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Article

Conversion of Limonene into More Valuable Aroma under Hydrothermal Conditions

1Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555, JAPAN

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, JAPAN

3Maruboshi Vinegar-ASCII, Food Technology and Biology Technical Center (MAFT), 2425 Tabara, Kawasaki-machi, Tagawagun, Fukuoka, 827-0004, JAPAN

4Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555, JAPAN


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 718-721
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hideo Iwai, Teruaki Matsubara, Yukihiro Kawamoto, Takuya Suetsugu, Arata Takamizu, Masahiro Tanaka, Munehiro Hoshino, Armando T. Quitain, Mitsuru Sasaki. Conversion of Limonene into More Valuable Aroma under Hydrothermal Conditions. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):718-721. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-10.

Correspondence to: Mitsuru  Sasaki, Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555, JAPAN. Email: msasaki@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

Abstract

The aromatic components in citrus essential oils are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and some oxygenated compounds. It is known that monoterpenes, such as limonene, take a little part of the aroma and are sometimes removed by deterpenation processes. In this study, a novel technology through a wet oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide was investigated for the conversion of limonene. Experiments were conducted using a batch type reactor to study the effects of temperature and reaction time on the conversion of limonene under the following conditions: temperature range of 150 to 200C at reaction time of 10-80 min. After each run, samples consisting of 2 layers (oil and water phases) were collected. The oil layer was qualitatively analyzed of its composition using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) apparatus, while the organic carbon content in water layer was analyzed using a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Results obtained under these conditions indicated highly selective conversion of limonene especially into its isomers.

Keywords

References

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[4]  Y. Nakano, F. Ichiyanagi, M. Naito, Y. Yang and M. Fujiki: "Chiroptical generation and inversion during the mirror-symmetry-breaking aggregation of dialkylpolysilanes due to limonene chirality", Chem. Commun., 48, 6636-6638 (2012).
 
[5]  A.V.M. Nunes. and M. Nunes da Ponte: "Phase equilibrium and kinetics of O2-oxidation of limonene in high pressure carbon dioxide", J. Supercrit. Fluids, 66, 23-28 (2012).
 
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Article

Comparative Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles in Brains and Eyes of Five Economic Fish Species in Winter and Summer

1Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, P.R. China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 722-730
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Huan Li, Jin-Pin Liu, Mei-Ling Zhang, Na Yu, Er-Chao Li, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du. Comparative Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles in Brains and Eyes of Five Economic Fish Species in Winter and Summer. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):722-730. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-11.

Correspondence to: Zhen-Yu Du, Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, P.R. China. Email: zydu@bio.ecnu.edu.cn

Abstract

Fish brains and eyes are commonly consumed in China, however, their nutritional importance has not been evaluated. We investigated the fatty acid (FA) profiles in brains and eyes of five economically important fish species with different food habits (carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous). The fatty acid profiles were also compared between winter and summer. The FA compositions of brains and eyes of carnivorous and marine fishes were similar, and differed from those of omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fishes. In winter, there were higher proportions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in brains and eyes of carnivorous and marine fishes than in those of omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fishes; the magnitude of this difference was smaller in summer. The FA compositions of brains and eyes of these five fishes were comparable to those reported for their fillets in previous studies. Therefore, fish brains and eyes are not more nutritious than fillets of the same species.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Effect of in Vitro Digestion on the Structural, Morphologic Characteristics and Fermentability of Raw Banana Starch

1College of Food and Horticultural Sciences, Foshan University, Foshan, China

2Department of Life Science and Technology, Yangjiang Vocational and Technical College, Yangjiang, China

3College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 731-737
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bai Yongliang, Wen Haixiang, Yu Ming, Yang Gongming. The Effect of in Vitro Digestion on the Structural, Morphologic Characteristics and Fermentability of Raw Banana Starch. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):731-737. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-12.

Correspondence to: Yang  Gongming, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Email: ygm576@163.com

Abstract

This study aimed to observe the effect of in vitro digestion on the structural and morphologic characteristics, and find the relationship between in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation of raw banana starch. After digested by artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal juice, the starch granules were damaged, but not drastic. X-ray diffractograms showed that the crystal polymorph (C-type) was not changed and the degree of crystallinity was increased after digestion. There were no significant differences in chemical structure according to the infrared spectrum analysis. The swelling power and solubility of the digested starches were greater than that of raw banana starch at all temperatures. Banana starches digested by gastric and intestinal juice presented high fermentability, expressed by total short chain fatty acids. The results may be due to the slight changes on structural and morphologic characteristics. To conclude, passage through the stomach and small intestine increased susceptibility of raw banana starch to further fermentation, to increase the production of metabolically active short chain fatty acids.

Keywords

References

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Article

Inhibitory Effect of Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Theaceae) Flower Extracts on Oleic Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Hepg2 Cells

1Department of Tea Science, College of Agriculture & Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

2Department of Applied Engineering, Zhejiang Economic and Trade Polytechnic, Hangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 738-743
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xinghai Zhang, Ying Gao, Jinwei Xu, Xiaohui Liu, Feng Jin, Bo Li, Youying Tu. Inhibitory Effect of Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Theaceae) Flower Extracts on Oleic Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Hepg2 Cells. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):738-743. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-13.

Correspondence to: Youying  Tu, Department of Tea Science, College of Agriculture & Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Email: youytu@zju.edu.cn

Abstract

Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Theaceae) flowers possess many physiological functions and have been used in traditional medicines for deodorization, skin care, cough suppressant and expectorant in China. However, there is little information about its effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, an oleic acid-induced HepG2 cell model of steatosis was established, and the anti-NAFLD effects of tea flowers and the related mechanisms were investigated. Three tea flower extracts, 40% TFE, 80% TFE and TFRE couldn’t prevent triglyceride (TG) accumulation in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells (p > 0.05), but significantly decreased the TG level in lipid-overloaded HepG2 cells after 48 h treatment (p < 0.05). RT-PCR analysis revealed that three tea flower extracts did not affect the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPARα) and Acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX-1) (p > 0.05), but up-regulated the mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (CPT) (p < 0.05). Moreover, tea flower extracts could significantly reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level (p < 0.05). These results indicated tea flowers may be a potential natural resourse for the treatment of NAFLD.

Keywords

References

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Article

Fatty Acid Profile Differences among the Muscle Tissue of Three Rodents (Hydrochoerushydrochaeris, Cuniculuspaca and Caviaporcellus) and Onelagomorph (Oryctolaguscuniculus)

1Universidad de La Salle, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Departamento de Producción Animal, Bogotá, Colombia

2Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Departamento de Salud Animal, Laboratorio de Toxicología, Bogotá, Colombia


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 744-748
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liliana Betancourt, Gonzalo JairDiaz. Fatty Acid Profile Differences among the Muscle Tissue of Three Rodents (Hydrochoerushydrochaeris, Cuniculuspaca and Caviaporcellus) and Onelagomorph (Oryctolaguscuniculus). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):744-748. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-14.

Correspondence to: Liliana  Betancourt, Universidad de La Salle, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Departamento de Producción Animal, Bogotá, Colombia. Email: lcbetancourt@unisalle.edu.co

Abstract

The consumerdem and for functional food with nutraceutical properties has increased in recent years, and the food’s fatty acid profile is one of the factors that define its potential value asa functional food. The aim of the present study was to compare fatty acids composition of semitendinosus muscle in two native rodents, the capybara (Hydrochoerushydrochaeris) and lowland paca (Cuniculuspaca) and two domesticated species, one rodent, the guinea pig (Caviaporcellus) and one lagomorph, the common rabbit (Oryctolaguscuniculus). The animals were fed with forage-based diet. The fatty acid composition in lyophilized tissue was determined by gas chromatography. The capybara, lowland paca and guinea pig had the highest levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, predominantly α-linolenic acid (p<0.05). The guinea pig and common rabbit showed a higher content of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) (p<0.05). The n-6: n-3 fatty acids ratio was higher to the common rabbit (p<0.05) with 8.9, in contrast, capybara and lowland paca had the lowest ratio, with lower than zero values indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids. These results were presented without any diet manipulation. The guinea pig meat contained an adequate balance of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (< 4) whereas in rabbit meat there was an excess of n-6 fatty acids. The capybara and lowland paca can be considered as sources of n-3 fatty acids, represented by α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). These results confirm that native species not subjected to genetic selection and intensive feeding, showed higher content of n-3 fatty acids.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Food Processing on the Nutrient Composition of Pyropia yezoensis Products Revealed by NMR-based Metabolomic Analysis

1School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

2State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 749-756
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yangfang Ye, Rui Yang, Yongjiang Lou, Juanjuan Chen, Xiaojun Yan, Huiru Tang. Effects of Food Processing on the Nutrient Composition of Pyropia yezoensis Products Revealed by NMR-based Metabolomic Analysis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):749-756. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-15.

Correspondence to: Xiaojun  Yan, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China. Email: yanxiaojun@nbu.edu.cn

Abstract

The laver product is processed from fresh thallus of Pyropia yezoensis by washing, cutting, roasting, and seasoning. The nutrient composition of raw materials, semi-finished products, and finished products of P. yezoensis was systematically characterized using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the nutrient composition of P. yezoensis was dominated by 11 amino acids, 11 carboxylic acids, four choline metabolites, and four sugars. The seasoning unsurprisingly caused a significant elevation in the levels of sucrose, glucose, and glutamate in the finished products, up to 38.67 ± 4.91 mg/g, 4.22 ± 0.55 mg/g, and 17.60 ± 1.93 mg/g, respectively. However, other food processing procedures such as washing and roasting may be also responsible for widespread changes of nutrient composition including amino acids, carboxylic acids, choline metabolites, laminitol, floridoside, and isofloridoside from raw materials to finished products of seaweed. Typically, the levels of choline-O-sulfate and isofloridoside were respectively decreased to 5.93 ± 0.86 mg/g and 0.67 ± 0.09 mg/g after food processing. These findings offer essential information for the effects of food processing on the nutrient composition of seaweed products and demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomic strategy is of important values for understanding the effects of food processing on the quality and taste of seaweed products.

Keywords

References

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Article

Walnut Polyphenols Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase Activity in Vitro and Have Hypolipidemic Effect on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

1Faculty of life science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People's Republic of China

2Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 757-763
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-16
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dandan Shi, Chaoyin Chen, Shenglan Zhao, Feng Ge, Diqiu Liu, Hao Song. Walnut Polyphenols Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase Activity in Vitro and Have Hypolipidemic Effect on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):757-763. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-16.

Correspondence to: Shenglan  Zhao, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China. Email: chaoyinchen@163.com;zhaoshenglan@163.com

Abstract

This study was aimed at the chemical composition and inhibitory effects of walnut polyphenols (WP) in vitro lipase activity and on obesity in obese mice models. More than 20 individual phenolics such as gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified in WP. Studying the interactions between porcine pancreatic lipase (PL) and WP were based on fluorescence quenching and an enzymatic assay. The addition of WP to lipase caused a reduction of protein fluorescence intensity at 310 K. In addtion, we found that the effect of WP on PL was dependent on reaction medium and substrate used and the half maximal inhibitory concentration of WP was determined to be 163 μg/mL. At the beginning of the experiment, mice were divided into 3 groups, one of them served as normal control group (NCG), the second as hyperlipidemia control group (HCG), the last as walnut polyphenol-treated group (WTG). After 8 weeks of treatment, we investigated the effects of WP on weight gain, food intake and biochemical indexes in obese mice. The results showed that WP could significantly decrease body weight in obese mice (-13.52%, P < 0.05). However, there was no remarkable difference in food intake among three groups (1760.2–1823.3 g). In addition, WP could significantly decrease the TG, TC and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and increase the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration when compared to the HCG (-36.12%, -31.27%, -73.3%, and +59.72%, respectively, P < 0.01). The levels of hepatic TG and TC were significantly decrease in WTG when compared to the HCG (-27.72% and -48.43%, respectively, P < 0.01). In conclusion, these results suggest that WP could be a potentially therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity caused by a high-fat diet.

Keywords

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Article

Dose Water Extract of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) Exhibits Anti-Diabetic Properties in Cultured 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A Concurrent Assessment of Adipogenesis, Lipolysis and Glucose Uptakes

1Department of Nutrition Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmed Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota Kuantan, 25200 Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA

2Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA;International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), E5 2-2, Level 2, Block E5, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), P.O. Box 10 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA

3Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA

4International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), E5 2-2, Level 2, Block E5, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), P.O. Box 10 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA;Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA

5Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(11), 764-769
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nuraniza Azahari, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Muhammad Taher, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan. Dose Water Extract of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) Exhibits Anti-Diabetic Properties in Cultured 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A Concurrent Assessment of Adipogenesis, Lipolysis and Glucose Uptakes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(11):764-769. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-1.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Department of Nutrition Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmed Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota Kuantan, 25200 Pahang Darul Makmur, MALAYSIA. Email: mkbiol@yahoo.com

Abstract

Cinnamon is a common spice which is widely advocated for its efficacy controlling of hyperglycemia. However, the mechanism of action has yet to be established for the effect on the blood glucose concentration. Cinnamon was extracted with water and induced to cell line namely 3T3-L1 preadipocyte (American Type cell Culture Collection). The cell proliferation, differentiation (adipogenesis) and glucose uptake activity were assessed by measuring the uptake of radio-labelled glucose. Furthermore, for comparison glucose oxidase assay was also performed by using Glucose Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc). The collected data was statistically analysed using SPSS version 12.0 for any possible differences. This study revealed that there was a significant (P<0.01) increase the activity/adipogenesis. This increase activity was accompanied by significant (P<0.01) increase in the glucose uptake and reduced catalytic activity of lipids (lipolysis). The finding reveals that C. Zeylanicum extract has similar effect to that of insulin activity. The present study suggests that the cinnamon enhances glucose uptakes, reduces the lipid breakdown and resembles insulin activity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Mung Bean Protein Increases Plasma Cholesterol by up-regulation of Hepatic HMG-CoA Reductase, and CYP7A1 in mRNA Levels

1Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 80 South Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(11), 770-775
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yang Yao, Yingying Zhu, Guixing Ren. Mung Bean Protein Increases Plasma Cholesterol by up-regulation of Hepatic HMG-CoA Reductase, and CYP7A1 in mRNA Levels. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(11):770-775. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-2.

Correspondence to: Guixing  Ren, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 80 South Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Email: renguixing@caas.cn

Abstract

Interest in mung bean as a cholesterol-lowering functional food is growing. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mung bean protein on the blood cholesterol level and gene expression of cholesterol-regulating enzymes in Golden Syrian hamsters maintained on a 0.1% cholesterol diet. Results showed that mung bean protein (MBP) reduced plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL) concentrations as well as hepatic cholesterol concentrations after 6 week treatment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated mung bean protein could up-regulate the production of mRNA3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) levels. The mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering activity of MBP were mediated most likely by increasing the sterol excretion and decreasing the cholesterol absorption and synthesis. It is concluded that mung bean protein possesses the decreases plasma cholesterol activity and can be further explored as a functional food.

Keywords

References

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Article

Ethanol Extract of Polygonatumofficinale Rhizome Inhibits Odorant-Induced Camp and Calcium Levels in Non-Chemosensory 3T3-L1 Cells

1Korea Food Research Institute, 1201-62 Anyangpangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(11), 776-780
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yeo Cho Yoon, Sung-Hee Kim, Jin-Taek Hwang, Mi Jeong Sung, Myung-Sunny Kim, Haeng Jeon Hur, Mee Ra Rhyu, Jae-Ho Park. Ethanol Extract of Polygonatumofficinale Rhizome Inhibits Odorant-Induced Camp and Calcium Levels in Non-Chemosensory 3T3-L1 Cells. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(11):776-780. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-3.

Correspondence to: Jae-Ho  Park, Korea Food Research Institute, 1201-62 Anyangpangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Email: jaehoparkmail@gmail.com

Abstract

Polygonatum Officinalerhizome, a member of the liliaceae family, is commonly consumed as tea in Asia. It is also clinically used to treat obesity and fatigue in Korean traditional medicine. Although the anti-diabetic effect of POR has been described, little is known about its physiological role in the olfactory system. In this study, we investigated the effects of POR in 3T3-L1 cells expressing an odorant receptor. We have shown that the levels of cAMP and Ca2+ and the phosphorylation of Rap1A and CREB increased in response to an odorant, eugenol. POR significantly decreased the eugenol-induced increase in cAMP and Ca2+. Taken together, these data suggest that POR inhibits an odorant-induced signal transduction pathway.

Keywords

References

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