Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFNR

Article

Overnight Access to Sugar Solutions Affects mRNA Expression of Several Neuropeptides in Different Hypothalamic Regions in Rats

1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 69-76
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-12
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Changhui Zhao, Eric S. Campbell, Anna E. Tschiffely, Thomas W. Castonguay. Overnight Access to Sugar Solutions Affects mRNA Expression of Several Neuropeptides in Different Hypothalamic Regions in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):69-76. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-12.

Correspondence to: Thomas  W. Castonguay, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park. Email: twc@umd.edu

Abstract

It has been known for years that free access to sugar solutions can cause weight gain and/or obesity in rats. We recently reported that brief access to sugar solutions can affect the hypothalamic neuropeptides that help to regulate energy balance. In this paper, we present the results in which we examined the effects of these sugars on the expression of several neuropeptides within specific hypothalamic regions. We provided Sprague Dawley rats 24 h access to 15% solutions of glucose, fructose, sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and then dissected portions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). We then evaluated the expression of several neuropeptides in these tissues, all of which were previously shown to be influenced by free access to sugar solutions using PCR array. Of the four sugar solutions tested, only fructose decreased expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) significantly, and only in the PVN. Glucose and sucrose significantly increased the expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) only in the PVN. Fructose and sucrose decreased Growth Hormone (GH) in the VMH. Further analysis indicated that it was fructose intake that was negatively correlated with both CCK and GH expression. Rats that had access to sugar solutions consumed less chow but maintained control levels of total caloric intake. We conclude that 24 h free access to different sugars can influence the expression of several hypothalamic neuropeptides in different ways. Changes in the expression of these neuropeptides do not disrupt total daily energy intake immediately but may nevertheless contribute to the obesity caused by long term access to sugar solutions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Mushroom, Chrysin, Curcumin and Omega-3 in Experimental Hypercholesterolemic Rats

1Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Turabah, Taif University, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

4Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

5Department of Biochemistry, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig Branch, Egypt


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 77-87
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
TAMER AHMED ISMAIL, MOHAMED MOHAMED SOLIMAN, MOHAMED ABDO NASSAN, DALIA IBRAHIM MOHAMED. Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Mushroom, Chrysin, Curcumin and Omega-3 in Experimental Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):77-87. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: TAMER  AHMED ISMAIL, Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Turabah, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Email: tamersml77@yahoo.com

Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are major risk factors that accelerate the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of widely known traditional medicinal herbs and omega-3 FA in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by Triton WR-1339. Experimental hypercholesterolemic rats were administered mushroom, chrysin, curcumin and omega-3 for 2 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic rats showed an increase in serum levels of lipid profiles and hepatic enzymes. Hypercholesterolemic rats showed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in both serum levels and mRNA expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reducatse. Moreover, hypercholesterolemic rats showed hepatic down regulation in the expression of genes related to fatty acids oxidation such as acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and synthetase (ACS), together with carnityl palmityl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-α (PPAR-α). Administration of mushroom, chrysin, curcumin and omega-3 to hypercholesterolemic rats for 2 weeks up-regulated significantly the down regulated genes. In contrast, expression of genes related to fatty acids biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism were increased in hypercholesterolemic rats compared to control group. Herbal medications and omega-3 administration down regulated genes of fatty acids biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism to normal expression. At cellular levels, hyperlipidemia induced fatty droplets accumulation, necrosis and presence of apoptotic hepatocytes together with leukocytic infiltration in necrotic area that are ameliorated and normalized after administration of herbs and omega-3. In conclusion, the current findings indicated that flavonoids (mushroom, chrysin, curcumin) and omega-3 possess antihypercholesterolemic effects at biochemical, molecular and histopathological levels and are useful in treatment of hypercholesterolemia with lower side effects compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drugs.

Keywords

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Article

Comparison between Preexercise Meals Intake Effect with Different Glycemic Load on Exercise Performance in Female Athletes

1Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3MSc student of Health Science in Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

5Department of Physical Educational and Sport Sciences, The University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

6PhD student of Science in Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 88-93
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Reza Ghiasvand, Zinat Sharifhosein, Ahmad Esmailzadeh, Awat Feizi, GHolamreza Askari, Mohammad Marandi, Zahra Maghsoudi. Comparison between Preexercise Meals Intake Effect with Different Glycemic Load on Exercise Performance in Female Athletes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):88-93. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Zinat  Sharifhosein, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Email: zsharifhosein@yahoo.com

Abstract

Athletes usually search for strategies to optimize their performance. Manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO) resources glycemic load in order to optimizing athletic performance provides new research areas in nutritional sport. Purpose of this study is to examine the effects of two isocaloric meals with different glycemic load (GL) on exercise performance and serum free fatty acids. Thirty six non-professional athletic women with ages between 19 and 24 were assigned in a double blinded randomized clinical trial with two period cross-over design. Participants in each group received a high or low GL meal as a breakfast, and 7-day wash out period is determined. serum free fatty acid (FFA) measurements were performed before and after each phase of intervention.3 hour After ingestion of a meal, participants run to exhaustion, in a 20 meters shuttle run pacer. Time to exhaustion (TTE) was recorded as a measure of exercise performance. In an attempt to ensure that subjects run to exhaustion, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured, using a Borg scale, too. The ingestion of a low GL or high GL pre-exercise meal did not lead to different TEE and RPE at 3 hours before exercise in female athletic students. Mean changes of serum FFA were higher in low GL than high GL meal. Consumption of a low GL meal compared with a high GL meal at 3-hr before a shuttle run pacer, was not associated with significant changes in TEE and RPE levels but low GL meal led to more increase serum FFA than high GL.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of High Osmotic Pressure Milk Formula on Renal Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Induced by Calcium Oxalate

1Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, PR China

2R&D center of Ausnutria Hyproca Dairy Group, Changsha, PR China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 94-98
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Meihong Xu, Liren Wei, Zhiyong Dai, Yanchun Zhang, Yong Li, Junbo Wang. Effect of High Osmotic Pressure Milk Formula on Renal Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Induced by Calcium Oxalate. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):94-98. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Junbo  Wang, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, PR China. Email: mrwang4j@163.com

Abstract

To study the effect of high osmotic pressure milk formula on renal calcium oxalate crystallization induced by calcium oxalate. 40 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: NC, MC, LOM and HOM group. For model preparation, MC, LOM and HOM were treated with 1% Ethanediol in the water combined with 2% ammonium chloride (2ml/day) intragastrically administration. The rats in LOM and HOM were intragastrically given LOM or HOM (40g/100ml, 2ml/100g*bw) twice/day, whereas the NC and MC group received an equal volume of distilled water. Combined application of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride caused renal injury of rats, and induced calcium oxalate calculus in kidney. During experimental period, the increase of body weight of the rats treated with HOM was inhibited significantly; the amount of 24h urination, serum levels of Cr and UA, ratio of the kidney to body weight were significantly higher than those in MC group; the amount of 24h urination, Cr, and score of calcium oxalate crystal were significantly higher than those in LOM group. HOM has an obvious promoting effect on the formation of renal calcium oxalate crystallization induced by ethylene glycol combined with ammonium chloride.

Keywords

References

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Article

High Protein (HP) and Balanced Diets (BD) Lead to Weight Loss and Increase of Serum Adiponectin in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Gyms: A Randomized Clinical Trial

1Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ira

2Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 99-103
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Reza Ghiasvand, Pegah Amini, Zahra Maghsoudi, Awat Feizi, Gholamreza Askari. High Protein (HP) and Balanced Diets (BD) Lead to Weight Loss and Increase of Serum Adiponectin in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Gyms: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):99-103. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Pegah  Amini, Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ira. Email: pegah4444@yahoo.com

Abstract

This trial aimed to assess the effects of high protein (HP) (45% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 30% fat) and balanced diets (BD) (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat) on weight loss and plasma adiponectin levels in overweight and obese women who do aerobic activity. A parallel double blinded randomized clinical trial. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Body weight and adiponectin levels were measured at the baseline and after eight weeks of intervention. We used SPSS software for data analyzing and Nutritionist IV for analyzing dietary intakes. The study was an eight-week trial that consisted of 56 women with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2, aged 20-46 years who were randomly assigned to intervention. Body weight with adherence to HP and BD diets decreased significantly, however; the reduction in the HP group was more than the BD group (P<0.001 in both groups). Adiponectin significantly increased in HP and BD (P=0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). These changes did not significantly differ between the two groups. In conclusion, our trial showed that high protein and balanced diets resulted in desirable effects on body weight and on circulating adiponectin during the eight weeks.

Keywords

References

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Article

Determination of Blood Physiological and Biochemical Values of Blue Peafowl

1College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China

2Gansu Provincial Health Education Institute, Lanzhou, China

3College of Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 104-108
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xu Xiao-xia, Qian Guo-hong, Yang Fu-min, Yang Min, Wang Xue-yan. Determination of Blood Physiological and Biochemical Values of Blue Peafowl. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):104-108. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Yang  Fu-min, College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China. Email: yfumin@gsau.edu.cn

Abstract

Forty-nine physiological and biochemical indices of blood in blue peafowl were determined in this report. Significant differences were observed in the hematocrit, alkaline phosphatase, CO2-M and anion gap (p < 0.01), as well as mean corpuscular hemoglobin, a-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, Mg2+, erythrocyte number, glutamicpuruvic transaminase, total protein and total bile acid (p < 0.05) of different sexes. The results may provide a reference for feeding, health examination, diagnosis, and breeding of blue peafowl.

Keywords

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Article

Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis

1School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

2Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan

3Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

4Center for General Education, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

5Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veteran General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

6Department of Medicinal Botanicals and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, Changhua, Taiwan

7Department of Anesthesiology, Tungs’ Taichung Harbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

8Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

9Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

10Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 109-113
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kao-Sung Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Jui-Lung Shen, Kee-Ming Man, Sun-Yuan Wu, Huey-Yi Chen, Chiao-Hui Chang, Yuan-Ju Lee, Tzu-Fang Hsu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wei-Yong Lin, Wen-Chi Chen. Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):109-113. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Wen-Chi  Chen, School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Email: wgchen@mail.cmu.edu.tw

Abstract

There are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other metabolic problems. Sodium citrate (Na-citrate) is used as an additive in colas and various commercial drinks worldwide. Although potassium citrate (K-citrate) has been prescribed and well accepted by urologists for treating urinary stone disease (urolithiasis), the clinical role of Na-citrate has not been well established. We investigated the effects of Na-citrate and cola on the treatment of urolithiasis with an emerging translational model – Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila medium containing 0.5% ethylene glycol (EG) was used as a lithogenic agent for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. Cola (25%) and Na-citrate (2% and 4%) were added to the fly medium for urolithiasis treatment. Medium containing K-citrate (2% and 4%) was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment, the Malpighian tubules were dissected, removed, and processed for polarized light microscopy examination; fly lifespan was also monitored in different groups. Cola failed to reduce CaOx crystal formation, whereas Na-citrate and the positive control K-citrate significantly reduced EG-induced CaOx crystal formation in Drosophila. Administration of either Na-citrate or cola did not inhibit Drosophila lifespan. Consumption of cola exerts no detectable change in the lithogenic agent associated with CaOx stone formation in the Drosophila model. By contrast, Na-citrate had an inhibitory effect on EG-induced CaOx crystal formation, albeit a lower inhibitory rate upon comparison with K-citrate.

Keywords

References

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Article

Variation of Terpenoid Flavor Odorants in Bran of Some Black and White Rice Varieties Analyzed by GC×GC-MS

1Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at Si Racha, Kasetsart University, Si Racha Campus, Chonburi 20230 Thailand


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 114-120
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Watcharapong Chumpolsri, Nataporn Wijit, Pittayaporn Boontakham, Piyarat Nimmanpipug, Phumon Sookwong, Suwaporn Luangkamin, Sugunya Wongpornchai. Variation of Terpenoid Flavor Odorants in Bran of Some Black and White Rice Varieties Analyzed by GC×GC-MS. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):114-120. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Sugunya  Wongpornchai, Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand. Email: scismhth@chiangmai.ac.th, sugunya.w@gmail.com

Abstract

Among the total of 146 volatiles extracted by SPME from the headspace of some black and white rice bran samples, twenty-eight terpenoid odorants were acculately identified. Most of these terpenoids possess good aroma character and are varied among three groups of Thai rice; black glutinous, black non-glutinous, and white non-glutinous. Of these three groups, black non-glutinous rice contains the greater number of these monoterpenoids. However, the content of the major terpenoid odorants, which are limonene, trans-β-ocimene, β-cymene, and linalool, is the highest in the bran of white Thai jasmine rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105). An herbaceous odorant, myrcene, occurs in the bran of all black rice varieties but not in the bran of white rice. The flavor type of rice bran using these rice bran terpenoids was successfully classified using the chemometric principle component analysis method.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genotypic Characterization of Shigella Species Isolated from Abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa Using PCR Analysis

1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

2Centre for Animal Health Studies, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University – Mafikeng Campus, P. Bag X2046 Mmabatho 2735, South Africa


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 121-125
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Innocentiah Ntshepang Makabanyane, Rendani Victress Ndou, Collins Njie Ateba. Genotypic Characterization of Shigella Species Isolated from Abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa Using PCR Analysis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):121-125. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-8.

Correspondence to: Collins  Njie Ateba, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. Email: atebacollins1@hotmail.com

Abstract

Foodborne pathogens pose a serious threat to food safety especially in developing countries where hygiene facilities are not well developed and operational practices in abattoirs and retail shops are often poor. Shigella species are known to cause foodborne complications in humans including shigellosis that is not only characterized by destruction of the epithelium of the colon but usually results to an inflammatory response. The transmission of Shigella species to humans most often results through the consumption of contaminated food, meat and water. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Shigella species from carcass of cattle in some abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa and determine the virulence gene profiles of the isolates using PCR assays. A total of 97 carcass swabs were obtained from the abattoirs that were sampled. Swabs were properly labeled and transported on ice to the laboratory for analysis. The swabs were washed in 2% (w/v) peptone water and plated on Salmonella-Shigella agar. Standard identification tests (Gram staining, oxidase test, TSI test and 16S rRNA) were used to confirm the identities of 97 (one from each sample) presumptive isolates. Large proportions (85% to 100%) of the isolates from Rustenburg and Zeerust were oxidase positive. None of the isolates produced hydrogen sulphide gas on TSI medium but utilize glucose as a source of carbon. A large proportion (75.3%) of the isolates was positively identified as Shigella species based on PCR analysis. The number of isolates confirmed as Shigella species was higher in Zeerust (54.8%) than in Rustenburg (45.2%). Shigella species were most often isolated from samples that were collected outside than inside the carcass. Generally a large proportion (74.0%) of the isolates possessed the IpaH gene while64.4% of these isolates were positive for the IpaBCD gene that encodes for the invasion plasmid antigen. An analysis of the isolates from the different sampling sections indicated that 46.3% and 55.3% of the isolates from Zeerust possessed the IpaH and the IpaBCD genes, respectively while 53.7% and 44.7% of the isolates from Rustenburg possessed these genes. The detection of virulent Shigella species in beef carcasses demonstrates the need for a continued surveillance of this pathogen in meat in order to ensure the implementation of improved food safety measures.

Keywords

References

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Article

Study on the Health Benefits of Brown Algae (Sargassum muticum) in Volunteers

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Cheju Halla University, Jeju 690-708, Korea

2Bio Convergence center, Jeju Technopark, Jeju 690-756, Korea

3Department of Chemisty, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea

4Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 126-130
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shin Young Park, Inn Su Seo, Sun Joo Lee, Sang Pyung Lee. Study on the Health Benefits of Brown Algae (Sargassum muticum) in Volunteers. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):126-130. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-9.

Correspondence to: Sang  Pyung Lee, Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea. Email: nsdr745@gmail.com

Abstract

A randomized clinical trial enrolling healthy volunteers was carried out to evaluate the effects of S. muticum supplementation. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether intake of S. muticum could exert beneficial effects on human health. Volunteers were asked to consume dried encapsulated S. muticum 4.8 grams daily for 4 weeks. Analysis was made on several parameters including blood lipid profile, stress hormone level, fatigue status, liver functions, and lymphocyte subpopulation level, before and after consumption of the S. muticum capsuls. Fifty-one subjects were able to complete this study. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) decreased 14% from the baseline level of 6.0±1.4 μg/mL to 5.1±1.6 μg/mL, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a correlation between decreased ox-LDL levels and increased total antioxidant status (TAS) levels after S. muticum intake. There was a remarkable increase in natural killer (NK) lymphocyte count, but changes in the mean absolute lymphocyte subsets were unremarkable. Healthy subjects showed significant improvement of biomarkers of fatigue and liver functions, such lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). These results suggest that S. muticum may have potential beneficial effects as a healthy food supplement through its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunologic functions.

Keywords

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