Welcome to Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of food and nutrition. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of food and nutrition.

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Editor-in-Chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFNR



Regeneration, Nutritional Values, and Antioxidants in Excised Adventitious Shoot of Radish Affected by Dark Treatment

1Department of Horticulture, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702, Republic of Korea

2Department of Development in Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(6), 365-370
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hyun-Sug Choi, Se Ji Jang, Hye Ji Park, Young Beom Yun, Yong In Kuk. Regeneration, Nutritional Values, and Antioxidants in Excised Adventitious Shoot of Radish Affected by Dark Treatment. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(6):365-370. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-2.

Correspondence to: Yong  In Kuk, Department of Development in Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Email: yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr


The study was to evaluate regeneration, mineral nutrients, and antioxidative activities of adventitious shoot in tuberous root radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown under light and dark conditions in a controlled growth chamber. Small pieces of top of root radish, including adventitious shoots, were detached from mother radish roots (1st cut) and grown for 22 days (22 DAC1), which then re-cut (2nd cut) and re-grown for 23 days (23 DAC2). Fresh weight was heavier on plants grown under the dark condition (6.2 g) at 22 DAC1 compared to the light condition (5.2 g) but was not significantly different between the treatment conditions at 23 DAC2. Shoot length was significantly extended by the dark condition during the experimental period. Leaf concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, and Mn were significantly increased by the light condition, with high leaf concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Cu observed on the dark condition. Proline of total amino acids was highly increased by the light condition (126.8 mg g-1) compared to dark condition (16.3 mg g-1), but other total amino acid concentrations were varied between the treatment conditions. Fructose and sucrose were increased by dark and light conditions, respectively. Dark condition reduced scavenging activity (9.7%), total phenolic (12.2 mg g-1) and flavonoid compounds (0.05 mg g-1) compared to the light condition (scavenging activity; 49.3%, total phenolic 43.8 mg g-1 and flavonoid compounds; 0.21 mg g-1) at 22 DAC1, which was also observed at 23 DAC2. Excised adventitious shoot of radish grown under the dark condition could be useful propagation technique for convenient consumption at all times and the physicochemical values to some degree.



[1]  Lotter, D.W, “Organic agriculture,” Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 21. 59-128. 2003.
[2]  Guh, J.O. and Kuk, Y.I, “Weeding hypothesis on direct seeding rice field as applied by the old firing and water dressing method,” Korean Journal of Weed Science, 31. 1-7. 2011.
[3]  Poorter, H. and Nagel, O, “The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review,” Functional Plant Biology, 27. 595-607. 2000.
[4]  Yun, Y.B, Ryu, D.K., Jang, S.J., Kwon, O.D., Choi, H.S., Jung, H.I. and Kuk, Y.I, “Growth, physiochemical components, and antioxidative activities of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) grown under light and dark conditions,” Korean Journal of International Agriculture, 24. 331-336. 2012.
[5]  Choi, S.T., Lee, J.T. and Park, W.C, “Dormancy physiology, softening culture and evaluation of nutrition value in the Ulrung-native Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum,” Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 36. 495-501. 1993.
Show More References
[6]  Woo, S.J. and Ryoo, S.S, “Preparation methods for atomic absorption and spectrophotometry of food samples,” Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 15. 225-231. 1983.
[7]  Ohara, I. and Shujiro, A, “Comparison of protein precipitants for the determination of free amino acids in plasma,” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 43. 1473-1478. 1979.
[8]  Wilson, A.M., Work, T.M., Bushway, A.A. and Bushway, R.J, “HPLC determination of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in potatoes,” Journal of Food Science, 46. 300-301. 1981.
[9]  Colebrook, E.H., Thomas, S.G., Phillips, A.L. and Hedden, P, “The role of gibberellin signaling in plant responses to abiotic stress,” Journal of Experimental Biology, 217. 67-75. 2014.
[10]  Tamimi, S. and Firn, R.D, “The basipetal auxin transport system and the control of cell elongation in hypocotyls,” Journal of Experimental Botany, 36. 955-962. 1985.
[11]  Pill, W.G. and Lambeth, V.N, “Effects of NH4 and NO3 nutrition with and without pH adjustment on tomato growth, ion composition, and water relations,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 102. 78-81. 1977.
[12]  Epstrin, E, “Mineral nutrition of plants: mechanisms of uptake and transport,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 7. 1-24. 1956.
[13]  Pérez-Alfocea, F., Estan, M.F., Caro, M. and Guerrier, G, “Osmotic adjustment in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii under NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 iso-osmotic stresses,” Physiologia Plantarum, 87. 493-498. 1993.
[14]  Claussen, W., Brückner, B., Krumbein, A. and Lenz, F, “Long-term response of tomato plants to changing nutrient concentration in the root environment—the role of proline as an indicator of sensory fruit quality,” Plant Science, 171. 323-331. 2006.
[15]  McArtney, S.J. and Ferree, D.C, “Shading effects on dry matter partitioning, remobilization of stored reserves and early season vegetative development of grapevines in the year after treatment,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 124. 591-597. 1999.
[16]  Geiger, D.R. and Batey, J.W, “Translocation of 14C sucrose in sugar beet during darkness,” Plant Physiology, 42. 1743-1749. 1967.
[17]  Cartea, M.E. and Velasco, P, “Glucosinolates in Brassica foods: bioavailability in food and significance for human health,” Phytochemistry Reviews, 7. 213-229. 2008.
[18]  Wang, S.Y., Chen, C.T. and Wang, C.Y, “The influence of light and maturity on fruit quality and flavonoid content of red raspberries,” Food Chemistry, 112. 676-684. 2009.
[19]  Kwon, J.W., Park, J.H., Kwon, K.S., Kim, D.S., Jeong, J.B., Lee, H.K., Sim, Y.E., Kim, M.S., Young, J.Y., Chung, G.Y. and Jeong, H.J, “Effect of shading practices on the chemical compounds and antioxidant in Aruncus diocicus,” Korean Journal of Plant Resources, 19. 1-7. 2006.
[20]  Chon, S.U, “Shading effect on plant growth and physiological activity of Youngia sonchifolia growth in plastic house,” Korean Journal Weed Science, 30. 215-224. 2010.
[21]  Jin, P., Yao, D., Xu, F., Wang, H. and Zheng, Y, “Effect of light on quality and bioactive compounds in postharvest broccoli florets,” Food Chemistry, 172. 705-709. 2015.
[22]  Samuoliene, G., Sirtautas, R., Brazaityte, A. and Duchovskis, P, “LED lighting and seasonality effects antioxidant properties of baby leaf lettuce,” Food Chemistry, 134. 1494-1499. 2012.
Show Less References


Molecular Mechanism of Action for the Geranyl Flavonoid to Counter Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Milieu

1Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China

2College of Mathematics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P.R. China

3College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, PR China

4School of Basic Clinical Medical, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(6), 371-378
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hai Niu, Ke Li, Limei Ma, Weihong Gong, Wen Huang. Molecular Mechanism of Action for the Geranyl Flavonoid to Counter Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Milieu. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(6):371-378. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-3.

Correspondence to: Wen  Huang, Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Email: niuhai@scu.edu.cn; huangwen@scu.edu.cn


This work was to examine the effect of 3’-methyl-4’, 7-dihydroxyflavanone, a geranyl flavonoid (GF), on hepatocellular AMPK activity and lipid levels in HepG2 cells and diabetic mice, and identify molecular mechanism of the GF action on remedying dyslipidemia. The AMPK activation and lipid-lowering effect of the GF in diabetic mice and in HepG2 cells paralleled observations. The GF activated AMPK in HepG2 cells treated with high glucose, and enhance phosphorylation of ACC1 and ACC2, two isoforms of ACC, resulting in decrease in ACC activity and hepatic lipids. As demonstrated in cells overexpressing a dominant-negative AMPK mutant, the effect of GF was shown to be mediated by the activation of AMPK. The AMPK was activated relatively rapidly by GF and well before any potential change in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level was detected. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro inhibition of AMPK, activation of ACC, and hepatocellular lipid accumulation caused by sustained high glucose levels was effectively counteracted by activating AMPK with treatment of GF. It can be conclude that GF lower lipids both in vivo and in vitro by activating AMPK and inactivating ACC, and consequently down-regulating fatty acid synthesis. The work provides a strong evidence for GF as a new therapeutic agent to definitively remedy dyslipidemia in diabetic milieu.



[1]  Lam, T., Burns, K., Dennis, M., Cheung, N. W., Gunton, J. E., “Assessment of cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Risk scores and provocative testing”. World Journal of Diabetes 6. 634-641. 2015.
[2]  Ku, G. M., Kegels, G., “Adapting chronic care models for diabetes care delivery in low-and-middle-income countries: A review”. World Journal of Diabetes 6. 566-575. 2015.
[3]  Kahn, S. E., Hull, R. L., Utzschneider, K. M., “Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes”. Nature 444. 840-846. 2006.
[4]  Schlyer, S., Horuk, R., “I want a new drug: G-protein-coupled receptors in drug development”. Drug Discovery Today 11. 481-493. 2006.
[5]  Adaramoye, O. A., Akanni, O. O., “Protective effects of Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats”. Andrologia. 12426. 2015.
Show More References
[6]  Liu, Y., Ragone, D., Murch, S. J., “Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis): a source of high-quality protein for food security and novel food products”. Amino Acids 47. 847-856. 2015.
[7]  Jalal, T. K., Ahmed, I. A., Mikail, M., Momand, L., Draman, S., Isa, M. L., AbdullRasad, M. S., NorOmar, M., Ibrahim, M., AbdulWahab, R., “Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 175. 3231-3243. 2015.
[8]  Singh, M. K., Usha, R., Hithayshree, K. R., Bindhu, O. S., “Hemostatic potential of latex proteases from Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex. Roem. and Schult. and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex. F.A. Zorn) Forsberg”. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 39. 43-49. 2015.
[9]  Nwokocha, C. R., Owu, D. U., McLaren, M., Murray, J., Delgoda, R., Thaxter, K., McCalla, G., Young, L., “Possible mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaves in producing hypotension in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats”. Pharmaceutical Biology 50. 1096-1102. 2012.
[10]  Adaramoye, O. A., Akanni, O. O., “Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats”. Adavance in Pharmacological Sciences 2014. 605425. 2014.
[11]  Wang, Y., Deng, T., Lin ,L., Pan, Y., Zheng, X., “Bioassay-guided isolation of antiatherosclerotic phytochemicals from Artocarpus altilis”. Phytotherapy Research 20. 1052-1055. 2006.
[12]  Fryer, L. G. D., Parbu−Patel, A., Carling, D., “The anti-diabetic drugs rosiglitazone and metformin stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase through distinct signaling pathways”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277. 25226-25232. 2002.
[13]  Hardie, D. G., Carling, D., Carlson, M., “The AMP-activated/SNF1 protein kinase subfamily: metabolic sensors of the eukaryotic cell”. Annual Review of Biochemistry 67. 821-855. 1998.
[14]  Kemp B., Stapleton D., Campbell D. J., Chen Z. P., Murthy S., Walter M., Gupta A., Adams J. J., Katsis F., van Denderen B., Jennings I. G., Iseli T., Michell B. J., Witters L. A., “AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator”. Biochemical Society Transactions 31. 162-168. 2003.
[15]  Ishibashi, S., Brown, M. S., Goldstein, J. L., Gerard, R. D., Hammer, R. E., Herz, J., “Hypercholesterolemia in low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout mice and its reversal by adenovirus−mediated gene delivery”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92. 883-893. 1993.
[16]  Iglesias, M. A1., Ye, J. M., Frangioudakis, G., Saha, A. K., Tomas, E., Ruderman, N. B., Cooney, G. J., Kraegen, E. W., “AICAR administration causes an apparent enhancement of muscle and liver insulin action in insulin-resistant high-fat-fed rats”. Diabetes 51. 2886-2894. 2002.
[17]  Peng X1, Guo X, Borkan SC, Bharti A, Kuramochi Y, Calderwood S, Sawyer DB., “Heat shock protein 90 stabilization of ErbB2 expression is disrupted by ATP depletion in myocytes”. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 280. 13148-13152. 2005.
[18]  Picard, F., Kurtev, M., Chung, N., Topark, N. A., Senawong, T., Machado, De. O. R., Leid, M., McBurney, M. W., Guarente, L., “Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repressing PPAR-gamma”. Nature 429. 771-776. 2004.
[19]  Mengwei, Z., Cynthia, H., Zhijun, L., “Interaction between Active Pak1 and Raf-1 Is Necessary for Phosphorylation and Activation of Raf-1”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277. 4395-4405. 2002.
[20]  Mengwei, Z., Christine, A. W., Xiao, Q. X., Aja, R., Rong, W., Zhi, J. L., “Microtubule integrity regulates Pak leading to Ras-independent activation of Raf-1: insights into mechanisms of Raf-1 activation”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 267. 25157-25165. 2001.
[21]  Eva, T., Tsu-Shuen, T., Asish, K. S., Heather, E. M., Cheng, C. Z., Samar, I. I., Harvey, F. L., Neil, B. R., “Enhanced muscle fat oxidation and glucose transport by ACRP30 globular domain: acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition and AMP-activated protein kinase activation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United states of America 99. 16309-16399. 2002.
[22]  Dekkers, D. H., Bezstarosti, K., Gurusamy, N., Luijk, K., Verhoeven, A.J., Rijkers, E. J., Demmers, J. A., Lamers, J. M., Maulik, N., Das, D. K., “Identification by a differential proteomic approach of the induced stress and redox proteins by resveratrol in the normal and diabetic rat heart”. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 12. 1677-1689. 2008.
[23]  Hardie, D. G., “Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status”. Endocrinology 144. 5179-5183. 2003.
[24]  Fryer, L. G. D., Carling, D., “AMP-activated protein kinase and the metabolic syndrome”. Biochemical Society Transactions 33. 362-366. 2005.
[25]  Mezei, O., Banz, W. J., Steger, R. W., Peluso, M. R., Winters, T. A., Shay, N., “Soy isoflavones exert antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through the PPAR pathways in obese Zucker rats and murine RAW 264.7 cells”. Journal of Nutrition 133. 1238-1243. 2003.
[26]  Wang, M. Y., Unger, R. H., “Role of PP2C in cardiac lipid accumulation in obese rodents and its prevention by troglitazone”. American Journal of Physiology-endocrinology and Metabolism 288. E216-E21. 2005.
[27]  Minokoshi, Y., Alquier, T., Furukawa, N., Kim, Y. B., Lee, A., Xue, B., Mu ,J., Foufelle, F., Ferré, P., Birnbaum, M. J., Stuck, B. J, Kahn, B. B., “AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus”. Nature 428. 569-574. 2004.
[28]  Park, S. H., Gammon, S. R., Knippers, J. D., Paulsen, S. R., Rubink,D. S., Winder, W. W., “Phosphorylation-activity relationships of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle”. Journal of Applied Physiology 92. 2475-2482. 2002.
[29]  Hardie, D. G., Pan, D. A., “Regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation by the AMP-activated protein kinase”. Biochemical Society Transaction 30. 1064-1070. 2002
[30]  Unger, R. H., “The hyperleptinemia of obesity-regulator of caloric surpluses”. Cell 117. 145-146. 2004
[31]  Xavier, G., Leclerc, I., Varadi, A., Tsuboi, T., Moule, S. K., Rutter, G. A., “Role for AMP-activated protein kinase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and preproinsulin gene expression”. Biochemical Journal 371. 761-774. 2003
[32]  You, M., Matsumoto, M., Pacold, C. M., Cho, W. K., Crabb, D. W., “The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the action of ethanol in the liver”. Gastroenterology 127. 1798-1808. 2004
[33]  Chen, M. B., McAinch, A. J., Macaulay, S. L., “Impaired activation of AMP-kinase and fatty acid oxidation by globular adiponectin in cultured human skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetics”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 90. 3665-3672. 2005
[34]  Ruderman, N. B., Cacicedo, J. M., Itani, S., “Malonyl-CoA and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK): possible links between insulin resistance in muscle and early endothelial cell damage in diabetes”. Biochemical Society Transactions 31. 202-206. 2003
[35]  Shaw, R. J., Lamia, K. A., Vasquez, D., Koo, S. H., Bardeesy, N., Depinho, R. A., Montminy, M., Cantley, L. C., “The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin”. Science 310. 1642-1646. 2005.
[36]  Abu-Elheiga, L., Matzuk, M. M., Kordari, P., Kordari, P., Oh, W., Shaikenov, T., Gu, Z., Wakil, S. J., “Mutant mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 are embryonically lethal”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102. 12011-12016. 2005.
[37]  Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Minokoshi, Y., Ito, Y., Waki, H., Uchida, S., Yamashita, S., Noda, M., Kita, S., Ueki, K., Eto, K., Akanuma, Y., Froguel, P., Foufelle, F., Ferre, P., Carling, D., Kimura, S., Nagai, R., Kahn, B. B., Kadowaki, T., “Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 8. 1288-1295. 2002.
[38]  Zhou, G. C., Myers, R., Li, Y., Chen, Y., Shen, X., Fenyk-Melody, J., Wu, M., Ventre, J., Doebber, N., Musi, N., Hirshman, M. F., Goodyear, L. J., Mouer, D. E., “Role of AMP−activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108. 1167-1174. 2001.
[39]  Foretz, M., Ancellin, N., Andreelli, F., Saintillan, Y., Grondin, P., Kahn, A., Thorens, B., Vaulont, S., Viollet, B., “Short-term overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver leads to mild hypoglycemia and fatty liver”. Diabetes 54. 1331-1339. 2005.
[40]  Dev, K. S., Subhashis, B., Todd, D., “Porter Green and black tea extracts inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and activate AMP kinase to decrease cholesterol synthesis in hepatoma cells”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 20. 816-822. 2009.
Show Less References


Gastrointestinal Tissue Distribution of β-Conglycinin in Pigs at Different Growth Stages

1Key Laboratory of Animal Production, Product Quality and Security, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal nutrition and feed science, Jilin Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, P.R. China

2Changchun Property Management School, Changchun, P.R.China

3Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, P.R. China

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(6), 379-383
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yuan Zhao, Bing Zhang, Guixin Qin, Tao Wang, Nan Bao, Xiaodong Zhang. Gastrointestinal Tissue Distribution of β-Conglycinin in Pigs at Different Growth Stages. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(6):379-383. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-6-4.

Correspondence to: Guixin  Qin, Key Laboratory of Animal Production, Product Quality and Security, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal nutrition and feed science, Jilin Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, P.R. China. Email: qgx@jlau.edu.cn


Soybean allergens may cross the gastrointestinal tissue and induce allergy, and their gastrointestinal tissue distribution could provide the basis of the allergic mechanism to some extent. But the relevant literatures for β-conglycinin are scarce. In the current study, the variation of β-conglycinin in gastrointestinal tissue in vivo was investigated using pigs as animal model in order to compare the distribution differences of β-conglycinin between the growth stages. Fifteen General No.1 barrows weaned on the 28th day were selected to carry out the animal experiments of three ages including weanling, growing and finishing stage. Pigs were fed diets with 4% purified β-conglycinin in experimental periods. The immunohistochemistry method was performed to detect the gastrointestinal distribution of β-conglycinin. The results indicated that there was a significant difference on the gastrointestinal mucosal distribution of β-conglycinin between pigs of different ages. The β-conglycinin went up from stomach to dedodenum, then slightly dropped until proximal-jejunum, and kept to rise until ileum for piglets (P<0.001). It from stomach to distal-jejunum increased slowly, but fell sharply for growers and finishers (P<0.001). The highest content of β-conglycinin was in the deodenum and ileum for piglets, and in distal-jejunum for growers and finishers (P<0.05). The β-conglycinin in intestinal villi and mucosa had similar distribution variation. The distribution of β-conglycinin in intestinal villi and crypt were not affected by growth phase.



[1]  Friedman M, Brandon DL. Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 49: 1069-1077. 2001.
[2]  Foucard T, Yman IM. A study on severe food reactions in Sweden-is soy protein an underestimated cause of food anaphylaxis? Allergy, 54: 261-265. 1999.
[3]  Sampsom HA. Update on food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113: 805-819.2000.
[4]  Scott HS, Hugh AS. Food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117: 470-475. 2006.
[5]  Zhao Y, Qin GX, Han R, Wang J, Zhang XD, Liu DD. β-Conglycinin Reduces the Tight Junction Occludin and ZO-1 Expression in IPEC-J2. International Journal of Molecular Science, 15: 1915-1926. 2014.
Show More References
[6]  Zhao Y, Liu DD, Han R, Zhang XD, Zhang SY, Qin GX. Soybean allergen glycinin induced the destruction the mechanical barrier function in IPEC-J2. Food and Agriculture Immunology, 26(4): 601-609. 2015.
[7]  Utsumi S. Plant food protein engineering. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 36: 89-208. 1992.
[8]  Rozenfeld P, Docena GH, Anon MC, Fossatt CA. Detection and identification of a soy protein component that cross-reacts with caseins from cow’s milk. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002; 130: 49-58.
[9]  Mittag D, Virths S, Vogel L, Becker WM, Rihs HP, Helbling A, Wuthrich B, Ballmer-Weber BK. Soybean allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen: clinical investigation and molecular characterization of allergens. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113: 148-154. 2004.
[10]  Wang T, Qin GX, Zhao Y, Sun ZW. Comparative study on the stability of soybean (Glycine max) β-conglycinin in vivo. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 20 (4): 295-304. 2009.
[11]  Wang T, Qin GX, Sun ZW, Zhao Y, Zhang B. Comparative study on the residual rate of immunoreactive soybean glycinin (11S) in the digestive tract of pigs of different ages. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 21 (3): 201-208. 2010.
[12]  Heppell LMJ, Kilshaw PJ. Immune response of guinea pigs to dietary protein. 1. Induction of tolerance by feeding with ovalbumin. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 68: 54. 1982.
[13]  Zhao Y, Qin GX, Sun ZW, Zhang XD, Bao N, Wang T, Zhang B, Zhang BL, Zhu D, Sun L. Disappearance of immunoreactive glycinin and β-conglycinin in thedigestive tract of piglets. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 62: 322-330. 2008.
[14]  Zhao Y, Zhang B, Qin GX, Wang T, Wang J, Han R. Distribution of Glycinin in the Gastrointestinal Tissue of Pigs at Different Growth Stages. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 24(3): 371-378. 2013.
[15]  Setsuko I, Fumio Y. Determination of glycinin and β-conglycinin in soybean protein by immunological methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 35: 200-205.1987.
[16]  Sun P, Li DF, Li ZJ, Dong B, Wang FL. Effects of glycinin on IgE-mediated increase of mast cell numbers and histamine release in the small intestine. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 19: 627-633. 2008.
[17]  Efird RC, ArmstrongWD, Dennis LH. The development of digestive capacity in young pigs: Effects of age and weaning system. Journal of Animal Science, 55: 1380-1387. 1982.
[18]  Han ZK. Livestock physiology. 3rd ed. Beijing: China Agricultural Publisher; 2002.
[19]  Hartman PA, Hays VW, Baker RO, Neagle LH, Catron DV. Digestive enzyme development in the young pig. Journal of Animal Science, 20: 114-123. 1961.
[20]  Lallès JP, Boudry G, Favier C. Gut functions and dysfunction in young pigs: Physiology. Animal Research, 53: 301-316. 2004.
[21]  Lallès JP, Bosi P, Smidt H, Strokes CR. Weaning a challenge to gut physiologists. Livestock Science, 108: 82-93. 2007.
[22]  Ashida Y, Denda M. Dry environment increases mast cell number and histamine content in dermis in hairless mice. British Journal of Dermatology, 149: 240-247. 2003.
[23]  Mathan MM, Mathan VI. Ultrastructural pathology of the rectal mucosa in Shigella dysentery. American Journal of Pathology, 123: 25-38.1986.
[24]  Rangachari PK. Histamine: mercurial messenger in the gut. American Journal of Pathology, 262: G1-G13. 1992.
[25]  Bockman DE, Cooper MD. Pinocytosis by epithelium associated with lymphoid follicles in the bursa of Fabricius, appendix, and Peyer's patches. An electron microscopic study. American journal of anatomy, 136: 455. 1973.
[26]  Owen RL, Jones AL. Epithelial cell specialization within human Peyer's patches: an ultrastructural study of intestinal lymphoid follicles. Gastroenterology, 66: 189. 1974.
[27]  Zhao Y, Qin GX, Sun ZW, Zhang B, Wang T. Stability and Immunoreactivity of glycinin and β-conglycinin to hydrolysis in vitro. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 21 (3): 253-263. 2010.
Show Less References