Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFNR

Article

Effect of Frying on Nutrients Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Muscles of Selected Freezing Seafoods

1Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-934 Lublin, Poland

2Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin

32Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 9-14
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anna Czech, Eugeniusz R Grela, Katarzyna Ognik. Effect of Frying on Nutrients Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Muscles of Selected Freezing Seafoods. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Anna  Czech, Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-934 Lublin, Poland. Email: annaczech@poczta.fm

Abstract

Shellfish are low in fat content. They are especially low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but are rich in omega-3 FA. Because heat processing and oil additive could change the FA profile, we determined the effect frying of frozen seafood on the content of nutrients, FA composition and some lipid indices. Analyses were conducted on tissues of clams, Japanese squid, white shrimp and octopus. Frozen octopuses were characterized by a low content of monoenic (MUFAs - 11.8%) and a high polyunsaturated (PUFAs - 54.3%) and FAs of the n-3 family compared to shrimps, squids and clams. The seafood’s were fried in a sunflower oil (170±5°C, 6–8 min). Frying decreased SFAs and n-3 FAs and increased PUFAs and n-6 FAs contents, which corresponds to a significant increase in n-6/n-3 ratio, which we attribute to the use of sunflower oil for frying, since it is a rich source of these acids. A decrease was noted in atherogenic and thrombogenic FA indices, and a significant increase in h/H ratio, beneficial from the nutritional point of view.

Keywords

References

[1]  Dong, F.M. “The nutritional value of shellfish in Washington Sea Grant, Seattle,” Washington, USA, 2001, 1-8.
 
[2]  Rasoarahona, J.R.E., Barnathan, G., Pianchini, B.J. and Gaydon, E.M. “Influence of season on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of three tilapia species Oreochromsis niloticus, O. macrochir and Tilapia rendalli from Madagascar,” Food Chemistry, 91. 683-694. 2005.
 
[3]  Musa, A.S.M. “Nutritional quality components of indigenous freshwater fish species, Puntius stigma in Bangladesh,” Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 443. 367-370. 2009.
 
[4]  Reames, E. “Nutritional benefits of seafood,” Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. No. 7300, 2012, 1-6.
 
[5]  Decker, E.A., Akoh, C.C. and Wilkes, R.S. „Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids in foods: challenges and opportunities,” Journal of Nutrition, 142. 610S-613S. 2012.
 
Show More References
[6]  Morami, Y., Bakar, J., Syed Muhamad, S.H. and Che Man, Y. “Effects of different final cooking methods on physico-chemical properties of breaded fish fillets,” American Journal of Food Technology, 44. 136-145. 2009.
 
[7]  Czech A. and Stachyra, K. “Effect of processing treatments frozen, frying on contents of minerals in tissues of ‘frutti di mare’,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 482. 238-245. 2013.
 
[8]  AOAC “Official Methods of Analysis. International, 17th ed., AOAC Inter., Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2000.
 
[9]  Folch, J., Lees, M. and Stanley, G.H.S. “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226. 497-509. 1957.
 
[10]  Weihrauch, J.L., Posati, L. P., Anderson, B.A. and Exler, J. “Lipid conversion factors for calculating fatty acids contents in foods,” JAOCS, 54. 36-40, 1977.
 
[11]  Ulbricht, T.L.V. and Southgate, D.A.T. “Coronary disease seven dietary factors,” Lancet, 338. 985-992. 1991.
 
[12]  Fernández, M., Ordóñez, J.A., Cambero, I., Santos, C., Pin, C. and de la Hoz, L. “Fatty acid compositions of selected varieties of Spanish ham related to their nutritional implications,” Food Chemistry, 101. 107-112. 2007.
 
[13]  Korhonen, H., Pihlanto-Leppäla, A., Rantamäki, P. and Tupasela, T. “Impact of processing on bioactive proteins and peptides,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, 9. 307-319. 1998.
 
[14]  Ozogul, Y., Duysak, O., Ozogul, F., Özkütük, A.S. and Türeli, C. “Seasonal effects in the nutritional quality of the body structural tissue of cephalopods,” Food Chemistry, 108. 847-852. 2008.
 
[15]  De Moreno, J.E.A., Moreno, V.J., Ricci, L., Roldan, M. and Gerpe, M. “Variations in the biochemical composition of the squid Illex argentinus from the South Atlantic Ocean,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 119. 631-637. 1998.
 
[16]  Orban, E., Lena, G.D., Nevigato, T., Casini, I. Caproni, R., Santaroni, G. and Giulini, G. “Nutritional and commercial quality of the striped venus clam, Chamelea gallina, from the Adriatic sea,” Food Chemistry, 101. 1063-1070. 2006.
 
[17]  Robards, D.M., Anthony, J.A., Rose, G.A. and Piatt, J.F. “Changes in proximate composition and somatic energy content for Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus from Kachemak,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 242. 245-258. 1999.
 
[18]  Rosa, R., Nunes, M.L. and Sousa Reis, C. “Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier, 1797, from three areas of the Portuguese coast,” Bulletin of Marine Science, 71. 739-751. 2002.
 
[19]  Saito, H., Yamashiro, R., Alasalvar, C. and Konno, T. “Influence of diet on fatty acids of three subtropical fish, subfamily caesioninae Caesio diagramma and C. tile and family siganidae Siganus canaliculatus,” Lipids, 34. 1073-1082. 1999.
 
[20]  Møller, A., Saxholt, E., Christensen, A.T., Hartkopp, H.B. and Hess Ygil, K. “Danish Food Composition Databank”, revision 6.0, Food Informatics, Department of Nutrition, Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, June 2005. http://www.foodcomp.dk
 
[21]  Bragagnolo, N. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. “Total lipid, cholesterol, and fatty acids of farmed freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and wild marine shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schimitti, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14. 359-369. 2001.
 
[22]  Bałasińska, B., Jank, M. and Kulasek, G. “The properties and the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in maintaining the health of humans and animals,” Życie Weterynaryjne, 859. 749-753. 2010. in Polish.
 
[23]  Navarro, J.C. and Villanueva, R. “Lipid and fatty acid composition of early stages of cephalopods: an approach to their lipid requirements,” Aquaculture, 183. 161-177. 2000.
 
[24]  Renon, P., Malandra, R., Biondi, P.A. and Ronchi, S. "Wild and aquacultured sea breams: studies on total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids,” Inginiera Alimentaria Consumables. Animalia, 10. 21-28. 1994.
 
[25]  Ackman, R.G. and Takeuchi, T. “Comparison of fatty acid and lipids of smelting hatchery-fed and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar,” Lipids, 21. 117-120. 1986.
 
[26]  Henderson, S., Lampel, J. and Hollenbeck, C.B. “The effects of a 4:1 eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid fish oil supplement on plasma lipid profile,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1089. 104-115. 2008.
 
[27]  Hu, F.B. “The balance between ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease,” Nutrition, 179. 741-742. 2001.
 
[28]  Kris-Etherton, P.M., Harris, W.S. and Appel, L.J. “Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease,” Circulation, 106. 2747-2757. 2002.
 
[29]  Codex Alimentarius 2004 Codex Standard for Quick Frozen Fish Sticks Fish Fingers, Fish Portions and Fish Fillets-Breaded or in Batter Codex Stan 166-1989, Rev. 2
 
[30]  Cunnane, S., Drevon, ChA., Harris, B., Sinclair, A. and Spector, A. “Recommendations for intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults,” Report prepared for the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, June 2004. Available at: «http://www.issfal.org.uk/PUFAIntakeReccomdFinalReport.pdf». Accessed Mar. 7, 2006.
 
[31]  Musaiger, A.O. and D’Souza, R. “The effects of different methods of cooking on proximate, mineral and heavy metal composition of fish and shrimps consumed in the Arabian Gulf,” Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 58. 103-109. 2008.
 
[32]  Garcia-Arias, M.T., Álvarez Pontes, E., García-Linaresa, M.C., García-Fernández, M.C. and Sánchez-Muniz, F.J. “Cooking-freezing-reheating CFR of sardine Sardina pilchardus fillets. Effect of different cooking and reheating procedures on the proximate and fatty acid compositions,” Food Chemistry, 83. 349-356. 2003.
 
[33]  Sanchez-Muniz, F.J., Viejo, J.M. and Medina, R. “Deep frying of sardines in different culinary fats. Changes in the fatty acid composition of sardines and frying fats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40. 2252-2256. 1992.
 
[34]  Varela, G. and Ruiz-Roso B. “Some effects of deep frying on the dietary fat intake,” Nutrition Reviews, 50. 256-262. 1992.
 
Show Less References

Article

Extraction and Separation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Ionic Liquid and Salt

1The College of Agriculture and Biotechnology (CAB), Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China

2Kaiyuan Bio-tech Development Center, Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 15-19
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xifeng Zhang, Fenqin Zhang, Guanghong Luo, Shenghui Yang, Danxia Wang. Extraction and Separation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Ionic Liquid and Salt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):15-19. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Guanghong  Luo, Kaiyuan Bio-tech Development Center, Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China. Email: 464690924@qq.com

Abstract

To explore a new and simple rapid extraction and purification technique for phycocyanin, an ionic liquids(ILs)-based aqueous two-phase system(ATPS) was developed for the purification of phycocyanin from Spirulina extracts. Effects of various process parameters such as the concentrations of [Bmim]Cl, the concentrations of KH2PO4, the concentrations of crude phycocyanin, the system pH and the temperature on partitioning of phycocyanin were evaluated. The obtained data indicated that phycocyanin was preferentially partitioned into the ILs-rich phase and the ATPS composed of 23% (w/w) [Bmim]Cland 29% (w/w) KH2PO4 at 30°C and pH 7.0 showed good selectivity on phycocyanin. Under the optimum conditions, phycocyanin with a purity of 3.98 and yield of about 90.23 % was obtained. Therefore, ILs-based ATPS was an effective method for partitioning and recovery of phycocyanin from Spirulina extracts.

Keywords

References

[1]  G.G. Choi, M.S. Bae, C.Y. Ahn, H.M. Oh, Induction of axenic culture of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis based on antibiotic sensitivity of contaminating bacteria, Biotechnol. Lett. 30 (2008) 87-92.
 
[2]  M.G. Sajilata, R.S. Singhal, M.Y. Kamat, Fractionation of lipids and purification of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) from Spirulina platensis, Food Chem. 109 (2008) 580-586.
 
[3]  T. Gireesh, A. Jayadeep, K.N. Rajasekharan, V.P. Menon, M. Vairamany, G. Tang, P.P. Nair, P.R. Sudhakaran, Production of deuterated beta-carotene by metabolic labelling of Spirulina platensis, Biotechnol. Lett. 23 (2001) 447-449.
 
[4]  H.B. Chen, J.Y. Wu, C.F. Wang, C.C. Fu, C.J. Shieh, C.I. Chen, C.Y. Wang, Y.C. Liu, Modeling on chlorophyll a and phycocyanin production by Spirulina platensis under various light-emitting diodes, Biochem. Eng. J. 53 (2010) 52-56.
 
[5]  T.Silveira, J.F.M.Burkert, J.A.V.Costa, C.A.V.Burkert, S.J.Kalil, Opti mization of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis using factorial design, Bioresour. Technol. 98 (2007) 1629-1634.
 
Show More References
[6]  M.C.Santiago-Santos,T.Ponce-Noyola,R.Olvera-Ramirez, J.Ortega-Lopez, R.O. Canizares-Villanueva, Extraction and purification of phycocyanin from Calothrix sp, Process Biochem. 39 (2004) 2047-2052.
 
[7]  G. Patil, K. Raghavarao, Aqueous two phase extraction for purification of C-phycocyanin, Biochem. Eng. J. 34 (2007) 156-164.
 
[8]  V.B. Bhat, K.M. Madyastha, C-Phycocyanin: a potent peroxyl radical scavenger in vivo and in vitro, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275 (2000) 20-25.
 
[9]  M.C. Reddy, J. Subliashini, S.V.K. Mahipal, V.B. Bhat, P.S. Reddy, G. Kiranmai, K.M. Madyastha, P. Reddanna, C-Phycocyanin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (2003) 385-392.
 
[10]  M.G. de Morais, J.A.V. Costa, Carbon dioxide fixation by Chlorella kessleri, C-vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina sp cultivated in flasks and vertical tubular photobioreactors, Biotechnol. Lett. 29 (2007) 1349-1352.
 
[11]  C.Y. Wang, C.C. Fu, Y.C. Liu, Effects of using light-emitting diodes on the cultivation of Spirulina platensis, Biochem. Eng. J. 37 (2007) 21-25.
 
[12]  S.G. Yan, L.P. Zhu, H.N. Su, X.Y. Zhang, X.L. Chen, B.C. Zhou, Y.Z. Zhang, Single-step chromatography for simultaneous purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with high purity and recovery from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, J. Appl. Phycol. 23 (2011) 1-6.
 
[13]  Boussiba, S., & Richmond,A.E. (1979). Isolation and characterization of phycocyanins from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Archives of Microbiology, 120, 155-159.
 
[14]  Ranjitha, K., & Kaushik, B. D. (2005). Purification of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc muscorum. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64, 372-375.
 
[15]  Eriksen, N. T. (2008).Production of phycocyanin-a pigment with applications in biology, biotechnology, foods and medicine. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80, 1-14.
 
[16]  Yan, S., Zhu, L., Su, H., Zhang, X., Chen, X., Zhou, B., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Single-step chromatography for simultaneous purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with high purity and recovery from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23, 1-6.
 
[17]  Tchernov, A. A., Minkova, K. M., Houbavenska, N. B., & Kovacheva, N. G. (1999). Purification of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc sp. by aminohexyl-sepharose chromatography. Journal of Biotechnology, 69, 69-73.
 
[18]  Aguilar, O., & Rito-Palomares, M. (2010). Aqueous two‐phase systems strategies for the recovery and characterization of biological products from plants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (9), 1385-1392.
 
[19]  S. Dreyer, P. Salim, U. Kragl, Driving forces of protein partitioning in an ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system, Biochem. Eng. J. 46 (2009) 176-185.
 
[20]  J.A.P. Coutinho, C.M.S.S. Neves, S.P.M. Ventura, M.G. Freire, I.M. Marrucho, Evaluation of cation influence on the formation and extraction capability of ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems, J. Phys. Chem. B 113 (2009) 5194-5199.
 
[21]  Y.C. Pei, J.J. Wang, K. Wu, X.P. Xuan, X.J. Lu, Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase extraction of selected proteins, Sep. Purif. Technol. 64 (2009) 288-295.
 
[22]  H.B. Chen, J.Y. Wu, C.F. Wang, C.C. Fu, C.J. Shieh, C.I. Chen, C.Y. Wang, Y.C. Liu, Modeling on chlorophyll a and phycocyanin production by Spirulina platensis under various light-emitting diodes, Biochem. Eng. J. 53 (2010) 52-56.
 
[23]  Boussiba S,Richmond A E(1979)Isolation and purification of phycocyanins from the blue green algae Spirulina platensis. Arch Microbiol 120: 155-159.
 
[24]  Deutscher M (1990) Guide to protein purification, vol 182. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, New York.
 
[25]  novak U, Pohar a, Plazl l, Znidarsic-Plazl P (2012) Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase extraction within a microchannel system. Sep Purif Technol 97: 172-178.
 
[26]  Ma CH, liu TT, Yang l, Zu Yg, Chen XQ, Zhang l, Zhang Y,Chao CJ (2011) Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits. J Chromatogr a 1218: 8573-8580.
 
[27]  M.G. Freire, A.F.M. Cláudio, J.M.M. Araújo, J.A.P. Coutinbo, I.M. Marrucho, J.N.C.Lopes, L.P.N. Rebelo, Aqueous biphasic systems: a boost brought about byusing ionic liquids, Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 4966-4995.
 
[28]  F.Z. Deng, D.F. Guo, Extraction separation of bovine serum albumin in ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system, Chin. J. Anal. Chem. 34 (2006) 1451-1453.
 
Show Less References

Article

Study of Iron Yam-Chip (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Tiegun) Dehydration Using Far-Infrared Radiation Assisted Heat Pump Drying

1North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China

2The Second Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 20-25
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Song Xiaoyong, Cheng Luming. Study of Iron Yam-Chip (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Tiegun) Dehydration Using Far-Infrared Radiation Assisted Heat Pump Drying. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):20-25. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Song  Xiaoyong, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China. Email: songxiaoyong@ncwu.edu.cn

Abstract

Iron Yam chips were dried using a heat pump (HP) dryer alone or in combination with far infrared radiation (FIR) at 500, 1500 and 3000 W (500 FIR, 1500 FIR, and 3000 FIR, respectively). The experimental results were presented in terms of the drying characteristics, and dried product qualities (shrinkage, color, texture, percentage of rehydration, and moisture content). Samples with initial moisture content of approximately 76% (w.b.) were dried to a final moisture content of < 17% (w.b.) at the drying temperature of 50°C and at an air flow rate of 1.0 m s-1 for all of the experiments. The data showed that FIR+HP drying increased the drying rate by reducing the drying time, and the resulted dried Iron Yam chips generally had higher values of lightness and comparable values of redness and yellowness than the HP-treated samples. In the case of HP+1500FIR, the dried Iron Yam chips had lower shrinkage, improved rehydration ability, lower hardness and higher brittleness than those dried by HP, HP+500FIR and HP+3000FIR. It is worth noting that the total energy used for FIR-assisted drying processes decreased with the increase of FIR intensity. The present data suggest that HP+FIR drying is an effective and economical method for Iron Yam chip drying, and HP+1500FIR can obtain the best dried product.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ju Y, Xue Y, Huang J L, et al. Antioxidant Chinese yam polysaccharides and its pro-proliferative effect on endometrial epithelial cells. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2014; 66, 81-85.
 
[2]  Chung H H, J Y C, M C D, et al. Prebiotic effect of diosgenin, an immunoactive steroidal sapogenin of the Chinese yam. Food Chemistry, 2012; 132: 428-432.
 
[3]  Lin P L, Lin K W, Weng C F, et al. Yam storage protein dioscorins from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea japonica exhibit distinct immunomodulatory activities in mice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009; 57 (11): 4606-4613.
 
[4]  Wang S J, Yu J L, Liu H Y, et al. Characterisation and preliminary lipid-lowering evaluation of starch from Chinese yam. Food Chemistry, 2008; 108 :176-181.
 
[5]  Lin Y P, Lee T Y, Tsen J H, et al. Dehydration of yam slices using FIR-assisted freeze drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007; 79: 1295-1301.
 
Show More References
[6]  Kumar C, Karim M A, Joardder M U H. Intermittent drying of food products: A critical review. Journal of Food Engineering, 2014; 121: 48-57.
 
[7]  Law C L, Chen H H H, Mujumdar A S. . Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014; 3: 156-167.
 
[8]  García-Alvarado M A, Pacheco-Aguirre F M, Ruiz-López I I. Analytical solution of simultaneous heat and mass transfer equations during food drying. , 2014; 142: 39-45.
 
[9]  Minea V. Drying heat pumps-Part II: Agro-food, biological and wood products. International Journal of refrigeration, 2013; 36: 659-673.
 
[10]  Yang Z, Zhu E L, Zhu Z S. A comparative study on intermittent heat pump drying process of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp) seeds. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2013; 91: 381-388.
 
[11]  Zielinska M, Zapotoczny P, Alves-Filho O, et al. A multi-stage combined heat pump and microwave vacuum drying of green peas. Journal of Food Engineering, 2013; 115: 347-356.
 
[12]  Artnaseaw A, Theerakulpisut S, Benjapiyaporn C. Drying characteristics of Shiitake mushroom and Jinda chili during vacuum heat pump drying. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2010; 88: 105-114.
 
[13]  Hii C L, Law C L, Suzannah S. Drying kinetics of the individual layer of cocoa beans during heat pump drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 2012; 108:276-282.
 
[14]  Hossain M A, Gottschalk K, Hassan M S. Mathematical model for a heat pump dryer for aromatic plant. Procedia Engineering, 2013; 56: 510-520.
 
[15]  Fan H, Shao S Q, Tian C Q. Performance investigation on a multi-unit heat pump for simultaneous temperature and humidity control. Applied Energy, 2014; 113: 883-890.
 
[16]  Park J H, Lee J M, Cho Y J, et al. Effect of far-infrared heater on the physicochemical characteristics of green tea during processing. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 2009; 33:149-162.
 
[17]  Lee S H, Jeon Y J. Effects of far infrared radiation drying on antioxidant and anticoagulant activities of Ecklonia cava extracts. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 2010, 53 (2): 175-183.
 
[18]  Krishnamurthy K, Khurana HK, Jun S, et al. Infrared heating in food processing: An overview. Comprehensive Rev Food Science Food Safety, 2008; 7: 1-13.
 
[19]  Nimmol C, Devahastin S, Swasdisevi T, et al. Drying and heat transfer behavior of banana undergoing combined low-pressure superheated steam and far-infrared radiation drying. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007; 27: 2483-2494.
 
[20]  Leonard A, Blacher S, Nimmol C, et al. Effect of far-infrared radiation assisted drying on microstructure of banana slices: An illustrative use of X-ray microtomography in microstructural evaluation of a food product. Journal of Food Engineering, 2008; 85: 154-162.
 
[21]  Senevirathne M, Kim S H, Kim Y D, et al. Effect of far-infrared radiation drying of citrus press-cakes on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Journal of Food Engineering, 2010; 97: 168-176.
 
[22]  Swasdisevi T, Devahastin S, Sa-Adchom P, et al. Mathematical modeling of combined far-infrared and vacuum drying banana slice. Journal of Food Engineering, 2009; 92: 100-106.
 
[23]  Jaturonglumlert S, Kiatsiriroat T. Heat and mass transfer in combined convective and far-infrared drying of fruit leather. Journal of Food Engineering, 2010; 100: 254-260.
 
[24]  Wanyo P , Siriamornpun S, Meesob N. Improvement of quality and antioxidant properties of driedmulberry leaves with combined far-infrared radiation and air convection in Thai tea process. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2011; 89: 22-30.
 
[25]  Nathakaranakule A, Jaiboon P, Soponronnarit S. Far-infrared radiation assisted drying of longan fruit. Journal of Food Engineering, 2010, 100: 662-668.
 
[26]  Deng Y, Liu Y M, Qian B J, et al. Impact of far-infrared radiation-assisted heat pump drying on chemical compositions and physical properties of squid (Illex illecebrosus) fillets. European Food Research Technology, 2011; 232: 761-768.
 
[27]  Song X Y. Banana Chip Drying Using Far Infrared-Assisted Heat Pump. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2013; 96 (3): 275-281.
 
[28]  AOAC. Official methods of analysis. In Proceedings of the fourteenth associations of analytical chemists, Washington, DC. 1996.
 
[29]  Thuwapanichayanan R, Prachayawarakorn S, Soponronnarit S. Drying characteristics and quality of banana foam mat. Journal of Food Engineering, 2008; 86: 573-583.
 
[30]  Song X Y, Li Y F. Cell membrane damage by vacuum treatment at different pressure reduction rates. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 2012; 35 (6): 915-922.
 
[31]  Borompichartkul C, Luengsode K, Chinprahast N, et al. Improving quality of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia) through the use of hybrid drying process. Journal of Food Engineering, 2009; 93: 348-353.
 
Show Less References

Article

Impact of Microfiltration on Particle Size Distribution, Volatile Compounds and Protein Quality of Pasteurized Milk during Shelf Life

1State Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology, Dairy Research Institute, Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China

2Department of Food Science & Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 26-33
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Danfeng Wang, Yuanrong. Zheng, Zhenmin Liu, Guanlan Hu, Yun. Deng. Impact of Microfiltration on Particle Size Distribution, Volatile Compounds and Protein Quality of Pasteurized Milk during Shelf Life. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):26-33. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Yun.  Deng, Department of Food Science & Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Email: foodsjtu@gmail.com

Abstract

The effects of microfiltration on particle size, volatiles, protein quality and proximate compositions in pasteurized milk were studied over 7 days at 4°C. Changes in proximate compositions, pH, particle size, amino acids and volatile compounds of microfiltered and pasteurized milk (MPM) and pasteurized milk (PM) were evaluated. The MPM had lower values of proteins and total solids, and possessed higher particle size compared with PM. The D10 and D50 in MPM were individually reduced by 8.3% and 3.1% from day 0 to 7, and there were no differences for the D90. Sixty-one and 65 compounds were identified in the MPM and PM, respectively. The total contents of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols in MPM decreased with storage length, while those of hydrocarbons, ketones, phenols, nitrogenous compounds and sulfide in PM increased with storage time. Other compounds clearly started to increase on day 4 and were reduced markedly by day 7. After 7 days, aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols decreased by 21.8% and 47.3% in MPM, while hydrocarbons, ketones and sulfide increased by 57%, 5.4% and 35.4% in PM, respectively. At the same storage time, the hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acid and ketones were less in MPM than in PM. MPM had higher EAAI, BV and ePER values. These highlighted that microfiltration changes the compositions of volatiles and improves protein quality and stability during MPM shelf life.

Keywords

References

[1]  Schmidt, V. S.J, Kaufmann, V., Kulozik, U., Scherer, S. and Wenning, M., “Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland”. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 154, 1-9, 2012.
 
[2]  Caplan, Z. and Barbano, D., “Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat”. J Dairy Sci. 96, 8035-8046, 2013
 
[3]  Fernádez Garc, L. and Riera Rodr Guez, F. A., “Combination of microfiltration and heat treatment for ESL milk production: Impact on shelf life”. J. Food Eng. 128, 1-9, 2014.
 
[4]  Elwell, M. and Barbano, D., “Use of microfiltration to improve fluid milk quality,” J. Dairy Sci. 89, E20-E30, 2006.
 
[5]  Tomasula, P., Mukhopadhyay, S., Datta, N., Porto-Fett, A., Call, J., Luchansky, J., Renye, J. and Tunick, M., “Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasteurization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk”. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 4277-4291, 2011.
 
Show More References
[6]  Pereda, J., Ferragut, V., Quevedo, J., Guamis, B. and Trujillo, A., Effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization on microbial and physicochemical shelf life of milk”. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 1081-1093, 2007.
 
[7]  Popov-Raljić, J. V., Lakić, N. S., Laličić-Petronijević, J. G., Barać, M. B. and Sikimić, V. M., “Color changes of UHT milk during storage”. Sensors, 8, 5961-5974, 2008.
 
[8]  Fauquant, C., Briard-Bion, V., Leconte, N., Guichardant, M. and Michalski, M. C., “Membrane phospholipids and sterols in microfiltered milk fat globules”. Eur. J.Lipid Sci. Technol. 109, 1167-1173, 2007.
 
[9]  Ye, A., Singh, H., Taylor, M. W. and Anema, S., “Interactions of whey proteins with milk fat globule membrane proteins during heat treatment of whole milk”. Le Lait, 84, 269-283, 2004.
 
[10]  Beliciu, C. and Moraru, C., “Effect of solvent and temperature on the size distribution of casein micelles measured by dynamic light scattering”. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 1829-1839, 2009.
 
[11]  Sodini, I., Remeuf, F., Haddad, S. and Corrieu, G., “The relative effect of milk base, starter, and process on yogurt texture: a review”. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44, 113-137, 2004.
 
[12]  Song, H. L., Food Flavour Chemistry. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press., 2008.
 
[13]  Ham, J. S., Shin, J. H., Noh, Y. B., Jeong, S. G., Han, G. S., Chae, H. S., Yoo, Y. M., Ahn, J. N., Lee, W. K. and Jo, C., “Chemical and microbiological quality, capillary electrophoresis pattern, and rennet coagulation of UHT-treated and irradiated milk”. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 17, 58-65, 2008.
 
[14]  Pedras, M. M., Tribst, A. A. and Cristianini, M., “Effects of high-pressure homogenisation on physicochemical characteristics of partially skimmed milk,” Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49, 861-866, 2014.
 
[15]  Valero, E., Villamiel, M., Miralles, B., Sanz, J. and Martınez-Castro, I., “Changes in flavour and volatile components during storage of whole and skimmed UHT milk”. Food Chem. 72, 51-58, 2001.
 
[16]  Lacroix, M., Bon, C., Bos, C., L Onil, J., Benamouzig, R., Luengo, C., Fauquant, J., Tom, D. and Gaudichon, C., “Ultra high temperature treatment, but not pasteurization, affects the postprandial kinetics of milk proteins in humans”. The J.Nutri. 138, 2342-2347, 2008.
 
[17]  Debon, J., Prud Ncio, E. S., Petrus, J. C. C., Fritzen-Freire, C. B., M Ller, C. M., Amboni, R. D. D. M. and Vieira, C. R. W., “Storage stability of prebiotic fermented milk obtained from permeate resulting of the microfiltration process”. LWT. 47, 96-102, 2012
 
[18]  AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th edn. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC, 2000.
 
[19]  GB 5413.27-2010. Determination of fatty acids in foods for infants and young children, milk and milk products. Standards Press of China: Beijing, China, 2010.
 
[20]  Deng, Y., Wang, Y., Yue, J., Liu, Z., Zheng, Y., Qian, B., Zhong, Y. and Zhao, Y., “Thermal behavior, microstructure and protein quality of squid fillets dried by far-infrared assisted heat pump drying”. Food Control, 36, 102-110, 2014.
 
[21]  Serafeimidou, A., Zlatanos, S., Kritikos, G. and Tourianis, A., “Change of fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, during refrigerated storage of yogurt made of cow and sheep milk”. J. Food Comp. Anal. 31, 24-30, 2013.
 
[22]  Serra, M., Trujillo, A., Guamis, B. and Ferragut, V.,. “Proteolysis of yogurts made from ultra-high-pressure homogenized milk during cold storage”. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 71-78, 2009.
 
[23]  Hayes, M. G. and Kelly, A. L., “High pressure homogenisation of raw whole bovine milk (a) effects on fat globule size and other properties”. J. Dairy Res. 70, 297-305, 2003.
 
[24]  Kailasapathy, K., “Survival of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria and their effect on the sensory properties of yoghurt”. LWT. 39, 1221-1227, 2006.
 
[25]  Rutherfurd, S. M. and Moughan, P., “The digestible amino acid composition of several milk proteins: application of a new bioassay”. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 909-917, 1998.
 
[26]  Contarini, G., Povolo, M., Leardi, R. & Toppino, P. M., “Influence of heat treatment on the volatile compounds of milk”. J Agri. Food Chem. 45, 3171-3177, 1997.
 
[27]  Hayaloglu, A. A. and Karabulut, I., “SPME/GC-MS characterization and comparison of volatiles of eleven varieties of Turkish cheeses”. Int. J. Food Propert., 16, 1630-1653, 2013.
 
[28]  Bendall, J. (2001). “Aroma compounds of fresh milk from New Zealand cows fed different diets”. J Agri. Food Chem., 49, 4825-4832, 2001
 
[29]  Pan, D., Wu, Z., Peng, T., Zeng, X. and Li, H., “Volatile organic compounds profile during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus and correlations between volatiles flavour and carbohydrate metabolism”. J. Dairy Sci. 97, 624-631, 2014.
 
Show Less References

Article

Oleanolic acid Separation From Grape Skins by Aqueous Two-phase Extraction and Estimate Its Antioxidant Activity

1The College of Agriculture and Biotechnology (CAB), Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China

2Kaiyuan Bio-tech Development Center, Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 34-39
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xifeng Zhang, Fenqin Zhang, Guanghong Luo, Shenghui Yang, Danxia Wang. Oleanolic acid Separation From Grape Skins by Aqueous Two-phase Extraction and Estimate Its Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):34-39. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: Guanghong  Luo, Kaiyuan Bio-tech Development Center, Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China. Email: 464690924@qq.com

Abstract

The aim of the current study is to focus on separating the oleanolic acid (OA) from previously prepared aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) of grape skins. Several different influential extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration (v/w), ammonium sulphate concentration (w/w), crude extract concentration (w/w), extraction temperature, and pH, were also investigated. The optimal differential partitioning of OA was achieved in a system (at pH4.0, temperature=25°C)composed of 23% (v/w) ethanol, 18% (w/w) ammonium sulphate, 8% (w/w) crude extract and 41% (w/w) water. The recovery of extracted OA from experiments was determined to be 93.54%. The antioxidant activity of the separated ATPE in relative to VC were, also, investigated in this study at the proper conditions.The ATPE extract showed a relatively high antioxidant ability compared with that of Vitamin C. This proposed extraction technique opens up new possibilities in extraction of other active ingredients in natural plants or biologic samples.

Keywords

References

[1]  Torres, J.L.,Varela, B., García, M.T., Carilla, J., Matito,C., Centelles, J. J., and Bobet, R., “Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (26). 7548-7555. Nov. 2002.
 
[2]  Ky, I., Crozier, A., Cros, G., and Teissedre, P. L., “Polyphenols composition of wine and grape sub-products and potential effects on chronic diseases,” Nutrition and Aging, 2 (2). 165-177. Jun. 2014.
 
[3]  Azuma, A., Yakushiji, H., Koshita, Y., and Kobayashi, S., “Flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes in grape skin are differentially regulated by temperature and light conditions,” Planta, 236 (4).1067-1080. May. 2012.
 
[4]  Li, Z., Pan, Q., Cui, X., and Duan, C., “Optimization on anthocyanins extraction from wine grape skins using orthogonal test design,” Food Science and Biotechnology, 19 (4).1047-1053. Aug. 2010.
 
[5]  Pensec, F., Pączkowski, C., Grabarczyk, M., Woźniak, A., Bénard-Gellon, M., Bertsch, C., and Szakiel, A., “Changes in the Triterpenoid Content of Cuticular Waxes during Fruit Ripening of Eight Grape (Vitis vinifera) Cultivars Grown in the Upper Rhine Valley.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 62 (32). 7998-8007. Jul. 2014
 
Show More References
[6]  Wang, X., Ye, X. L., Liu, R., Chen, H. L., Bai, H., Liang, X., and Hai, C. X., “Antioxidant activities of oleanolic acid in vitro: possible role of Nrf2 and MAP kinases,” Chemico-biological interactions, 184 (3). 328-337. Mar. 2010.
 
[7]  Lee, W., Yang, E. J., Ku, S. K., Song, K. S., and Bae, J. S., “Anti-inflammatory effects of oleanolic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo,” Inflammation, 36 (1). 94-102. Aug. 2013.
 
[8]  Ghosh, S., Bishayee, K., and Khuda-Bukhsh, A. R., “Oleanolic acid isolated from ethanolic extract of Phytolacca decandra induces apoptosis in A375 skin melanoma cells: drug-DNA interaction and signaling cascade,” Journal of integrative medicine, 12 (2). 102-114. Mar. 2014.
 
[9]  Mahapatra, A., Chauhan, N., Patel, D. R., Kalia, N. P., Rajput, V. S., and Khan, I. A., “Synthesis and Antitubercular Activity of Oleanolic Acid Analogs”, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 48 (1). 39-43. May. 2014.
 
[10]  Fu, Q., Zhang, L., Cheng, N., Jia, M., and Zhang, Y., “Extraction optimization of oleanolic and ursolic acids from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) flowers,” Food and Bioproducts Processing. 92 (3). 321-327. Jul. 2014.
 
[11]  Yang, Y. C., Wei, M. C., Hong, S. J., Huang, T. C., and Lee, S. Z., “Development/optimization of a green procedure with ultrasound-assisted improved supercritical carbon dioxide to produce extracts enriched in oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Scutellaria barbata D. Don,” Industrial Crops and Products, 49, 542-553. Aug. 2013.
 
[12]  Pai, S. R., Upadhya, V., Hegde, H. V., Joshi, R. K., and Kholkute, S. D, “New Report of Triterpenoid Betulinic Acid along with Oleanolic Acid from Achyranthes aspera by Reversed-Phase-Ultra Flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis and Confirmation Using High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopic Techniques,” JPC-Journal of Planar Chromatography-Modern TLC, 27 (1), 38-41. Feb. 2014
 
[13]  Ahmad, M. M., and Przybycien, T. M., “Towards optimal aqueous two‐phase extraction system flowsheets for protein purification,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 88 (1), 62-71. Jan. 2013.
 
[14]  Wu, X., Liang, L., Zou, Y., Zhao, T., Zhao, J., Li, F., and Yang, L., “Aqueous two-phase extraction, identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.),”Food Chemistry, 129 (2), 443-453. Nov. 2011.
 
[15]  Yang, X., Zhang, S., Yu, W., Liu, Z., Lei, L., Li, N., and Yu, Y., Ionic liquid-anionic surfactant based aqueous two-phase extraction for determination of antibiotics in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography. Talanta, 124, 1-6. Jun. 2014.
 
[16]  Liu, X., Mu, T., Sun, H., Zhang, M., and Chen, J., “Optimisation of aqueous two-phase extraction of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes by response surface methodology,” Food chemistry, 141 (3), 3034-3041. Dec. 2013.
 
[17]  Chen, F., Sun, Y., Zhao, G., Liao, X., Hu, X., Wu, J., and Wang, Z., “Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins in red raspberries and identification of anthocyanins in extract using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 14 (6), 767-778. Sep. 2007.
 
[18]  Wang, B. Z., and XIE H.X., “Determination of concentration of total saponins and oleanolic acid of Rubus sachalinensis at different collecting time,” Chinese Journal of experiment medical formulae, 20 (12), 77-79. Jun. 2014.
 
[19]  Liu, S. C., Lin, J. T., Wang, C. K., Chen, H. Y., and Yang, D. J., “Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) flowers,” Food Chemistry, 114 (2). 577-581. May. 2009
 
[20]  Wang, Y., Han, J., Xu, X. H., Hu, S. P., and Yan, Y. S., “Partition behavior and partition mechanism of antibiotics in ethanol/2-propanol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems,” Separation and Purifition Technology, 75 (3). 352-357. Nov. 2010
 
[21]  Yan, J. K., Ma, H. L., Pei, J. J., Wang, Z. B., and Wu, J. Y., “Facile and effective separation of polysaccharides and proteins from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system,” Separation and Purification technology. 135. 278-284. Oct. 2014.
 
[22]  Zafarani-Moattar, M. T., & Hamzehzadeh, S., “Phase diagrams for the aqueous two-phase ternary system containing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and tri-potassium citrate at T=(278.15, 298.15, and 318.15) K,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 54 (3), 833-841. Dec. 2008.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Korean Fresh Ginseng on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and AMPK Activation in HepG2 Cells

1Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Research Group of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea

3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 40-45
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Chong-Tai Kim, In-Hwan Kim, Yangha Kim. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Korean Fresh Ginseng on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and AMPK Activation in HepG2 Cells. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):40-45. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-7.

Correspondence to: Yangha  Kim, Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Email: yhmoon@ewha.ac.kr

Abstract

Ginseng is widely used as a medicinal herb and has demonstrated effects against liver diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the high hydrostatic pressure extract of Korean fresh ginseng (HEG) on hepatic lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The intracellular triglyceride and cholesterol contents were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods. The mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. The activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was measured with an AMPK kinase assay kit. HEG significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, HEG suppressed the expression of FAS, a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, and HMGCR, a rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Additionally, HEG increased the activity of AMPK, a major regulator of lipid metabolism. These results suggest that HEG reduces hepatic lipid accumulation with inhibition of FAS and HMGCR expression and stimulation of AMPK activity in HepG2 cells. Consequently, HEG may be beneficial as a functional food ingredient to improve various hepatic diseases by reducing hepatic lipid accumulation.

Keywords

References

[1]  Gaggini, M., Morelli, M., Buzzigoli, E., DeFronzo, R.A., Bugianesi, E. and Gastaldelli, A, “Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease,” Nutrients, 5(5). 1544-1560. 2013.
 
[2]  Lee, J., Chung, D.S., Kang, J.H., and Yu, B.Y, “Comparison of Visceral Fat and Liver Fat as Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome,” J Korean Med Sci, 27(2), 184-189. Feb. 2012.
 
[3]  Bellentani, S., Scaglioni, F., Marino, M. and Bedogni, G, “Epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Dig Dis, 28. 155-161. 2010.
 
[4]  Lim, C.T., Kola, B. and Korbonits, M, “AMPK as a mediator of hormonal signalling,” J Mol Endocrinol, 44. 87-97. 2010.
 
[5]  Byeon, S.E., Lee, J., Kim, J.H., Yang, W.S., Kwak, Y.H., Kim, S.Y., Choung, E.S., Rhee, M.H., and Choi, J.Y, “Molecular mechanism of macrophage activation by red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng,” Mediators of Inflammation, 2012(2012). 1-7. 2012,
 
Show More References
[6]  Choi, H., Kim T.H., Choi, T.Y., and Lee, M.S, “Ginseng for health care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Korean literature,” PLoS ONE, 8(4). e59978. Apr. 2013.
 
[7]  Kim, J.H, “Cardiovascular Diseases and Panax ginseng: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications,” J Ginseng Res, 36(1). 16-26. Jan. 2012.
 
[8]  Jung, J., Park, H.W., Hahn, Y., Hur, C.G., In, D., Chung, H.J., Liu, J. and Choi, D.W, “Discovery of genes for ginsenoside biosynthesis by analysis of ginseng expressed sequence tags,” Plant cell reports, 22. 224-230. 2003.
 
[9]  Yi, J.H., Kim, M.Y., Kim, Y.C., Jeong, W.S., Bae, D.W., Hur, J.M., Jun, M, “Change of ginsenoside composition in red ginseng processed with citric acid,” Food Sci Biotechnol, 19. 647-653. 2010.
 
[10]  Kim, S.O., Park, C.W., Moon, S., Lee, H.A., Kim, B., Lee, D.U., Lee, J.H. and Park, J, “Effects of high-hydrostatic pressure on ginsenoside concentrations in Korean red ginseng,” Food Sci Biotechnol, 16. 848-853. 2007.
 
[11]  Yuan, H.D., Kim, S.J., Quan, H.Y., Huang, B. and Chung, S.H, “Ginseng leaf extract prevents high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through AMPK activation,” J Ginseng Res, 34. 369-375. 2010.
 
[12]  Ji, W. and Gong, B, “Hypolipidemic effects and mechanisms of Panax notoginseng on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats,” J Ethnopharmacol, 113. 318-324. 2007.
 
[13]  Lee, H.S., Lee, H.J., Yu, H.J., Ju, D.W., Kim, Y., Kim, C.T., Kim, C.J., Cho, Y.J., Kim, N. and Choi, S.Y, “A comparison between high hydrostatic pressure extraction and heat extraction of ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer),” J Sci Food Agric, 91. 1466-1473. 2011.
 
[14]  Lee, S., Lee, M.S., Kim, C.T., Kim, I.H. and Kim, Y, “Ginsenoside Rg3 reduces lipid accumulation with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HepG2 Cells,” Int J Mol Sci, 13. 5729-5739. 2012.
 
[15]  Rozen, S., Skaletsky, H, Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers In Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology. Edited by Misener, S., and Krawetz, S, Humana Press, New Jersey, 1999, 365-386.
 
[16]  Livak, K.J. and Schmittgen, T.D, “Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method,” Methods, 25. 402-408. 2001.
 
[17]  Ou, T.T., Hsu, M.J., Chan, K.C., Huang, C.N., Ho, H.H. and Wang, C.J, “Mulberry extract inhibits oleic acid‐induced lipid accumulation via reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance,” J Sci Food Agric, 91.2740-2748. 2011.
 
[18]  Bhala, N., Jouness, R.I. and Bugianesi, E, “Epidemiology and natural history of patients with NAFLD,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, 19(29). 5169-5176. 2013.
 
[19]  Sohn, H., Lee, S. and Wee, J, “Flavor characteristics of Korean red ginseng,” J Ginseng Res, 24. 148-152. 2000.
 
[20]  Do Yeon Kim, J.S.P, Yuan, H.D. and Chung, S.H, “Fermented ginseng attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation and hyperglycemia through AMPK activation,” Food Sci Biotechnol, 18. 172-178. 2009.
 
[21]  Song, Y.B., An, Y.R., Kim, S.J., Park, H.W., Jung, J.W., Kyung, J.S., Hwang, S.Y. and Kim, Y.S, “Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high‐fat diet,” J Sci Food Agric, 92. 388-396. 2012.
 
[22]  Hillgartner, F.B., Salati, L.M. and Goodridge, A.G, “Physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthesis,” Physiol Rev, 75. 47-76. 1995.
 
[23]  Goldstein, J.L. and Brown, M.S, “Regulation of the mevalonate pathway,” Nature, 343. 425-30. 1990.
 
[24]  Lee, Y.S., Cha, B.Y., Yamaguchi, K., Choi, S.S., Yonezawa, T., Teruya, T., Nagai, K. and Woo, J.T, “Effects of Korean white ginseng extracts on obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice,” Cytotechnology, 62. 367-376. 2012.
 
[25]  Muwalla, M.M, and Abuirmeileh, N.M, “Suppression of avian hepatic cholesterogenesis by dietary ginseng,” The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 1(10). 518-521. Oct. 1990.
 
[26]  Hardie, D.G, “The AMP-activated protein kinase pathway–new players upstream and downstream,” J Cell Sci, 117. 5479-5487. 2004.
 
[27]  Quan, H.Y., Yuan, H.D., Jung, M.S., Ko, S.K., Park, Y.G. and Chung, S.H, “Ginsenoside Re lowers blood glucose and lipid levels via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet fed mice,” Int J Mol Med, 29. 73. 2012.
 
[28]  Kim, D.Y., Yuan, H.D., Chung, I.K. and Chung, S.H, “Compound K, intestinal metabolite of ginsenoside, attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation via AMPK activation in human hepatoma cells,” J Agric Food Chem, 57. 1532-1537. 2009.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of Processing Techniques on the Quality and Acceptability of Auricularia auricula Mushroom Pickle

1College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

2Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan

3Mudanjiang Sub-academy, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Mudanjiang, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 46-51
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shahzor Gul Khaskheli, Wen Zheng, Saghir Ahmed sheikh, Ashfaque Ahmed Khaskheli, Ying Liu, Yan-Feng Wang, Wen Huang. Effect of Processing Techniques on the Quality and Acceptability of Auricularia auricula Mushroom Pickle. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):46-51. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-8.

Correspondence to: Wen  Huang, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Email: huangwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn

Abstract

The present study aimed at the formulation of pickled product, incorporated with and without mustard oil; vinegar and salt were used as preservative. The products have been evaluated for sensory attribute i.e color, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability, (MOVS) formulated pickle found to be excellent and have higher score 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0 for color, flavor, and overall acceptability. It was found that the polysaccharide content and pH were decreased during processing, and significant difference (P>0.05) was found in moisture content Figure 4. The microbiological studies revealed that total viable counts (bacteria) were high in (SWVS) formulated pickle as compared to (MOVS) respectively. Storage studies demonstrated that pickles stored successfully for 90 days at ambient temperature (26±4C) without any significant change in the quality attributes of the (MOVS) pickle. Furthermore, microbiological analysis demonstrated the presence of Escherischia coli and Lactobacillus bacteria in pickled products.

Keywords

References

[1]  Chang, S.T. The world mushroom industry trends and technological development. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 8: 297-314, 2006.
 
[2]  Kala", P. Chemical composition and nutritional value of European species of wild growing mushrooms: A review. Food Chemistry, 113: 9-16. 2009.
 
[3]  Brodziak Ł., Majchrzak R., Badania wartości odżywczej twardziaka Lentinus edodes(Berk) Sing. – shiitake, na tle innych gatunków grzybów jadalnych [Research of Lentinus edodes(Berk) Sing. – shiitake goodness to comparison with other mushroom species. Rocz PZH Polish 35: 59-62. 1984.
 
[4]  Manzi P., Gambelli L., Marconi S., Vivanti V., Pizzoferrato L., Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter species comparative study. Food Chemistry. 65: 477-482. 1999.
 
[5]  Mattila P., Könkö K., Eurola M., Pihlava J.-M., Astola J., Vahteristo L., Hietaniemi V., Kumpu-lainen J., Valtonen M., Piironen V., Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural. Food Chemistry. 49: 5, 2001.
 
Show More References
[6]  Karmanska A., Wędzisz A., Biernat J., Florczak J., A comparison of the chemical contents of oyster fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) and field mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lge.) Sing). Bromatol. Chem. Toksykol. In Polish.35: (3), 283-287. 2002.
 
[7]  Czapski J., Evaluation of chemical composition of commercially canned mushrooms proc-essed from fresh and desalted mushrooms and derived from different geographic regions. Veg. Crops Res. Bull. 58:, 135-141. 2003.
 
[8]  Omarini, A., Nepote, V., Grosso, N. R., Zygadlo, J. A. and Alberto, E. Sensory analysis and fruiting bodies characterization of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Polyporus tenuiculus ontained on leaf waste from the essential oil production industry. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45: 466-474. 2010.
 
[9]  Luo, Y. C., Chen, G., Li, B., Ji, B. P., Guo, Y., & Tian, F. Evaluation of antioxidative and hypolipidemic properties of a novel functional diet formulation of Auricularia auricula and Hawthorn. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies., 10: 215-221. 2009.
 
[10]  Asaduzzaman Khan, et al. Investigation on the Nutritional Composition of Common Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Cultivated in Bangladesh; Bangladesh Journal of Mushroom. 3:. (1): 21-28. 2009.
 
[11]  Kim SK, Hong UP, Kim JS, Kim CH, Lee KW, Choi SE, Park KH, Lee MW. Antidiabetic effect of Auricularia auricula mycelia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Natural Product Sciences. 13:.390-393. 2007
 
[12]  Ma ZC, Wang JG, Zhang LN, Zhang YF, Ding K. Evaluation of water soluble β-D-glucan from Auricularia auricular-judae as potential anti-tumor agent. Carbohydrate. Polymer. 80: 977-983. 2010.
 
[13]  Fan, L. S., Zhang, S. H., Yu, L., & Ma, L. Evaluation of antioxidant property and quality of breads containing Auricularia auricula polysaccharide flour. Food Chemistry, 101: 1158-1163. 2006.
 
[14]  Fernandes, Â., Antonio, A.L., Oliveira, M.P.P., Martins, A., & Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: A review. Food Chemistry, 135: 641-650. 2012c.
 
[15]  Jaworska, G., & Bernás, E. The effect of preliminary processing and period of storage on the quality of frozen Boletus edulis (Bull: Fr.) mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 113: 936-943. 2009.
 
[16]  Lee H., Yoon H., Ji Y.: Functional properties of Lactobacillusstrains isolated from kimchi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 145: 155-161 ,2011
 
[17]  Mheen T.I., Kwon T.W.: Effect of temperature and salt concentration on kimchi fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 16: 443-450, 1984.
 
[18]  Desrosier, N. W. The Technology of Food Preservation. The AVI Publishing Co. the Edition. West port. USA. 264. 1977.
 
[19]  Girdhari Lal, G.S. Siddappa, G.L. Tandon. Chutneys, Sauces and Pickles, Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables, ICAR Publication, New Delhi. 235-269. 2010.
 
[20]  S.H. Panda, M. Parmanick, R.C. Ray. Lactic acid fermentation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) into pickles, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 31.83-101. 2007.
 
[21]  GC Wakchaure, Mahantesh Shirur, K Manikandan and Lekhraj Rana. Development and evaluation of oyster mushroom value added products. Mushroom Research 19.40-44. 2010.
 
[22]  Rai, R. D., Arumuganathan, T. Post harvest technology of Mushrooms. National Research Centre for Mushroom, Technical Bulletin. 2008.
 
[23]  Binsted, R., Devy, J. D. and Dakin J. C. Spices and flavourings for pickle and sauce product. Pickle and sauce making. Food Trade Press Ltd, London. 25-28. 1962.
 
[24]  Piggott, J.R. ed.Sensory Analysis of Foods, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1988
 
[25]  Adegoke, G.O., K.O. Falade and O.C. Babalola. Control of Lipid Oxidation and Fungal Spoilage of Roasted Peanut (Arachis hypogea) Using the Spice Aframomum danielli. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment., 2.128-131. 2004.
 
[26]  Liu GQ, Wang XL. Selection of a culture medium for reducing costs and enhancing both biomass and intracellular polysaccharide production by Agaricus blazei AB2003. Food Technology Biotechnology, 47: (2009). 210-214.
 
[27]  AOAC. Official methods of analysis (16th ed.). Arlington VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1995.
 
[28]  Jewell, G.G.. Fruits and Vegetables in Food Science and Technology. A Series of Monographs, ed. j.G.Vaughn. New York: Academic Press. 1979.
 
[29]  V. Mishra, P. Mishra, G.K. Rai. Process and product standardization for the development of amla bar, Beverage Food World 37: 58-60. 2010.
 
[30]  Pederson, D. Microbiology of Food Fermentation. Westport: AVI Publishing Co. 1979.
 
[31]  Vijayan, P.K., Balachandran, K.K. and Surendran, P.K. Preparation of fish pickles from low cost fish. InRecent Trends in Processing Low Cost Fish (K.K. Balachandran, P.A. Perigreen, P. Madhavean and P.K. Surendran, eds.), Soft , Cochin, India..238, 1989.
 
[32]  Yellappa, N. and Chandrasekhar, T.C. Preparation of clam pickle using organic acids. InRecent Trends in Processing Low Cost Fish(K.K. Balachandran, P.A. Perigreen, P. Madhavan and P.K. Surendran, eds.), Soft , Cochin, India.. 238, 1989.
 
[33]  Fraziar, W. C. and Westheff, D. C. Food Microbiology, 3rd Edt. McGrow-Hill Book Co., USA.2-95. 1978.
 
[34]  Mishra, P., Verma, M., Mishra, V., Mishra, S. and Rai,G.K. Studies on development of ready to eat amla (Emblica officinalis) chutney and its preservation by using class one preservatives. American Journal of. Food Technology.6: 244-252. 2011.
 
[35]  Gopal, T.K.S., Balachandran, K.K., Surendran, P.K. and Govindan T.K. Development of flexible packaging for mussel pickled in oil. In Harvest and Post-Harvest Technology, 1985.
 
[36]  Dhanapal, K., Ratnakumar, K., Jasmine, T.G. and Jeyachandran. Processing chank meat (Xancus pyrum) into pickles, Fish. Technology., 31: (2), 188-90. 1994.
 
[37]  Gupta, S.S. and Basu, S. Pickle from blood clam (Anadara granosa) meat, Fish. Technology, 22: (2), 109-1 1. 1985.
 
[38]  Chattopadhyay, A.K., Bhattacharyya, S.K. and Bandyopaddhyay. Development of pickled products from low cost fresh water fishes, In: Harvest and Post Harvest Technology, Fish. Technol., Soft India, Cochin, India. 611-4, 1985.
 
[39]  Behanan, L., Mathew, S., Sudharma, D. and Mukundan, M.K. Effect of hit juices with acetic acid in the quality and storage stability of pickled fish, Fish. Technology., 29: (1), 40-4,1992.
 
[40]  DAS, A.K., SHARMA, R.B. and SINGH, N.P. Quality and storage stability of low acid goat meat pickle. American Journal of Food Technology. 2(6), 550-554, 2007.
 
[41]  MISHRA, P., VERMA, M., MISHRA, V., MISHRA, S. and RAI, G.K. Studies on development of ready to eat amla (Emblica officinalis) chutney and its preservation by using class one preservatives. American Journal of Food Technology. 6, 244-252. 2011.
 
[42]  APHA Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. Frances, P.D. and Keith, I., eds., Washington DC: APHA, 2001.
 
Show Less References

Article

Screening and Extracting Mycocin Secreted by Yeast Isolated from Koumiss and Their Antibacterial Effect

1College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China

2College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 52-56
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yujie Chen, Chen Aorigele, Chunjie Wang, Huasai Simujide, Siqin Yang. Screening and Extracting Mycocin Secreted by Yeast Isolated from Koumiss and Their Antibacterial Effect. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):52-56. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-9.

Correspondence to: Chen  Aorigele, College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China. Email: aori6009@163.com

Abstract

Koumiss is a common fermented mare’s milk with beneficial therapeutic effects on cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, and diarrhea. The mare’s milk is fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although information about LAB from Koumiss is comprehensive, there is limited knowledge about yeasts from Koumiss and their effects. The purpose of this study was to screen and extract mycocin secreted by yeast isolated from Koumiss and test their antibacterial effect against pathogenic Escherichia coli, The yeasts from Koumiss were isolated and those producing mycocin were screened by the Oxford cup method. Crude extracts of mycocin were then extracted by ethyl acetate, and temperature stabilities of them were investigated. The crude extracts of mycocin were tested against pathogenic E. coli and compared both in vivo and in vitro. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and two Kluyveromyces marxianus were isolated from Koumiss in Inner Mongolia. All these yeasts produced mycocin. The two crude extracts of mycocin secreted by K. marxianus were active and stable at temperatures between 25°C and 45°C. They had better antibacterial effect in vitro and in vivo and were shown to be effective in preventing E. coli disease in mice. It may be possible to use crude extracts of mycocin secreted by yeast isolated from Koumiss to inhibit the growth of E. coli.

Keywords

References

[1]  Steinkraus, K.H., Introduction to indigenous fermented foods. In K. H. Steinkraus , Handbook of indigenous fermented foods, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1-6. 1996.
 
[2]  Simango, C., “Potential use of traditional fermented foods for weaning in Zimbabwe”. Social Science Medicine, 44: 1065-1068. April. 1997.
 
[3]  3. Liu, S.N., Han, Y., and Zhou, Z.J., “Lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented Chinese foods”. Food Research International, 44: 643-651. 2011.
 
[4]  Danova S., Petrov K., Pavlov P., and Petrova, P., “Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus strains involved in koumiss fermentation”. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58(2): 100-105. May. 2005.
 
[5]  Kabak, B., and Dobson, A.D.W., “An Introduction to the Traditional Fermented Foods and Beverages of Turkey”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 51: 248-260. 2011.
 
Show More References
[6]  He, Y. F., “Studies on Isolation, Identification of Microorganisms and Their Antibacterial Factors from Koumiss”. Inner Mongolia Agriculture University Doctoral Dissertation (Chinese), 2008.
 
[7]  Viljoen, B., “Yeast ecological interactions. Yeast’yeast, yeast’bacteria, yeast’fungi interactions and yeasts as biocontrol agents,” in Yeasts in Food and Beverages, eds. A. Querol and G. Fleet, Springer, Berlin, 83-110. 2006.
 
[8]  Golubev W.I., Mycocins Killer toxins. In: Kurtzman C.P. and Fell J.W. eds, edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 55-62. 1998.
 
[9]  Barnett J.A., Payne R.W., and Yarrow D., Yeasts: Characteristics and Identification, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2000.
 
[10]  Zhang G.W., Hu M.M., He L., Fu P., Wang L., and Zhou J. “Optimization of microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction of polyphenols from waste peanut shells and evaluation of its antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro”. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91: 158-168. 2013.
 
[11]  Yang E., Fan L.H., Jiang Y.M., Doucette C., and Fillmore S., “Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts”. AMB Express, 2:48. September. 2012.
 
[12]  Skovgaard, S., Larsen, M.H., Nielsen L.N., Skov R.L., Wong C., Westh H., and Ingmer H., “Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68: 2226-2233. June. 2013.
 
[13]  Zhang, J.R., Yao, X.K., Tan X.H., Liu H., Xiong S.Y., Li J., and Zhang G.Q., “Isolation and Identification of Yeast in Koumiss”. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences (Chinese), 44: 206-211. 2007.
 
[14]  Ni, H.J., Bao, Q.H., Sun T.S., Chen X., and Zhang H.P., “Identification and biodiversity of yeasts isolated from Koumiss in Xinjiang of China”, Acta Microbiolgica Sinica (Chinese), 47: 578-582. 2007.
 
[15]  Shuangquan., Burentegusi., Yu, B., and Miyamoto, T., “Microflora in traditional starter cultures for fermented milk, hurunge, from Inner Mongolia, China”. Animal Science Journal, 77: 235-241. April. 2006.
 
[16]  Hatoum R., Labrie S., and Fliss I., “Antimicrobial and probiotic properties of yeasts: from fundamental to novel applications”. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3:421. December. 2012.
 
[17]  Suzuki, C., Ando, Y., and Machida, S., “Interaction of SMKT, a killer toxin produced by Pichia farinosa, with the yeast cell membranes”. Yeast, 18(16): 1471-1478. December. 2001.
 
[18]  Middelbeek, E.J., Hermans, J.M.H., and Stumm, C., “Production, purification and properties of a Pichia kluyveri killer toxin”. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 45(3):437-450. 1979.
 
Show Less References

Article

Antioxidant Role and Hepatoprotective Effects of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Seeds against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

1Department of Science, Education Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey

2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic, Science Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 57-61
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-10
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehmet Ali Temiz, Atilla Temur, İsmail Çelik. Antioxidant Role and Hepatoprotective Effects of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Seeds against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):57-61. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-10.

Correspondence to: İsmail  Çelik, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic, Science Faculty, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. Email: icelik65@gmail.com

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of carob seeds (CS) concerning with hepatoprotective and antioxidant role against ethanol-induced oxidative stress (OS) in rats. Experiment was conduted as control, 20% ethanol, 15% CS and 20% ethanol + 15% CS groups. At the end of the 50-day exposure period of test groups, the hepatopreventive and antioxidant capacity were assessed by measuring level of serum enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); antioxidant defense systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the tissues of rats. According to results, while the levels of the serum enzymes increased in ethanol group compared with the control group whereas decreased in ethanol + CS-treated group compared with the ethanol group. Administration of CS supplementation restored the ethanol induced imbalance between malondialdehyde and fluctuated antioxidant system towards near normal particularly in the tissues. Finally, it was concluded that CS has a hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant capacity in rats with ethanol toxicity, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defense systems.

Keywords

References

[1]  Agrawal D, Sultana P, Gupta GSD. 1991. Oxidative damage and changes in glutathione redox system in erythrocytes from rats treated with hexachlorocyclohexane. Food and Chemical Toxicology 29: 459-462.
 
[2]  Aykac G, Uysal M. Yalcin SA, Kocak-Toker A, Sivas A, Oz H. 1985. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on hepatic lipid peroxide, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in rats. Toxicology 36: 71-76.
 
[3]  Banerjee BD, Seth V, Bhattachary A, Pahsa ST, Chakraborty AK. 1999. Biochemical effects of some pesticides on lipid peroxidation and free-radical scavengers. Toxicology Letter 107: 33-47.
 
[4]  Barracosa P, Osorio J, Cravador A. 2007. Evaluation of fruit and seed diversity and characterization of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cultivars in Algarve region. Scientia Horticulturae 114: 250-257.
 
[5]  Batista MT, Amaral MT, Proença Da Cunha A. 1996. Carob fruits as source of natural oxidant. In: Proceedings of the Communication in Third International carob Symposium, Tavira, Portugal, June, pp. 19-23.
 
Show More References
[6]  Beutler E, Dubon OB, Kelly M. 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 61: 882-888.
 
[7]  Carlberg I, Mannervik B. 1975. Purification and characterization of the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase from rat live. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 250: 5475-5480.
 
[8]  Celik I, Temur A, Isık I. 2009. Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) flowers infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47: 145-149.
 
[9]  Chai YC, Ashraf SS, Rokutan K, Johnston Jr RB, Thomas JA. 1994. S-thiolation of individual human neutrophil proteins including actin by stimulation of the respiratory burst: evidence against a role for glutathione disulfide. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 310: 273-281.
 
[10]  Cheeseman KH, Slater TF. 1993. An introduction to free radical biochemistry. British Medical Bulletin 49: 481-493.
 
[11]  Clarke DD, Sokoloff L. 1999. Circulation and energy metabolism of the brain. In: Sigel GJ, Agrano BW, Albers RW, Fisher SK, Uhler MD (eds.), Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp. 637-669.
 
[12]  Coban AT, Beydemir S, Gulcin İ, Ekinci D. 2008. The effect of ethanol on erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes activity: An in vitro and in vivo study. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 23 (2): 266-270.
 
[13]  De Zwart LL, Meerman JHN, Commandeur JNM, Vermeulen NPE. 1999. Biomarkers of free radical damage applications in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 26: 202-226.
 
[14]  Dringen R. 2000. Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain. Progress Neurobiology 62: 649-671.
 
[15]  Dogan A, Celik I. 2011. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of grapeseeds against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 107: 45-51.
 
[16]  Gaeta LM, Tozzi G, Pastore A, Federici G, Piemonte F. 2002. Determination of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of healthy pediatric subject. Clinica Chimica Acta 322: 117-120.
 
[17]  Gerlach M, Ben-Shachar D, Riederer P, Youdim MBH. 1994. Altered brain metabolism of iron as a cause of neurodegenerative diseases? Journal of Neurochemistry 63: 793-807.
 
[18]  Gulçin I. 2012. Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview. Arch Toxicol 86: 345-391.
 
[19]  Gulcin I, Beydemir S. 2013. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants: carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes inhibitors. Mini Rev Med Chem 13 (3): 408-430.
 
[20]  Halliwell B. 1992. Reactive oxygen species and the central nervous system. Journal of Neurochemistry 59: 1609-1623.
 
[21]  Hayes JD, Pulford DJ 1995. The glutathione S-transferase supergene family regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 30: 445-600.
 
[22]  Jain SK, McVie R, Duett J, Herbst JJ. 1989. Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes. Diabetes 38: 1539-1543.
 
[23]  Kamimura S, Gaal K, Britton RS, Bacon BR, Triadafilopoulos G, Tsukamoto H. 1992. Increased 4-hydroxynonenal levels in experimental liver disease: association of lipid peroxidation with liver fibrogenesis. Hepatology 16: 448-453.
 
[24]  Kolankaya D, Selmanoğlu G, Sorkun K, Salih B. 2002. Protective effects of Turkish propolis on alcohol-induced serum lipid changes and liver injury in male rats. Food Chemistry 78: 213-217.
 
[25]  Kovacic P, Jacintho JD. 2001 Mechanisms of carcinogenesis: Focus on oxidative stress and electron transfer. Current Medicinal Chemistry 8: 773-796.
 
[26]  Lindi C, Montorfano G, Marciani P. 1998. Rat erythrocyte susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after chronic ethanol intake. Alcohol 16: 311-316.
 
[27]  Luthria D. 2006 Significance of sample preparation in developing analytical methodologies for accurate estimation of bioactive compounds in functional foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86: 2266-2272.
 
[28]  Mannervik B, Guthenberg C. 1981. Glutathione S-transferase (human placenta). Methods in Enzymology 77: 231-235.
 
[29]  Mannervik B, Awashi Y, Board P, Hayes J, Dilio C, Ketterer B. 1992. Nomenclature for human glutathione S transferase. Biochemical Journal 282: 305-308.
 
[30]  McCord JM, Fridovich I. 1969. Superoxide dismutase, an enzymatic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). The Journal of Biological Chemistry 244: 6049-6053.
 
[31]  Meister A, Larsson A. 1989. Glutathione synthetase deficiency and other disorders of the γ-glutamyl cycle. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D, (ed). The metabolic basis of inherited disease. 6th ed. New York, Mc Graw Hill, p. 855-868.
 
[32]  Nishimura M, Teschke R. 1982. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the activities of liver plasma membrane enzymes: Gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and nucleotidase. Biochemical Pharmacology 31: 377-381.
 
[33]  Paglia DE, Valentine WN. 1967. Studies on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70: 158-169.
 
[34]  Pastore A, Federici G, Bertini E, Piemonte F. 2003. Analysis of glutathione: Implication in redox and detoxification. Clinica Chimica Acta 333: 19-39.
 
[35]  Poli G. 2000. Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis: role of oxidative stress. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 21: 49-98.
 
[36]  Porter NA. 1984. Chemistry of lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology 105: 273-282.
 
[37]  Ridnour LA, Isenber JS, Espey MG, Thomas DD, Roberts DD, Wink DA. 2005. Nitric oxide regulates angiogenesis through a functional switch involving thrombospondin-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 13147-13152.
 
[38]  Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, et al. 2005. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chemistry 9: 621-632.
 
[39]  Sergent O, Morel I, Chevanne M, Cillard P, Cillard J. 1995. Oxidative stress induced by ethanol in rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 35: 575-83.
 
[40]  Sidina MM., El Hansali M, Wahid N, Ouatmane A, Boulli A, Haddioui A. 2009. Fruit and seed diversity of domesticated carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Morocco. Scientia Horticulturae 123: 110-116.
 
[41]  Sonde V, D’souza A, Tarapore R, et al. 2000. Simultaneous administration of diethylphthalate and ethyl alcohol and its toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology 147: 23-31.
 
[42]  Sun Y. 1990. Free Radicals, Antioxidant Enzymes, and Carcinogenesis. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 8: 583-599.
 
[43]  Teschke R, Krukenberg S, Stremmel W, Nishimura M. 1987. Enhanced biliary gamma-glutamyltransferase excretion following prolonged alcohol consumption in rats. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 17: 347-353.
 
[44]  Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J. 2007. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Normal Physiological Functions and Human Disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 39: 44-84.
 
[45]  Wisniewska-Knypl JM, Wronska-Nofer T. 1994. Biological markers of oxidative stress induced by ethanol and iron overload in rat. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 7: 355-363.
 
[46]  Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. 2004. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. Journal of Nutrition 134: 489-492.
 
[47]  Yu LL, Zhou KK, Parry J. 2005. Antioxidant properties of cold pressed black caraway, carrot, cranberry, and hemp seed oils. Food Chemistry 91: 723-729.
 
[48]  Yurt B, Celik I. 2011. Hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of sun, sulphited-dried apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its kernel against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49: 508-513.
 
[49]  Zima T, Fialová L, Mestek O, et al. 2001. Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases. Journal of Biomedical Science 8: 59-70.
 
Show Less References

Article

High Anti-oxidative and Lipid-lowering Activities of Flavonoid Glycosides-rich Extract from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum in Multi-system

1Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, and Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Lab for Aging Research, West China Hospital/West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

2College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 62-68
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-11
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Limei Ma, Ke Li, Dandan Wei, Hengyi Xiao, Hai Niu, Wen Huang. High Anti-oxidative and Lipid-lowering Activities of Flavonoid Glycosides-rich Extract from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum in Multi-system. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):62-68. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-11.

Correspondence to: Wen  Huang, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, and Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Lab for Aging Research, West China Hospital/West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Email: niuhai@scu.edu.cn; huangwen@scu.edu.cn

Abstract

Epidemiological studies observed that Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaf, a popular vegetable in China, could interfere progression of cardiovascular diseases, especially hyperlipidemia. In the work, the pharmacological properties of Z.bungeanum leaves extract (ZLE) containing isovitexin, vitexin, hyperoside, rutin, isoquercitrin, foeniculin, trifolin, quercitrin, astragalin, and afzelin were investigated using multi-system such as mice organ tissue, HepG2 cell and apoE-/- mice. ZLE exhibited a stronger activity of scavenging free radicals. ZLE also appeared to inhibit lipid peroxidation of mice organ tissues including the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain and pancreas. ZLE could lower lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells induced by free fatty acids (FFAs, an inducer of lipid peroxidation and free radicals production) in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with fenofibrate, a commercial product popularly used in clinical, the treatment of ZLE in apoE-/- mice had a stronger anti-hyperlipidemia without any detectable histopathological damage. This is the first report that ZLE containing high content of flavonoids with satisfying safety could significantly inhibit the development of hyperlipidemia by preventing the oxidative damage induced by free radicals and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords

References

[1]  Anderson, K. M., Wilson, P. W. F., Garrison R. J., Castelli, W. P., “Longitudinal and secular trends in lipoprotein cholesterol measurements in a general population sample, The Framingham offspring study”. Atherosclerosis 68. 59-66. 1987.
 
[2]  Gordon, T., Kannel, W. B., “Predisposition to atherosclerosis in the head, heart, and legs”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 221. 661-666.1972.
 
[3]  Alikhani, N., Ferguson, R. D., Novosyadlyy, R.,Gallagher, E. J., Scheinman, E. J., Yakar, S., et al. “Mammary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis are enhanced in a hyperlipidemic mouse model”. Oncogene 32. 961-967. 2012.
 
[4]  Sabatine, M. S., Wiviott, S. D., Morrow, D. A., “TIMI study group High-dose atorvastatin associated with worse glycemic control a PROVE-IT TIMI 22 substudy (abstr)”. Circulation. 110. 2004.
 
[5]  Negi, P., “Extent and pattern of use of statins and ezetimibe as lipid lowering agents and their influence on marketing strategies”. 2010.
 
Show More References
[6]  Kardum, N., Takić, M., Šavikin, K., Zec, M., Zdunić, G., Zdunićb, G., “Effects of polyphenol rich chokeberry juice on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in healthy women”. Journal of Functional Foods 9. 89-97. 2014.
 
[7]  Monagas, M., Bartolomè, B., Gómez-Cordovès, C., “Evolution of the phenolic content of red wines from Vitis vinifera L during ageing in bottle”. Food Chemistry 95. 405-412. 2006.
 
[8]  Athukorala, Y., Lee, K.-W., Kim, S.-K., Jeon, Y. J., “Anticoagulant activity of marine green and brown algae collected from Jeju Island in Korea”. Bioresour. Technol 98. 1711-1716. 2007.
 
[9]  Xiong, Q., Shi, D., Mizuno, M., “Flavonol glucosides in pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum”. Phytochemistry 39. 723-725. 1995.
 
[10]  Zhong, K., Li, X. J., Gou, A. N., Huang, Y. N., Bu, Q., & Gao, H., “Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activities of Flavonoid Glycosides-rich Extract from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 2(7). 349-356. 2014.
 
[11]  Ružić, I., Škerget, M., Knez, Ž., and Runje, M., “Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of macerated white wines”. Europe Food Research Technol 233. 465-472. 2011.
 
[12]  Woldegiorgis, A.Z., Abate, D., Haki, G.D., and Ziegler, G.R., “Antioxidant property of edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia”. Food Chemistry 157. 30-36. 2014.
 
[13]  Brand-Williams,W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C., “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity”. LWT-Food Science and Technology 28. 25-30.1995.
 
[14]  Dasgupta, N., Bratati, D., “Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro”. Food Chemistry 88. 219-224. 2004.
 
[15]  Wu, X., Zhang, L., Gurley, E., Studer, E., Shang, J., Wang, T., “Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid through lysosomal and mitochondrial pathways”. Hepatology 47. 1905-1915. 2008.
 
[16]  Wangcharoen, W., Gomolanee, S., “Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content of Moringa oleifera Grown in Chiang Mai, Thailand”. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 44(5). 118-124. 2011.
 
[17]  D’Archivio, M., Filesi, C., Di Benedetto, R., Gargiulo, R., Giovannini, C., Masella, R., “Polyphenols, dietary sources and bioavailability”. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 348-361. 2007.
 
[18]  Cook, N.C., Samman, S., “Flavonoids-Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources”. Nutritional Biochemistry7. 66-76. 1996.
 
[19]  Choi, Y., Jeong, H.S., and Lee, J., “Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea”. Food Chemistry 103. 130-138. 2007.
 
[20]  Sukito, A., Tachibana, S., “Isolation of Hyperoside and Isoquercitrin from Camellia sasanqua as Antioxidant Agents”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 17. 999-1006. 2014.
 
[21]  Mahmoud, A. M., Soliman, A. S., “Rutin attenuates Hyperlipidemia and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats”. Egypt Journal of Medical Science 34. 287-302. 2013.
 
[22]  Borza, C., Muntean, D., Dehelean, C., Săvoiu, G., SERBAN, C., Simu, G., & Drăgan, S., “Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation-a lipid metabolism dysfunction”. Lipid metabolism. 2013.
 
[23]  Bertrand, Y., “Oxygen-free radicals and lipid peroxidation in adult respiratory distress syndrome”. Intensive care medicine 11. 56-60. 1985.
 
[24]  Liang, T., Yue, W., Li, Q., “Comparison of the phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Apocynum venetum L. (Luo-Bu-Ma) and two of its alternative species”. International journal of molecular sciences 11. 4452-4464. 2010.
 
[25]  Choi, J. H., Kim, D. W., Yun, N., Choi, J. S., Islam, M. N., Kim, Y. S., & Lee, S. M., “Protective effects of hyperoside against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice”. Journal of natural products 74. 1055-1060. 2011.
 
[26]  Zhang, Z., Chang, Q., Zhu, M., Huang. Y., Ho, WK., Chen, Z., “Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits”. Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry 12. 144-152. 2001.
 
[27]  Terasawa, Y., Ladha, Z., Leonard. S.W., Morrow, J. D., Newland, D., Sanan, D., Packeri, L., Traber, M. G., and Farese, Jr. R. V., “Increased atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice deficient in a-tocopherol transfer protein and vitamin E”. PNAS 97. 13830-13834. 2000.
 
[28]  Nguyen, P., Leray, V., Diez, M., Serisier, S., Le, B., Siliart, B., Dumon, H., “Liver lipid metabolism”. Jounal of animal physiology and animal nutrition's (Berl) 92. 272-83. 2008.
 
[29]  Yao, H. R., Liu, J., Plumeri, D., Cao, Y. B., He, T., Lin, L., Li, Y., Jiang, Y. Y., Li, J., Shang, J., “Lipotoxicity in HepG2 cells triggered by free fatty acids”. American Journal of Translational Research 15. 284-91. 2011.
 
[30]  Brown, J.P., “A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring flavonoids anthraquinone and related compounds”. Mutation. Research 75. 243-277. 1980.
 
[31]  Hertog, M.G.L., Feskens, E.J.M., Hollman, P.C.H., Katan, M.B., Kromhout, D., “Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease”. The Zutphen Elderly Study Lancet 342. 1007-1011. 1993.
 
[32]  Li, J. F., Chen, H. Y., Ke, J. Y., Jian, H., Xiao, Y. D., “Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of total flavonoids of Perilla Frutescens leaves in hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet”. Food Research International 44. 404-409. 2011.
 
[33]  Fazio, S., Linton, M. F., “Mouse models of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis”. Frontiers in Bioscience 6. D515-525. 2001.
 
[34]  Ma, J. Y., Shi, Y. K., Fang, D. Z., “Antiatherogenic effect of Huajiao volatile oil on experimental atherosclerosis in guinea pigs”. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao 36. 696. 2005.
 
[35]  Mertz, D. P., “Atherosclerosis-index (LDL/HDL): risk indicator in lipid metabolism disorders”. Medizinische Klinik 75. 159-161. 1980.
 
[36]  Yang, X. Z., Liu, Y., Mi, J., Tang, C. S., Du, J. B., “Pre-clinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness and the risk factors in children”. Chinese Medical Journal 120. 359-362. 2007.
 
[37]  Fernanda, B., Arauj, D. S., Barbos, C. Y., Hsi, R. C., Maranh, Z., Dulcineia, S. P. A. “Evaluation of oxidative stress in patients with hyperlipidemia”. Atherosclerosis117. 61-71. 1995.
 
[38]  Zang, M. W., Zuccollo, A., Hou, X. Y., Nagata, D., Walsh, K., Herscovitz, H., Brecher, P., Ruderman, N. B., Cohen, R. A., “AMP-activated protein kinase is required for the lipid-lowering effect of metformin in insulin-resistant human HepG2 cells”. Journal of Biology Chemistry 279. 47898-47905. 2004.
 
[39]  Zang, M.W., Xu, S.Q., Maitland-Toolan, K.A., Zuccollo, A., Hou, X.Y., Jiang, B.B., Wierzbicki, M., Verbeuren, T. J., and Cohen, R. A., “Polyphenols stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase, lower lipids, and inhibit accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice”. Diabetes 55. 2180-2191. 2006.
 
Show Less References