Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-1119

ISSN (Online): 2333-1240

Editor-in-Chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal




The Health Benefits of Jeju Gamgyul (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Brandy and Wine

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Cheju Halla University, Jeju 690-708, Korea

2Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(2), 110-115
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-6
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shin Young Park, Sun Joo Lee. The Health Benefits of Jeju Gamgyul (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Brandy and Wine. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(2):110-115. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-6.

Correspondence to: Sun  Joo Lee, Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea. Email:


Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to the reduction of risk for some diseases, such as diabetes, chronic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Citrus and its peels have been used in Asian folk medicine due to abundant flavonoids and the fact that their pulp are usually consumed like juice or jam, although their functional effects are much higher than those of fruit peels. This investigation inquired into the effects of Gamgyul wine, which is derived from whole fruits of Citrus unshiu, with respect to antioxidant property, anti-diabetic activity, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative inhibition and flavanones. In particular, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of both Gamgyul wine and brandy were measured. However, the differences of the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of Gamgyul wine were trifling between dynamite and microfiltration processes. In particular, the effect of antidiabetic activity was rather significant as demonstrated in the Gamgyul brandy. The results showed that α-glucosidase inhibition rates at 20 µL/mL for Gamgyul brandy and wine were 50% and 20%, respectively. Almost 100% inhibition rate was shown at 80 µL/mL treatment for all the samples. Antioxidant activities and LDL oxidative inhibition were also measured. Gamgyul wine showed increased concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, while epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) revealed an almost same level of activities. On the other hand, Gamgyul brandy presented little activity at any treatment concentration. Gamgyul wine in 20 µL/mL inhibited LDL oxidation approximately three times more than that of the comparative negative control, D.W. Flavanone analysis showed detections of both narirutin and hesperidin, while narirutin was the most abundant flavanone in Gamgyul wine. These overall results suggest that Gamgyul wine has the potential to be used as a functional dietary supplement and is an effective α-glucosidase inhibitor, which may be beneficial only for low to moderate intake.



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Alteration of Antioxidant Vitamins and Ghrelin Hormones Amounts in Pasteurized Dairy Products Depend on the Shelf Life

1Faculty of Science Department of Chemistry, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey

2Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Department, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey

3Medical Biochemistry Department (Firat Hormone Research Group), School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(2), 116-120
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-7
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fikret KARATAS, Hadice ULUS, Sinan SAYDAM, Kader UGUR, Suleyman AYDİN. Alteration of Antioxidant Vitamins and Ghrelin Hormones Amounts in Pasteurized Dairy Products Depend on the Shelf Life. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(2):116-120. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-7.

Correspondence to: Fikret  KARATAS, Faculty of Science Department of Chemistry, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. Email:


In this study, the amount of antioxidant vitamins and ghrelin hormones alteration in the packaged milk of five different brands commonly consumed were investigated depending on the shelf life. Besides the amounts of antioxidant vitamins and ghrelin hormones in fresh uncooked milk and boiled milk were determined. The milk samples were collected for a total period of 6 months with one-month periods beginning from date of manufacture. Then, the amounts of vitamins A, E and C with acylated and desacylated forms of ghrelin hormone were analyzed by using HPLC. Highest the amounts of vitamins A, E and C with acylated and desacylated forms of ghrelin hormone were found in the first month of production while the lowest amounts of A, E and C vitamins with acylated and desacylated forms of ghrelin hormone were found in the sixth month of after production (p<0.001). The amounts of vitamins A, E C and acylated and desacylated forms of ghrelin in fresh uncooked milk found to be higher than that of the boiled milk (p<0.01). The amounts of vitamins A, E, C and acylated as well as desacylated forms of ghrelin hormone in the packaged milk of all brands decrease over time depending on the shelf life of milk (p<0.001). Consumption of long time stored milk should be discouraged due to decrement of vitamins and ghrelin hormones.



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Efficacy Studies of Natural and Synthetic Iron Sources among Anemic Pregnant Women in Community of Faisalabad-Pakistan

1Department of Home and Health Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Islamabad, Pakistan

2Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN), University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(2), 121-128
doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-8
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Abdullah, Shahid Mahmood, Zaheer Ahmed. Efficacy Studies of Natural and Synthetic Iron Sources among Anemic Pregnant Women in Community of Faisalabad-Pakistan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(2):121-128. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-2-8.

Correspondence to: Zaheer  Ahmed, Department of Home and Health Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Islamabad, Pakistan. Email:


In present study, different treatments enriched with natural and synthetic Iron sources along with control were developed and evaluated for proximate composition, mineral content, calorific values and sensory attributes fortnightly for sixty days and their efficacy was tested among anemic pregnant women for ninety days. Blood of 787 pregnant women was investigated for Hb status. Among them 38.50 % were found anemic (Hb < 11 g/dL) whose blood was further analyzed for complete blood count (CBC), serum Ferritin, serum Fe, total Fe binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TS) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) to find IDA victims. Hence, 70.29 % pregnant females were identified as IDA sufferer. Finally, 200 volunteers were assorted randomly into 4 treatment groups. As regards product development, all treatments provided 50 % RDA (13.5 mg) of Fe except placebo (T0). The significant variations (P-value <0.05) in anthropometrics, energetics and dietary intakes were observed during the study. Hematological indices were improved significantly by T2 in 90 days as RBC count (4.60±0.027 M/uL), Hb (11.01±0.039 g/dL), Hct (33.57±0.091 %), MCV (75.00±0.117 fL), MCH (24.96±0.089 pg), MCHC (30.10±0.101 g/dL), Serum Fe (47.72±0.219 ug/dL), TIBC (373.42±1.154 ug/dL) and TS (10.20±0.093 %). However, serum Ferritin had maximum uplift (8.28±0.234 ng/mL) by T1. Liver function tests (LFTs) and renal function tests (RFTs) of volunteers showed safety of intervention. A significant positive correlation (P-value <0.05) was also found amongst indices of IDA. The outcomes of the current research work showed that natural iron sources like blackstrap molasses, dried apricots, dried dates and rape seeds are cost effective and healthful foods having high bio-available Fe as compared to synthetic Iron sources (Ferrous sulphate) in combating IDA among pregnant women.



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