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Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Tea Polyphenols by a Quantum Chemistry Calculation Method - PM6

1Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

2Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

3Department of Applied Engineering, Zhejiang Economic and Trade Polytechnic, Hangzhou, China

4Department of Tea Culture, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 965-972
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Qing Meng, Ziyin Yang, Guoliang Jie, Ying Gao, Xinghai Zhang, Wei Li, Bo Li, Youying Tu. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Tea Polyphenols by a Quantum Chemistry Calculation Method - PM6. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):965-972. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-17.

Correspondence to: Youying  Tu, Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Email: youytu@zju.edu.cn (Y. Tu), drlib@zju.edu.cn (B. Li)

Abstract

Tea polyphenols arepowerful natural antioxidants. To quickly evaluate theantioxidantactivity of these compounds, a quantum chemistry calculation method - PM6 was employed to calculate the heat of formation (HOF). The HOF valuewas negatively correlated well (r= –0.910, RMS=0.12) with the antioxidant activity of flavanols (catechins), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin), flavanones (dihydromyricetin), anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin), proanthocyanidins and theaflavins. The number and position of hydroxyl, and the structural groups influencing the conjugation between the B- and C-rings could affect the HOF value and radical scavenging activity of flavonoids. Therefore, the HOF value could be used as a descriptor for modeling antioxidant activity of polyphenols.

Keywords

References

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Article

Phenolic Constituents, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry Leaves (V5)

1North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China

2The Second Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 973-979
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-18
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Song Xiaoyong, Cheng Luming. Phenolic Constituents, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry Leaves (V5). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):973-979. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-18.

Correspondence to: Song  Xiaoyong, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China. Email: songxiaoyong@ncwu.edu.cn

Abstract

This study assessed polyphenol compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics of blueberry-leaf extracts. Four different solvents (70% acetone, 100% methanol,50% and 95% ethanol) were applied. Results showed phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic, protocatechui, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric andferulic acids. Caffeic acid was the foremost component in 50% ethanol, 70% acetone and methanol extracts, whereas protocatechui acid was the major compound in 95% ethanol extracts. The methanol extracts showed the highest total phenols, tannin and DPPH scavenging activity, and the 50% ethanol extracts had the greatest reducing power and ORAC values. The lowest contents of total phenols and tannin were in 95% ethanol and 70% acetone extracts, respectively. All extracts demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, L.monocytogenes, S.typhimurium, S. aureus and fungi, except for the 95% ethanol extract against L.monocytogenes. The 50% ethanol extracts showed the highest inhibitory effect against S. aureus with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all tested microbes. The greatest inhibition zone and the smallest MIC against fungi were found in the 95% ethanol and methanol extracts. These results indicated that the blueberry leaves are good source of polyphenols and could be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

Keywords

References

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Article

Control of the Ratio of Inducer to Cell Concentration to Enhance the Phytase Production in Recombinant Pichiapastoris

1College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China

2College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 980-984
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Housheng Hong, Zhaosheng Min, Huiming Guo. Control of the Ratio of Inducer to Cell Concentration to Enhance the Phytase Production in Recombinant Pichiapastoris. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):980-984. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-19.

Correspondence to: Housheng  Hong, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China. Email: hhs@njtech.edu.cn

Abstract

Phytase production by Pichiapastoris was used as a case to study the mechanism and strategy for optimization of heterologous protein production. It was found that the ratio of inducer-methanol to cell concentration had a significant influence on phytase production. In this case, we found that the optimum initial cell concentration and methanol concentration were 85 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively. During induction period, an easy-to-control methanol feeding method was proposed according to the optimal ratio of methanol to cell concentration at a range of 0.063 -0.132 g/g, and phytase activity and productivity reached 53984 U/mL and 529.25 U/(mL·h), respectively. The method for optimization of phytase production through controlling the optimal ratio maybe provide an alternative idea to enhance other heterologous protein production with P. pastoris.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Amino Acid Changes and Crumb Hardness of Enriched Bread with Tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) Flesh in Turkey

1Bitlis Eren University, Engineering-Architecture Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Bitlis, Turkey


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 985-992
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-20
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seda OĞUR. Evaluation of Amino Acid Changes and Crumb Hardness of Enriched Bread with Tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) Flesh in Turkey. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):985-992. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-20.

Correspondence to: Seda  OĞUR, Bitlis Eren University, Engineering-Architecture Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Bitlis, Turkey. Email: sdogur@beu.edu.tr

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate amino acid changes and crumb hardness of enriched bread with tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) flesh. Bread was formulated with washed fish mince at the ratio of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and the amino acid changes and crumb hardness of breads were evaluated. Adding washed fish mince into bread resulted in a significant increase in the protein content. The amount of amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, cystine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, lysine, hydroxyproline and proline (p<0.05) also increased. Alanine and leucine amino acids were detectable in none of the breads. The crumb hardness value of breads also increased with the addition rate of fish flesh and over time (p<0.05). This study resulted in an alternative product (bread is rich in protein) that can be eaten without changing customs of bread consumption. This enriched bread can be helpful in solving health problems due to protein and essential amino acid deficiency.

Keywords

References

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Article

Prevalence of PUFA Rich Thraustochytrids sps. along the Coast of Mumbai for Production of Bio Oil

1Dept of Microbiology, Bhavans College, Mumbai 58, INDIA


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 993-999
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-21
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aparna Pandey, Zarine Bhathena. Prevalence of PUFA Rich Thraustochytrids sps. along the Coast of Mumbai for Production of Bio Oil. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):993-999. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-21.

Correspondence to: Zarine  Bhathena, Dept of Microbiology, Bhavans College, Mumbai 58, INDIA. Email: zarine_bhathena@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Aims: To obtain axenic cultures of Thraustochytrids and assess the diversity of Thraustochytrids spps within the mangrove regions of Mumbai for their ability to produce DHA. Methods and Results: Samples obtained from various mangrove regions in and around the Mumbai coastline were screened for presence of Thraustochytrids cultures. Modified procedures involving use of various media and antibiotic treatment regimes were formulated to obtain axenic cultures of Thraustochytrids. Though 40% of the samples under study showed presence of pollen baitable Thraustochytrids, only 5% of these spps could be recovered through direct isolation techniques on the conventional penicillin streptomycin B1 agar plate. In contrast, use of antibiotic cocktail during baiting lead to better recovery such that 57.14% of all the positive pollen baited samples were able to be recovered as axenic isolates on isolation on antibiotic laden B1 agar. For most of the isolates the fatty acid profile range between 60 to 76% of their dry cell mass; with total fatty acid content of 5.92±0.41 g L-1 of which 1.97±0.08 g L-1 was DHA. Conclusion: Though marine mangrove environments are known habitat of Thraustochytrids its axenic cultivation is a challenge especially as the profile of contaminating bacteria and fungi within polluted areas varies from that within pristine locales. Removal of bacteria and fungi from an environment loaded with an higher organic load required mixture of three antibiotics and one antifungal; rifampicin (300 mg l-1), streptomycin/penicillin (25 mg l-1) and nystatin (10 mg l-1) to be incorporated in seawater samples for a minimum of 2 days so that Thraustochytrids could be selectively isolated from the Indian Mangrove region,. Significance and Impact of Study: This data represents the first extensive study on the prevalence of Thraustochytrids across the coast of Mumbai and the combination of antibiotics that need to be used for its effective recovery.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Effect of Fraction 5 of Theabrownin from Pu-erh Tea on 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

1School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China

2National Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Changsha, China

3National Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Changsha, China;Key Laboratory of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China

4Key Laboratory of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China

5College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1000-1006
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-22
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xinhe Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Jianan Huang, Caiqin Qin, Qingli Mao, Qin Li. The Effect of Fraction 5 of Theabrownin from Pu-erh Tea on 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1000-1006. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-22.

Correspondence to: Zhonghua  Liu, School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China. Email: lark-liu@163.com

Abstract

Pu-erh tea, a well-known tea from ancient times, was originally produced in the Yunnan province of China. Theabrownin of pu-erh tea was successfully separated into six fractions by using a sephadex LH-20 column. A previous study showed that the inhibition of α-glycosidase and pancreatic lipase activities was enriched in theabrownin fraction 5 (F5). Here, the effects of F5 on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were investigated. Results showed that F5 suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation, F5 dose-dependently promoted lipid accumulation and significantly decreased the expression of PPARγ2, PTP1B mRNA and protein and Glut4 protein as well as increased the expression of Glut4 mRNA. The findings suggested that F5 act to maintain a reasonable lipid metabolism balance by regulating the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ2, and allow the activation of insulin receptor proteins to promote Glut4 translocation to the cell membrane and glucose intake by decreasing PTP1B protein expression. Together, these activities may improve Insulin resistance (IR) and prevent metabolic syndrome, which is important for establishing a basis for the development of F5 into a functional food.

Keywords

References

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Article

Purification, Physicochemical Characterization, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Puerh Tea

1Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, China

2Zhejiang Tea Science Society, Hangzhou, China

3Drinkable Plants Institute (Tea Research Center)/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Resources Innovation and Utilization, Guangzhou, China

4Zhangzhou College of Science & Technology, Zhangzhou, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1007-1014
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-23
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Limin Mao, Shuhong Shao, Shili Sun, Yuefei Wang, Ping Xu, Liewei Cai. Purification, Physicochemical Characterization, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Puerh Tea. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1007-1014. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-23.

Correspondence to: Liewei  Cai, Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, China. Email: zdxp@zju.edu.cn

Abstract

Two fractions of polysaccharides, named PTPS-1 and PTPS-2, was extracted and purified from puerh tea by Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of these two polysaccharides were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier Transform IR spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Analysis of chemical compositions (protein, neutral sugars, uronic acid and monosaccharide composition) suggested that they were both kinds of acid heteropolysaccharides bound with protein, and contained seven monosaccharides with different molar ratio. Meanwhile, evaluation of antioxidant activities by in vitro assays of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP showed that PTPS-1 demonstrated stronger antioxidant ability than PTPS-2. Similarly, PTPS-1 exhibited remarkable inhibitory potential on α-glycosidase in vitro, significantly stronger than that of PTPS-2 and acarbose. Moreover, the results from animal test indicated PTPS-1 possessed significant inhibition on postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice compared with the model group.

Keywords

References

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Article

Profile of Bacteria and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Caecal Digesta in Malnourished Rat Fed Goat Milk Yoghurt

1Department of Animal Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3Department of Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1015-1020
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-24
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nurliyani, BJ. Istiti Kandarina, Sari Kusuma, Yunita Dewi Trisnasari, Feny Prabawati. Profile of Bacteria and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Caecal Digesta in Malnourished Rat Fed Goat Milk Yoghurt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1015-1020. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-24.

Correspondence to:  Nurliyani, Department of Animal Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Email: nurliyani@yahoo.com

Abstract

The intestinal microbiota is an important determinant for general health of the human body, and disturbance of the proper balance of microbiota is involved in several pathologies. The profile of gastrointestinal microbiota can be influenced by nutritional factors and or health status of individuals. This study aimed to determine the effect of goat milk yogurt on the profile of caecal bacteria and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in malnourished rats. Yoghurt was prepared by using of pasteurized goat milk with adding the Lacto-B powder containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum. Male malnourished Wistar rats 3 weeks old were created using standard feed restriction up to 50% of normal rats for 21 d. After 21 d, the rats continued to restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. The rats were killed and analyzed the profile of caecal bacteria and SCFA. There were no significantly differences in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria in both of caecal digesta of malnourished or normal rats fed yoghurt and control rats. However, the amount of E. coli was higher in malnourished rats than the normal rats. The acetic acid of caecal digesta was lower in the rats fed goat milk yoghurt than the control rats, whereas the butyric acid was higher in the caecal digesta of normal rats compared to the malnourished rats. The pH and moisture of caecal digesta in rats fed yoghurt were not significantly different from the control. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplemented up to 2.0 ml/100 g body weight for 7 d had no effect on profile of caecal bacteria and physical properties and could not increase of caecal SCFA in malnourished and normal rats. Malnourished condition could increase the number of E. coli, decrease the butyric acid and weight of caecal.

Keywords

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Article

Inadequate Dietary Intake in Women with Antenatal Psychological Distress: A Population Based Study in Pakistan

1Department of Human Nutrition, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar- Pakistan

2Department of Agricultural Chemistry, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar- Pakistan

3Department of Psychology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

4School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, United Kingdom


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1021-1028
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-25
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zia ud Din, Sadaf Ambreen, Zafar Iqbal, Mudassar Iqbal, Summiya Ahmad, Muhammad Hussain, Pauline Emmett. Inadequate Dietary Intake in Women with Antenatal Psychological Distress: A Population Based Study in Pakistan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1021-1028. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-25.

Correspondence to: Zia  ud Din, Department of Human Nutrition, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar- Pakistan. Email: ziaud.din@aup.edu.pk

Abstract

This study examined the relationship of psychological distress with dietary intake of food groups, energy, macronutrients and micronutrients among pregnant women from Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 230 pregnant women who attended antenatal care between September 2011 and December 2012, were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress scales (DASS-42). Respondents were dichotomized into psychologically distressed (with DAS symptoms) and non-distressed groups (without DAS symptoms) based on the cut-off values for each set of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Data on dietary intake, emotional support and demographic-socioeconomic characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. A total of 45% (n=104) of the respondents reported mild to severe symptoms of psychological distress. Overall, compared to women without DAS symptoms, distressed women had a tendency to consume less variety of foods, and had lower intakes of some key food groups (milk, meat and fruit). Mean dietary intake of fibre was higher in the distressed group than those without DAS symptoms (adjusted p<0.001); this was probably due to the higher intake of vegetables in this group. Mean dietary intake of calcium, iron, vitamin B3 and food variety score (FVS) were lower in distressed women (p<0.05) even after adjustment. The presence of antenatal DAS symptoms was significantly associated with low dietary diversity (below the median of FVS) (Adjusted OR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.12; 3.47). Family income and partner’s emotional support during pregnancy were also associated with low dietary diversity. There is evidence that, in comparison to women without DAS symptoms, distressed women had lower dietary intakes of animal foods and some essential micronutrients with less dietary diversity. There is a need to develop policies focusing on maternal antenatal psychological health across the globe, particularly in developing countries where the burden of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality is ever increasing.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Effect of Unsaponifiable Fraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on Lipid Profile of Hypercholesterolaemia Rats

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural Technology Faculty, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

2Department of Agroindustry Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University Jl. Telaga Warna, Tlogomas, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1029-1036
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-26
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Teti Estiasih, Kgs. Ahmadi, Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, Emalia Rhitmayanti, Ambar Fidyasari, Katarina Purnomo, Yuyun Wahyuni. The Effect of Unsaponifiable Fraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on Lipid Profile of Hypercholesterolaemia Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1029-1036. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-26.

Correspondence to: Teti  Estiasih, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural Technology Faculty, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Email: teties@yahoo.co.id

Abstract

Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) that contains some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. These bioactive compounds were accumulated in unsaponifiable fraction. This study aimed to use USF as a source of bioactive compounds for lowering cholesterol that tested in vivo by using hypercholesterolaemia rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups that administered by USF of 0, 200, 500, 1000 mg/kg bw/day. As comparison, one group of rats was fed by commercial squalene supplement of 90 mg/kg bw/day. One group of normal rats was used as a control. The results showed that USF of PFAD contained vitamin E 1.96%, phytosterols 0.55%, and squalene 32.30%. Vitamin E of USF comprised of 83% tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of USF contained 0.42% beta sitosterol and 0.13% campesterol. The result showed that USF doses significantly affected blood serum total cholesterol reduction. Higher dose of USF caused greater reduction of serum blood cholesterol level. The highest decline of blood serum total cholesterol was found at USF dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. At dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day, blood serum cholesterol level reached normal after USF administration for 4 weeks. The blood serum triglyceride level decreased in line with increasing USF doses. The sharp decline of blood serum triglyceride level was found at USF dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day and at the end of experiment (week 4), the blood serum triglyceride level reached normal. Higher dose of USF resulted on greater decrease of LDL cholesterol level. The highest decline of LDL cholesterol level was found on USF 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Increasing USF dose resulted in increasing blood serum HDL cholesterol level. The higher rise of blood serum HDL cholesterol level was found at USF dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Commercial squalene at dose of 90 mg/kg bw/day was less effective in reducing total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and troglyceride, as well as in rising HDL cholesterol level than USF 200 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to squalene 64.60 mg/kg bw/day). This finding proved that multi components of bioactive compounds in USF improved blood lipid profile synergistically.

Keywords

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