., 139. 919-25. 2009.
[58]  Shao, W., Yu, Z., Chiang, Y., Yang, Y., Chai, T., Foltz, W., Lu, H., Fantus, G. and Jin, T. “Curcumin Prevents High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Obesity via Attenuating Lipogenesis in Liver and Inflammatory Pathway in Adipocytes”, PLoS ONE, 7(1). e28784. 2012.
[59]  Wang, S., Moustaid-Moussa, N., Chenb, L., Moc, H., Shastri, A., Su, R., Bapat, P., Kwun, I. and Shen, C.L. “Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity”, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25.1-18. 2014.
[60]  Mozaffarian, D. and Wu, J.H. “(n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health. are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary? ”, J Nutr., 142(3).614S-625S. 2012.
[61]  Neschen, S., Moore, I., Regittnig, W., Yu, C.L., Wang, Y., Pypaert, M., Petersen, K.F. and Shulman, G.I. “Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content”, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab., 282. E395-E401. 2002.
[62]  Escher, P. and Wahli, W. “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: insight into multiple cellular functions”, Mutat Res., 448. 121-138. 2000.
[63]  Brown, M.S. and Goldstein, J.L. “The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor”, Cell, 89. 331-340. 1977.
[64]  Matsumoto, T., Terai, S., Oishi, T., Kuwashiro, S., Fujisawa, K., Yamamoto, N., Fujita, Y., Hamamoto, Y., Furutani-Seiki, M., Nishina, H. and Sakaida, I. “Medaka as a model for human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Dis Model Mech., 3.431-440. 2010.
[65]  Schoonjans, K., Staels, B.and Auwerx, J. “Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in mediating the effects of fibrates and fatty acids on gene expression”, J Lipid Res., 37. 907-25. 1996.
[66]  Harnafi, H., Caid, H.S., Bouanani, N.H., Aziz, M. and Amrani, S. “Hypolipemic activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Ocimum basilicum in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice”, Food Chem., 108. 205-212. 2008.
[67]  Iqbal, K., Khan, A. and Khattak, M.A. “Biological significance of ascorbic acid (Vit. C) in human health, a review”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3 (1). 5-13. 2004.
[68]  Popescu, L.A., Vîrgolici, B., Lixandru, D., Miricescu, D., Condruţ, E., Timnea, O., Ranetti, A.E., Militaru, M., Mohora, M. and Zăgrean, L. “Effect of diet and omega-3 fatty acids in NAFLD”, Rom J Morphol Embryol., 54(3).785-90. 2013.
Show Less References


Comparison between Preexercise Meals Intake Effect with Different Glycemic Load on Exercise Performance in Female Athletes

1Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3MSc student of Health Science in Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

5Department of Physical Educational and Sport Sciences, The University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

6PhD student of Science in Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 88-93
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Reza Ghiasvand, Zinat Sharifhosein, Ahmad Esmailzadeh, Awat Feizi, GHolamreza Askari, Mohammad Marandi, Zahra Maghsoudi. Comparison between Preexercise Meals Intake Effect with Different Glycemic Load on Exercise Performance in Female Athletes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):88-93. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Zinat  Sharifhosein, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Email:


Athletes usually search for strategies to optimize their performance. Manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO) resources glycemic load in order to optimizing athletic performance provides new research areas in nutritional sport. Purpose of this study is to examine the effects of two isocaloric meals with different glycemic load (GL) on exercise performance and serum free fatty acids. Thirty six non-professional athletic women with ages between 19 and 24 were assigned in a double blinded randomized clinical trial with two period cross-over design. Participants in each group received a high or low GL meal as a breakfast, and 7-day wash out period is determined. serum free fatty acid (FFA) measurements were performed before and after each phase of intervention.3 hour After ingestion of a meal, participants run to exhaustion, in a 20 meters shuttle run pacer. Time to exhaustion (TTE) was recorded as a measure of exercise performance. In an attempt to ensure that subjects run to exhaustion, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured, using a Borg scale, too. The ingestion of a low GL or high GL pre-exercise meal did not lead to different TEE and RPE at 3 hours before exercise in female athletic students. Mean changes of serum FFA were higher in low GL than high GL meal. Consumption of a low GL meal compared with a high GL meal at 3-hr before a shuttle run pacer, was not associated with significant changes in TEE and RPE levels but low GL meal led to more increase serum FFA than high GL.



[1]  Cook CM, Haub MD: Low-carbohydrate diets and performance. Curr Sports Med Rep 6: 225-229, 2007.
[2]  Lima-Silva AE, De-Oliveira FR, Nakamura FY, Gevaerd MS: Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities. Braz J Med Biol Res 42: 404-412, 2009.
[3]  Wallis GA, Yeo SE, Blannin AK, Jeukendrup AE: Dose-response effects of ingested carbohydrate on exercise metabolism in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39: 131-138, 2007.
[4]  Peters SJ, Leblanc PJ: Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise. NutrMetab (Lond) Sep 30; 1(1): 7, 2004.
[5]  Van Proeyen K, Szlufcik K, Nielens H, Ramaekers M, Hespel P: Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state. J ApplPhysiol 110: 236-245, 2011.
Show More References
[6]  Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, Jeukendrup A: Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fat ingestion: effects on metabolism and performance. J Sports Sci 22: 31-8, 2004.
[7]  Lima-Silva AE, Pires FO, Bertuzzi RC, Lira FS, Casarini D, Kiss MA: Low carbohydrate diet affects the oxygen uptake on-kinetics and rating of perceived exertion in high intensity exercise. Psychophysiology 48: 227-284, 2010.
[8]  Siu PM, Wong SH: Use of the glycemic index: effects on feeding patterns and exercise performance. J PhysiolAnthropolAppl Human Sci 23:1-6, 2004.
[9]  Stevenson EJ, Williams C, Mash LE, Phillips B, Nute ML: Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women. Am J ClinNutr 84: 354-360, 2006.
[10]  Mondazzi L, Arcelli E: Glycemic index in sport nutrition. J Am CollNutr 28 Suppl: 455S-463S, 2009
[11]  Wong SH, Siu PM, Chen YJ, Lok A, Morris J, Lam CW: Effect of Glycemic Index of Pre-exercise Carbohydrate Meals on Running Performance. Eur J Sport Sci 8:23-33, 2008.
[12]  Wu CL, Williams C: A low glycemic index meal before exercise improves endurance running capacity in men. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 16: 510-527, 2006.
[13]  Pitsiladis YP, Smith I, Maughan RJ: Increased fat availability enhances the capacity of trained individuals to perform prolonged exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 1570-1579, 1999.
[14]  Little JP, Chilibeck PD, Ciona D, Forbes S, Rees H, Vandenberg A: Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 20: 447-456, 2010.
[15]  Moore LJ, Midgley AW, Thurlow S, Thomas G, McNaughton LR: Effect of the glycaemic index of a pre-exercise meal on metabolism and cycling time trial performance. J Sci Med Sport 13: 182-188, 2010.
[16]  Jamurtas AZ, Tofas T, Fatouros I, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Yfanti C: The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses. J IntSoc Sports Nutr 20; 8: 15, 2011.
[17]  Febbraio MA, Keenan J, Angus DJ, Campbell SE, Garnham AP: Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion, glucose kinetics, and muscle glycogen use: effect of the glycemic index. J ApplPhysiol 89: 1845-1851, 2000.
[18]  Stannard SR, Constantini NW, Miller JC : The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 10: 51-61, 2000.
[19]  Chen YJ, Wong SH, Wong CK, Lam CW, Huang YJ, Siu PM: Effect of preexercise meals with different glycemic indices and loads on metabolic responses and endurance running. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 18: 281-300, 2008.
[20]  Venn BJ, Green TJ: Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships. Eur J Clin Nutr 61 Suppl 1: S122-S131, 2007.
[21]  O'Reilly J, Wong SH, Chen Y: Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and exercise performance. Sports Med 40: 27-39, 2010.
[22]  Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC: International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31: 2281-2283, 2008.
[23]  Galgani J, Aguirre C, Díaz E : Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans. Nutr J 5; 5: 22, 2006.
[24]  Mahar MT, GuerieriAM, Hanna MS, Kemble CD: Estimation of aerobic fitness from 20-m multistage shuttle run test performance. Am J Prev Med 41(4 Suppl 2): S117-S123, 2011.
[25]  Borg GA: Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:377-381, 1982.
[26]  Moore LJ, Midgley AW, Thomas G, Thurlow S, McNaughton LR: The effects of low- and high-glycemic index meals on time trial performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 4: 331-344, 2009.
[27]  Cocate PG, Pereira LG, Marins JC, Cecon PR, Bressan J, Alfenas RC : Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial. Nutr J 10:1, 2011.
[28]  Karamanolis IA, Laparidis KS, Volaklis KA, Douda HT, Tokmakidis SP: The effects of pre-exercise glycemic index food on running capacity. Int J Sports Med 32: 666-671, 2011.
[29]  Kirwan JP, Cyr-Campbell D, Campbell WW, Scheiber J, Evans WJ: Effects of moderate and high glycemic index meals on metabolism and exercise performance. Metabolism 50: 849-855, 2001.
[30]  Donaldson CM, Perry TL, Rose MC: Glycemic index and endurance performance. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 20: 154-165, 2010.
Show Less References


Effect of High Osmotic Pressure Milk Formula on Renal Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Induced by Calcium Oxalate

1Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, PR China

2R&D center of Ausnutria Hyproca Dairy Group, Changsha, PR China

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 94-98
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Meihong Xu, Liren Wei, Zhiyong Dai, Yanchun Zhang, Yong Li, Junbo Wang. Effect of High Osmotic Pressure Milk Formula on Renal Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Induced by Calcium Oxalate. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):94-98. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Junbo  Wang, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, PR China. Email:


To study the effect of high osmotic pressure milk formula on renal calcium oxalate crystallization induced by calcium oxalate. 40 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: NC, MC, LOM and HOM group. For model preparation, MC, LOM and HOM were treated with 1% Ethanediol in the water combined with 2% ammonium chloride (2ml/day) intragastrically administration. The rats in LOM and HOM were intragastrically given LOM or HOM (40g/100ml, 2ml/100g*bw) twice/day, whereas the NC and MC group received an equal volume of distilled water. Combined application of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride caused renal injury of rats, and induced calcium oxalate calculus in kidney. During experimental period, the increase of body weight of the rats treated with HOM was inhibited significantly; the amount of 24h urination, serum levels of Cr and UA, ratio of the kidney to body weight were significantly higher than those in MC group; the amount of 24h urination, Cr, and score of calcium oxalate crystal were significantly higher than those in LOM group. HOM has an obvious promoting effect on the formation of renal calcium oxalate crystallization induced by ethylene glycol combined with ammonium chloride.



[1]  Novak TE, Lakshmanan Y, Trock BJ, Gearhart JP, Matlaga BR. (2009). Sex prevalence of pediatric kidney stone disease in the United States: an epidemiologic investigation. Urology. 74:104-7
[2]  Routh JC, Graham DA, Nelson CP. (2010). Epidemiological trends in pediatric urolithiasis at United States freestanding pediatric hospitals. J Urol. 184: 1100-4.
[3]  Ross SS, Masko EM, Abern MR, Allott EH, Routh JC, Wiener JS, Preminger GM, Freedland SJ, Lipkin ME. (2013). The effect of dietary sodium and fructose intake on urine and serum parameters of stone formation in a pediatric mouse model: a pilot study. J Urol. 190: 1484-9.
[4]  Yaohua W, Zhimin D. (2006). The comparison of high osmotic pressure breast milk and osmotic pressure of breastfeeding on infant urinary mAlb, RBP. Public Medical Forum Magazine. 10:316 [article in chinese].
[5]  Yaohua W, Zhimin D. (2006). Effect of high osmotic pressure of artificial compound emulsion for feeding babies on renal function: 31 cases of clinical observation. Public Medical Forum Magazine. 10:521 [article in chinese].
Show More References
[6]  Jacqueline Bauer, Joachim Gerss. (2011). Longitudinal analysis of macronutrients and minerals in human milk produced by mothers of preterm infants. Clinical Nutrition. 30: 215-20.
[7]  Moltó-Puigmartí C, Castellote AI, Carbonell-Estrany X, López-Sabater MC. (2011). Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infants. Clinical Nutrition. 30:116-123.
[8]  Hongliang W, Zhimin D. (2007). The effect of high artificial compound emulsion kidney load on milk infant kidney function. Laboratory Medicine and Clinic. 4:377 [article in chinese].
[9]  Yazaki T, Umeyama T, Kaneko S, Kiriyama I, Ishikawa H, Koiso K. (1991). Multielement analysis of kidney tissue with renal calculi. Urology. 38: 290-3.
[10]  Valentini RP, Lakshmanan Y. (2011). Nephrolithiasis in children. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 18:370-5.
Show Less References


High Protein (HP) and Balanced Diets (BD) Lead to Weight Loss and Increase of Serum Adiponectin in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Gyms: A Randomized Clinical Trial

1Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ira

2Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 99-103
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Reza Ghiasvand, Pegah Amini, Zahra Maghsoudi, Awat Feizi, Gholamreza Askari. High Protein (HP) and Balanced Diets (BD) Lead to Weight Loss and Increase of Serum Adiponectin in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Gyms: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):99-103. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Pegah  Amini, Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ira. Email:


This trial aimed to assess the effects of high protein (HP) (45% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 30% fat) and balanced diets (BD) (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat) on weight loss and plasma adiponectin levels in overweight and obese women who do aerobic activity. A parallel double blinded randomized clinical trial. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Body weight and adiponectin levels were measured at the baseline and after eight weeks of intervention. We used SPSS software for data analyzing and Nutritionist IV for analyzing dietary intakes. The study was an eight-week trial that consisted of 56 women with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2, aged 20-46 years who were randomly assigned to intervention. Body weight with adherence to HP and BD diets decreased significantly, however; the reduction in the HP group was more than the BD group (P<0.001 in both groups). Adiponectin significantly increased in HP and BD (P=0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). These changes did not significantly differ between the two groups. In conclusion, our trial showed that high protein and balanced diets resulted in desirable effects on body weight and on circulating adiponectin during the eight weeks.



[1]  Must, A., Spadano, J., Coakley, E.H., Field, A.E., Colditz, G., Dietz, W.H, “The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity,” J Am Med Assoc, 282. 1523-1529. 1999.
[2]  “American Heart Association Scientific Statement AHA Dietary Guidelines Revision,” Circulation, 102. 2284-2299.2000.
[3]  Hu, F.B., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., et al, “Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women,” Am J Clin Nutr, 70. 221-227. 1999.
[4]  Ronti, T., Lupattelli, G., Mannarino, E, “The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 64. 355-365. 2006.
[5]  Matsuzawa, Y, “Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin,” Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci, 86. 131-141. 2010.
Show More References
[6]  Koh, S.B., Yoon, J., Kim, J.Y., Yoo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Park, J.K, “Relationships between serum adiponectin with metabolic syndrome and components of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Koreans ARIRANG study,” Yonsei Med J, 52. 234-241. 2011.
[7]  Yildiz, B.O., Suchard, M.A., Wong, M.L., McCann, S.M., Licinio, J, “Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity”, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101. 10434 -10439. 2004.
[8]  Ueno, H., Yamaguchi, H., Kangawa, K., Nakazato, M, “Ghrelin: a gastric peptide that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis”, Regul Pept, 126. 11-19. 2005.
[9]  Wells, T, “Ghreline defender of fat,” Prog Lipid Res, 48. 257-274. 2009.
[10]  Skov, A.R., Toubro, S., Ronn, B., Holm, L., Astrup, A,” Randomized trail on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diets for the treatment of obesity,” Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 23. 528-536. 1999.
[11]  Taubes, G,” Nutrition: The soft science of dietry fat,” Science, 29, 2536-2545, 2001.
[12]  Ratliff, J.C., Mutungi, G., Puglisi, M.J., Volek, J.S., Fernandez, M.L, “Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men,” Nutr Metab (Lond), 5, 46-55, 2008.
[13]  Noakes, M., Keogh, J.B., Foster, P.R., Clifton, P.M, “Effect of an energy restricted, high protein, low fat diet relative to a conventional high carbohydrate, low fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women,” Am J Clin Nutr, 81, 1298-1306, 2005.
[14]  Sargrad, K.R., Homko, C., Mozzoli, M., Boden, G, “Effect of High Protein vs High Carbohydrate Intake on Insulin Sensitivity, Body Weight, Hemoglobin A1c, and Blood Pressure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” J Am Diet Assoc, 105, 573-580, 2005.
[15]  Krebs, N.F., Gao, D., Gralla, J., Collins, J.S., Johnson, S.L, “The Diabetes Excess Weight Loss (DEWL) Trial: a randomized controlled trial of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets over 2 years in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, 55, 905-914, 2012.
[16]  Larsen, R.N., Mann, N.J., Maclean, E., Shaw, J.E, “The effect of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a 12 month randomized controlled trial,” Diabetologia, 54, 731-740, 2011.
[17]  Layman, D.K., Boileau, R.A., Erickson, D.J., Painter, J.E., Shiue, H., Sather, C, “A Reduced Ratio of Dietary Carbohydrate to Protein Improves Body Composition and Blood Lipid Profiles during Weight Loss in Adult Women,” J Nutr, 133, 411-417, 2003.
[18]  Rolland, C., Hession, M., Broom, I, “Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients,” Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 4, 315-323, 2011.
[19]  Hession, M., Rolland, C., Kulkarni, U., Wise, A., Broom, J, “Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities,” Obesity Reviews, 10, 36-50, 2009.
[20]  Jenkins, D.J., Wong, J.M., Kendall, C.W., Esfahani, A., Leong, T.C., Faulkner, D.A, “The effect of a plant based low-carbohydrate (“Eco-Atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects,” Arch Intern Med, 169, 1046-1054, 2009.
[21]  Krebs, N.F., Gao, D., Gralla, J., Collins, J.S., Johnson, S.L, “Efficacy and Safety of a High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents, J Pediatr, 157, 252-258, 2010.
[22]  Kerksick, C.M., Wismann-Bunn, J., Fogt, D., Thomas, A.R., Taylor, L., Campbell, B.I, “Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women,” Nutr J, 9, 59-78, 2010.
[23]  Evangelista, L.S., Heber, D., Zhaoping, L.i., Bowerman, S., Hamilton, M.A, & Fonarow, G.C, “Reduced Body Weight and Adiposity with a High-Protein Diet Improves Functional Status, Lipid Profiles, Glycemic Control, and Quality of Life in Patients with Heart Failure, J Cardiovasc Nurs, 24(3), 207-215, 2009.
[24]  Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.R., Hill, J.O., McGuckin, B.G., Brill, C., Mohammed BS: A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity,” N Engl J Med, 348, 2082-2090, 2003.
[25]  Weigle, D.S., Breen, P.A., Matthys, C.C., Callahan, H.S., Meeuws, K.E., Burden, V.R, “A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations,” Am J Clin Nutr, 82, 41-48, 2005.
[26]  Adam-Perrot, A., Clifton, P., Brouns, F, “Low-carbohydrate diets: nutritional and physiological aspects,” Obes Rev, 7, 49-58, 2006.
[27]  Havel, P.J, “Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism,” Diabetes, 53, Suppl. 1, S143-S151, 2004.
[28]  Sofer, S., Eliraz, A., Kaplan, S., Voet, H., Fink, G., Kima, T, “Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner,” Obesity (Silver Spring), 19, 2006-2014, 2011.
[29]  Christiansen, T., Paulsen, S.K., Bruun, J.M., Ploug, T.h., Pedersen, S.B., and Richelsen, B, “Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Alone and in Combination Enhance the Expression of Adiponectin Receptors in Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle, but Only Diet-Induced Weight Loss Enhanced Circulating Adiponectin,” J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 95, 911-919, 2010.
[30]  Peake1, P.W., Kriketos, A.D., Denyer, G.S., Campbell, L.V & Charlesworth, J.A, “The postprandial response of adiponectin to a high-fat meal in normal and insulin-resistant subjects,” Int J Obesity, 27, 657-662, 2003.
[31]  Paniagua, J.A, sacristana, A.G., Romero, I., Vidal-puig, A., Latre, J.M, “Monounsaturated Fat–Rich Diet Prevents Central Body Fat Distribution and Decreases Postprandial Adiponectin Expression Induced by a Carbohydrate- Rich Diet in Insulin-Resistant Subjects,” Diabetes Care, 30, 1717-1723, 2007.
[32]  Ruth, M.R., Port, A.M., Shah, M., Bourland, A.C., Istfan, N.W., Nelson, K.P, “Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects,” Metabolism, 62(12), 1779-1787, 2013.
Show Less References


Determination of Blood Physiological and Biochemical Values of Blue Peafowl

1College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China

2Gansu Provincial Health Education Institute, Lanzhou, China

3College of Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 104-108
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xu Xiao-xia, Qian Guo-hong, Yang Fu-min, Yang Min, Wang Xue-yan. Determination of Blood Physiological and Biochemical Values of Blue Peafowl. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):104-108. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Yang  Fu-min, College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China. Email:


Forty-nine physiological and biochemical indices of blood in blue peafowl were determined in this report. Significant differences were observed in the hematocrit, alkaline phosphatase, CO2-M and anion gap (p < 0.01), as well as mean corpuscular hemoglobin, a-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, Mg2+, erythrocyte number, glutamicpuruvic transaminase, total protein and total bile acid (p < 0.05) of different sexes. The results may provide a reference for feeding, health examination, diagnosis, and breeding of blue peafowl.



[1]  Zhen Zuo-xin, “China animal data: Aves Vol. Fourth, Order Galliformes”, Science Press, 1978.
[2]  Xie Pu, Xu Bao-min, Lou Yi-zhou, “Yunnan Special poultry production”, Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 1997.
[3]  Lu Guang-lin, Sun Shu-xia, “The key point for feeding and management of peacock”, China Poultry, 33(12). 50-51. 2011.
[4]  Yan Xiao-juan, Yang Fu-min, Guo Jian-hua, “Studies on carcass characteristics and meat quality of blue peafowl”, Journal of Gansu Agriculture University, 44(4). 46-49. 2009.
[5]  Ma Ze-fang, “Diet metabolic rate of young blue peafowl l”, Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 29(5). 107-109. 2001.
Show More References
[6]  Lin Zhuo-hui, Fang Xiao-wen, Huang Sheng-ping, “Raising management of peacock”, Poultry Husbandry and Disease Control, (5). 38-39. 1994.
[7]  Wang Zong-huan, “Raising development and technique questions of peafowl”, The Jindun Publishing House, 2000.
[8]  Dong Na, Fang Xiao-wen, Huang Sheng-ping, Gao Xiang, Ye Hong-wei, Cao Bing-hai, “Effects of dietary energy levels on egg production and fertility rate of blue peafowl breeder”, Journal of China Agricultural University, 8(3). 95-98. 2003.
[9]  Zou Qi, “Metabolic energy of conventional diet for adult blue peafowl”, Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 30(1). 57-59. 2002.
[10]  Zou Qi, Liu Wei-shi, Tian Xiu-hua, Liang Qin-e, Liu Hua-rong, “Determination of protein level and nutrient metabolic ratio of winter diet for adult blue peafowl”, Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 31(6). 43-45. 2003.
[11]  Dong Na, Fang Xiao-wen, He Ning, Wo Xu-min, Cao Bin-hai, “Comparative study on digestibility of dietary fibre in blue peafowl, turkey and cock”, Chinese Journal of Animal Science, 40(12). 23-25. 2004.
[12]  Dong Na, Wu Dong-bin, Fang Xiao-wen, Cao Bin-hai, “Effects of dietary energy levels on growth performance, energy metabolism and nitrogen metabolism of blue peafowl”, Heilongjiang Animal Science And veterinary Medicine, 6. 89-91. 2006.
[13]  Wang Kang-wen, Wu Ke-bang, “Effects of different levels of methionine and lysine on growth performance of blue peafowl breeder”, Guangdong Agricultural Sciences, 4. 114-119. 2011.
[14]  Li Chen-xi, Yang Fu-min, “Analysis on histological traits of muscle for blue peafowl”, Journal of Gansu Agriculture University, 48(6). 135-139. 2013.
[15]  Ouyang Yi-na, Yang Ze-yu, Li Da-1in, Huo Jin-long, Qian Kun, Miao Yong-wang, “Genetic divergence between pavo muticus and pavo cristatus by Cyt b gene”, Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 24(2). 220-224. 2009.
[16]  Chang Hong, Ke Ya-yong, Su Ying-juan, Zhang Guo-ping, Zhu Shi-Ji, “A study of the wild and captive green peafowl(Pavo muticus) by random- amplified polymorphic DNA”, Hereditas, 24(3). 271-274. 2002.
[17]  Chen Tao, Miao Yong-wang, Huo Jin-long, Wei Hong-jiang, Ye Lang-hui, Pan Wei-rong, Tian Ying-hua, “Genetic diversity of blue peafowl based on microsatellite markers”, Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 21(3). 346-350. 2006.
[18]  Bao Wen-bin, Chen Guo-hong, Shu Jing-ting, Xu Qi, Li Hui-fang, “ Screening of peafowl microsatellite primers and analysis of genetic diversity”, Hereditas, 28(10). 1242-1246. 2006.
[19]  Zhu Shi-jie, Chang-Hong, Zhang Guo-ping, Wang Wei, Xu Qi-fang, “ Phylogenetic relationships among Pavo based on complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence variations”, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 43(6). 45-47. 2004.
[20]  Zou Fang-dong, Tong Xin-xin, Yue Bi-song, “Molecular cloning of activin βA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny”, Hereditas, 27(2). 231-235. 2005.
[21]  Qi Yun, Cai Run-lan, Song Yang, “Effects of storage duration of blood sampling on serum biochemical measurement”, Chinese Journal of Comparative Medicine, 16(2). 73-77. 2006.
[22]  Zeng Dan, Qiao Hong-guang, Ning Zhong-hua, “ Determination of values of physiological and biochemical parameters in dwarf brown Layer”, China Animal Husbandry Veterinary Medicine, 37(9). 25-28. 2010.
[23]  Chen Yu-qin, Yu Shi-yuan, “Some biochemical and physiological indices in blood of chrysolophus pictus, alectoris chukar and phasianus colchicus”, Acta Zoologica Sinica, 53(4). 674-681. 2007.
[24]  Qian Yun-xia, Chen Hui-qun, Sun Jiang-fei, “Effects of starvation on hematological and blood biochemical indices in cultured lateolabrax japonicas”, Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 9(2). 133-137. 2002.
[25]  Ji De-wei, Li Ming-yun, Wang Tian-zhu, Zhang Cheng-nian, Xu Zhen, Xu Wan-tu, “ Effects of low temperature stress periods on serum biochemical indexes in large yellow croaker pseudosciaena crocea”, Fisheries Science, 28(1). 1-4. 2009.
[26]  Ou You-jun, Fan Chun-yan, Li Jia-er, Yu Na, Su Hui, “Acute hypoxia stress on blood biochemical indexes in selective group of Trachinotus ovatus “, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 36(4). 126-131. 2014.
[27]  Wu Yi-xiong, “Summary on biochemical indexes and productive performances poultry blood”, Guizhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, 26(3). 12-13. 2002.
[28]  Zhou Qing-ping, Chen Hong, Zhou Xue-lin, Huang Qian, “Determination on blood biochemical indices of pavo muticus”, Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 50(15). 3214-3130. 2011.
[29]  Chen Yan-shui, Liu Ding-fa, “The application of blood alkaline phosphatase polymorphisms of livestock in breeding”, Contemporary Animal Husbandry, 1. 4-6. 1999.
[30]  Wu Wei, “The relationship between alkaline phosphatase and Laying Performance ”, Chinese Journal of Animal Science, 27(1). 15-17. 1991.
[31]  Shao Jian-feng, Liu Zhong-min, Zhong Yong-gen, “Expression of α-HBDH and LDH and its clinicopathological significance in leukemia patients”, Clinical Medicine of China, 19(8). 721-722. 2003.
[32]  Cao De-man, “Diagnostic value of α-HBDH in patients with acute myocardil infarction”, Chinese Medical Journal, 8(16). 1118-1118. 2006.
[33]  Xu Liang-mei, Mou Shao-yang, Wang Yang, Duan Xiao-xue, Gao Xiang-min, Zhang Wei-wei, “ Effect of zinc acetate on growth performance, meal quality and serum biochemical index of broilers”, Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 44(12). 32-38. 2013.
[34]  Liu Hua-zhong, Shen Qiu-gu, “Comparison of growth performance and serum protein level between Taihe silky fowls and Nancheng dark fowls”, Jiangxi Journal of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Medicine,1. 8-8. 2000.
[35]  Liu Kang, Huang Kai, Qin Xi, Wu Hong-yu, Cheng Yuan, Huang Qing, Huang Xiu-yun, “ Effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on immunity and serum biochemical indices under low temperature stress in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”, Fisheries Science, 33(2). 88-91. 2014.
[36]  Zhang Yun-mei, Wu Deng-hu, Yang Xiao-li, “The analysis of blood chemistry in peafowls with infectious laryngotracheitis”, Chinese Journal of Pest Control, 19(12). 705-707. 2003.
[37]  Qi Wei, Li Yan-hong, Zhang Yu, “Determination of 18 biochemical values in blood for macaque under domestication”, Supplement to the Journal of Sun Yatsen, 1. 38-39. 1997.
[38]  Dong Shu-qing, “Discussion on the relationship between kidney damage and the detected-values and ration of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen”, Guide of China Medicine, 36(9). 136-137. 2011.
[39]  Tang Chao-zhong, Wen Wei-ye, Wei Ze-zhen, Yang Ai-lin, “Study on the physiological and biochemical indices of brown-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the zoo”, Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 4(1). 85-87. 1998.
[40]  Li Li, Zhu Kai-min, Duan Wen-wu, Jiang Wei-xing, Fu Tong-sheng, “Determination of biochemical and physiological values in blood of cabot's tragopan”, Chinese Journal of Zoology, 38(6). 94-96. 2003.
Show Less References


Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis

1School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

2Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan

3Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

4Center for General Education, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

5Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veteran General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

6Department of Medicinal Botanicals and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, Changhua, Taiwan

7Department of Anesthesiology, Tungs’ Taichung Harbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

8Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

9Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

10Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 109-113
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kao-Sung Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Jui-Lung Shen, Kee-Ming Man, Sun-Yuan Wu, Huey-Yi Chen, Chiao-Hui Chang, Yuan-Ju Lee, Tzu-Fang Hsu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wei-Yong Lin, Wen-Chi Chen. Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):109-113. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Wen-Chi  Chen, School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Email:


There are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other metabolic problems. Sodium citrate (Na-citrate) is used as an additive in colas and various commercial drinks worldwide. Although potassium citrate (K-citrate) has been prescribed and well accepted by urologists for treating urinary stone disease (urolithiasis), the clinical role of Na-citrate has not been well established. We investigated the effects of Na-citrate and cola on the treatment of urolithiasis with an emerging translational model – Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila medium containing 0.5% ethylene glycol (EG) was used as a lithogenic agent for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. Cola (25%) and Na-citrate (2% and 4%) were added to the fly medium for urolithiasis treatment. Medium containing K-citrate (2% and 4%) was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment, the Malpighian tubules were dissected, removed, and processed for polarized light microscopy examination; fly lifespan was also monitored in different groups. Cola failed to reduce CaOx crystal formation, whereas Na-citrate and the positive control K-citrate significantly reduced EG-induced CaOx crystal formation in Drosophila. Administration of either Na-citrate or cola did not inhibit Drosophila lifespan. Consumption of cola exerts no detectable change in the lithogenic agent associated with CaOx stone formation in the Drosophila model. By contrast, Na-citrate had an inhibitory effect on EG-induced CaOx crystal formation, albeit a lower inhibitory rate upon comparison with K-citrate.



[1]  V. Andres, M. J. Villanueva, I. Mateos-Aparicio, and M. D. Tenorio, “Colour, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of mixed beverages based on fruit juices with milk or soya,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 53 (1). 71-80. 2014.
[2]  M. Kockova, J. Mendel, A. Medvedova, E. Sturdik, and L. Valik, “Cereals and pseudocereals as substrates for growth and metabolism of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 52 (1). 25-36. 2013.
[3]  Z. Kohajdova, J. Karovicova, and M. Greifova, “Analytical and organoleptic profiles of lactic acid-fermented cucumber juice with addition of onion juice,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 46 (3). 105-111. 2007.
[4]  A. Steskova, M. Morochovicova, and E. Leskova, “Vitamin C degradation during storage of fortified foods,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 45 (2). 55-61. 2006.
[5]  M. Tuzen, S. Saracoglu, and M. Soylak, “Evaluation of trace element contents of powdered beverages from Turkey,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 47 (3). 120-124. 2008.
Show More References
[6]  J. I. Friedlander, J. A. Antonelli, and M. S. Pearle, “Diet: from food to stone,” World Journal of Urology. 2014.
[7]  S. D. Ladas, D. Kamberoglou, G. Karamanolis, J. Vlachogiannakos, and I. Zouboulis-Vafiadis, “Systematic review: Coca-Cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 37 (2). 169-173. 2013.
[8]  C. H. Wang, W. D. Lin, D. T. Bau, and I. C. Chou, “Appearance of acanthosis nigricans may precede obesity: An involvement of the insulin/IGF receptor signaling pathway,” BioMedicine, 3 (2). 82-87. 2013.
[9]  P. L. Wu, H. Y. Lane, H. S. Tang, and G. E. Tsai, “Glutamate theory in developing novel pharmacotherapies for obsessive compulsive disorder: Focusing on N-methyl-D-aspartate signaling,” BioMedicine, 2 (2). 75-79. 2012.
[10]  C. C. Lee, C. H. Tsai, L. Wan, and Y. Tsai, “Increased incidence of Parkinsonism among Chinese with β-glucosidase mutation in central Taiwan,” BioMedicine, 3 (2). 92-94. 2013.
[11]  S. Nowfar, K. Palazzi-Churas, D. C. Chang, and R. L. Sur, “The relationship of obesity and gender prevalence changes in United States inpatient nephrolithiasis,” Urology, 78 (5). 1029-1033. 2011.
[12]  J. E. Rice, and J. D. Faunt, “Excessive cola consumption as a cause of hypokalaemic myopathy,” Internal Medicine Journal, 31 (5). 317-318. 2001.
[13]  L. Shen, X. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Cong, and B. Ning, “Comparison of renal function and metabolic abnormalities of cystine stone patients and calcium oxalate stone patients in China,” World Journal of Urology, 31 (5). 1219-1223. 2013.
[14]  O. Karagulle, U. Smorag, F. Candir, et al., “Clinical study on the effect of mineral waters containing bicarbonate on the risk of urinary stone formation in patients with multiple episodes of CaOx-urolithiasis,” World Journal of Urology, 25 (3). 315-323. 2007.
[15]  L. Herrel, J. Pattaras, T. Solomon, and K. Ogan, “Urinary stone risk and cola consumption,” Urology, 80 (5). 990-994. 2012.
[16]  G. P. Kasidas, and G. A. Rose, “Oxalate content of some common foods: determination by an enzymatic method,” Journal of Human Nutrition, 34 (4). 255-266. 1980.
[17]  A. Rodgers, “Effect of cola consumption on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis,” Urological Research, 27 (1). 77-81. 1999.
[18]  C. M. Passman, R. P. Holmes, J. Knight, et al., “Effect of soda consumption on urinary stone risk parameters,” Journal of Endourology, 23 (3). 347-350. 2009.
[19]  P. M. Ferraro, E. N. Taylor, G. Gambaro, and G. C. Curhan, “Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 8 (8). 1389-1395. 2013.
[20]  T. Esen, A. Krautschick, and P. Alken, “Treatment update on pediatric urolithiasis,” World Journal of Urology, 15 (3). 195-202. 1997.
[21]  K. Sakhaee, M. Nicar, K. Hill, and C. Y. Pak, “Contrasting effects of potassium citrate and sodium citrate therapies on urinary chemistries and crystallization of stone-forming salts,” Kidney International, 24 (3). 348-352. 1983.
[22]  G. M. Preminger, K. Sakhaee, and C. Y. Pak, “Alkali action on the urinary crystallization of calcium salts: contrasting responses to sodium citrate and potassium citrate,” Journal of Urology, 139 (2). 240-242. 1988.
[23]  S. Allie-Hamdulay, and A. L. Rodgers, “Prophylactic and therapeutic properties of a sodium citrate preparation in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis: randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Urological Research, 33 (2). 116-124. 2005.
[24]  Y. H. Chen, H. P. Liu, H. Y. Chen, et al., “Ethylene glycol induces calcium oxalate crystal deposition in Malpighian tubules: a Drosophila model for nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis,” Kidney International, 80 (4). 369-377. 2011.
[25]  W. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, et al., “Melamine-induced urolithiasis in a Drosophila model,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (10). 2753-2757. 2012.
[26]  C. Y. Ho, Y. H. Chen, P. Y. Wu, et al., “Effects of commercial citrate-containing juices on urolithiasis in a Drosophila model,” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 29 (9). 488-493. 2013.
[27]  S. Y. Wu, J. L. Shen, K. M. Man, et al., “An emerging translational model to screen potential medicinal plants for nephrolithiasis, an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. 972958. 2014.
[28]  T. H. de Sa, “Can Coca Cola promote physical activity?,” Lancet, 383 (9934). 2041. 2014.
[29]  P. Maes, Y. B. Monakhova, T. Kuballa, H. Reusch, and D. W. Lachenmeier, “Qualitative and quantitative control of carbonated cola beverages using (1)H NMR spectroscopy,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (11). 2778-2784. 2012.
[30]  S. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Valderrabano, “Nutrient restriction preserves calcium cycling and mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes during ischemia and reperfusion,” Cell Calcium, 51 (6). 445-451. 2012.
[31]  M. Aoyagi, and K. Nagata, “Learning coefficient of generalization error in Bayesian estimation and vandermonde matrix-type singularity,” Neural Computation, 24 (6). 1569-1610. 2012.
[32]  P. Celec, “Intake of cola beverages containing caffeine does not increase, but reduces body weight,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66 (4). 538; author reply 539. 2012.
[33]  G. C. Curhan, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm, D. Spiegelman, and M. J. Stampfer, “Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones,” American Journal of Epidemiology, 143 (3). 240-247. 1996.
[34]  Y. H. Lee, W. C. Huang, J. Y. Tsai, and J. K. Huang, “The efficacy of potassium citrate based medical prophylaxis for preventing upper urinary tract calculi: a midterm followup study,” Journal of Urology, 161 (5). 1453-1457. 1999.
[35]  J. Gao, Y. Shen, N. Sun, et al., “Therapeutic effects of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate on melamine-induced urinary calculi in China,” Chinese Medical Journal (Engl), 123 (9). 1112-1116. 2010.
[36]  I. P. Heilberg, and D. S. Goldfarb, “Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease,” Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 20 (2). 165-174. 2013.
[37]  F. Knauf, and P. A. Preisig, “Drosophila: a fruitful model for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis?,” Kidney International, 80 (4). 327-329. 2011.
[38]  W. L. Liao, and F. J. Tsai, “Personalized medicine: A paradigm shift in healthcare,” BioMedicine, 3 (2). 66-72. 2013.
Show Less References


Variation of Terpenoid Flavor Odorants in Bran of Some Black and White Rice Varieties Analyzed by GC×GC-MS

1Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at Si Racha, Kasetsart University, Si Racha Campus, Chonburi 20230 Thailand

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 114-120
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Watcharapong Chumpolsri, Nataporn Wijit, Pittayaporn Boontakham, Piyarat Nimmanpipug, Phumon Sookwong, Suwaporn Luangkamin, Sugunya Wongpornchai. Variation of Terpenoid Flavor Odorants in Bran of Some Black and White Rice Varieties Analyzed by GC×GC-MS. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):114-120. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Sugunya  Wongpornchai, Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand. Email:,


Among the total of 146 volatiles extracted by SPME from the headspace of some black and white rice bran samples, twenty-eight terpenoid odorants were acculately identified. Most of these terpenoids possess good aroma character and are varied among three groups of Thai rice; black glutinous, black non-glutinous, and white non-glutinous. Of these three groups, black non-glutinous rice contains the greater number of these monoterpenoids. However, the content of the major terpenoid odorants, which are limonene, trans-β-ocimene, β-cymene, and linalool, is the highest in the bran of white Thai jasmine rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105). An herbaceous odorant, myrcene, occurs in the bran of all black rice varieties but not in the bran of white rice. The flavor type of rice bran using these rice bran terpenoids was successfully classified using the chemometric principle component analysis method.



[1]  Buttery, R.G., Ling, L.C., and Juliano, B.O., “2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline: an important aroma component of cooked rice”. Chemistry and Industry, 1982. 23: 958-959.
[2]  Buttery, R.G., Turnbaugh, J.G., and Ling, L.C., “Contribution of volatiles to rice aroma”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1988. 36(5): 1006-1009.
[3]  Buttery, R.G., Ling, L.C., Juliano, B.O., and Turnbaugh, J.G., “Cooked rice aroma and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1983. 31: 823-828.
[4]  Wongpornchai, S., Sriseadka, T., and Choonvisase, S., “Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003. 51(2): 457-462.
[5]  Boo, H.O., Heo, B.G., and Gorinstein, S., “Analytical methods for enzyme and DPPH radical scavenging activities of natural pigments from some plants”. Food Analytical Methods, 2012. 5(6): 1354-1361.
Show More References
[6]  Leardkamolkarn, V., Thongthep, W., Suttiarporn, P., Kongkachuichai, R., Wongpornchai, S., and Wanavijitr, A., “Chemopreventive properties of the bran extracted from a newly-developed Thai rice: The Riceberry”. Food Chemistry, 2011. 125(3): 978-985.
[7]  Adams, R.P., Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectroscopy. (essential oils). Vol. 3. 2001, Illinois USA: Allured Publishing Corporation. 9-456.
[8]  Mottram, R. The LRI & Odour Database, Research Group, School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, UK. [cit. 1 April 2014]. 2005; Available from:
[9]  Goufo, P., Duan, M., Wongpornchai, S., and Tang, X., “Some factors affecting the concentration of the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in two fragrant rice cultivars grown in South China”. Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 2010. 4: 1-9.
[10]  Yang, D.S., Lee, K.S., Jeong, O.Y., Kim, K.J., and Kays, S.J., “Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in cooked black rice”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008. 56(1): 235-240.
[11]  Yajima., I., Yanai, T., and Nakamura, M., “Volatile flavour components of cooked rice.” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 1978. 42: 1229-1233.
[12]  Yajima, I., Yanai, T., and Nakamura, M., “Volatile flavor components of cooked kaorimai (scented rice, O. sativa japonica)”. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 1979. 43: 2425-2430.
[13]  Ghelardini, C., Galeotti, N., Di Cesare Mannelli, L., Mazzanti, G., and Bartolini, A., “Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene”. Il Farmaco, 2001. 56: 387-389.
[14]  Bullard, R.W. and Holguin, G., “Volatile components of unprocessed rice (Oryza sativa L.)”. Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1977. 25(1): 99-103.
[15]  Sukhonthara, S., Theerakulkait, C., and Miyazawa, M., “Characterization of volatile aroma compounds from red and black rice bran”. Journal of Oleo Science, 2009. 58(3): 155-161.
[16]  Tsugita, T., Kurata, T., and Fujimaki, M., “Volatile components in the steam distillate of rice bran: identification of neutral and basic compounds”. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 1978. 42: 643-651.
[17]  Widjaja, R., Craske, J.D., and Wootton, M., “Comparative studies on volatile components of non-fragrant and fragrant rices”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1996. 70(2): 151-161.
[18]  Reverchon, E., “Fractional separation of SCF extracts from marjoram leaves: Mass transfer and optimization”. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 1992. 5(4): 256-261.
[19]  Bouwmeester, H.J., Gershenzon, J., Konings, M.C.J.M., and Croteau, R., “Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene andcarvone in the fruit of caraway”. Plant Physiology, 1998. 117(3): 901-912.
[20]  Degenhardt, J., Köllner, T.G., and Gershenzon, J., “Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants”. Phytochemistry, 2009. 70(15-16): 1621-1637.
[21]  Dewick, P.M., Medicinal Natural Products A Biosynthetic Approach 3rd Edition. Vol. 3. 2009, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 193-206.
Show Less References


Genotypic Characterization of Shigella Species Isolated from Abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa Using PCR Analysis

1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

2Centre for Animal Health Studies, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University – Mafikeng Campus, P. Bag X2046 Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 121-125
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Innocentiah Ntshepang Makabanyane, Rendani Victress Ndou, Collins Njie Ateba. Genotypic Characterization of Shigella Species Isolated from Abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa Using PCR Analysis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):121-125. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-8.

Correspondence to: Collins  Njie Ateba, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. Email:


Foodborne pathogens pose a serious threat to food safety especially in developing countries where hygiene facilities are not well developed and operational practices in abattoirs and retail shops are often poor. Shigella species are known to cause foodborne complications in humans including shigellosis that is not only characterized by destruction of the epithelium of the colon but usually results to an inflammatory response. The transmission of Shigella species to humans most often results through the consumption of contaminated food, meat and water. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Shigella species from carcass of cattle in some abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa and determine the virulence gene profiles of the isolates using PCR assays. A total of 97 carcass swabs were obtained from the abattoirs that were sampled. Swabs were properly labeled and transported on ice to the laboratory for analysis. The swabs were washed in 2% (w/v) peptone water and plated on Salmonella-Shigella agar. Standard identification tests (Gram staining, oxidase test, TSI test and 16S rRNA) were used to confirm the identities of 97 (one from each sample) presumptive isolates. Large proportions (85% to 100%) of the isolates from Rustenburg and Zeerust were oxidase positive. None of the isolates produced hydrogen sulphide gas on TSI medium but utilize glucose as a source of carbon. A large proportion (75.3%) of the isolates was positively identified as Shigella species based on PCR analysis. The number of isolates confirmed as Shigella species was higher in Zeerust (54.8%) than in Rustenburg (45.2%). Shigella species were most often isolated from samples that were collected outside than inside the carcass. Generally a large proportion (74.0%) of the isolates possessed the IpaH gene while64.4% of these isolates were positive for the IpaBCD gene that encodes for the invasion plasmid antigen. An analysis of the isolates from the different sampling sections indicated that 46.3% and 55.3% of the isolates from Zeerust possessed the IpaH and the IpaBCD genes, respectively while 53.7% and 44.7% of the isolates from Rustenburg possessed these genes. The detection of virulent Shigella species in beef carcasses demonstrates the need for a continued surveillance of this pathogen in meat in order to ensure the implementation of improved food safety measures.



[1]  Oliver, S.P., Jayarao, B.M. and Almeida, R.A., “Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications”. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2. 115-129. 2005.
[2]  Centre for Disease Control., “Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S sites, 1996 – 2012”. Wkly Rep 62(15). 283-287. 2013.
[3]  DuPont, HL, et al., “Inoculum Size in Shigellosis and Implications for expected mode of transmission,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 159, No. 6, pp. 1126-28. 1989.
[4]  Wu, F.M., Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R., Wells, J.G., Mintz, E.D. and Swaminathan, B., “Fate of Shigella sonnei on parsley and methods of disinfection”. J Food Prot63. 568-572. 2000.
[5]  Williams, R. C., Isaacs, S., Decou, M. L., Richardson, E. A., Buffet, M. C., Slinger, R. W., Brodsky, M. H., Ciebin, B. W., Ellis, A., and Hockin, J., “Illness outbreak associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Genoa salami”. Can Med Assoc J 162. 1409-1413. 2000.
Show More References
[6]  Sim, J., Hood, D., Finnie, L., Wilson, M., Graham, C., Brett, M. and Hudson, J.A., “Series of incidents of Listeria monocytogenes non-invasive febrile gastroenteritis involving ready-to-eat meats”. Lett Appl Microbiol 35. 409-413. 2002.
[7]  Kosmider,R.D., Nally, P´., Simons, R.R.L., Brouwer, A., Cheung, S., Snary, E.L. and Wooldridge, M., “Attribution of human VTEC O157 infection from meat products: a quantitative risk assessment approach. Risk Anal 30. 753-765. 2010
[8]  Mensah, D. Yeboah-Manu, K. Owusu-Darko, A. Ablordey. “Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?”Bull World Health Org 80. 546-553. 2002.
[9]  Nakazato, A., Momoi, Y., Kadoya, M. and Iwasaki, T., “Measurement offeline serum interleukin-5 level”. J Vet Med Sci 69. 843-846. 2007.
[10]  Centre for Disease Control., “Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food –10 states, 2009’. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59. 418-422. 2010.
[11]  Sharma, A., Singh, S.K., Bajpai, D., “Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Shigella spp. with reference to its virulence genes and antibiogram analysis from river Narmada”. Microbiol Res 165. 33-42. 2010
[12]  Keddy, K.H., Sooka, A., Crowther-Gibson, P., Quan, V., Meiring, S., Cohen, C., Nana, T., Sriruttan, C., Seetharam, S., Hoosen, A., Naicker, P., Elliott, E., Haffejee, S., Whitelaw, A., Klugman, K.P., Group for Enteric, Respiratory, and Meningeal Disease Surveillance in South Africa (GERMS-SA)., “Systemic shigellosis in South Africa”. Clin Infect Dis 54. 1448–54.2012
[13]  Uyttendaele M., Bagamboula, C.F.,De Smet, E.,Van Wilder, S. andDebevere, J.,“Evaluation of culture media for enrichment and isolation of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri”. IntJ Food Microbiol 70. 255-265. 2001.
[14]  World Health Organisation, “Sixty-third World Health Assembly. Document WHA63/A63/11”. 2012. Available at
[15]  Theron, J., Morar, D., Du Preez, M., Br¨ozel, V.S., and Venter, S.N., “A sensitive seminested PCR method for the detection of Shigella in spiked environmental water samples”. Water Res35. 869-874. 2001.
[16]  Faruque, S.M., Khan, R., Kammuzzaman, M., et al, “Isolation of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and S.flexneri strains from surface water in Bangladesh; comparative molecular analysis of environmental Shigella versus clinical strains”. Appl Environ Microbiol68(8). 3908-3913. 2002.
[17]  Jin, Q., Yuan, Z., Xu, J.,Wang, Y., Shen, Y., Lu,W.,Wang, J., Liu, H., Yang, J., Yang, F., Zhang, X., Zhang, J., Yang, G., Wu, H., Qu, D., Dong, J., Sun, L., Xue, Y., Zhao, A., Gao, Y., Zhu, J., Kan, B., Ding, K., Chen, S., Cheng, H., Yao, Z., Bingkun, H., Chen, R., Ma, D., Qiang, B.,Wen, Y., Hou, Y. and Yu, J., “Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157”. NucleicAcids Res30. 4432-4441. 2002.
[18]  Lampel, K.A. and Orlandi, P.A., “Polymerase chain reaction detection of invasive Shigella and Salmonella enterica in food”. Meth Mol Biol179. 235-244. 2002.
[19]  Peng, X., Luo, W., Zhang, J., Wang, S., and Lin, S., “Rapid detection of Shigella species in environmental sewage by an immunocapture PCR with universal primers”. Appl Environ Microbiol68. 2580-2583. 2002.
[20]  Sapsford, K.E., Rasooly, A., Taitt, C.R. and Ligler, F.S. “Detection of Campylobacter and Shigella species in food samples using an array biosensor”. Anal Chem76. 433-440. 2004.
[21]  Moganedi, K.L.M., Goyvaerts, E.M.A., Venter, S.N. and Sibara, M.M.,“Optimisation of the PCR-invA primers for the detection of Salmonella in drinking and surface waters following a pre-cultivative step”. Water SA 33(2).195-201. 2007.
[22]  Penatti, M.P.A., Hollanda, L.M., Nakazato, G., Campos, T.A., Lancellotti, M., Angellini, M., Brocchi, M., Rocha, M.M.M. and Dias da Silveira, W., “Epidemiological characterization ofresistance and PCR typing of Shigellaflexneri and Shigella sonnei strainsisolated from bacillary dysentery casesin Southeast Brazil”. Braz J Med Biol Res 40. 249-258. 2007
[23]  Govindarajan, C.V.,“Maintenance of hygiene and sanitary conditions including personal hygiene in the meat factory. Technical paper in First National Seminar on Marketing of Meat Food Products in India, Aaligarh, India.1990.
[24]  Lues, J.F.R, Theron, M.M, Venter, P. and Rasephei, M.H.R., “Microbial composition of bioaerosols of a high-throughput chicken slaughtering facility”. Poultry Sci86. 142-149. 2007.
[25]  Mead, P.S. and Griffin, P.M., “Escherichia coli O157:H7”. Lancet 352. 1207-1212. 1998.
[26]  Cruikshank, R., Duguid, J.P., Marmoin, B.P., Swain, R.H. (1975). Medical Microbiology, 12th ed. Longman, New York. (2): 3-4.
[27]  Forbes, A.B. and Weissfeld, A.S., “Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 10th edn. Mosby, StLouis, MO. 1998.
[28]  Tunung, R., Chai, L.C., Usha, M.R., Lee, H.Y., Fatimah, A.B., Farinazleen, M.G. and Son, R., “Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolated from street food and clinical samples in Malaysia”. ASEAN Food J 14(3). 161-173. 2007.
[29]  Villalobo, E., and Torres, A., “PCR for detection of Shigella spp. in mayonnaise”. Appl Environ Microbiol 64. 1242-1245. 1998.
[30]  Sambrook, J; Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. Molecular Cloning: a laboratory manual. 2nd ed. N.Y., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989. 1659 p.
[31]  European Food Safety Authority.,“The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses,zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2011”. EFSA J11(4). 3129. 2013.
[32]  World Health Organization Shigellosis: disease burden, epidemiology and case management. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80. 94-99. 2005
[33]  Mead, P.S., L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L.F. Mccaig, J.S. Bresee, C. Shapiro,et al.Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5. 607-625. 1999.
[34]  Greig, J.D., Todd, E.C., Bartleson, C.A. and Michaels, B.S., “Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 1 Description of the problems, methods, and agents involved”. J Food Prot 70. 1752-1761. 2007.
[35]  Anonymous., “Shigella – 2009. Travel and Migrant Health Section, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, UK (Published November 2011, available at
[36]  Lampel, K.A., Jagow, J.A.,Trucksess, M. and Hill, W.E., “Polymerase chain reaction for detection of invasive Shigella flexneri in food”. Appl Environ Microbiol 56.1536-1540. 1990.
[37]  Ateba, C.N. and Mbewe, M.,“Detection of E. coli O157:H7 virulence genes in isolates from beef, pork, water, humans and animal species in the North West Province, South Africa: public health implications”. Res Microbiol 128. 181-188.2011.
[38]  Ahmed, A.M. and Shimamoto, T., “Isolation and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella spp. from meat and dairy products in Egypt”. Int J Food Microbiol 168-169. 57-62. 2014.
[39]  Tassew, H., Abdissa, A., Beyene, G. and Gere-Selassie, S., “Microbial flora and foodborne pathogens on mince meat and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents”. Ethiop J Health Sci 20. 137-143. 2010.
[40]  Centinkaya, F., Cibik, G., Soyuteniz, E., Ozkin, C., Kayali, R. and Levent, B., “Shigella and Salmonella contamination in various foodstuffs in Turkey”. Food Cont 19. 1059-1063. 2008.
[41]  Jackson, T.C., Marshall, D.L., Acuff, G.R. and Dickson, J.S., “Meat, poultry, and seafood, In Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R., Montville, T.J. (Eds.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2nded. ASM Press, Washington DC, USA, pp 91-109.
[42]  Thiem, V.D., Sethabutr, O., von Seidlein, L., Tung, T.V., Canh, D.G.,Chien, BT., Tho, L.H., Lee, H., Houng, H., Hale, T.L., Clemens, J.D.Mason, C. and Trach D.D.,“Detection of Shigella by a PCR assay targeting the ipaH gene suggests increased prevalence of shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam”. J Clin Microbiol 42. 2031-2035. 2004.
[43]  Wachsmuth, K. and Morris G.K., “Shigella, pp 448-660. In M.P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne becterial pathogens. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, USA.1989.
Show Less References


Study on the Health Benefits of Brown Algae (Sargassum muticum) in Volunteers

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Cheju Halla University, Jeju 690-708, Korea

2Bio Convergence center, Jeju Technopark, Jeju 690-756, Korea

3Department of Chemisty, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea

4Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 126-130
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shin Young Park, Inn Su Seo, Sun Joo Lee, Sang Pyung Lee. Study on the Health Benefits of Brown Algae (Sargassum muticum) in Volunteers. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):126-130. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-9.

Correspondence to: Sang  Pyung Lee, Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea. Email:


A randomized clinical trial enrolling healthy volunteers was carried out to evaluate the effects of S. muticum supplementation. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether intake of S. muticum could exert beneficial effects on human health. Volunteers were asked to consume dried encapsulated S. muticum 4.8 grams daily for 4 weeks. Analysis was made on several parameters including blood lipid profile, stress hormone level, fatigue status, liver functions, and lymphocyte subpopulation level, before and after consumption of the S. muticum capsuls. Fifty-one subjects were able to complete this study. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) decreased 14% from the baseline level of 6.0±1.4 μg/mL to 5.1±1.6 μg/mL, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a correlation between decreased ox-LDL levels and increased total antioxidant status (TAS) levels after S. muticum intake. There was a remarkable increase in natural killer (NK) lymphocyte count, but changes in the mean absolute lymphocyte subsets were unremarkable. Healthy subjects showed significant improvement of biomarkers of fatigue and liver functions, such lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). These results suggest that S. muticum may have potential beneficial effects as a healthy food supplement through its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunologic functions.



[1]  D’Orazio, N., Gemello, E., Gammone, M.A., de Girolamo, M., Ficoneri, C. and Riccioni, G, “Fucoxantin: a treasure from the sea,” Mar. Drugs, 10. 604-616. 2012.
[2]  Pallela, R., Na-Young, Y. and Kim, S.K, “Anti-photoaging and photoprotective compounds derived from marine organisms,” Mar. Drugs, 8. 1189-1202. 2010.
[3]  Kim, J.Y., Lee, J.A., Kim, K.N., Yoon, W.J., Lee, W.J. and Park, S. Y, “Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Sargassum muticum extracts,” J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 36. 663–669. 2007.
[4]  Mary, J.S., Vinotha, P. and Pradeep, A.M, “Screening for in vitro cytotoxic activity of seaweed, Sargassum sp. against Hep-2 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 13. 6073–6076. 2012.
[5]  Hu, F.B., Liu, Y. and Willett, W.C, “Preventing chronic diseases by promoting health diet and lifestyle: public policy implications for China,” Obes. Rev. 12. 552-559. 2011.
Show More References
[6]  Li, Y., Qian, Z.J., Ryu, B., Lee, S.H., Kim, M.M. and Kim, S.K, “Chemical components and its antioxidant properties in vitro: An edible marine brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Bioorg,” Med. Chem. 17. 1963-1973. 2009.
[7]  Zhang, Q., Zang, J., Shen, J., Silva, A., Dennis, D.A. and Barrow, C.J, “A simple 96-well microplate method for estimation of total polyphenol content in seaweeds,” J. Appl. Phycol. 18. 445-450. 2006.
[8]  Koivikko, R., Loponen, J., Honkanen, T. and Jormalainen, V, “Contents of soluble, cell-wall-bound and exuded phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, with implications on their ecological functions,” J. Chem. Ecol. 31. 195-212. 2005.
[9]  Kang, K.A., Lee, K.H., Park, J.W., Lee, N.H., Na, H.K., Surh, Y.J., You, H.J., Chung, M.H. and Hyun, J.W, “Triphlorethol-A induces heme oxygenase-1 via activation of ERK and NF-E2 related factor 2 transcrption factor,” FEBS Lett. 581. 2000-2008. 2007.
[10]  Heo, S.J., Ko, S.C., Cha, S.H., Kang, D.H., Park, H.S., Choi, Y.U., Kim, D., Jung, W.K. and Jeon, Y.J, “Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on melanogenesis and their protective effect against photo-oxidative stress induced by UV-B radiation,” Toxicol In vitro, 23. 1123-1130. 2009.
[11]  Ayyad, S.E., Ezmirly, S.T., Basaif, S.A., Alarif, W.M., Badria, A.F. and Badria, F.A, “Antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, and protective DNA damage metabolites for the red sea brown alga Sargassum sp.,” Pharmacology Res. 3. 160-165. 2011.
[12]  Yan, X., Chuda, Y., Suzuki, M. and Nagata, T, “Fucoxanthin as the major antioxidant in Hijikia fusiformis, a common edible seaweed,” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63. 605-607. 1999.
[13]  Yoon, W.J., Ham, Y.M., Lee, W.J., Lee, N.H. and Hyun, C.G, “Brown alga Sargassum muticum inhibits proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells,” Turk. J. Biol. 34. 25-34. 2010.
[14]  Yang, E.J., Ham, Y.M., Lee, W.J., Lee, N.H. and Hyun, C.G, “Anti-inflammatory effects of apo-9’-fucoxanthinone from the brown alga, Sargassum muticum,” Daru. 21. 62-68. 2013.
[15]  Lie, L., Heinrich, M., Myers, S. and Dworjanyn, S.A, “Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of the brown seaweed Sargassum in Traditional Chinese Medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review,” J. Ethnopharmacol. 142. 591-619. 2012.
[16]  Libby, P., Ridker, P.M. and Hansson, G.K, “Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis,” Nature, 473, 317-325. 2011.
[17]  D. Sliva, “Suppression of cancer invasiveness by dietary compounds,” Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 8. 677-688. 2008.
[18]  Yang, E.J., Ham, Y.M., Lee, W.J., Lee, N.H. and Hyun, C.G, “Anti-inflammatory effects of apo-9'-fucoxanthinone from the brown alga, Sargassum muticum,” Daru, 21. 62-68. 2013.
[19]  Kurihara, H., Koda, H., Asami, S., Kiso, Y. and Tanaka, T, “Contribution of the antioxidative property of astaxanthin to its protective effect on the promotion of cancer metastasis in mice treated with restraint stress,” Life Sci. 70. 2509-2520. 2001.
[20]  He, R.R., Yao, X.S., Li, H.Y., Dai, Y., Duan, Y.H., Li, Y.F. and Kurihara, H, “The anti-stress effects of Sarcandra glabra extract on restraint-evoked immunocompromised,” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 32, 247-252. 2009.
[21]  W. Shin, “The effect of convalescent meridian acupressure after exercise on stress hormones and lactic acid concentration change,” J. Exerc. Rehabil. 9. 331-335. 2013.
[22]  Devaki, M., Nirupama, R. abd Yajurvedi, H.N, “Repeated acute stress alters activity of serum aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase in rat,” JPBS, 23. 1-4. 2010.
[23]  Abdou, H.M. and Hassan, M.A, “Protective role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid against lead acetate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of female rats,” Biomed. Res. Int. 435857. 2014.
Show Less References