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Article

Effect of Geographical Region and Harvesting Date on Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Olive Leaves

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine

2Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 925-930
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fuad Al-Rimawi, Imad Odeh, Abdallah Bisher, Jehad Abbadi, Mohammad Qabbajeh. Effect of Geographical Region and Harvesting Date on Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Olive Leaves. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):925-930. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-11.

Correspondence to: Fuad  Al-Rimawi, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine. Email: falrimawi@science.alquds.edu

Abstract

The effect of geographical region and harvesting date (seasonal change) on antioxidant activities (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of olive leaves obtained from different geographical regions of Palestine (north, middle, and south) at different maturation stages (June 2013, October 2013, and January 2014) was investigated in this study. Results revealed that both geographical region and maturation stage affect AA, TPC, and TFC of the olive leaves. Highest AA, TPC, and TFC were obtained for samples collected in June. TPC was found to be highest in north and lowest in south, while the highest AA, and TFC contents were alternating between north, middle, and south. During different maturation stages, TPC, TFC, and AA varied between 21.56 - 47.52 mg (GAE), 19.3 - 32.6 mg catechin equivalents, 318.53 – 1106.43 µmol FRAP equivalents per gram of dry olive leaves, respectively.

Keywords

References

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Article

Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of 8 Cultivated Varietiesmyricarubra Kernel and Residue Extracts

1The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 931-937
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ya-Si Huang, Jia-Sheng Wu, Yong Wang, Ke Yuan. Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of 8 Cultivated Varietiesmyricarubra Kernel and Residue Extracts. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):931-937. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-12.

Correspondence to: Ke  Yuan, The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, China. Email: yuan_ke001@126.com

Abstract

The development of bayberry product has been long restricted to the under utilised residue and the waste of the kernels. In this paper, we aimed to investigate whether the waste part of bayberry produced during juice processing may possess potent beneficial role to use for our health promotion. In fruit residue and kernels parts from eight different cultivars, determination of cyaniding-3-O-glucoiside (C3G) levels using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), various functional assays including antioxidant, and antifungal assays in vitro, cytotoxic assays and also antifatigue assays in vivo using reducing testes, rectangular cantilever method, small microtiter-plate method and mice loaded swimming test, respectively. The results of the HPLC method showed the extracts of residue were rich in cyaniding-3-O-glucoside, especially in Myricarubra Sieb. Et Zucc. cv. Biqi (212.8 mg·g-1 from Ninghai and 185.7 mg·g-1 from Yuyao). The results of the activity experiments showed the TE values of the extract from Biqi were between 334 and 506 mmol·g-1 detected by different methods. The duration of loaded swimming to exhaust prolonged from 614±158s to 1012±205s. The MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) values of different species of kernels extracts against 8 different fungi ranged from 0.5000 to 0.0625 mg·mL-1. The LC50 were from 49-316 μg·mL-1. In conclusion, the waste part of bayberry produced during juice processing, the residue and kernels, is of potential application value. However, further study is required.

Keywords

References

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Article

Preparation and Properties of Purified Phytase from Oakbug Milkcap (Lactarius Quietus) Immobilised on Coated Chitosan with Iron Nano Particles and Investigation of Its Usability in Food Industry

1Ataturk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Erzurum, TURKEY

2Ataturk University, Erzurum Vocational Training School, Department of Food Technology, Erzurum, TURKEY


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 938-945
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hicran Onem, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu. Preparation and Properties of Purified Phytase from Oakbug Milkcap (Lactarius Quietus) Immobilised on Coated Chitosan with Iron Nano Particles and Investigation of Its Usability in Food Industry. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):938-945. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-13.

Correspondence to: Hayrunnisa  Nadaroglu, Ataturk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Erzurum, TURKEY. Email: Hnisa25@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this study, phytase enzyme was purified and characterized from Oakbug Milkcap mushrooms (Lactarius quietus) and the purified phytase enzyme was immobilized on the surface of modified chitosan with nano-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The phytase was purified from Oakbug Milkcap mushrooms using ammonium sulphate precipitation in the range of 40-80%. and DEAE-sephadex ion-exchange chromatography. The purification fold was calculated by determining the activity and amount of protein for each step. The purified phytase enzyme was then immobilized on modified chitosan support material with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The optimum pHs for the immobilized and free enzyme were 6.0 and the optimum temperatures were 60°C. The effects of some metal ions such as CuCl2, Hg2Cl2, FeCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, CaCl2 were investigated on both the bound and free purified phytase. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis method. Finally, we investigated whether or not the immobilized and free enzyme could hydrolyzed the phytic acid in green lentils, red lentils, peas, pinto beans, beans, brass, corn, dried corn, oat, rye, wheat, broad bean, chickpeas and peanuts. It was concluded that the immobilized phytase was quite resistant to temperature, pH and metal ions and it could be safely used in the hydrolysis of phytic acid in the legumes in the food industry.

Keywords

References

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Article

Application of Oxygen-argon Plasma as a Potential Approach of Improving the Nutrition Value of Pre-germinated Brown Rice

1Rice Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

3Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 946-951
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Phumon Sookwong, Sittidet Yodpitak, Jenjira Doungkaew, Jaruwan Jurithayo, Dheerawan Boonyawan, Sugunya Mahatheeranont. Application of Oxygen-argon Plasma as a Potential Approach of Improving the Nutrition Value of Pre-germinated Brown Rice. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):946-951. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-14.

Correspondence to: Phumon  Sookwong, Rice Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Email: phumon.s@cmu.ac.th

Abstract

This is the first study to apply plasma technology for improving nutrition value of cereal products. Cold plasma, a mixture of oxygen and argon plasma, was applied to rice seeds before pre-germination process. Plasma condition of 10 watts, 5 seconds, and 5 millimeters distance and 10 watts, 5 seconds, and 8 millimeters distance created high germination rates of pre-germinated brown rice. The latter conditions gave the grains with longer roots and bodies. Plasma treatment could result in increasing contents of total phenolics and γ-aminobutyric acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 13 identifiable compounds: simple phenolic compounds; pyrans; furan; quinone; and fatty acids, in which biosyntheses of these 13 compounds were likely to be promoted by the plasma processing. These findings suggest that plasma technology could provide better quality pre-germinated brown rice.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Comparative Study on Bayesian Optimization Algorithm for Nutrition Problem

1Department of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuzmayis University, Samsun, Turkey


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 952-958
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Serpil Gumustekin, Talat Senel, Mehmet Ali Cengiz. A Comparative Study on Bayesian Optimization Algorithm for Nutrition Problem. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):952-958. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-15.

Correspondence to: Serpil  Gumustekin, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuzmayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Email: serpil.gumustekin@omu.edu.tr

Abstract

In this paper, the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA), which is one of the multivariate EDA algorithms with graphical model, was investigated. Then BOA was applied to the problem of nutrition for breakfast. The results obtained from BOA were compared to Genetic Algorithm and Linear Programming. At the end of the comparisons, for the problem of a recommended diet for breakfast, BOA approach gives more effective results than the other mentioned methods in terms of time and the cost.

Keywords

References

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Article

Microbial and Parasitic Contamination on Fresh Vegetables Sold in Traditional Markets in Hue City, Vietnam

1College of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam

2Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan

3Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan

4Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 959-964
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-16
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ho Le Quynh Chau, Ho Trung Thong, Nguyen Van Chao, Pham Hoang Son Hung, Vu Van Hai, Le Van An, Ayako Fujieda, Tanaka Ueru, Miki Akamatsu. Microbial and Parasitic Contamination on Fresh Vegetables Sold in Traditional Markets in Hue City, Vietnam. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):959-964. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-16.

Correspondence to: Ho  Le Quynh Chau, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam. Email: holequynhchau@huaf.edu.vn

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate microbial and parasitic contamination in twelve types of popular vegetables in Hue city. A total of 108 vegetable samples, equal numbers of young mustard greens, celery, amaranth, cilantro, water spinach, rice paddy herb, Vietnamese cilantro, basil, centella, lettuce, watercress, and iceberg lettuce were collected from three traditional markets in Hue city. All of samples were tested for total aerobic bacteria counts and E. coli by traditional culture-based methods. The Salmonella and parasites on the vegetables were detected by PCR technique and microscopic methods, respectively. All samples were highly contaminated with aerobic bacteria and E. coli. The aerobic bacteria counts ranged from 6.84 to 8.40 log CFU/g. Escherichia coli levels ranged from 5.47 – 6.88 log CFU/g. Salmonella was detected in 19/108 of test samples. Water spinach was found to have the highest contamination prevalence with Salmonella (55.56%). Contamination by multiple parasites was detected in all vegetable samples. The contamination rates of Fasciola, Ascaris, Trichuris and Clonorchis sinensis eggs were 83.33%, 85.19%, 64.81% and 16.67%, respectively. The oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora were found on the samples at rates of 47.22%, 27.78% and 27.78%, respectively. These bacteria and parasites may become potential sources of cross contamination and pose a serious risk to human health.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Tea Polyphenols by a Quantum Chemistry Calculation Method - PM6

1Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

2Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

3Department of Applied Engineering, Zhejiang Economic and Trade Polytechnic, Hangzhou, China

4Department of Tea Culture, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 965-972
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Qing Meng, Ziyin Yang, Guoliang Jie, Ying Gao, Xinghai Zhang, Wei Li, Bo Li, Youying Tu. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Tea Polyphenols by a Quantum Chemistry Calculation Method - PM6. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):965-972. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-17.

Correspondence to: Youying  Tu, Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Email: youytu@zju.edu.cn (Y. Tu), drlib@zju.edu.cn (B. Li)

Abstract

Tea polyphenols arepowerful natural antioxidants. To quickly evaluate theantioxidantactivity of these compounds, a quantum chemistry calculation method - PM6 was employed to calculate the heat of formation (HOF). The HOF valuewas negatively correlated well (r= –0.910, RMS=0.12) with the antioxidant activity of flavanols (catechins), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin), flavanones (dihydromyricetin), anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin), proanthocyanidins and theaflavins. The number and position of hydroxyl, and the structural groups influencing the conjugation between the B- and C-rings could affect the HOF value and radical scavenging activity of flavonoids. Therefore, the HOF value could be used as a descriptor for modeling antioxidant activity of polyphenols.

Keywords

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Article

Phenolic Constituents, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry Leaves (V5)

1North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China

2The Second Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 973-979
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-18
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Song Xiaoyong, Cheng Luming. Phenolic Constituents, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry Leaves (V5). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):973-979. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-18.

Correspondence to: Song  Xiaoyong, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China. Email: songxiaoyong@ncwu.edu.cn

Abstract

This study assessed polyphenol compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics of blueberry-leaf extracts. Four different solvents (70% acetone, 100% methanol,50% and 95% ethanol) were applied. Results showed phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic, protocatechui, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric andferulic acids. Caffeic acid was the foremost component in 50% ethanol, 70% acetone and methanol extracts, whereas protocatechui acid was the major compound in 95% ethanol extracts. The methanol extracts showed the highest total phenols, tannin and DPPH scavenging activity, and the 50% ethanol extracts had the greatest reducing power and ORAC values. The lowest contents of total phenols and tannin were in 95% ethanol and 70% acetone extracts, respectively. All extracts demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, L.monocytogenes, S.typhimurium, S. aureus and fungi, except for the 95% ethanol extract against L.monocytogenes. The 50% ethanol extracts showed the highest inhibitory effect against S. aureus with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all tested microbes. The greatest inhibition zone and the smallest MIC against fungi were found in the 95% ethanol and methanol extracts. These results indicated that the blueberry leaves are good source of polyphenols and could be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

Keywords

References

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Article

Control of the Ratio of Inducer to Cell Concentration to Enhance the Phytase Production in Recombinant Pichiapastoris

1College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China

2College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 980-984
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Housheng Hong, Zhaosheng Min, Huiming Guo. Control of the Ratio of Inducer to Cell Concentration to Enhance the Phytase Production in Recombinant Pichiapastoris. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):980-984. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-19.

Correspondence to: Housheng  Hong, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China. Email: hhs@njtech.edu.cn

Abstract

Phytase production by Pichiapastoris was used as a case to study the mechanism and strategy for optimization of heterologous protein production. It was found that the ratio of inducer-methanol to cell concentration had a significant influence on phytase production. In this case, we found that the optimum initial cell concentration and methanol concentration were 85 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively. During induction period, an easy-to-control methanol feeding method was proposed according to the optimal ratio of methanol to cell concentration at a range of 0.063 -0.132 g/g, and phytase activity and productivity reached 53984 U/mL and 529.25 U/(mL·h), respectively. The method for optimization of phytase production through controlling the optimal ratio maybe provide an alternative idea to enhance other heterologous protein production with P. pastoris.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Amino Acid Changes and Crumb Hardness of Enriched Bread with Tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) Flesh in Turkey

1Bitlis Eren University, Engineering-Architecture Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Bitlis, Turkey


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 985-992
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-20
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seda OĞUR. Evaluation of Amino Acid Changes and Crumb Hardness of Enriched Bread with Tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) Flesh in Turkey. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):985-992. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-20.

Correspondence to: Seda  OĞUR, Bitlis Eren University, Engineering-Architecture Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Bitlis, Turkey. Email: sdogur@beu.edu.tr

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate amino acid changes and crumb hardness of enriched bread with tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) flesh. Bread was formulated with washed fish mince at the ratio of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and the amino acid changes and crumb hardness of breads were evaluated. Adding washed fish mince into bread resulted in a significant increase in the protein content. The amount of amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, cystine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, lysine, hydroxyproline and proline (p<0.05) also increased. Alanine and leucine amino acids were detectable in none of the breads. The crumb hardness value of breads also increased with the addition rate of fish flesh and over time (p<0.05). This study resulted in an alternative product (bread is rich in protein) that can be eaten without changing customs of bread consumption. This enriched bread can be helpful in solving health problems due to protein and essential amino acid deficiency.

Keywords

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