ISSN (Print): 2374-1996

ISSN (Online): 2374-2003


Editor-in-chief: Jean Rommelaere

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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 5, 2016


Tumor Markers of Breast Cancer: Role in Early Diagnosis, Monitoring Response to Therapy and Determination of Prognosis

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

3Final year student, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2016, 4(5), 80-87
doi: 10.12691/jcrt-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M. Kabel, Aisha H. Al-shehri, Batool S. Madani, Sheemah I. Al-shafie, Shroog A. Amasha. Tumor Markers of Breast Cancer: Role in Early Diagnosis, Monitoring Response to Therapy and Determination of Prognosis. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2016; 4(5):80-87. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. Kabel, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA. Email:


A tumor marker is a substance that is produced by the body in response to malignant tumors, or produced by the cancer itself. Some of these markers are specific to one cancer, while others are seen in several types of cancer. These markers are generally used to evaluate the patient's response to treatment or to monitor the presence of metastasis or recurrence. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in females worldwide. Tumor markers may play a role in early detection, and hence favourable prognosis of breast cancer. The CA 27-29 is a tumor marker that is most often used in people with breast cancer. Also, CA 15-3, BR 27.29 (CA27.29), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide specific antigen, p53, cathepsin D, cyclin E, nestin and HER-2 are widely used for diagnosis, monitoring response to therapy, early detection of metastasis and determination of recurrence of breast cancer.



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Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Urothelial Cell Carcinoma with Medicinal Mushroom Extracts

1Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2016, 4(5), 73-79
doi: 10.12691/jcrt-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amul Bhalodi, Mark Ferretti, Matthew Chaimowitz, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno. Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Urothelial Cell Carcinoma with Medicinal Mushroom Extracts. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2016; 4(5):73-79. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Sensuke  Konno, Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA. Email:


Severe side effects from chemotherapy or immunotherapy often limit their clinical utility in urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. To explore alternative therapies, we were particularly interested in one of medicinal mushrooms called Phellinus linteus (PL) with antitumor/anticancer activity. We investigated possible anticancer effects of three distinct extracts or fractions of PL using an urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) model in vitro. Those fractions included PL-I (crude extract), PL-II (water-extracted), and PL-III (ethanol-extracted), which were tested for their antiproliferative effects on UCC cells. To explore the anticancer mechanism(s) of these fractions, cell cycle analysis and analyses of epigenetic parameters, caspases-3 and -9, and apoptotic regulators, were also performed. Both PL-I and -II induced a maximum growth reduction of ~60% at 700 µg/ml while PL-III led to a ~90% growth reduction at 150 µg/ml in 72 h. Cell cycle analysis indicated that cells treated with 500 µg/ml (IC50) of PL-I and -II or 60 µg/ml (IC50) of PL-III underwent a G1 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of p21, a cell cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor. Additionally, histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was significantly (>60%) lost, while both histones H3 and H4 were highly acetylated, indicating alterations in the chromatin structure. Moreover, both caspases-3 and -9 in cells treated with each IC50 of three PL-fractions were all significantly (p<0.03) activated, implying induction of apoptosis. The present study shows that all three PL-fractions, PL-I, -II, and -III, have anticancer effects on UCC cells, although PL-III appears to be the most potent. Such an anticancer mechanism is attributed to a p21-mediated cell cycle arrest with epigenetic modifications involving HDAC inactivation and hyperacetylation of H3 and H4, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death. Therefore, PL-fractions may have clinical implications in a safer and improved therapeutic modality for urothelial cell carcinoma.



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