Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2373-129X

ISSN (Online): 2373-1303

Editor-in-Chief: Ahmed Al-Jumaily




Influence of Gender on the Activity of Agonist-Antagonist Muscles during Maximum Knee and Ankle Contractions

1Biomedical Engineering Department, North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, Meghalaya, India

2Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2016, 4(1), 1-6
doi: 10.12691/jbet-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manvinder Kaur, Shilpi Mathur, Dinesh Bhatia, Deepak Joshi. Influence of Gender on the Activity of Agonist-Antagonist Muscles during Maximum Knee and Ankle Contractions. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2016; 4(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/jbet-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Dinesh  Bhatia, Biomedical Engineering Department, North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Email:


Muscle mechanical energy expenditure reflects the neuro-motor strategies employed by the nervous system to analyze human locomotion tasks and is directly related to its efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on the activity of agonist-antagonist muscles during maximum knee and ankle contraction in males (n1=10) and females (n2=10) adult population. Different movements of knee and ankle used for the maximum contractions were knee flexion and extension, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. The agonist-antagonist muscles considered for the study were Rectus femoris (Quadriceps Muscle group), Biceps femoris (Hamstring Muscle group), Tibialis Anterior and Soleus. The statistical analysis applied was post hoc analysis to determine least significant differences among the male and female groups. The different groups for classifying these movements were Female Dominant Leg (FDL), Female Non Dominant Leg (FNDL), Male Dominant Leg (MDL) and Male Non Dominant Leg (MNDL). The results showed no significant differences (p≥0.1) in the muscle energy expenditure for different lower limb activities among gender. In addition to this, knee flexion was found to be the activity with minimum energy expenditure in healthy males and females. Active agonist-antagonist muscle pairs during knee and ankle contractions were found to have minimum mechanical energy expenditure. This study is a part of a larger intervention study that is being carried out for designing feedback based FES devices.



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Power Spectrum Density Analysis of EEG Signals in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Patients by Inducing r-TMS Therapy

1Department of Biomedical Engineering North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India

2UDAAN-for the differently abled, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi-110024, India

3Computer Centre, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2016, 4(1), 7-11
doi: 10.12691/jbet-4-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bablu Lal Rajak, Meena Gupta, Dinesh Bhatia, Arun Mukherjee, Sudip Paul, Tapas Kumar Sinha. Power Spectrum Density Analysis of EEG Signals in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Patients by Inducing r-TMS Therapy. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2016; 4(1):7-11. doi: 10.12691/jbet-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Dinesh  Bhatia, Department of Biomedical Engineering North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India. Email:


Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive neurological motor disorder affecting children that are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, epilepsy and secondary musculoskeletal problems. These problems arise due to disturbed cortical or subcortical excitability leading to abnormal electrophysiological brain activity in these children. In order to control the abnormal brain activity, repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) therapy was employed. The present work analyzes the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal before and after r-TMS therapy of spastic CP children and compared it with the power spectrum of normal healthy children. EEG recording was performed on all the twenty selected subjects using four electrodes placed on pathway known for motor control and planning, namely C3-C4 and F3-F4. The artifact-free EEG signals of 15 minutes duration was extracted for spectral analysis using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithm to obtain power density spectrum (PSD). The PSD revealed high power peak at frequency of 50 Hz and smaller or none at 100 Hz, for all healthy subjects. In case of spastic CP children, peak at 100 Hz were prominent prior to r-TMS therapy and at 50 Hz it was found to be quite low to none. After therapy, there was a shift in the high intensity peak from 100Hz to 50Hz with the peak at 100Hz being significantly reduced. 50Hz peak obtained in CP patients matched with those observed in normal children, thus showing the effectiveness of r-TMS therapy in controlling abnormal brain activity in spastic CP patients.



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Thermal Topographical Rings as a New Tool for Laser Eye Surgery

1Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

2Biomedical Engineering Department, Al Khwarizmi College of Eng., University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2017, 5(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/jbet-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khalid A. Joudi, Somer M. Nacy, Nebras H. Ghaeb. Thermal Topographical Rings as a New Tool for Laser Eye Surgery. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2017; 5(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/jbet-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Somer  M. Nacy, Biomedical Engineering Department, Al Khwarizmi College of Eng., University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. Email:


Measurement of the corneal surface temperature during the laser surgery have been modified at the last few years, to be used as an extra useful monitoring tool during the dynamic ablation process. While the concentric Placido rings have been used before to measure the refractive errors, here, it have been modified to be used as a new suggested tool to study the thermal response upon the anterior corneal surface during laser eye surgeries. The thermal infrared camera was used to get an image captured at the end of the treatment, where contours with isotherms are derived and examined. The new contour lines introduce the temperature induced per location upon the corneal surface and reflect the biomechanical response behavior. Comparing the contour image with the image generated by the treatment system for the ablated depth showed a new indication for safety limits especially the effect of decentration and other irregular aberrations.



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