ISSN (Print): 2374-1996

ISSN (Online): 2374-2003


Editor-in-chief: Jean Rommelaere

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Currrent Issue: Volume 5, Number 1, 2017


Effect of Indole-3-carbinol and/or Metformin on Female Patients with Ulcerative Colitis (Premalignant Condition): Role of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Proinflammatory Cytokines

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

4Division of Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

5PharmD Candidate, Taif, Saudi Arabia

6Senior medical student, Faculty of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017, 5(1), 1-8
doi: 10.12691/jcrt-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M. Kabel, Mohamed S. Omar, Sultan N. Alotaibi, Mohammed H. Baali. Effect of Indole-3-carbinol and/or Metformin on Female Patients with Ulcerative Colitis (Premalignant Condition): Role of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Proinflammatory Cytokines. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. Kabel, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. Email:;


Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. It affects the innermost lining of the colon and rectum. The aim of this work was to study the effect of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) or metformin alone and in combination on female patients suffering from ulcerative colitis. Forty female patients were divided as follows: 10 patients represent the normal control group and the other 30 patients with ulcerative colitis were divided into 3 equal groups; metformin treated group, I3C treated group and metformin + I3C treated group. A colonoscopic biopsy was homogenized for determination of tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The biopsy was also subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Administration of each of metformin or I3C alone and in combination to ulcerative colitis patients induced significant increase in tissue CAT with significant decrease in the colonic endoscopic score, tissue TNF-α, TGF-β1, MDA and MPO and alleviated the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes compared to the same parameters before treatment. Metformin/I3C combination produced significant improvement in the biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters compared to the groups that received either metformin or I3C alone. In conclusion, metformin and I3C had protective effects on female patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but their combination had the upper hand.



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