Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JFNR

Article

In vitro Anti-angiogenic Effects of Tea Saponin and Tea Aglucone on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

1Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital/West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R.China

2Department of Biopharmaceutics, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China

3College of Mathematics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(3), 206-212
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-3-13
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xiaohong Li, Baozhan Huang, Fan Fei, Hai Niu, Wen Huang. In vitro Anti-angiogenic Effects of Tea Saponin and Tea Aglucone on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(3):206-212. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-3-13.

Correspondence to: Wen  Huang, Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital/West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R.China. Email: niuhai@scu.edu.cn; huangwen@scu.edu.cn

Abstract

Green tea is a popular beverage world-wide, especially in Asian countries. Its health benefits, derived from the Camellia sinensis leaves, have been studied over the years. However, few reports are available about the health effects of tea saponin (TS), an important component of Camellia sinensis leaves, and tea aglucone (TA). In this present study, we investigated the effect of TS and TA on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TS inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 7.5 ± 0.6 μM. Inconsistent with the well-reported mechanisms of apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest by steroidal saponins, effects of TS on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in HUVECs were not detected. The autophagic vacuoles in the TS-treated HUVECs, observed with transmission electron microscopy, suggested the involvement of autophagic induction in the growth inhibition of HUVECs. When treated with TS, cell migration, invasion and tube formation potency of HUVECs were markedly suppressed. TA also suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs, with an IC50 of 25.3 ± 1.2 μM. In comparison with TS, TA inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs less effectively. Our data about the anti-angiogenic effects of TS and TA, presented for the first time, would provide a new insight into the health potential for green tea.

Keywords

References

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Article

Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Dried Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea L.) Grown In Sindh, Pakistan

1College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China

2College of Food Science and Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam Sindh, Pakistan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(3), 213-219
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-3-14
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Allah Bux Baloch, Xiaodong Xia, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh. Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Dried Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea L.) Grown In Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(3):213-219. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-3-14.

Correspondence to: Xiaodong  Xia, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Email: foodscixiaodong@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was examined the fresh, cabinet dehydrated and sun-dried cauliflower samples were analyzed for proximate as well as mineral analysis. Proximate analysis was cauliflower samples contained 90.62% moisture, 4.42% carbohydrate, 1.98% protein, 0.23% fat, 2.03% dietary fiber and 0.62% ash. Cabinet dehydration and sun drying substantially decreased moisture content to 9.99% and 13.27, respectively. Proportions of others components were increased, which include carbohydrate (42.44% and 38.37% for cabinet and sun drying, respectively, protein(19.06% and 18.37%), fats (2.24% and 2.16%),dietary fiber (18.59% and 18.80%) and ash (5.98% and 5.76%).In terms of mineral composition, fresh cauliflower samples were rich in phosphorus (61.35 mg/ calcium (41.16 mg /100 g) and potassium (1.68 mg/100 g). These findings suggest that cauliflower is good source of dietary fiber, phosphorus and calcium. Both cabinet dehydration and sun drying are effective in preserving the chemical composition of cauliflower and preventing deterioration by reducing moisture.

Keywords

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Article

Evaluation Canola Meal on Growing Rabbits; Nutritionally and on Their Nutritional Meat Quality

1Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 220-234
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
El-Medany Sh. A., W.H.M. El-Reffaei. Evaluation Canola Meal on Growing Rabbits; Nutritionally and on Their Nutritional Meat Quality. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):220-234. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: W.H.M.  El-Reffaei, Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt. Email: waillh@hotmail.com

Abstract

An experiment was conducted with 45 males growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, four weeks old with an average initial body weight 480g were used in the study to assess their growth performance; meat quality and nutritional meat quality when fed a graded level of canola meal in the ration. The experimental diets had inclusion levels of 0%, 5% (5CM) and 10% (10CM) canola meal in treatments 1 (control), II and III respectively, with fifteen rabbits per every treatment diet and for an eight week feeding trial. During the experiment, growth body weight gain (BWG) was assessed daily and serum lipid profile was withdrawnby the end of 8 weeks. The canola meal at the level of 10 % and 5% of diet reduced both plasma triglycerides and cholesterol value as compared with the control group. The differences between groups were significant in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). While, there is no significant effect on Atherogenic lipoproteins (AL) in blood rabbit samples. At 12 weeks of age fifteen animals from each group were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, meat quality and frozen storage of meat. Results showed that the effect of treatments on body weight gain was insignificant. Average daily gains during the study were 27.42,28 and 28.78 gm, for the control group, fed 5% canola meal and fed 10% canola meal respectively. The produced group of rabbits meat contains of vitamins E was enhanced by feeding with canola meal. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) levels of meat was significantly (P<0.05) lowered by supplemented with canola meal in a rabbit diet. Chemical composition of produced rabbit meat that is introduced, there were no difference (P>0. 05) in moisture and crude protein ratio, the lipid and ash in all rabbit meat fed on 0, 5 or 10%. Physicochemical characteristics of fresh rabbit meat fed on canola meat and frozen storage, pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and cooking loss were investigated in this study. The effect of 5CM and 10CM supplemented in rabbit meal were occurred a significant (P<0.05) increase in PUFAs not only but also increase in total unsaturated fatty acids of produced rabbit meat. A significantly (P<0.05) higher monounsaturated being in 10CM meat after freeze storage period. C18:2 ω 6 is one of the most abundant PUFAs fatty acid in rabbit meat 10CM and follows by 5CM and control basal diet meat, these fatty acids include a conjugated linoleic fatty acid CLA. In terms of a nutritional treatment, which can be beneficial in improving meat and eating quality, special attention in recent years has been paid to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). At 10CM meat of rabbit meat was significantly decreased atherogenicity index (AI) and Thrombogenicity index (TI) in nutritional quality. Amino acid profile and nutritional quality, the produced rabbit meat control dietary fed contains a low ratio of sulfur containing amino acids (1.89± 0.15). While, after supplemented the dietary of rabbit by 5 and 10%, the meat containing an appreciable amount of essential amino acid of sulfur contain amino acid and lysine. Essential amino acid index (EAAI) of four investigated samples were ranged 1.508 to 2.041. Corresponding to EAAI was recording a high value in 10CM meat (2.041) followed by 5CM (1.995) and zero canola rabbit meat group (1.534).Compared to the control diet better lipid stability (DPPH activity scavenging) was only found for 5CM and 10CM level in the meat produced. Its presence in the canola meal have probably contributed largely to its high antioxidant activity (phenolic compounds) and DPPH scavenging activity. Sinapic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound in canola meal, it appears in the meat of 10% group canola meal (6.01%) and (3.7%) in the meat of 5CM. Generally in the profile GC-MS showed that, 10CM meat extract containing appreciable amounts of phenolic and antioxidant material than identified in 5CM meat extract and control diet meat.

Keywords

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Article

Variation Patterns of the Volatile Compounds in Flowers of Chinese Native Citrus Species and Their Taxonomic Implications

1College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing, China

2Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China

3Citrus Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

4National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Chongqing, China;Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Citrus Products (Chongqing), Ministry of Agriculture, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 235-245
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wanpeng Xi, Ligai Li, Dong Jiang, Bining Jiao, Zhiqin Zhou. Variation Patterns of the Volatile Compounds in Flowers of Chinese Native Citrus Species and Their Taxonomic Implications. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):235-245. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Zhiqin  Zhou, College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing, China. Email: bljiao@tom.com; zqzhou2013@swu.edu.cn

Abstract

In this study, the volatile compounds in the flowers of nine Citrus species/varieties, seven of which are native to China, were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 94 compounds were identified, including various terpenes, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, terpene alcohols and aldehydes, which together accounted for 80.4% to 92.4% of the total compounds analyzed. Limonene, linalool and γ-terpinene were the dominant terpenes. Different species/varieties were characterized by their volatile compounds. Papeda was characterized by a high level of β-ocimene, linalyl acetate, myrcene and neo-alloocimene; Citrophorum was characterized by a high level of limonene and caryophyllene, and Cephelocitrus by a high level of limonene, β-pinene and linolool. Sinocitrus had the highest amount of linolool. Sweet orange had the highest level of limonene, while sour orange was distinct from others with the highest level of γ-terpinene. The four basic types of the genus Citrus L., Papeda, Cephalocitrus, Citrophorum and Sinocitrus, can be clearly classified based on a cluster analysis of their volatile compounds. All of the presumed hybrid species, including Jinchengbeibei 447 (C. sinensis Osb.), Goutoucheng (C. aurantium L.), Ningmeng 4 (C. limon Burm.f.), and Changshanhuyou (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou), were grouped closely together with a suggested parent species in the constructed dendrogram. Our study clearly demonstrates that Citrus flower volatile compounds and their variation patterns can be used for Citrus species identification and taxonomic study.

Keywords

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Article

The Effects of Coffee and Korean Red Ginseng with Body Wrap Steam Bathing on Stress Markers and Lipid Profiles

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Cheju Halla University, Jeju 690-708, Korea

2Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 246-251
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shin Young Park, Sang Pyung Lee. The Effects of Coffee and Korean Red Ginseng with Body Wrap Steam Bathing on Stress Markers and Lipid Profiles. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):246-251. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Sang  Pyung Lee, Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, Jeju 690-170, Korea. Email: nsdr745@gmail.com

Abstract

Coffee and red ginseng are recognized for beneficial health effects. Drinking coffee lowers the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, while red ginseng displays immune-stimulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there has been no study about the effect of a topical application of red ginseng with body wrap steam bathing (BWSB) for stress release. With respect to types of treatment provided with BWSB, these subjects were divided into three groups: caffeine, red ginseng, and the control group. The same volunteer subjects (n=15) underwent these 3 BWSB tests for three non-consecutive days, at least one week apart. Before and after having BWSB, blood samples were taken for analysis of hormones, lipid profiles inclusive of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The free oxygen radicals test (FORT) and free oxygen radicals defense (FORD) test were performed to analyze circulating oxidative stress instantaneously after taking blood samples. The results of this study revealed that cortisol levels of the red ginseng group were decrease (20%) than the control group (15.4%). On the contrary, the caffeine group showed a significant increase in cortisol or catecholamine levels after BWSB. Although the lipid profiles were unaffected, triglyceride levels significantly decreased (12% reduction) after BWSB in the red ginseng group. The extent of decrease was much greater (21%) in overweight subjects, while the triglyceride levels of subjects with a normal BMI showed no change.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Storage in Frozen Soil on the Quality of Adzuki Beans [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi et H. Ohashi], Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], Red Kidney Beans [Phaseolus vulgaris L.], and Buckwheat [Fagopyrum esculentum Moench]

1Department of Food Production Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-machi, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

2United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, Iwate, Japan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 252-258
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shuo FENG, Shan WU, Michiyuki KOJIMA. Effect of Storage in Frozen Soil on the Quality of Adzuki Beans [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi et H. Ohashi], Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], Red Kidney Beans [Phaseolus vulgaris L.], and Buckwheat [Fagopyrum esculentum Moench]. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):252-258. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-4.

Correspondence to: Michiyuki  KOJIMA, Department of Food Production Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-machi, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Email: kojima@obihiro.ac.jp

Abstract

Ice and snow, which are important components of Earth’s climate system, maintain high humidity and low temperature, and hence can be used to preserve the quality of agricultural products. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the quality of adzuki beans, soybean, red kidney beans, and buckwheat was affected after storage in frozen soil for 15 months. Storage of the grains in frozen soil, in a sealed polyethylene bag, helped in controlling humidity and maintaining a low temperature during the storage period, thus suppressing the increase in the fatty acid values and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The fatty acid value was not the sole criterion for evaluating the quality when the moisture content of the grains was too low. Moisture contents of 12.5–13.5%, 9–11.5%, 11–13%, and <14%, combined with low-temperature conditions, were best suited for storing adzuki beans, soybean, red kidney beans, and buckwheat, respectively. Hence, storage of Hokkaido’s main agricultural products in frozen soil, in a sealed polyethylene bag, is expected to have promising applications in the storage industry.

Keywords

References

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Article

Influence of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Nutritional, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Protein Hydrolysates Prepared from Seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) Seeds

1State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 259-266
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Azhari Siddeeg, Yanshun Xu, Qixing Jiang, Ammar Al-Farga, Xia Wenshui. Influence of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Nutritional, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Protein Hydrolysates Prepared from Seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) Seeds. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):259-266. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Xia  Wenshui, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. Email: xiaws@jiangnan.edu.cn; azhari_siddeeg@yahoo.com

Abstract

The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time on nutritional, functional properties and antioxidant activities of seinat seed protein isolates were studied. Hydrolysates of seinat seed protein isolates (HSSPIs) were prepared at different time (30–180 min), using two food-grade proteases. Trypsin was applied in the first hydrolysis stage followed by Pepsin. The hydrolysis time showed significant differences (p<0.05) on nutritional parameters such as essential amino acid score, essential amino acid index, biological value and predicted protein efficiency ratios. All the functional properties studied decreased as hydrolysis time increases. Antioxidant activities; (DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and ferrous chelating) of HSSPIs increased with increase in hydrolysis time. Large amounts of small-sized peptides (3,000–5,000 Da) were observed with decreased as hydrolysis time increased (2.07–1.28%). The results in this study indicated that increase in hydrolysis time has positively affected nutritional and antioxidant properties of HSSPIs, but had a negative impact on the functional properties studied.

Keywords

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Article

Comparative Analysis of HPLC Fingerprint Combined with DAD Detection between Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herba

1Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Meteria Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 267-273
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
E Sun, Changmei Wang, Yingjie Wei, Xiaobin Jia. Comparative Analysis of HPLC Fingerprint Combined with DAD Detection between Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herba. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):267-273. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-6.

Correspondence to: Yingjie  Wei, Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Meteria Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Email: wyj970@163.com

Abstract

Bupleuri Herba is widely distributed and traditionally used for the similar clinical application of Bupleuri Radix in Jiangsu and Anhui province in China. To elucidate the difference of material basis between Bupliuri Radix and Bupleuri Herba, a HPLC fingerprint method combined with DAD detection was developed for effective components analysis of these two herb medicines. Both flavonoids and saikosaponins components were analyzed with a zorbax C-18 column by gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) phosphoric acid – acetonitrile as the mobile phase, the column was maintained at 35C, the flow rate was 1 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm for flavonoids and 203 nm for saikosaponins. Rutin and saikosaponin d were selected as reference compound, respectively. And correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient. The results showed that 18 major flavonoids were detected in both Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herba with only 12 common components peaks; nine major saikosaponins were detected in these two herb medicines with only four common components peaks. Correlation analysis indicated that both Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herb can be divided into two groups according to correlation coefficient difference. In addition, poor correlation was found between Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herb. Comparative analysis of chromatographic fingerprint indicated that the difference of material basis between Bupleuri Radix and Bupleuri Herb was significant, which hinted that clinical application of Bupleuri Herb instead of Bupleuri Radix should be cautious.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Phytochemicals on the Antioxidative Activity of Brain Lipids in High- and Low-fat-fed Mice and Their Structural Changes during in vitro Digestion

1Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Seodong-daero, Daeduk-myeon, Anseong-Si, Gyeonggi, Korea

2Department of Food Science and Technology Chung-Ang University, Seodong-daero, Daedeok-myeon, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi, Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 274-280
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seung Jae Lee, Seung Yuan Lee, Myung-Sub Chung, Sun Jin Hur. Effect of Phytochemicals on the Antioxidative Activity of Brain Lipids in High- and Low-fat-fed Mice and Their Structural Changes during in vitro Digestion. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):274-280. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-7.

Correspondence to: Sun  Jin Hur, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Seodong-daero, Daeduk-myeon, Anseong-Si, Gyeonggi, Korea. Email: hursj@cau.ac.kr

Abstract

The brain lipid samples were collected from the brains of low- and high-fat-fed mice and incubated with the in vitro-digested phytochemicals to determine lipid oxidation. After digestion in the mouth, the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of quercetin and catechin were higher than those of rutin. In contrast, ABTS radical-scavenging activity and FRAP were higher in catechin and rutin than in quercetin after digestion in the stomach. The automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was highest in catechin during in vitro digestion in the brain lipids of both high- and low-fat-fed mice. After digestion in the mouth, the inhibitory effect of rutin lipid oxidation was higher than those of quercetin and catechin, whereas after digestion in the stomach, the inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation in catechin and rutin was stronger than that of quercetin in brain lipids obtained from both low- and high-fat-fed mice.

Keywords

References

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Article

Inhibitory Effect of Cancer Cells Proliferation from Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate

1Department of Korean Food & Culinary Arts, Youngsan University, Busan, Korea


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(4), 281-284
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hyun Woo Kang. Inhibitory Effect of Cancer Cells Proliferation from Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(4):281-284. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-4-8.

Correspondence to: Hyun  Woo Kang, Department of Korean Food & Culinary Arts, Youngsan University, Busan, Korea. Email: khw7200@ysu.ac.kr

Abstract

Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol of green tea and a functional food ingredient/nutraceutical with health-promoting properties. However, its anti-cancer activities on various cancer cells are still little information. Here, we show that anti-cancer activities of the EGCG were evaluated using apoptosis assays analyzed by flow cytometry. The inhibitory activities of proliferation in MPC-11, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, values were 66.2, 60.3, and 74.8% at 10 μM, respectively. In addition, in an flow cytometry assay on the MPC-11, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, the EGCG showed a cell apoptosis effect on cancer/tomor in vitro model. Our results indicate that EGCG has anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer cells through inducing cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and activating mitochondrial signal pathway. These results indicate that EGCG effectively inhibits in vitro tumor growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells.

Keywords

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