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Article

Effect of Treatment Time of 1-MCP on Ripening of ‘Fuji’ Apples Stored at Low and Room Temperature for a Long Period

1Department of Floriculture, St. Thomas Hall Building (D9), Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702, Republic of Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 617-620
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hyun-Sug Choi, Seok-Kyu Jung. Effect of Treatment Time of 1-MCP on Ripening of ‘Fuji’ Apples Stored at Low and Room Temperature for a Long Period. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):617-620. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-14.

Correspondence to: Seok-Kyu  Jung, Department of Floriculture, St. Thomas Hall Building (D9), Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702, Republic of Korea. Email: gentleman71@msn.com

Abstract

The effect of 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment at 0, 2, and 4 d after harvest (0 DAH, 2 DAH, and 4 DAH) of apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] was evaluated on several fruit quality parameters for 180-d at 0.5°C in the air, followed by 28-d at room temperature. The 1,000 nl l-1 1-MCP treatments were adequate to maintain fruit titratable acidity (TA) and firmness, inhibiting the rates of ethylene production and respiration during the storage of both cold and the room temperatures, regardless of the 1-MCP treatment time.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Solvents on the Antioxidant Activity of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Shell Extracts

1Faculty of life science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People's Republic of China

2Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 621-626
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jiong Yang, Chaoyin Chen, Shenglan Zhao, Feng Ge, Diqiu Liu. Effect of Solvents on the Antioxidant Activity of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Shell Extracts. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):621-626. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-15.

Correspondence to: Chaoyin  Chen, Faculty of life science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People's Republic of China. Email: chaoyinchen@163.com

Abstract

Walnut shell is a waste generated in the walnut (Juglans regia L.) harvest, containing natural compounds with antioxidant properties. In this connection, the effect of the solvent (water, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and N-butanol) on the extraction yields, total flavonoids content and antioxidant properties was analyzed. Total flavonoids content of extracts was determined by NaNO2-Al(NO3)3 method. Extract antioxidant activity was measured by hydroxyl, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity and the total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assay. The highest extraction yield was achieved with N-butanol (4.54%) and the greatest total flavonoids content shown by the samples extracted with ethyl acetate. The highest ability to scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals was ethyl acetate extract (EC50=81.03μg/mL), methanol extract (EC50=131.35 μg/mL) and chloroform extract (EC50=176.35μg/mL) respectively under the concentration of 500 μg/mL. The methanol extract showed the greatest total antioxidant activity and reducing power. The results showed that different solvent had significant effect on total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity. The result obtained demonstrated the potential of walnut shell as a source of antioxidant.

Keywords

References

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Article

Antimicrobial Activity of 1,3 Dihydroxy-2-Methylimidazolium Bis (Trifluoromethylsulfonyl) Imde and Selected Antibiotics Against Streptococcus Species Isolated from Groundwater in the Northwest Province, South Africa

1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

2Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University – Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 627-632
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-16
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Collins Njie Ateba, Paul Katlego Morare, Eno Ebenso. Antimicrobial Activity of 1,3 Dihydroxy-2-Methylimidazolium Bis (Trifluoromethylsulfonyl) Imde and Selected Antibiotics Against Streptococcus Species Isolated from Groundwater in the Northwest Province, South Africa. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):627-632. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-16.

Correspondence to: Collins  Njie Ateba, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University- Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. Email: atebacollins1@hotmail.com

Abstract

In developing countries, access to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation continue to be a danger to human health and untreated groundwater constitutes one of the main sources of drinking water supply. The consumption of untreated contaminated groundwater has frequently been identified as a potential source for the transfer and spread of both antibiotic resistant bacteria strains and waterborne infections among humans. Antibiotics are used for the treatment of bacterial infections and therefore the emergence of drug resistant bacterial strains has huge clinical implications. Faced with the rapid growth of bacterial resistance to a number of commonly used antibiotics, ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention as agents that could serve as antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the antimicrobial activity of an ionic liquid and selected antibiotics against Streptococcus species isolated from groundwater samples. A total of 22 samples were collected from borehole taps in some villages in the Northwest Province and analysed for the presence of streptococci. Gram-staining, catalase test, oxidase test and Prolex Streptococcal Grouping Latex assays were used for bacteria identification. The growth inhibitory effect of the ionic liquid 1,3 dihydroxy-2-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide and selected antibiotics was determined. One hundred and seventy six presumptive isolates were obtained and screened for characters of streptococci and 165 isolates were obtained. All the isolates were Gram positive cocci; a large proportion (92.7%) was oxidase negative and only 51.5% were catalase negative. Based on serotyping, 86.7% of the isolates were positively identified as streptococci. All the isolates from Motlhabeng, Stella and Taung were resistant to penicillin G. Moreover, large proportions (75.0% to 95.8%) of these isolates were resistant to vancomycin. All the isolates except a large proportion of those from Stella (88%) and Taung (83%) were found to be more susceptible (22.5% to 50%) to chloramphenicol. Generally, the growth inhibition zone diameter for 1,3 dihydroxy-2-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide against the isolates ranged from 6 to 9 mm and 9 to 22mm for 1% and 10% solutions respectively. In conclusion multi-drug resistant streptococci were isolated from groundwater intended for human consumption. Isolates were however susceptible to the IL tested and the antimicrobial effect increased with increase in concentration of the IL.

Keywords

References

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Article

Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Domestic Donkey’S Milk from Autochthones Serbian Breed

1University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 633-637
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jasmina M. Gubić, Ljubiša Ć. Šarić, Bojana M. Šarić, Anamarija I. Mandić, Pavle T. Jovanov, Dragana V. Plavšić, Đorđe G. Okanović. Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Domestic Donkey’S Milk from Autochthones Serbian Breed. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):633-637. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-17.

Correspondence to: Ljubiša  Ć. Šarić, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia. Email: ljubisa.saric@fins.uns.ac.rs

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of raw donkeys’ milk from an autochthonous breed originated from Serbia. Changes in microbiota during the six days of storage at 4°C were monitored by enumeration of total count of bacteria, yeasts and moulds, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, bacterial endospores, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. Descriptive method was used for determination of sensory properties. Descriptive terms were developed to describe appearance (colour), flavour, taste and aftertaste. Chemical analyses included determination of protein, milk fat, dry matter, lactose and vitamin C content. After five days of storage at 4°C microbiological quality of the raw Domestic Balkan donkeys’ milk was in accordance with the requirements of European Regulation. The obtained results indicate strong antimicrobial activity of the tested milk and longer shelf-life in comparison to other raw milk sources. Sensory properties of the tested raw milk were acceptable within four days of storage at 4°C. High vitamin C content (32.95 μg/mL), low protein (1.67%, w/w) and milk fat (0.66%, w/w) content make the tested milk as valuable potential component of functional food.

Keywords

References

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Article

Biological Evaluation of Anti-androgenic Effect of Some Plant Foods

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 645-651
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed M. Rashed, Magdy Shallan, Doha A. Mohamed, Karem Fouda, Laila M. Hanna. Biological Evaluation of Anti-androgenic Effect of Some Plant Foods. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):645-651. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-19.

Correspondence to: Doha  A. Mohamed, Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Email: dohamohamed@yahoo.com

Abstract

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-androgenic effect of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum), safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius) and soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds in form of petroleum ether, ethanol extracts [(300 mg.kg-1 rat body weight)] and whole powder (20% in the diet) using prostate weight method in castrated rats. The safety of the studied plants' was evaluated through determination of liver and kidney functions. Chemical compositions of the studied plants clarified that the highest content of fat (52.5%) and ash (7.5%) were present in sesame seeds, while safflower seeds showed the highest content of crude fiber (11.8%) and carbohydrate (37.8%) also soybean contains high percentage of protein (41.2%). Sesame seeds showed the highest content of total phenolic compound (196.55 mg GAE/100 g), while soybean showed the lowest content (132.5 mg GAE/100 g). Fatty acids analysis revealed that oleic acid was present only in sesame seed oil (66.74%). Linolenic acid (ω-3) (55.77%) was the major fatty acid in flaxseed oil. Soybean oil showed the highest content of linoleic acid (ω-6) (69.84%). All studied plants' oil contains stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Safflower seed oil showed the highest content of campesterol (9.02%). Administration of different studied plants' to castrated rats produced reduction in prostate weight and significant reduction in testosterone level with variable degrees. All studied plants' showed complete safety towards liver and kidney function. In conclusion, all studied plants could be used as new potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of androgen-related diseases.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential against Key Enzymes Related to Type 2 Diabetes of Four Typical Teas

1Agricultural Experiment Station of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

2Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

3Drinkable Plants Institute (Tea Research Center ), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Resources Innovation and Utilization, Guangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 652-658
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-20
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dedong Kong, Jing Wu, Shili Sun, Yuefei Wang, Ping Xu. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential against Key Enzymes Related to Type 2 Diabetes of Four Typical Teas. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):652-658. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-20.

Correspondence to: Ping  Xu, Agricultural Experiment Station of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Email: zdxp@zju.edu.cn

Abstract

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is categorized into four types depending on the degree of fermentation, which in turn affects the physicochemical properties of tea. In this work, aqueous extracts of four typical teas, named green tea, oolong tea, black tea and puerh tea, were obtained, and their chemical compositions and bioactivities including antioxidant activity and inhibition on α-amylase and α-glycosidase were compared. It was found oolong and green tea not only possessed stronger antioxidant ability in assays of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP, but also had more power on inhibition on α-amylase and α-glycosidase. Pearson correlation analysis showed tea polyphenols and catechins had significant positive correlations on α-amylase inhibition. However, caffeine was observed to have a significant negative effect on α-glycosidase inhibition. These results indicated teas with no or slight fermentation (decaffeinated was better), were suitable for diabetes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger 11T53A14 in Wheat Bran Using Experimental Design Methodology

1Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, UFRRJ (Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Seropédica, RJ, Brazil

2Embrapa Agroenergy, Parque Estação Biológica, - PqEB s/n - W3 Norte, Brasília, DF, Brazil

3Embrapa Food Technology, Av. das Américas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

4College of Chemical and Food, FURG (Federal University of Rio Grande), Rio Grande, RS, Brazil


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 659-663
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Regiane Ribeiro dos Santos, Lívia Nolasco Macedo Muruci, Mônica Caramez Triches Damaso, Janine Passos Lima da Silva, Lucielen Oliveira Santos. Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger 11T53A14 in Wheat Bran Using Experimental Design Methodology. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):659-663. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-1.

Correspondence to: Lucielen  Oliveira Santos, College of Chemical and Food, FURG (Federal University of Rio Grande), Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. Email: santoslucielen@gmail.com

Abstract

Lipases have various industrial applications and their production by filamentous fungi in solid state fermentation (SSF) process is of interest. In this work the lipase enzyme production by the mutant Aspergillus niger 11T51A14, which is a well-known lipase producer was studied using wheat bran as substrate. Microorganism used in fermentation process was inoculated at a concentration of 107 spores/gm into the medium containing nitrogen (ammonium sulfate), sunflower soapstock and wheat bran. The SSF process for enzyme production was carried out in aerated columns immersed in a water bath at 32ºC for 72 h. The process was studied using a central composite rotatable design 22, where variables tested were the nitrogen concentration (0.32-0.88 % w/w) and the volume of liquid (60.9-89.1 mL). The lipase activity was analyzed in enzymatic extracts. The wheat bran, in the fermentation medium, acted as a carbohydrate source and as an inducer for the lipase production. The maximum enzyme activity found was 153.4 U/gdm, with a nitrogen concentration of 0.6 % and 89.1 mL of volume of liquid. The response surface model demonstrated that higher volume of liquid had a positive effect in lipase activity, while nitrogen concentration showed an optimal range (0.4-0.6%).

Keywords

References

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Article

The Inhibitory Effect of Different Solvents Extracts from Walnut Shell (Juglans regia L.) on Pancreatic Lipase and Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

1Faculty of life science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People's Republic of China

2Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 664-670
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jiong Yang, Chaoyin Chen, Shenglan Zhao, Feng Ge, Diqiu Liu. The Inhibitory Effect of Different Solvents Extracts from Walnut Shell (Juglans regia L.) on Pancreatic Lipase and Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):664-670. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-2.

Correspondence to: Shenglan  Zhao, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China. Email: chaoyinchen@163.com; zhaoshenglan@163.com

Abstract

In this article, the effect of the solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, N-butanol and ethyl acetate) on the extraction yields (EY), total flavonoids content (TFC), total phenols content (TPC) form walnut shell and the inhibitory effect of extracts on pancreatic lipase were analysed. The kinetics of enzyme inhibition and was investigated. The inhibitory effect of extracts on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was also investigated. The highest EY, TFC and TPC were achieved with N-butanol (4.54%), Ethyl acetate (80.40 mg QEs/g extract) and ethyl acetate (200.40 mg GAE/g extract). The order of inhibitory activity was methanol extract (ME) > ethyl acetate extract (EAE) > ethanol extract (EE) > water extract (WE) > N-butanol extract (NBE) > chloroform extract (CE), the inhibition ratios were 82.51%, 73.13%, 70.49%, 69.42%, 65.57% and 60.66%, respectively under the concentration of 500 μg/mL. The IC50 values of WE, ME, EE, CE, NBE and EAE were 371.35, 308.91, 407.57, 196.50, 247.79 and 254.27 μg/mL respectively. The inhibitory types of walnut shell extracts were noncompetitive. All the extracts were non-toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The ME, EE, CE, NBE and EAE have inhibitory effect on triglyceride accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells.

Keywords

References

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Article

Determination of Aflatoxins in Wheat and Wheat by-products Intended for Human Consumption, Marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil

2Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agronomy, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology Veterinary, Institute of Veterinary, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 671-674
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Felipe Machado Trombete, Douglas de Ávila Moraes, Yuri Duarte Porto, Thaís Barbosa Santos, Glória Maria Direito, Marcelo Elias Fraga, Tatiana Saldanha. Determination of Aflatoxins in Wheat and Wheat by-products Intended for Human Consumption, Marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):671-674. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-3.

Correspondence to: Felipe  Machado Trombete, Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil. Email: felipetrombete@gmail.com

Abstract

The consumption of wheat bran, whole-wheat grains and other whole-wheat products has grown in recent years in Brazil. These foods are considered more nutritious than the refined ones and have been associated with a reduced risk of some major chronic diseases. On the other hand, other research, carried out in Brazil, has found different groups of fungi toxins, called mycotoxins, contaminating these wheat products. Among these mycotoxins, are the aflatoxins, a group of genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus spp. This study aimed to determine the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in samples of whole-wheat grains and derivatives, intended for human consumption, marketed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and eight samples of whole-wheat grains (n=35), wheat bran (n=32), whole-wheat flour (n=26) and refined wheat flour (n=15) marketed in hypermarkets, supermarkets and health food stores were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL). Thirty-three samples (30.6%) were positive for at least one aflatoxin and the B1 form had the highest prevalence in the samples. The overall average was 0.69 µg/kg and the contamination was the highest in the grain samples, followed by bran, whole-flour and refined flour. Just one sample showed total aflatoxins levels (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5 µg/kg). The levels found in this study indicated that the presence of aflatoxins in wheat and wheat products consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are not a hazard for public health.

Keywords

References

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