Journal of Aquatic Science

ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending

ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending

Editor-in-Chief: Hanaa Abd El Baky




The Daily Light-dark Cycle of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution in Three Species of Tropical Calcareous Algae

1Marine Biology Section, University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines

Journal of Aquatic Science. 2015, 3(1), 14-18
doi: 10.12691/jas-3-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alvin P. Monotilla, Serafin M. Geson, Paul Isaac O. Dizon, Danilo T. Dy. The Daily Light-dark Cycle of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution in Three Species of Tropical Calcareous Algae. Journal of Aquatic Science. 2015; 3(1):14-18. doi: 10.12691/jas-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Alvin  P. Monotilla, Marine Biology Section, University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. Email:


Endogenous coordination between light, temperature and other factors by different species of algae would be vital in the production of several proteins needed for growth and adaptations, and therefore will affect their productivity. Among plant activities that are governed by daily light-dark cycles (i.e. 12L:12D and 12L:12L) among calcareous algae (Halimeda simulans, Mastophora rosea and Padina australis) were conducted by monitoring the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration inside incubating bottles with algal samples for 24h and the features of the resulting DO curves were determined by measuring the number of pixel under the curve through image analysis. There was no significant difference among algae during the initial 12L:12D cycle suggesting their normal response to light-dark cycles. However, after six days under continuous light, M. rosea showed a significant decrease in the DO curve (lesser number of pixel under the curve) compared to DO curves during the initial 12L:12D cycle. The decrease in the DO concentration during the continuous L:L treatments might be attributed to the photoinhibitory effect of the red alga being less adoptive to subsequent high intensities. Although an increase in DO concentrations is expected with continuous light, not all algae responded to it. Only Padina exhibited circadian rhythm in our 24h observation under continuous light.



[1]  Aguilera J, Figueroa FL, Häder DP and Jiménez C. 2008. Photoinhibition and photosynthetic pigment reorganisation dynamics in light/darkness cycles as photoprotective mechanisms of Porphyraumbilicalis against damaging effects of UV radiation. Scientia Mar. 72(1): 87-97.
[2]  Ahmad, M., Grancher, N., Heil, M., Black, R. C., Giovani, B., Galland, P. and Lardemer, D. 1999. Action Spectrum for Cryptochrome-Dependent Hypocotyl Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 129: 774-785.
[3]  Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH and Pombana A. 1996. Light-independent endogenous circadian rhythm in the capacity for chlorophyll formation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 36:271-277.
[4]  Bischoff K, Gomez I, Molis M, Hanelt D, Karsten U, Lüder U, Roleda MY, Zacher K andWiencke C. 2006. Ultraviolet radiation shape seaweeds. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 26 pp.
[5]  Chow F, de Oliveira MC and Pedersén M. 2004. In vitro assay and light regulation of nitratereductase in red alga Gracilariachilensis. J. Plant Physiol. 161: 769-776.
Show More References
[6]  Cunningham FX1, Dennenberg RJ, Mustardy L, Jursinic PA, Gantt E. 1989. Stoichiometry of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and Phycobilisomes in the Red Alga Porphyridiumcruentum as a Function of Growth Irradiance. Plant Physiol. 91(3):1179-87.
[7]  Drew EA and Abel KM. 1990.Studies on Halimeda III. A Daily Cycle of Chloroplast Migration within segments. Botanica Marina 33: 31-45.
[8]  Drew EA and Abel KM. 1992. Studies on Halimeda IV.An endogenous rhythm of chloroplastmigration in the siphonous green alga, H. distorta. J. Interdisciplinary Cycle Res. 23 (2): 128-236.
[9]  Drew EA and Abel KM. 1995. Studies on Halimeda V. Effect of temperature on chloroplastmigration in this siphonous green alga. Biol. Rhythm Res. 26 (1): 48-54.
[10]  Granbom M, Pedersén M, Kadel P and Lüning K. 2001. Circadian rhythm of photosyntheticoxygen evolution in Kappaphycusalvarezii (Rhodophyta): dependence on light quantity and quality. J. Phycol. 37:1020-1025.
[11]  Koop H U, Schmid R, Heunert H H and Milthaler B. 1978. Chloroplast Migration: a New Circadian Rhythm in Acetabularia. Protoplasma 97: 301-310.
[12]  Larkum AWD, Salih A, Kühl M. 2011.Rapid mass movement of chloroplasts during segmentformation of the calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimedamacroloba. PLoS ONE 6(7): e20841.
[13]  Lesser M P. 1996. Elevated temperatures and ultraviolet radiation cause oxidative stress and inhibit photosynthesis in symbiotic dinoflagellates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(2): 271-283.
[14]  Lopes PF, de Oliveira MC and Colepicolo P. 2002. Characterization and daily variation of nitratereductase in Gracilariatenuistipitata (Rhodophyta). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 295:50-54.
[15]  Mishkind M, Mauzerall D and Beale SI. 1979. Diurnal variation in situ of photosynthetic capacity in Ulva is caused by a dark reaction. Plant Physiol. 64:896-899.
[16]  Osmond C B, Ramus J, Levavasseur, G, Franklin, L A, Henley W H. 1993. Fluorescence quenching during photosynthesis and photoinhibition of Ulvarotundata blid. Planta 190(1): 97-106.
[17]  Sagert S, Forster RM, Feuerpfeil P and Schubert H.1997. Daily course of photosynthesis andphotoinhibition in Chondruscrispus (Rhodophyta) from different shore levels. European J. of Phycol 32(4): 363-371.
[18]  Van Alstyne K, McCarthy J III, Hustead CL and Kearns LJ. 1999. Phlorotannin allocation among tissues of Northeastern Pacific kelps and rockweeds. J. Phycol. 35: 483-492.
[19]  Yen, U. C., Huang, T. C. and Yen, T. C. 2004.Observation of the circadian photosynthetic rhythm in cyanobacteria with a dissolved-oxygen meter. Pl. Sci. 166: 949-952.
Show Less References


Species Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Seawater Bugs (Order Hemiptera: Class Insecta) in Badian, Cebu, Philippines

1Entomological Collections, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000 Philippines

2Department of Biology, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000 Philippines

Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
doi: 10.12691/jas-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fidel E. Bendanillo, Rosemarie R. Yurong, Noel D. Roble, Jonie C. Yee, Filipina B. Sotto. Species Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Seawater Bugs (Order Hemiptera: Class Insecta) in Badian, Cebu, Philippines. Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/jas-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Fidel  E. Bendanillo, Entomological Collections, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000 Philippines. Email:


The presence of seawater bugs in the coastal area is an indicator of good water quality and stable mangrove habitat. As energy source of other organisms, their role in the food chain (Chen et al., 2005) makes them important in the marine ecosystem. This study was conducted in order to know the species occurrence, abundance and distribution and their relationships with the physicochemical parameters such as light, humidity, temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate that would affect their population to fluctuate or change. In the sampling sites, a quadrat sampling method was used for collections and gathering of data. Results indicated that 824 adult bugs composed of 4 Families, 8 Genera and 13 Species were found. The species were Halobates calyptus, Halobates hayanus, Halobates proavus, Pseudohalobates inobonto and Stenobates sangihi of the Family Gerridae; Haloveloides femoralis, Halovelia esakii, Halovelia malaya, Halovelia bergrothii, Xenobates sp. 1 and Xenobates sp. 2 of the Family Veliidae; Hermatobates marcheii of the Family Hermatobatidae and Corallocoris marksae of the Family Omaniidae. The most abundant was H. femoralis and the species were not associated each other and showed clumped pattern of distribution. Pearson's r- correlation coefficient showed that the effect of light, temperature, dissolved oxygen and phosphate level had a strong relationship with the abundance and distribution of bugs. This means that the higher the relative humidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and phosphate concentration the higher was the number of bugs. The lower the pH, salinity, nitrate and nitrite the higher the number of seawater bugs. However, the mangrove forest in Badian is still stable.



[1]  Andersen, N. M., 1989. The coral bugs, genus Halovelia Bergroth (Hemiptera, Veliidae). II.Taxonomy of the H. Malaya group, cladistic, ecology, biology, and biogeography. Ent. Scand. 20(2): 179-228.
[2]  Andersen, N. M., 1999. Marine water striders (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) of the Indo-pacific: cladistic biogeography and rticle palaeogeography. Pp 341-354.
[3]  Andersen, N. M. and Cheng, L. 2004. The marine insect Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae): biology, adaptations, distribution and phylogeny. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. 42: 119-180.
[4]  Anthoni, J. F. 2006. The chemical composition of seawater. Retrieved from http:/
[5]  Bhatnagar, A and Pooja Devi. 2013. Water quality guidelines for the management of fish culture. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. Volume 3, No. 6. Retrieved from http://www.ipublishing.comm/ijesarticles/thirteen/articles/volth ree/EIJES31197.pdf.
Show More References
[6]  Camargo, J. A., Alonso A. and A. Salamanca. 2004. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: A review with new data for freshwater invertebrates. Chemosphere. Vol. 58, Issue 9: pp. 1255-1267. Retrieved from
[7]  Camargo J. A. and Alonso A. 2006. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems; A global assessment. Environmental International. 32. 831- 849. Retrieved from ecocampus/docs/6.pdf.
[8]  Cariaso, B., 1995. Freshwater insects in the Philippines. Paper presented during the First National Symposium Workshop on Aquatic Biology R&D, PCAMRD at the Lakeview Resort Hotel. 1-11.
[9]  Castillo-Rivera, M. 2013. Influence of rainfall pattern in the seasonal variation of fish abundance in a tropical estuary with restricted marine communication. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. Retrieved from
[10]  Cheng, L., 1972. Notes. Can Halobates dodge nets? I. By daylight? Abstract. Retrieved from
[11]  Cheng, L., M. Douek, and D. Goring. 1978. UV absorption by gerrid cuticles. Limnol.Oceanogr. 23: 554-556.
[12]  Cheng, L, M. A. Baars and S. S. Oosterhius. 1990. Halobates in the Banda (Indonesia): monsoonal differences in abundance and species composition. Bulletin of Marine Science. 47(2): 421-430.
[13]  Chen, P., N. Nieser and H. Zettel. 2005. The aquatic and semi- aquatic bugs (Heteroptera:Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of Malesia. Fauna Malesiana. Brill.Handbook.1-546.
[14]  Cohen, L., P. Jarvis and J. Fowler. 1998. Practical statistics for field biology. 2nd Edition. 1-257.
[15]  Damker, M. D. 1980. Possible influences of solar UV radiation in the evolution of Marine zooplankton. Proceedings NATO Conference on UV & Marine Ecosystems. National Marine Fisheries Service/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Manchester, WA 98353 U.S.A. University of Washington WB-10, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
[16]  English, S., Wilkinson, C., and V. Baker. 1997. Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. 2nd Edition. Habitat Classification and Mapping. Retrieved from
[17]  Evans, J.D. 1996. Straightforward Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing; Pacific Grove, Calif.: 1996.
[18]  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines. 117 pp.
[19]  Foster, W.F. 1989. Zonation, behavior and morphology of the intertidal coral-Treader Hermatobates (Hemiptera: Hermatobatidae) in the south-exist Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol. 96: 87-105.
[20]  Gapud, V., 1986. Waterbugs. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Center. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines. 8(1): 1- 47.
[21]  Harris J.M and Vinobaba P. 2012. Impact of Water Quality on Species Composition and Seasonal Fluctuation of Planktons of Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka. J Ecosyst Ecogr 2:4 Retrieved from
[23]  Ikawa T, S., O. Hidehiko, H. Sugihiko and L. Cheng. 2007. Occurrence and density of Halobates micans (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the eastern South Indian Ocean. The Entomological Society. 10(2): 213-215.
[24]  Kazuo Abe. 2007. Variation in the phosphate concentration in surface seawater of Urasoko Bay, Ishigaki sland, Japan. Galaxes, JCRS, 8: 117-122. Retrieved from
[25]  Lake Access an Impact Metro Project. Seeing below the surface.
[26]  Mc Gavin, G.C., 2000. Insects: spiders and other terrestrial arthropods. Dorling Kindersley Handbooks. pp. 1-255.
[27]  Nummelin, M., M. Lodenius and E. Tulisalo. 1998. Water striders (Heteroptera, Gerridae) as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Entomologoica Fennica. Volume 8.185-191.
[28]  Palumo, John C. 2011. Weather and Insects. Integrated Pest Mgt.. Vol. 2, No.6. Retrieved in
[29]  Polhemus, J. T. and D. A. Polhemus. 1989. Introduction to the Leptodomorpha of Thailand and adjacent countries. Amemboa: news and results on Heteroptera of Thailand. 3: 14-21.
[30]  Posa, M. R., A. C. Diesmos., N. S. Sodhi and T. M. Brook. 2008. Hope for the threatened tropical biodiversity: Lesson from the Philippines. BioScience. 58(3): 231-240.
[31]  Rissik, D., Ho Shon, E., Brook, N., Baird, M. E. and Suthers, L. M. 2009. Plankton dynamics due to rainfall, eutrophication, dilution, grazing and assimilation in an urbanized coastal lagoon. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Vol. 84. Issue 1. pp. 99-107. Retrieved from
[32]  Savopoulou-Soultani, M., Papadopoulos N. T., Milonas, P. and Pascal Moyal, P. 2012. Abiotic Factors and Insect Abundance. Psyche. Vol. 12. Article ID 167420. Retrieved From
[33]  Stoner, A.W, and Humphris, S. E. 1985.Abundance and distribution of Halobates micans (Insecta: Gerridae) in the northwest Atlantic. DeepSea Research Part A. Oceanographic. 32(6): 733-739
[34]  Tait, R. V., 1986. Elements of ecology. 3rd Edition. pp. 21-22.
[35]  Tanaka, K. and Choo P. 1999. Influences of nutrient outwelling from the mangrove swamp on the distribution of phytoplankton in the Matang Mangrove Estuary, Malaysia. National Research Institute of Fisheries Science. Department of Fisheries, 11960 Batu Maung, Penang, Malaysia, Retrieved from
[36]  Valenzuela, H.Y., Bacalso, A. D., Gano, C. B., Pilones, K. D. and Picardal, J. P. 2013. The Species Composition and Associated Flora and Fauna of the Mangrove Forest in Badian, Cebu Island, Philippines. AMURE: International Journal of Marine Ecology, Vol 1, No 1.
[37]  Williams, D.D. and Feltamate, B. W. 1992. Aquatic Insects. International, Red wood Press. Ltd. pp. 358.
[38]  Zegerius, R. 1997. Effects of light intensity on biomass and abundance of invertebrates in detrital zones of a Northern Michigan stream ecosystem. General Ecology. Retrieved from
[39]  Zettel, H., 1998. Diversity and distribution of Philippine Veliidae: Heteroptera: Hebridae. Paper presented during the 6th European Congress of Entomology. pp. 406-472.
[40]  Zettel, H., 2001. The true aquatic bugs (Nepomorpha), the semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha), and the shore bugs (Leptopodomorpha) (Insecta: Heteroptera) of the Philippine islands: identification keys tot families and genera, and notes on morphology, natural history, species diversity and distribution. Guide. pp1-31.
[41]  Zettel, H., 2003. Notes on the marine Haloveliinae (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae) of the Philippines, with descriptions of four new species, identification key, and classification of all species of Haloveloides Andersen, 1992. Ann. Naturalist. Mus. Wien. 104 B. 163-181.
[42]  Zettel, H. 2004. Hebrus murphyi, new species (Heteroptera: Hebridae) from intertidal mangrove habitat in Burias Island, Philippines. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 52(1): 75-77. Retrieve from
[43]  Zettel, H. and Tran A. D., 2009. First inventory of the water bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Gerromorpha) of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 57 (2): 279-295.
Show Less References


A Case Study on Fishing Gears, Fish Species Composition and Fisher Folk Community at Jamuna River of Sirajganj Sadar Fish Landing Site, Bangladesh

1Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

2Department of Fisheries Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

3Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

4Department of Fisheries Management, Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016, 4(1), 11-19
doi: 10.12691/jas-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S.M.Majharul Islam, Md. Bokthier Rahman, Md. Rushna Alam, Biplob Dey Mithun, Anik Bal, Mehedi Azam, Mst. Ruma. A Case Study on Fishing Gears, Fish Species Composition and Fisher Folk Community at Jamuna River of Sirajganj Sadar Fish Landing Site, Bangladesh. Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016; 4(1):11-19. doi: 10.12691/jas-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Md.  Bokthier Rahman, Department of Fisheries Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh. Email:


A profilistic study on the socio-economic status of the fishermen community of Jamuna River under Sirajganj Sadar, was conducted for a period of 1 year and 6 months from August 2014 to February 2016 by employing PRP tools. A total sample of respondent was 120 families and head of the family was considered as respondents for accuracy of information. In this investigation information on fishing gears, fish diversity and social status such as education level, religion, age, occupation, housing condition, sanitary condition, electricity facilities and other facilities was studied. The surveyed result identified total 11 types on fishing net under 5 major groups of net of which Current jal, Chandi jal under the group of Gill net and Ber jal under Seine net group was responsible for large-scale caught. A total of 55 species under 44 genera and 28 families were identified from River Jamuna in the catches of different gears. Among different families Cyprinidae contributes highest number (10 species) of species and genus (7 genera) which was followed by Schilbeidae had 4 species under 4 different genera. The socio-demographic study revealed that most of the fishermen had aged 30-50 (62%) indicated middle class family. The majority of fishers are Muslim (69%). 62% fishermen were engaged in fishing as their main occupation. But, 53% had no educational knowledge. Monthly income varied from 3-25 $ of fisher community. About 61% house had no electricity because of bad communication system. Social condition is not good because majority of them are landless. All of these situation can be promoted if the government and non-governmental organisation trying their best affort and increase their facilities among the fisher folk community of Jamuna River around Sirajgonj district.



[1]  Kalita, G.J., Sarma P.K., Goswami P., and Rout S., Socio-economic status of fishermen and different fishing gear used in Beki River, Barpeta, Assam, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 3(1): 193-198. 2015.
[2]  Islam, M.S., Fish seed production in Bangladesh. In: Proceeding of the SARRC, Workshop on fish seed production. FRI. Mymensingh. 1-2 pp. 1989.
[3]  Hossain, MAR., Wahab M.A., and Belton B., The Checklist of the Riverine Fishes of Bangladesh. Fan Bangladesh. 2: 29-39. 2012.
[4]  Department of Fisheries (DoF), Annual report. National fish week compendium. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. pp: 1-144. July 2015.
[5]  Siddiq, M.A., Miah M.I., Ahmed Z.F., and Asadujjaman M., Present Status of Fish, Fishers and Fisheries of Dogger Beel in Hajigonj Upazila, Chandpur, Bangladesh. Journal of Aquatic Science. 1(2): 39-45. 2013.
Show More References
[6]  Chambers, R., and Conway R., Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical and concept for the 21st century, Discussion paper, IDS No. 296. 1992.
[7]  Alam, M.F., and Bashar MA., Structure of cost and profitability of small scale riverine fishing in Bangladesh. J Res Prog. 9:235-241. 1995.
[8]  Ahmed, N., Government of East Pakistan Directories of Fisheries: Fishing Gear of East Pakistan. East Pakistan Fishery Department, East Pakistan. 1971.
[9]  Talwar, P.K., and Jhingran, A.G., Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries, vol. 12. IBH publishing Co. Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi. 1158 p. 1991.
[10]  Rahman, A.K.A., Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh, second edition. Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000. pp: 263. 2005.
[11]  Rahman, M.B., Hoque M.S., and Hasan M.M., Selectivity of Fishing Gears and Their Effects on Fisheries Diversity of Rabnabad Channel of Patuakhali District in Bangladesh, Academic Research International. 6(6) November 2015.
[12]  Islam, M.K., Nahid S.A.A., Khan M.S.R., Ahsan M.E., Habib K.A., and Ali M.M., Fishing gears used by the Fishers at Rupsha River in Khulna District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 4(1): 29-33. 2015.
[13]  Rahman, M.M., Rahman M.B., Rithu M.N.A., and Hoque M.S., Observation on selectivity of fishing gears and ichthyofaunal diversity in the Paira River of Southern Bangladesh, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 4(1): 95-100. 2016.
[14]  Bhaumik, U., and Saha S.K., Perspective on socio-economic status of the fishermen engaged in fishing in the estuaries of Sundarbans. Environ-Ecol. 12(1): 181-185. 1994.
[15]  Rahmatullah, Dr. S.M., Aziz A., Rahman M., Bari M.R., and Alam M.A., Socio-Economic Status of Fishermen of the Jamuna River in Bangladesh. Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 20(10), PP 63-66. 2014.
[16]  Reza, S., Hossain M.S., Hossain U., Zafar M.A., Socio-economic and livelihood status of fishermen around the Atrai and Kankra Rivers of Chirirbandar Upazila under Dinajpur District, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2(6): 402-408. 2015.
[17]  Alam, M.S., Sarker I.C., Salam M.A., Ali H., and Mollah M., Water loading for live fish transportation and socioeconomic status of water loading station owners in three upazilla of Mymensingh district. J Environ Sci & Natural Resources. 2(1):73-76. 2009.
[18]  Kabir, K.M.R., Adhikary R.K., Minar M., Hossain B., and Minar M.H., Livelihood Status of Fishermen of the Old Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh, World Applied Sciences Journal. 16(6): 869-873. 2012.
[19]  Das, M.R., Ray S., Kumar U., Begum S., and Tarafdar S.R., Livelihood assessment of the fishermen community in the South west region of Bangladesh. 3(4).353.36. 2015.
[20]  Sharker, M.R., Mahmud S., Siddik M.A.B., Alam M.J., and Alam M.R., Livelihood Status of Hilsha Fishers around Mohipur Fish Landing Site, Bangladesh. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 7(2): 77-81. 2012.
[21]  Hossain, F.I., Miah M.I., Hosen M.H.A., Pervin R., and Haque M.R., Study on the Socio-Economic Condition of Fishermen of the Punorvaba River under Sadar Upazila, Dinajpur. Journal of Fisheries. 3(1): 239-244. 2015.
[22]  Sumi, K.R., Sharker M.R., Ali M.L., Pattader S.N., Ferdous Z., Ali M.M., Livelihood status of Gher farmers of Beel Dakatia in Khulna district, Bangladesh. International Journal of Aquatic Science. 6(1), 45-53. 2015.
Show Less References