Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Editor-in-Chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFNR

   

Article

Physicochemical Properties, Bioactive Compounds and Sensory Evaluation of Opuntia dillenii Fruits Mixtures

1Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Post Code: 41522, Egypt


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(8), 528-534
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-7
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.E. Embaby, A.A Gaballah, Y.S. Hamed, S.K. El-Samahy. Physicochemical Properties, Bioactive Compounds and Sensory Evaluation of Opuntia dillenii Fruits Mixtures. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(8):528-534. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-7.

Correspondence to: Y.S.  Hamed, Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Post Code: 41522, Egypt. Email: yahyasaud88@gmail.com

Abstract

Color, bioactive compounds and sensory evaluation of five Opuntia dillenii drinks mixed with strawberry and barley were studied during storage under cooling (4±°C). It was found that Opuntia dillenii fruits had high levels of ascorbic acid (AA) (55.29 mg/100g), betacyanins (56.91), betaxanthin (45.64), total phenolic compounds (TCP) (179.30 mg/100g) and antioxidant capacity (AC) (53.32%). Mixtures with Opuntia dillenii had excellent red color and the ratio 3:1 (Opuntia dillenii: strawberry, T2) had the highest values of a*, color index and Chroma (20.18, 1.050 and 27.21 respectively). Also, the addition of Opuntia dillenii significantly increased the levels of AA, TCP and AC in all mixtures. Moreover, the mixture T2 had the highest levels of AA (18.67 mg/100m), TPC (71.12 mg/100ml) and AC (35.70 %). For sensory evaluation, all mixtures had acceptable properties and the mixtures of Opuntia dillenii with strawberry had better quality than those with barely. In addition, the mixture T2 had the best quality and stability during the storage. Therefore, Opuntia dillenii fruits can be successfully used to produce new drinks by mixing with strawberry and barley and the mixture T2 had the best properties and stability during the storage.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wilkinson, J., and Hall, M. “Novel Food Approvals in Europe: Routes to Obtaining Regulatory Approval for Nutraceuticals in the EU”. Nutraceutical Business and Technology ,4 (4), 12, 2008.
 
[2]  Wootton-Beard, P. C., Aisling, M., and Lisa, R. “Stability of the total antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of 23 commercially available vegetable juices before and after in vitro digestion measured by FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and Folin–Ciocalteu methods”. Food Research International, 44(1), 217-224, 2011.
 
[3]  Kuti, Joseph O. “Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties”. Food chemistry, 85(4), 527-533, 2004.
 
[4]  Tesoriere, L., Butera, D., Pintaudi, A.M., Allegra, M. and Livrea, M.A. Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study with vitamin C. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 80(2), 391-395, 2004.
 
[5]  Böhm, H., 2008. “Opuntia dilleni–An Interesting and Promising Cactaceae Taxon”. Journal of The Professional Association For Cactus Development, 10,148-170, 2008.
 
Show More References
[6]  Izydorczyk, M.S. and Dexter, J.E. “Barley β-glucans and arabinoxylans: molecular structure, physicochemical properties, and uses in food products–a review”. Food Research International, 41(9), 850-868, 2008.
 
[7]  Giese, J. H. “Hitting the spot: beverages and beverage technology.” Food technology (USA) (1992).
 
[8]  Medina, E.D., Rodríguez, E.R. and Romero, C.D. “Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica fruits”. Food chemistry, 103(1), 38-45, 2007.
 
[9]  AOAC.Official methods of analysis of association of official analytical chemists. (17th Ed), Gaithersburg, MD, USA, (2000).
 
[10]  Meydav, S., Saguy, I. and Kopelman, I.J. “Browning determination in citrus products”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 25(3), 602-604, 1977.
 
[11]  Wrolstad, R.E., Durst, R.W. and Lee, J. “Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products”. Trends in Food Science & Technology,16(9), 423-428, 2005.
 
[12]  Osorio-Esquivel, O., Álvarez, V.B., Dorantes-Álvarez, L. and Giusti, M.M., 2011. “Phenolics, betacyanins and antioxidant activity in Opuntia joconostle fruits”. Food Research International, 44(7), 2160-2168, 2011.
 
[13]  Ravichandran, K., Saw, N.M.M.T., Mohdaly, A.A., Gabr, A.M., Kastell, A., Riedel, H., Cai, Z., Knorr, D. and Smetanska, I. “Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity”. Food research international, 50(2), 670-675, 2013.
 
[14]  Stintzing, F.C., Schieber, A. and Carle, R. “Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices”. European Food Research and Technology, 216(4), 303-311, 2003.
 
[15]  Gunness, P., Kravchuk, O., Nottingham, S.M., D’Arcy, B.R. and Gidley, M.J. “Sensory analysis of individual strawberry fruit and comparison with instrumental analysis”. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52(2), 164-172, 2009.
 
[16]  Mazur, S.P., Nes, A., Wold, A.B., Remberg, S.F., Martinsen, B.K. and Aaby, K. “Effects of ripeness and cultivar on chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) fruits and their suitability for jam production as a stable product at different storage temperatures”. Food chemistry, 146, 412-422, 2014.
 
[17]  Qingming, Y., Xianhui, P., Weibao, K., Hong, Y., Yidan, S., Li, Z., Yanan, Z., Yuling, Y., Lan, D. and Guoan, L. “Antioxidant activities of malt extract from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) toward various oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo”. Food Chemistry, 118(1), 84-89, 2010.
 
[18]  Choi, M.H., Kim, G.H. and Lee, H.S. “Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage”. Food Research International, 35(8), 753-759, 2002.
 
[19]  Klimczak, I., Małecka, M., Szlachta, M. and Gliszczyńska-Świgło, A. “Effect of storage on the content of polyphenols, vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of orange juices”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3), 313-322, 2007.
 
[20]  Burdurlu, H.S., Koca, N. and Karadeniz, F. “Degradation of vitamin C in citrus juice concentrates during storage.” Journal of Food Engineering, 74(2), 211-216, 2006.
 
[21]  Zheng, H. and Lu, H. “Use of kinetic, Weibull and PLSR models to predict the retention of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity during storage of pasteurized pineapple juice”. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44(5), 1273-1281, 2011.
 
[22]  Igual, M., García-Martínez, E., Camacho, M.M. and Martínez-Navarrete, N. “Effect of thermal treatment and storage on the stability of organic acids and the functional value of grapefruit juice”. Food Chemistry, 118(2), 291-299, 2010.
 
[23]  Tavarini, S., Degl’Innocenti, E., Remorini, D., Massai, R. and Guidi, L. “Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage of Hayward kiwifruit”. Food Chemistry, 107(1), 282-288, 2008.
 
[24]  Arena, E., Fallico, B. and Maccarone, E. “L’attivitaantiossidante dei succhi di arance pigmentate”. Ricerche e innovazioni nell’industria alimentare, 4, 995-999, 1999.
 
[25]  Piga, A., Agabbio, M., Gambella, F. and Nicoli, M.C. “Retention of antioxidant activity in minimally processed mandarin and satsuma fruits”. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 35(4), 344-347, 2002.
 
[26]  El-Samahy, S.K., Abd El-Hady, E.A., Habiba, R.A. and Moussa-Ayoub, T.E. “Cactus pear sheet and pasteurized and sterilized cactus pear juices”. Journal of The Professional Association For Cactus Development, 9, 148-164, 2007.
 
[27]  Rodrigo, D., Arranz, J.I., Koch, S., Frígola, A., Rodrigo, M.C., Esteve, M.J., Calvo, C. and Rodrigo, M. “Physicochemical characteristics and quality of refrigerated Spanish orange‐carrot juices and influence of storage conditions”. Journal of food science, 68(6), 2111-2116, 2003.
 
[28]  Esteve, M.J., Frígola, A., Rodrigo, C. and Rodrigo, D. “Effect of storage period under variable conditions on the chemical and physical composition and colour of Spanish refrigerated orange juices”. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(9), 1413-1422, 2005.
 
[29]  Sobkowska, E., Czapski, J. and Kaczmarek, R. “Red table beet pigment as food colorant”. International Food Ingredients, 3, 24-28, 1991.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Diabetic Profile and Nutritional Status of the Type-2 Diabetic Adult Population – A Randomized Controlled Trial

1Department of Home & Health Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan

2Consultant Nutritionist, Shifa International Hospital, Sector H-8/4, Islamabad, Pakistan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(8), 535-542
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-8
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hajra Ahmad, Zaheer Ahmed, Rezzan Khan. Effect of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Diabetic Profile and Nutritional Status of the Type-2 Diabetic Adult Population – A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(8):535-542. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-8.

Correspondence to: Zaheer  Ahmed, Department of Home & Health Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan. Email: zaheer_863@yahoo.com

Abstract

The health impacts of Chromium Picolinate (CrP) have been searched by various researchers particularly focused on management of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with the conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of CrP on management of T2DM. It was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Two groups of newly diagnosed Type -2 diabetics between the age brackets of 40-65 years were randomly selected from diabetes clinic. One group was exposed to 200 μg of CrP per day and the other was given a capsule of inert material as placebo having no impact on diabetic profile. The intervention duration was 03 months followed by one month as washout period. The outcome variables were biochemistry related to diabetic profile, clinical signs symptoms and toxicity if any. Dietary profile and anthropometrics were used for nutritional assessment. The study revealed that 82.7% of the subjects had family history of diabetes among which 59.6% were close relative. 98.1% were suffering from some kind of stress. Diabetic profile such as FPG, HbA1c and insulin levels improved in terms of normality after three months in treatment group, but did not come to the normal acceptable range e.g. The FPG dropped from142.85±17.71 to 130.42±32.68 mg/dl with a significant P value of 0.003 within the phases. Other health indicators such as lipid profile, blood pressure and clinical signs symptoms also improved and more in treatment group. Dietary counseling showed positive effects on food intake. Renal and hepatic profile showed no signs of toxicity in treatment group. The study concluded that CrP combined with dietary counseling had positive effect on diabetic profile of the newly diagnosed T2DM patients. The clinical signs and symptoms were improved. No hepatic and renal toxicity was observed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Doddigarla Z., Parwez I., Ahmad J, “Correlation of serum chromium, zinc, magnesium and SOD levels with HbA1c in type 2 diabetes: A cross sectional analysis”, Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 2015.
 
[2]  Yin, R.V., Phung, O.J, “Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus”, Nutrition journal, 14:1. 2015.
 
[3]  Joseph, E., DiSilvestro, R., de Blanco, E.J.C, “Triglyceride lowering by chromium picolinate in type 2 diabetic people” International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 7.24-28. 2015.
 
[4]  Rocha, N.R., Carrara, M.A., Stefanello, T.F., Teixeira, C.J., Oliveira, A.C.P., Batista, M.R, “Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients”, Acta Scientiarum Health Sciences, 36.161-164.2014.
 
[5]  Ghosh, D., Bhattacharya, B., Mukherjee, B., Manna, B., Sinha, M., Chowdhury, J, et al. “Role of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus” The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 13.690-697. 2002.
 
Show More References
[6]  Xie, W., Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y, “Traditional chinese medicines in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 2011.
 
[7]  Nolan, C.J., Damm, P., Prentki, M, “Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management”, The Lancet, 378,169-81.2011.
 
[8]  Raghavan, S., Porneala, B., McKeown, N., Fox, C.S., Dupuis, J., Meigs, J.B, Metabolic factors and genetic risk mediate familial type 2 diabetes risk in the Framingham Heart Study, Diabetologia, 58. 988-96. 2015.
 
[9]  Alwan, A, “Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010” World Health Organization, 2011.
 
[10]  Shaw, J.E., Sicree, R.A., Zimmet, P.Z, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030”, Diabetes research and clinical practice. 87. 4-14. 2010.
 
[11]  Guariguata, L., Whiting, D., Hambleton, I., Beagley, J., Linnenkamp, U., Shaw, J, “Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035”, Diabetes research and clinical practice, 103.137-49. 2014.
 
[12]  Parkin, C.G., Davidson, J.A, “Value of self-monitoring blood glucose pattern analysis in improving diabetes outcomes”, Journal of diabetes science and technology. 3:500-508.2009.
 
[13]  Somineni, H.K., Boivin, G.P., Elased, K.M, Daily exercise training protects against albuminuria and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 shedding in db/db diabetic mice, Journal of Endocrinology, 221.235-251. 2014.
 
[14]  Balk, E.M., Tatsioni, A., Lichtenstein, A.H., Lau, J., Pittas, A.G, “Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids a systematic review of randomized controlled trials”, Diabetes care, 30. 2154-2163. 2007.
 
[15]  Sharma, S., Agrawal, R.P., Choudhary, M., Jain, S., Goyal, S., Agarwal, V, “Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA 1 C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetes”, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 25. 149-153. 2011.
 
[16]  Anderson, R.A, “Chromium and insulin resistance”, Nutrition research reviews, 16. 267-275. 2003.
 
[17]  Cefalu, W.T., Rood, J., Pinsonat, P., Qin, J., Sereda, O., Levitan, L., Anderson, R.A., Zhang, X.H., Martin, J.M., Martin, C.K. and Wang, Z.Q, Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 59. 755-762. 2010.
 
[18]  Abdollahi, M., Farshchi, A., Nikfar, S. and Seyedifar, M, “Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials”, Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16. 99-114. 2013.
 
[19]  American Diabetes Association, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39. S13-S22. 2016.
 
[20]  Marfell-Jones, M.J., Stewart, A., de Ridder, J, International standards for anthropometric assessment, 2012.
 
[21]  Streiner, D.L., Norman, G.R., Cairney, J, Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use: Oxford University Press, USA; 2014.
 
[22]  Crozier, S.R., Inskip, H.M., Godfrey, K.M., Robinson, S.M, “Dietary patterns in pregnant women: a comparison of food-frequency questionnaires and 4 d prospective diaries”, British journal of nutrition, 99. 869-875. 2008.
 
[23]  Tyrovolas, S., Pounis, G., Bountziouka, V., Polychronopoulos, E., Panagiotakos, D.B, “Repeatability and validation of a short, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire designed for older adults living in Mediterranean areas: the MEDIS-FFQ”, Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 2010;29:311-24.
 
[24]  Manual A. Dietary guidelines for Indians. Nat Inst Nutrition. 2. 89-117. 2011.
 
[25]  Lau, F.C., Bagchi, M., Sen, C.K., Bagchi, D, “Nutrigenomic basis of beneficial effects of chromium (III) on obesity and diabetes”, Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 317. 1-10. 2008.
 
[26]  Paiva, A.N., de Lima, J.G., de Medeiros, A.C., Figueiredo, H.A., de Andrade, R.L., Ururahy, M.A., Rezende, A.A., Brandão-Neto, J. and Almeida, M.D.G, “Beneficial effects of oral chromium picolinate supplementation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical study”, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 32. 66-72. 2015.
 
[27]  Kelly, S.J., Ismail, M, “Stress and type 2 diabetes: a review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes”, Annual review of public health, 36. 441-462. 2015.
 
[28]  Mendenhall, E., Norris, S.A., Shidhaye, R., Prabhakaran, D, “Depression and type 2 diabetes in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review”, Diabetes research and clinical practice, 103. 276-285. 2014.
 
[29]  Tabák, A.G., Akbaraly, T.N., Batty, G.D., Kivimäki, M, “Depression and type 2 diabetes: a causal association?” The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 2. 236-245. 2014.
 
[30]  Cheng, N., Zhu, X., Shi, H., Wu ,W., Chi, J., Cheng, J., and Anderson, R.A, “Follow‐up survey of people in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming supplemental chromium” The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 12. 55-60. 1999.
 
[31]  Alhazmi, A., Stojanovski, E., McEvoy, M., Garg, M, “The association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of cohort studies” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 27. 251-60. 2014.
 
[32]  Costanzo, P., Cleland, J.G., Pellicori, P., Clark, A.L., Hepburn, D., Kilpatrick, E.S., Perrone-Filardi, P., Zhang, J. and Atkin, S.L, “The obesity paradox in type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship of body mass index to prognosis: a cohort study”, Annals of internal medicine, 162. 610-618. 2015.
 
[33]  Zhang, Q., Xiao, X., Li, M., Li, W., Yu, M., Zhang, H., Ping, F., Wang, Z., Zheng, J. and Xiang, H, “miR-375 and miR-30d in the effect of chromium-containing Chinese medicine moderating glucose metabolism”, Journal of diabetes research, 2014. 2014.
 
[34]  Hummel, M., Standl, E., Schnell, O, “Chromium in metabolic and cardiovascular disease”, Hormone and metabolic research, 39. 743-751. 2007.
 
[35]  Wang, Z.Q., Qin, J., Martin, J., Zhang, X.H., Sereda, O, Anderson RA, Pinsonat, P. and Cefalu, W.T, “Phenotype of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus may determine clinical response to chromium supplementation”, Metabolism, 56. 1652-1655. 2007.
 
[36]  Bartlett, H.E., Eperjesi, F, “Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review”, Ophthalmic and physiological optics, 28. 503-523. 2008.
 
[37]  Aghdassi, E., Arendt, B.M., Salit, I.E., Mohammed, S.S., Jalali, P., Bondar, H., Allard, J.P, “In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial”, Current HIV research, 8. 113-120. 2010.
 
[38]  Jain, S.K., Rains, J.L., Croad, J.L, “Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats”, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 43. 1124-1131. 2007.
 
[39]  Sundaram, B., Aggarwal, A., Sandhir, R, “Chromium picolinate attenuates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 27. 117-121. 2013.
 
Show Less References

Article

Hepatoprotective Activities of Huoshan Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo Water Extracts on Carbontetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

1Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, China

2Anhui Hushengji Biotechnology Co., Ltd., luan, China

3Pharmacy School of Shihezi University, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic Phytomedicine Resources, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(8), 543-548
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-9
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jichun Han, Defang Li, Xiaoyu Chen, Fanqing Meng, Bo Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Qiusheng Zheng. Hepatoprotective Activities of Huoshan Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo Water Extracts on Carbontetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(8):543-548. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-9.

Correspondence to: Qiusheng  Zheng, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, China. Email: zqsyt@sohu.com

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of water extracts from Huoshan Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (HDW) in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, potential mechanisms of any effects observed will be investigated. Methods: Mice received HDW pretreatment prior to induction of hepatotoxicity. HDW was administered to mice once daily for a total of 5 days (p.o.) at three dose levels (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day). Hepatotoxicity was then induced in Kunming mice using a single injection (s.c.) of CCl4. CCl4 was diluted in corn oil and used at a concentration of 10 ml/kg body weight. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione disulfide (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were analyzed as a readout to measure oxidative stress status. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured as a readout of inflammation status. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed as a measure for the degree of hepatic injury. Finally, the liver ultrastructure was examined using optical microscopy. Results: CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was shown to result in increased levels of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, CRP and TNF-ɑ, and decreased levels of SOD and a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio in serum. Histopathological examination of liver sections using microscopy revealed necrosis and inflammatory effects due to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. We observed that HDW pretreatment resulted in decreased levels of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, CRP and TNF-ɑ, and increased SOD levels and an increased GSH/GSSG ratio. In addition, the hepatic histo-architecture was shown to be normalized. Conclusion: This study provides support for the use of HDW to protect against toxic liver injury. Furthermore, we show that the hepatoprotective effects of HDW are likely attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords

References

[1]  Rabinowich L, Shibolet O, Drug Induced Steatohepatitis: An Uncommon Culprit of a Common Disease. Biomed Res Int, 2015.
 
[2]  Suzek H, Celik I, Dogan A, Yildirim S, Protective effect and antioxidant role of sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Pharm Biol, 54(3). 451-7. 2016.
 
[3]  Liang D, Zhou Q, Gong W, Wang Y, Nie Z, He H, Li J, Wu J, Wu C, and Zhang J, Studies on the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare. J Ethnopharmacol, 136(2). 316-21. 2011.
 
[4]  Abdou RH, Saleh SY, and Khalil WF.-, Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Pharmacogn Mag, 11(Suppl 1), S93-S101. 2015.
 
[5]  Abenavoli L, Peta V, and Milic N, Lifestyle changes associated with a new antioxidant formulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series. nn Hepatol, 14(1), 121-6. 2015.
 
Show More References
[6]  Pisonero-Vaquero S, Gonzalez-Gallego J, Sanchez-Campos S, and Garcia-Mediavilla MV, Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Therapy. Curr Med Chem, 22(25), 2991-3012. 2015.
 
[7]  Zhao X, Qian Y, Li GJ, and Tan J, Preventive effects of the polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage. Chin J Nat Med, 13(7), 521-528. 2015.
 
[8]  Akhlaghi M, and Bandy B, Mechanisms of flavonoid protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol, 46(3), 309-17. 2009.
 
[9]  Khaskheli SG, Zheng W, Sheikh SA, Khaskheli AA, Liu Y, Soomro AH, Feng X, Sauer MB, Wang YF, and Huang W, Characterization of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides and its antioxidant properties in fresh and pickled product. Int J Biol Macromol, 81, 387-395. 2015.
 
[10]  Yang J, Yang G, Hou G, Liu Q, Hu W, Zhao PU, and He YI, Scutellaria barbata D. Don polysaccharides inhibit the growth of Calu-3 xenograft tumors via suppression of the HER2 pathway and angiogenesis. Oncol Lett, 9(6), 2721-2725. 2015.
 
[11]  Huang Y, Zhou LS, Yan L, Ren J, Zhou DX, and Li SS, Alpinetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Int Immunopharmacol, 28(2), 1003-1008. 2015.
 
[12]  Li X, Ding X, Chu B, Zhou Q, Ding G, and Gu S, Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Orchidaceae) based on AFLP. Genetica, 133(2), 159-166. 2008.
 
[13]  Niu L, Cui X, Qi Y, Xie D, Wu Q, Chen X, Ge J, and Liu Z, Involvement of TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice. PLoS One, 11(5), e0156090. 2016.
 
[14]  Girish C, and Pradhan SC, Hepatoprotective activities of picroliv, curcumin, and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in mice. J Pharmacol Pharmacother, 3(2), 149-155. 2012.
 
[15]  Augustin W, Wiswedel I, Noack H, Reinheckel T, and Reichelt O, Role of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in the defence against functional damage and lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Mol Cell Biochem, 174(1-2), 199-205. 1997.
 
[16]  Krishnappa P, Venkatarangaiah K, Venkatesh, Shivamogga Rajanna SK, and Kashi Prakash Gupta R, Antioxidant and prophylactic effects of Delonix elata L., stem bark extracts, and flavonoid isolated quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Biomed Res Int, 2014.
 
[17]  Yu Z, Sun W, Peng W, Yu R, Li G, and Jiang T, Pharmacokinetics in Vitro and in Vivo of Two Novel Prodrugs of Oleanolic Acid in Rats and Its Hepatoprotective Effects against Liver Injury Induced by CCl4. Mol Pharm, 13(5), 1699-1710. 2016.
 
[18]  Faedmaleki F, Shirazi FH, Ejtemaeimehr S, Anjarani S, Salarian AA, Ahmadi Ashtiani H, and Rastegar H, Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture. Acta Med Iran, 54(2), 85-95. 2016.
 
[19]  Zhang JQ, Shi L, Xu XN, Huang SC, Lu B, Ji LL, and Wang ZT, Therapeutic detoxification of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice and its mechanism. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 15(12), 1039-1047. 2014.
 
[20]  Ray S, Murmu N, Adhikari J, Bhattacharyya S, Adhikari S, and Banerjee S, Inhibition of Hep G2 hepatic cancer cell growth and CCl4 induced liver cytotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Mahua extract. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 33(4), 295-314. 2014.
 
Show Less References