International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu




Characterization of Environmental Radioactivity Level in Al-Basrah City (Iraq)

1Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Researches, Al-Mustansiriyh University, College of Basic Education, Baghdad, Iraq

2Ministry of Science and Technology, Radiation & Nuclear Safety Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(6), 176-180
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhannad Kh. Mohammed, Nabeel H. Ameen, Mohammad Sh. Naji. Characterization of Environmental Radioactivity Level in Al-Basrah City (Iraq). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(6):176-180. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Nabeel  H. Ameen, Ministry of Science and Technology, Radiation & Nuclear Safety Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq. Email:


Soils and earth-derived building materials contain radioactive materials provide external exposure to nearby individuals and result in detrimental health effects including cancer. The risk of cancer incidence (morbidity) and mortality to individuals in Al-Basrah’s population (south of Iraq) related to external exposure to ambient gamma radiation is evaluated in this study. The risk estimations include delayed radiation effects (cancer morbidity, mortality and hereditary genetic damages). Radiation exposure rates were measured using BGS-4 gamma-ray scintillation (Scintrex, Canada) for the period 2012-2013. Absorbed dose rates in air and in human tissues are determined by applying typical conversion factors available in the literature. Age-dependent radiation dose is calculated for infants, children, and adults. Dose-to-risk conversion factors are applied to estimate potential risk to various body organs and tissues as a result of exposure to ambient gamma radiation. The findings of this study report that about 0.26% of Al-Basrah population are expected to be diagnosed with radiation-induced cancer over there lifetime. The lifetime fatal cancer probability (mortality) is found to be occurs at a rate of 0.19%. The risk of developing fatal stomach cancer is found to be occurs at a largest extent in comparison with other exposed body organs and tissues. Children and infants are found to be at a greater radiation risk than adults due to lower body weight. Other consequences of radiation injury such as genetic effects transmitted to succeeding generations are expected to occur at a rate of 0.03% in the offspring of Al-Basrah population as a result of changes transmitted via the genetic mechanisms due to irradiation of gonads.



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Control of Roll Motion of Fishing Vessel by Fin-Stabilizer Using PID Controller

1Department of Maritime Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(6), 181-186
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-5
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hassan Ghassemi, Hamid Malekizade, Arash Ashrafi. Control of Roll Motion of Fishing Vessel by Fin-Stabilizer Using PID Controller. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(6):181-186. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-5.

Correspondence to: Hassan  Ghassemi, Department of Maritime Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran. Email:


The aim of this study is to diminish the roll motion of the fishing vessel using fin-roll stabilizer. In this regard, lift coefficient of the fin and the hydrodynamic coefficients of the roll equation are calculated by empirical formulas. In effect, constrained LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) controller is designed and used to control the roll motion in the presence of operational constraints of fin’s actuator. In order to boost the validity of our results, the performance of this controller is compared with a conventional PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller. Finally, simulation results indicate the significant amount of reduction in roll amplitude.



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Structural and Optical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) Technique at Different Annealing Temperature

1Department of Physics, University of Baghdad, College of Sciences

2Department of Physics, University of Tikrit, College Of Education

International Journal of Physics. 2017, 5(1), 1-8
doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kadhim A. Aadim, Abdul-Majeed E. Ibrahim, Jassim M. Marie. Structural and Optical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) Technique at Different Annealing Temperature. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Jassim  M. Marie, Department of Physics, University of Tikrit, College Of Education. Email:


Lead sulphide (PbS) thin films has attracted interest due to its potential applications in optoelectronics devices, gas sensors, solar cell technology and transparent conducting electrodes. Thin films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique at room temperature and different annealing temperatures (573, 673 and 773) K. The structural measurements for PbS thin film show face-centered-cubic structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine PbS surface. The films exhibit more homogeneity. The root mean square(r.m.s), surface roughness and average grain size were increased After annealing. The optical properties of PbS thin films are studied as a function to wavelength in region (375 - 1100) nm. The optical transmittance of PbS thin films shown that the transparency decreases with increase of annealing temperature. The direct energy gap for PbS thin film was decreases with increasing of annealing temperature for all sample due to the growth of the crystallites. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were also calculated.



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