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International Journal of Physics

## Article

# Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark* *Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

^{1}Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 84-87

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-6

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark

*Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena.*

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

**theory**

**of relativity, dark matter, dark energy**

## References

[1] | Lewis D. 1986. On the Plurality of Worlds. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. | ||

[2] | Green B. (2004). The Elegant Universe: Superstrings. Hidden Dimensions and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. W. W. Norton & Company. NY. | ||

[3] | Deutsch D. 2002. The structure of the multiverse. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 458, 2911-2923 | ||

[4] | Tegmark M. 2003. Parallel Universes. Scientific American. 288 (5), 40-51 | ||

[5] | Ellis G.F.R., Kirchner U., Stoeger W.R. 2004. Multiverses and physical cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 347 (3), 921-936 | ||

[6] | Carr B. ed. (2009). Universe or Multiverse? Cambridge Univ. Press. Сambridge. | ||

[7] | Greene B. (2011). The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Knopf. NY. | ||

[8] | Conley A., Carlberg R.G., Guy J., Howell D.A., Jha S., Riess A.G. and Sullivan M. 2007. Is There Evidence for a Hubble Bubble? The Nature of Type Ia Supernova Colors and Dust in External Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal. 664 (1), L13-L16 | ||

[9] | Ellis G.F.R. 2011. Does the Multiverse Really Exist? Scientific American. 305, 38-43 | ||

[10] | Popper K.R. (2002). Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. London. | ||

[11] | Antonov А.А. 2014. Verification of the second postulate of the special relativity theory. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research A: Physics and Space Science. 14 (3). 51-59. | ||

[12] | Blanchard Ju. 1941. The History of Electrical Resonance. Bell System Technical Journal. 20 (4), 415-433 | ||

[13] | Steinmetz C.P., Berg E.J. 1900. Theory and calculation of alternating current phenomena. Electrical World and Engineer Inc., NY. | ||

[14] | Antonov A.A. and Buzhev V.M. 1970. Means of rising deflecting currents for spiral beam sweep on the CRT screen. Patent of USSR # 433650. | ||

[15] | Antonov A.A. 2008. Physical Reality of Resonance on Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 21 (4). 627-641. | ||

[16] | Antonov A.A. 2009. Resonance on Real and Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 28 (2). 193-204. | ||

[17] | Antonov A.A. 2010. Oscillation Processes as a Tool of Physics Cognition. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1 (2). 342-349. | ||

[18] | Antonov A.A. 2010. Solution of Algebraic Quadratic Equations Taking into Account Transitional Processes in Oscillation Systems. General Mathematics Notes. 1 (2), 11-16. | ||

[19] | Antonov А.А. 2014. Correction of the special theory of relativity: physical reality and nature of imaginary and complex numbers. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 5 (2). 40-52. | ||

[20] | Antonov А.А. 2011. Structure of the Multiverse. British Journal of Science. 2 (2), 51-60. | ||

[21] | Antonov А.А. 2012. Earth. Portals. Parallel Universes. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 3 (6). 464-473. | ||

[22] | Antonov A.A. 2013. Cognition of the Multiverse as a factor facilitating the development of humanity. Russian Physical Thought Journal. 1 (12). 6-77. | ||

[23] | Kantor I.L. and Solodovnikov A.S. (1989). Hypercomplex numbers. Springer Verlag. Berlin. | ||

## Article

# Gapless Superconductivity

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 88-95

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-7

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | H.Kamerlingh-Onnes, “Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, ets. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temteratures”. Comm. Phys. Leb. Univ. Leiden, (120b). 13-18. 1911. | ||

[2] | V.L. Ginzburg, L.D. Landau, “To the theory of superconductivity”. JETF, 20, 1064-1071. 1950. | ||

[3] | J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper, J.R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity”. Phys. Rev., 108. 1175-1204.1957. | ||

[4] | J.R. Schiffer, Superconductivity Theory, (Nauka, Moscow, 1970). | ||

[5] | V.I.Bielawski,Y.V. Kopaev, “Superconductivity of repulsive particles”. UFN, 176, 457-485, 2006. | ||

[6] | M.V. Sadowski, “High-temperature superconductivity in layerediron compounds”. UFN, 178, 1243-1271, 2008. | ||

[7] | B.V. Bondarev, “Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix”, Physica A, 184.205-230.1992. | ||

[8] | B.V.Bondarev, “On some peculiarities of the electron distribution function Bloch states”, Vestnik MAI, 3 (2). 56-65.1 996. | ||

[9] | B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Cooperative Process Theory, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013). | ||

[10] | B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Theory of Superconductivity, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014). | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, New Theory of Superconductivity. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. arXiv: 1412. 6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[12] | D.I. Blokhintsev, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, (Higher School, Moscow, 1961). | ||

[13] | Yu.I. Sirotin, M.P. Shaskolskaya, Basic Crystallophysics, (Nauka, Moscow, 1979). | ||

## Article

# Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

^{1}Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 96-99

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Einstein A. (1905) “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper”, Annalen der Physik 17: 891. | ||

[2] | Randles J. (2005) “Breaking the Time Barrier: The Race to Build the First Time Machine”, Adult Publishing Group. | ||

[3] | Beiser A. (1973) “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd.. | ||

[4] | Hawking S. (1998) “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Bantam Dell Publishing Group. | ||

## Article

# On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation

^{1,}

^{1}Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 100-107

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-2

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Radwan M. Kassir. On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):100-107. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Radwan M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

## Abstract

*Phys. Rev. Lett*. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment,it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A.A. Michelson and E.H. Morley, “On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether,” Am. J. Sci. 34, 333-345 (1887). | ||

[2] | A. Einstein, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper,” Annalen der Physik 322 (10), 891–921 (1905). | ||

[3] | H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, “Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7), 215-226 (1938). | ||

[4] | B. Botermann, D. Bing, Ch. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T.W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, A. Krieger, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, Ch. Novotny, S. Reinhardt, R. Sánchez, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, A. Wolf, and G. Saathoff6, “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed,” Physical Review Letters 113, 120405 (2014). | ||

[5] | A. Einstein, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I,” English translations in Am. Jour. Phys. 45 (1977), Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4 (1907). | ||

[6] | R.M. Kassir, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays 27, 16 (2014). | ||

[7] | R.M. Kassir, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays 27 (2), 198-203 (2014). | ||

[8] | R.M. Kassir, “The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity,” International Journal of Physics 2 (6), 197-201 (2014). | ||

## Article

# Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 108-112

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-3

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):108-112. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Nauka, Moscow, 1964. | ||

[2] | K.Blum, Density Matrix Theory and Applications, Mir, Moscow, 1983. | ||

[3] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of cooperative process, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013, p. 621. | ||

[4] | G.Lindblad, On the Generators of Quantum Dynamical Semigroups, Commun. Math. Phys. 1976, v. 48: 2, p. 119-130. | ||

[5] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum markovian master equation for system of identical particles interacting with a heat reservoir, Physisa A, 1991, v. 176, p. 366-386. | ||

[6] | B.V. Bondarev, Conclusion quantum the kinetic equation from the Liouville-von Neumann equation, TMP, 1994, № 1, p. 33-43. | ||

[7] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix, Physisa A, 1992, v. 184, p. 205-230. | ||

[8] | N. Ashcroft, N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Mir, Moscow, 1979. | ||

[9] | B.V. Bondarev, On some peculiarities of electrons distribution function over the Bloch states, Vestnik MAI, 1996, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 56-65. | ||

[10] | B.V. Bondarev, New theory of superconductivity. Method of equilibrium density matrix. arXiv: 1412.6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of superconductivity, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014, p. 88. | ||

## Article

# Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science

^{1,}

^{1}Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 113-119

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-4

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

C N Hiremath. Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):113-119. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: C N Hiremath, Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA. Email: cnhiremath@gmail.com

## Abstract

*decode, solve, and analyze*. Despite the differing formats, each textbook provides an explanation for each step, however in the process it fails to clearly mention the finer details or attributes of each step in arriving at the solution. The objective of this study was to develop a streamlined process in problem-solving that enhances the students’ learning experience in science. The BIIG problem-solving strategy is a new method of approaching real-world word problems in science in a simple, rational way with clarity and sufficient depth. The thought process in the BIIG method consists of four elements represented by four letters: “B” is associated with the numbers and units, “I” is associated with the variables, next “I” is associated with the contextual information, and “G” is associated with the actual presentation of the solution. The elements described in this article can be applied to any problem-solving format, thereby making it a universal method. Based on both internal and external empirical evidence, it shows that the model is supportive for the students’ problem solving skills. The results indicate that starting with an initial interest level in Physics of only 28%, the students developed appreciation for the subject significantly (76%) and were highly satisfied with the assessment of their work (87%). The BIIG problem-solving method provides much needed skills for improving science education from K-12 schools to colleges, universities and institutions worldwide.

## Keywords

## References

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[2] | Knight, R., Jones, B., & Field, S. (2010). College Physics: A strategic Approach. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley. | ||

[3] | Giancoli, D. C. (2009). Physics for scientists and engineers with modern physics. Pearson Prentice Hall. | ||

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[6] | Gulacar, O., Bowman, C. R., & Feakes, D. A. (2013). Observational investigation of student problem solving: The role and importance of habits. Science Education International, 24(2), 344-360. | ||

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[8] | Handelsman, J., Ebert-May, D., Beichner, R., Bruns, P., Chang, A., DeHaan, R., Gentile, J., Lauffer, S., Stewart, J., Tilghman, S.M., & Wood, W. B. (2004). Scientific Teaching. Science, 304, 521-522. | ||

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[10] | Wood, W. B., & Gentile, J. M. (2003). Teaching in a Research Context. Science, 302, 1510. | ||

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## Article

# δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for ^{192-202}Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2)

^{1}Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University

^{2}Physics Department, College of Education, Basra University

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 120-125

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-5

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Mohammed Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Mohammed A. Al Shareefi, Abdul Ridha Hussain Subber. δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for

^{192-202}Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2).

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):120-125. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammed Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University. Email: moh_2005_ammed@yahoo.com

## Abstract

^{+}states in these isotopes produce an extra evidence for the shape of these nuclei.

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Werner V., Pietralla N., Smith M., “Centrifugal stretching of ^{170}Hf in the interacting boson model”, EPJ.C, 66 (2109), 2014. | ||

[2] | Baylan M., Atlihan M., “The IBM-2 study for some even - even platinum isotopes”, Turk. J. Phys., 26, 305-309, 2002. | ||

[3] | Subber A. R.H., “Nuclear structure of even-even Ge isotopes by means of interacting boson models”,Turk. J. Phys., 35, 43-52, 2011. | ||

[4] | Abood S., SaadA., Kader A., L. Najim, Nuclear structure of the germanium nuclei in the interacting boson model (IBM)”,J.Pure & Applied Science, 4(3):63-73, 2013. | ||

[5] | Abood S., Najim L., “Interacting boson model (IBM-2) calculations of selected even-even Te nuclei”, J. Advances in Applied Science, 4(1), 444-451, 2013. | ||

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## Article

# Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards

^{1}Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ

^{2}Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 126-132

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-6

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Laith A. Najam, Shaher A. Younis, Fouzey H. Kithah. Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):126-132. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6.

Correspondence to: Laith A. Najam, Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ. Email: Prof.lai2014@gmail.com

## Abstract

^{226}Ra,

^{232}Th and

^{40}K in soil of Nineveh zone, Nineveh province, Iraq were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry based on high-purity germanium detector. The specific activity of soil samples ranged from 16.21 to 38.83 Bq/kg with an average of value of 32.52±6.48 Bq/kg, 8.53 to 28.37 Bq/kg with an average of 20.30±5.36 Bq/kg, 236.03 to 613.11 Bq/kg with an average of 378.93± 123.29Bq/kg, and 2.18 to 17.92 Bq/kg with an average of 8.17± 5.55 Bq/kg for

^{226}Ra,

^{232}Th,

^{40}K and

^{137}Cs respectively. The study also examine some radiation hazard indices such as Radium equivalent activity (R

_{aeq}), Absorbed gamma dose rate (D), External hazard index (H

_{ex}), Internal hazard index (H

_{in}) and gamma index (I

_{γ}). These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil. The radium equivalent activity average (R

_{aeq}) was less than the permitted value (370 Bq/kg). The average absorbed dose rate value also less than the permissible limit of 55 nGy/h. The external hazard index, internal hazard index and gamma index of soil samples were less than unity.

## Keywords

## References

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[12] | Najam, L.A., Tawfiq, N.F. &Kitha F. H.,(2013), Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials used in IRAQ, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(1): 56-66. | ||

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## Article

# Approach for Selection of a Synthesis Procedure of GeO_{2} Ultra-small Nano Particles and Its Characterization

^{1}Department of physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Howrah, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 133-138

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-7

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Mrinal Seal, Sampad Mukherjee. Approach for Selection of a Synthesis Procedure of GeO

_{2}Ultra-small Nano Particles and Its Characterization.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):133-138. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-7.

Correspondence to: Sampad Mukherjee, Department of physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Howrah, India. Email: smukherjee.besu@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

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## Article

# Appraisal of a New Gravitational Constant

^{1,}

^{1}51A, S.P. 57, Accesso a M., 03017 Morolo Italy

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(4), 139-149

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-4-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Sandro Antonelli. Appraisal of a New Gravitational Constant.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(4):139-149. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Sandro Antonelli, 51A, S.P. 57, Accesso a M., 03017 Morolo Italy. Email: antonelli41@live.it

## Abstract

*S*=(2.5±1.2)E-19 m

^{-1}. Issues are concerned fitting by Maple four binary systems data, also allowing to assign a meaningful inertial mass to the graviton (5.5±2.6)E-61 Kg confirming known heuristic bounding. In Appendix an easy way of getting the vortex’s gradient formula is shown along with the whole action of the model and the description of the tide effect on a test mass with respect to a x polarized gravitational wave in the case of an asymmetric source.

## Keywords

## References

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[18] | Blanchet,L., “Post-Newtonian theory and the two-body problem”, 2010. [Online]. Available: arXiv.org/gr-qc/0907.3596 | ||

[19] | Jacoby, B. A, et al. “Measurement of orbital decay in the double neutron star binary B2127+11C”, The Astroph. J., 644, L113-L116, 2006. [Online]. Available: arXiv:astro-ph/0605375. | ||

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