Welcome to Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology

Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of biomedical engineering and technology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of biomedical engineering and technology.

ISSN (Print): 2373-129X

ISSN (Online): 2373-1303

Editor-in-Chief: Ahmed Al-Jumaily

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JBET

   

Article

Estimation of E-Field inside Muscle Tissue at MICS and ISM Frequencies Using Analytic and Numerical Methods

1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Mosul, Iraq

2Department Electrical Engineering, University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Mosul, Iraq


Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2014, 2(3), 29-33
doi: 10.12691/jbet-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yessar E. Mohammed, Ali G. Saber. Estimation of E-Field inside Muscle Tissue at MICS and ISM Frequencies Using Analytic and Numerical Methods. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2014; 2(3):29-33. doi: 10.12691/jbet-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ali  G. Saber, Department Electrical Engineering, University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Mosul, Iraq. Email: aliece2006@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents studying for analytic and numerical methods which are used for evaluating the magnitude of electric field inside human tissues for different depths and using the most important frequencies in medical application fields, then showing the difference range between the two methods. The first method considers the human tissue as one-dimensional layered, the layers in this method modeled with non uniform transmission line. The second method is using numerical simulation CST Microwave Studio which considers the human tissues as 3D-dimensional layered. This paper also investigates the penetration for the magnitude of electric field into the phantom model of human tissues, especially into muscle tissue using different frequencies and how the electric field behaves inside the tissue when the penetration depth greater than the thickness of the tissue, as well as when the penetration depth smaller than the thickness of the tissue.

Keywords

References

[1]  N. Vidal and J. M. L´opez, “Changes in Electromagnetic Field Absorption in the Presence of Subcutaneous Implanted Devices: Minimizing Increases in Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Electromag. Compat., Vol. 52, No. 3, August. 2010.
 
[2]  G. Varotto and E. M. Staderini, “A 2D Simple Attenuation Model for EM Waves in Human Tissues: Comparison with a FDTD 3D Simu-lator for UWB Medical Radar,” IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wide Band., Vol. 3, 2008.
 
[3]  Federal Communications Commission. Tissue dielectric properties. FCC, Washington, DC. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/dielec.sh.
 
[4]  N. Carrara. Dielectric properties of body tissues. IFAC, Institute for applied physics, Italy. (2007). [Online]. Available:http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/.
 
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[7]  S. Dan, G. Yougang and S. Yuanmao, “Determination of Shielding Effectiveness of Multilayer Shield By Making Use of Transmission Line Theory,” 7th IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology., Petersburg, Russia, pp. 95-97, 2007.
 
[8]  D. Shi, Y. Gao, and X. Du, “Study of Human Body Transmission Characteristic as Nonuniform Medium,” IEEE URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium., Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 1-4, 2011.
 
[9]  Sharing Between the Meteorological Aids Service and Medical Implant
 
[10]  Communication Systems (MICS) Operating in the Mobile Service in the Frequency Band 401-406 MHz, ITU-R SA.1346, Int. Telecommu-nications Union, 1998.
 
[11]  FCC Rules and Regulations, Subpart E and I, Part 95, Federal Comm-unications Commission, Nov. 2002.
 
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[15]  K. S. Sultan, H. H. Abdullah, E. A. Abdallah, and E. A. Hashish, “ Low-SAR, Miniaturized Printed Antenna for Mobile,ISM, and WLAN Services,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters., Vol. 12, pp. 1106-1109, 2013.
 
[16]  S. W. Park, K, Wake, S. Watanable, “ Calculation Errors of the Electric Field Inducedin a Human Body Under Quasi-Static Approximation Conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques., Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 2153-2160, 2013.
 
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Article

A Comparative Study of Retinal Vasculature Extraction in Digital Fundus Images

1Biomedical Technology Department, SALMAN BIN ABDUL-AZIZ, Al-Kharj, K.S.A


Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
doi: 10.12691/jbet-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Islam Abdul-Azeem Fouad. A Comparative Study of Retinal Vasculature Extraction in Digital Fundus Images. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/jbet-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Islam  Abdul-Azeem Fouad, Biomedical Technology Department, SALMAN BIN ABDUL-AZIZ, Al-Kharj, K.S.A. Email: islam_azeem@yahoo.com

Abstract

Some of the most common blinding conditions are caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The relevant conditions include diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. At present, the only proven modality of effective treatment is the application of laser energy to the CNV to cauterize the vessels. The key to effective and lasting treatment is the identification of the full extent of the CNV, complete cauterization of the CNV by accurately aiming an appropriate amount of optical energy while ensuring that healthy tissue is not cauterized. Extraction techniques must be developed to discern the retinal blood vessels tree and determine the positions of laser shots in a reference frame. This paper presents an efficient comparison of different methods to segment blood vessels, which is a prominent anatomical structure in retina, in both gray-scale and color retinal images. The blood vessel extraction is composed of six algorithms according to two criteria, i.e., Extraction of the blood vessel boundaries (using Difference operators, Decision based-directional edge detection, Morphological gradient and Deformable model algorithm) & Extraction of the core area of the blood vessel tree by tracing vessels centers (using 2-dimensional matching filters and Morphological reconstruction algorithm). Results on various retinal images verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords

References

[1]  S. B. Bressler, N. M. Bressler, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, R. P. Murphy, R. J. Olk, and A. Patz, “Natural course of choroidal neovascular membranes within the foveal avascular zone in senile macular degeneration,” Amer.J. Ophthalmol., vol. 93, pp. 157-163, 1982.
 
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[4]  S.F. Barrett, M.R. Jerath, H. Grady Rylander III and Ashley J. Welch, “Digital Tracking and Control of Retinal Images,” Optical Engineering, 33, no.1, pp.150-159, 1994.
 
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[6]  P.N. Monahan, K. A. Gitter, and G. Cohen, “Evaluation of Persistence of Subretinal Neovascular Membranes Using Digitized Angiographic Analysis,” Retina-J. Retinal, Vitreous Diseases, 13, no. 3, pp. 196-201, 1993.
 
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[8]  E. Aniram, H. Aydinoglu, and I. C. Goknar, “Decision Based Directional Edge Detector,” Signal Proc., 35, pp. 149-156, 1993.
 
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[10]  S. Chaudhuri, C. Chatterjee, Norman Katz, Mark Nelson, And Michael Goldbaum, “Detection of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images Using Two-Dimensional Matched Filters,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8, no. 3, pp.263-269, 1989.
 
[11]  T. McInerney and D. Terzopoulos, “Deformable Models in Medical Image Analysis: a survey,” Medical Image Analysis, vol.1, no.2, pp.91-108, 1996.
 
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[13]  Nahed H. Solouma, Abou-Bakr M. Youssef, Yehia A. Badr, and Yasser M. Kadah, “A New Real-Time Retinal Tracking System for Image-Guided Laser Treatment,” IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, vol.49, no.9, September 2002.
 
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Article

Predictability of Sulphur Removal Efficiency during Processing of Iron Ore Designated for Production of Orthopedics Devices

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Federal Medical Centre Abakiliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

4Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria


Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
doi: 10.12691/jbet-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, C. U. Nwoye, S. O. Nwakpa, E. C. D. Nwoye, O. C. A. Nwoye, B. C. Chukwudi, N. E. Idenyi. Predictability of Sulphur Removal Efficiency during Processing of Iron Ore Designated for Production of Orthopedics Devices. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/jbet-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

Predictability of sulphur removal efficiency of iron ore (designated for production of orthopedic devices) has carried out based treatment temperature and mass-input of KClO3 used as oxidizing agent. Results generated from experiment, derived model and regression model show that sulphur removal efficiencies increases with increase in both treatment temperature and mass-input of KClO3 up to 800°C and 12g of KClO3 respectively. A two- factorial empirical model was derived, validated and used for the predictive analysis. The validity of the derived model expressed as: ₰ = 1.5 x 10-11 ɤ4.3318 + 5.6655 ϑ - 25.237 was rooted in the model core expression ₰ + 25.237 = 1.5 x 10-11 ɤ4.3318 + 5.6655 ϑ , where ₰, ɤ and ϑ are the sulphur removal efficiency, treatment temperature and mass-input of KClO3 respectively. Both sides of the core expression are correspondingly approximately equal. This research presents the possibility of limiting the Processed Iron Ore Remnant Sulphur (PIORS) through strategized input of ɤ and ϑ during processing of iron ore designated for orthopedic devices. This was geared towards enhancing the durability and biocompatibility of medical devices made of steel since PIORS is deleterious to the mechanical properties and functional performance of the steel-made medical devices. Sulphur removal efficiency per unit rise in treatment temperature & per unit mass-input of KClO3 as well as standard error incurred in predicting the sulphur removal efficiency for each value of the treatment temperature & mass-input of KClO3 as obtained from experimental, derived model and regression model predicted results were 0.2422, 0.2659 and 0.2493 % / °C & 11.0109, 12.0865 and 11.3315 % /g as well as 6.5587, 6.3878 and 3.3787 x 10-5 & 3.2057, 2.6827 and 3.5936% respectively. The correlations between sulphur removal efficiency and treatment temperature & per unit mass-input of KClO3 as obtained from experiment, derived model and regression model indicated were all > 0.98. Deviational analysis revealed that the maximum deviation of model-predicted sulphur removal efficiency from the experimental results is 12.33%. This invariably translated into over 87% operational confidence for the derived model as well as over 0.87 dependency coefficients of sulphur removal efficiency on treatment temperature and KClO3 addition.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Nwoye, C. I. (2008). Comparative Studies of the Cooling Ability of Hydrocarbon Based Media and their Effects on the Hardness of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) in Weldments JMME 3(1): 7-13.
 
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[6]  Nwoye, C. I. (2009). Process Analysis and Mechanism of Desulphurization of Agbaja Iron Oxide Ore. Journal of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 8:27-32.
 
[7]  Nwoye, C. I., Ofoegbu, S., Nwoye, U., Inyama, S., Eke, H., Nlebedim, C. (2009). Model for Predicting the Concentration of Sulphur Removed During Temperature Enhanced Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore. Journal of American Science, 5(4):49-54.
 
[8]  Nwoye, C. I., Nwakwuo, C. C., Onugha, E., Obiji, S., Mbuka, I. E., Obasi, G. C. (2010). Model for Predicting the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Gaseous State Desulphurization Iron Oxide Ore. Journal of Engineering and Earth Science, 4:37-43.
 
[9]  Nwoye, C. I., Anyakwo, C. N., Nwoye, C. U., Inyama, S., Ejimofor, R., Nwakwuo, C. C. (2009). Model for Predictive Analysis of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed by Molecular-Oxygen-Induced Desulphurization of Iron Oxide Ore. Journal of Nature and Science, 7(3): 36-40.
 
[10]  Nwoye, C. I., Lee, S. O., Nwoye, C. U., Obi, M. C., Onuoha, E., Trans, T. (2009). Model for Computational Analysis of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore by Powdered Potassium Chlorate. Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, 3(1):45-49.
 
[11]  Nwoye, C. I., Nwakpa, S. O., Aigbodion, V. S., Agu, P. C. and Asuke, F. (2013). Empirical Analysis of Limit of Desulphurization of Iron Ore Based on Multi-Factorial Process Variables, USAK University Journal of Material Science. 2:166-183.
 
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