Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Editor-in-Chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal




Quinoa and Rice Co-products Gluten Free-cereals: Physical, Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Qualities

1Federal University of Goiás - UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brazil

2Food and Nutrition Chemistry Center, Institute of Food Technology (ITAL), Campinas, SP, Brazil

3State Londrina University – UEL, Londrina, PR, Brazil

4Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(9), 599-606
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Roberta Godoy, Márcio Caliari, Manoel Soares Soares Júnior, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Marta de Toledo Benassi, Marina Costa Garcia. Quinoa and Rice Co-products Gluten Free-cereals: Physical, Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Qualities. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(9):599-606. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-7.

Correspondence to: Márcio  Caliari, Federal University of Goiás - UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Email:


Quinoa grains and rice co-products (broken grains and bran) can offer good opportunities for the production of nutritious foods without gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of extruded gluten-free breakfast cereals produced from quinoa and rice co-products. The cereals breakfast were submitted in three different treatments: Caramel (sweet), with addition of caramel colorant before extrusion and glucose syrup after this process; Annatto (salty), with addition of annatto colorant before extrusion and sodium chloride solution after this; and the natural, without addition of colorant and flavoring. Randomized design with the three treatments and three replicates was used to determine the physical characteristics, and randomized blocks for sensory acceptance. Attribute "crispness" was highly rated by the judges for all flavors. There were acceptance of annatto (salty) and caramel (sweet) cereals flavors, indicating the preference of consumers for more pronounced flavors. Content of protein, fiber and lipids in the natural cereal is higher corn, being a good option to meet the daily consumption values. Levels of zinc, copper and manganese supply the values for both adults and children, considering 100g of daily consumption. Obtained amino acid profile was higher than the minimum standard established by FAO/WHO for all essential amino acids except lysine. Production of breakfast cereal from quinoa grains and broken rice bran is viable considering the technological, nutritional, microbiological and sensory aspects.



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Compositional Characteristics of Young Shoots of Selected Bamboo Species Growing in Kenya and Their Potential as Food Source

1Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

2Taita Taveta University College, Voi, Kenya

3Food Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan

4School of Bioscience and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(9), 607-612
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paul N. Karanja, Glaston M. Kenji, Simon M. Njoroge, Daniel N. Sila, Christine A. Onyango, Hiroshi Koaze, Naomichi Baba. Compositional Characteristics of Young Shoots of Selected Bamboo Species Growing in Kenya and Their Potential as Food Source. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(9):607-612. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-8.

Correspondence to: Paul  N. Karanja, Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. Email:


Bamboo shoots have been used for many years as food particularly in Asian countries. In Kenya however utilization of bamboo for food is largely unknown despite the frequent food shortages, high poverty level and widespread nutritional disorders. The objective of this study was to determine some compositional characteristics of three bamboo species namely, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus giganteus and Yushania alpina growing in Kenya and show their potential as important food source. Proximate and mineral composition were determined using standard AOAC methods. Total polyphenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and anti-nutrient factors were also determined using established protocols. Results were expressed on fresh weight basis. The shoots were found to contain 1.9-3.6% of carbohydrates, 2.3-2.6% of protein, 91.2-92.3% of moisture, 1.6-2.6% of fiber, 0.14-0.17% of fat and 0.98-1.17% of ash. Mineral content in mg/100g were 20.2-31.8 of Ca, 53.4-103.0 of Mg, 51.4-67.4 of P, 288.8-362.6 of K, 0.3-1.3 of Mn and 0.9-1.5 of Zn. 3.0-16.1 mg/100g of total polyphenols and 53.1-288.4mg/100g of flavonoids were observed to be contained. Tannins, oxalates and phytic acid of 0.007-0.030%, 0.7-1.2% and 0.8-2.7%, respectively were found present. These findings provide vital baseline data for exploitation of bamboo shoots in nutritional interventions in Kenya.



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Protease Treatment, Glucose Addition and Saccharification of Adzuki Beans Effects on the Radical-scavenging Properties of Soymilk

1Department of Food Production Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

2United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, Iwate, Japan

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(9), 613-619
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shuo Feng, Shan W, Michiyuki Kojima. Protease Treatment, Glucose Addition and Saccharification of Adzuki Beans Effects on the Radical-scavenging Properties of Soymilk. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(9):613-619. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-9.

Correspondence to: Michiyuki  Kojima, Department of Food Production Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Email:


The effects of protease treatment, glucose addition and adzuki beans saccharification on the radical-scavenging properties of soymilk were evaluated. It was found that protease treatment (8.9 U/ml) and the glucose addition (84 mg/ml) increased the radical-scavenging capacity of soymilk by 1.8 folds. Adzuki bean saccharification (51 U/ml α-amylase and 6.25 U/ml amyloglucosidase) and protease treatment (8.9 U protease/ml) increased radical-scavenging activity by 2.3 folds. This effect was not solely due to the presence of adzuki polyphenols, as melanoidin production, but also due to increased radical-scavenging activity. The correlation between the radical-scavenging capacity of soymilk and melanoidins, or that of mix bean milk and melanoidins was high (soymilk: R2 = 0.94; mix bean: R2 = 0.96). Collectively, these data indicated that protease treatment, glucose addition and adzuki bean milk saccharification affect the radical-scavenging activity of soymilk through melanoidin production. These findings should contribute to the development of soymilk-based antioxidant-rich functional foods formulation in the future.



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