Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Editor-in-Chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal




Application of Pulsed Electric Field for Microorganisms Inactivation in Date palm Fruits

1Date Palm Research Center of excellence, King Faisal University, KSA

2Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty Agriculture, Minoufiya University, Egypt

3Food Science and Nutrition Department, Agricultural and Food Sciences College, King Faisal University, KSA

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(10), 646-652
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. E. A. Mohammed, A. H. Amer Eissa, S. M. Aleid. Application of Pulsed Electric Field for Microorganisms Inactivation in Date palm Fruits. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(10):646-652. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-3.

Correspondence to: M.  E. A. Mohammed, Date Palm Research Center of excellence, King Faisal University, KSA. Email:


Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of liquid and semisolid food is a nonthermal technology alternative to traditional thermal preservation method with preserving nutritional and sensory values of food. In this study, the components of a laboratory scale prototype of PEF system were designed and constructed. Evaluating the performance of the prototype was carried out to inactivate the existing microorganisms (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Yeasts and Molds) in semi-solid pitted date palm fruits, which was defined in terms of applied intensity of electric field and pulses number at a constant duration of pulse (40 µs) and (1 Hz) pulse frequency. The microbial count was decreased with the increase in intensity of electric field and pulses number. The electric field intensity of 10.82 kV/cm and 120 pulses lead to reduced total microbial counts of 1.18×104 cfu/g to less than 10 cfu/g of mesophilic aerobic bacteria in most treated samples. The electric field intensity of 8.84 kV/cm and 90 pulses lead to reduce total microbial counts of 3.27×103 cfu/g of yeasts and molds to less than 10 cfu/g that meet Saudi standards requirements. Non-detectable levels of yeasts and molds in most treated samples were observed when 10.82 kV/cm of electric field intensity and 60 of pulses number were applied. The current results indicated that PEF technology is promising as a non-thermal method for inactivation of microorganisms on date palm fruits processing.



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Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of a Gelidium elegans Extract in Vitro and in Vivo

1Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi, South Korea

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(10), 653-657
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kui-Jin Kim, Jia Choi, Boo-Yong Lee. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of a Gelidium elegans Extract in Vitro and in Vivo. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(10):653-657. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-4.

Correspondence to: Boo-Yong  Lee, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi, South Korea. Email:


Gelidium elegans is an edible red seaweed that exhibits a broad range of biological activities. However, there is little known about its genotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a Gelidium elegans extract in three independent genotoxic tests, including a bacterial reverse mutation test, a micronucleus test, and a chromosomal aberration test. For five different strains of bacteria, the bacterial reverse mutation showed no increased reverse mutation upon exposure to 5000 μg/plate of the Gelidium elegans extract. Moreover, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) was not altered by the Gelidium elegans extract. Likewise, the chromosome aberration did not increase in response to the Gelidium elegans extract. Together, these genotoxicity assessment studies suggest that Gelidium elegans extract could be considered a safe dietary ingredient.



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Utilization of Breadfruit in Low Fat Cookie Formulation

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(10), 658-663
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Barber L.I, Emelike N.J.T, Sunday B.N. Utilization of Breadfruit in Low Fat Cookie Formulation. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(10):658-663. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-5.

Correspondence to: Barber  L.I, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email:


Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) flour was processed and used to substitute margarine at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30% labelled A – D samples in the production of low fat cookies. Proximate and functional properties of the flour were studied, as well as the proximate, physical and sensory properties of the cookies made from the flour. The result showed that the breadfruit flour had moisture content of 3.24%, fat 10.20%, protein 9.88%, ash 2.56%, fibre 1.79% and carbohydrate 71.15%. Functional properties of the flour had values of 0.22g/ml, 0.01%, 2.50%, 0.86%, 44.40% and 2.01% for bulk density, foaming capacity, water and fat absorption capacity, emulsion capacity and least gelation concentration, respectively. Substitution of margarine with breadfruit flour increased the moisture content of the produced cookies from 3.4 – 4.9% (B and D samples), crude protein 7.8 – 9.5%, ash 1.0 – 1.2% and carbohydrate 48.5 – 60.7% while fat successively decreased from 39.2 – 23.4% for A and D samples. Physical properties of the cookies showed weight range of 31.25 – 39.30g, 1.98 – 2.70cm diameter, 1.63 – 1.98cm height and 1.00 – 1.66 spread ratio. Control cookie sample was highly preferred in all the sensory parameters analysed. Other samples were accepted up to 20% level of breadfruit flour substitution. From these analyses, low fat cookies can be produced using up to 30% breadfruit flour in place of fat and labelled low fat and improved protein for health conscious consumers. The sensory attributes of the cookies require improvement for better acceptability.



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