International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu




Theoretical Approach of VTSM to Lattice Dynamical Study of Indium Antimonide (InSb)

1Department of Physics, Mahatma Ghandhi Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna M. P., India

2Department of Physics, Dr. K. N. Modi University, Newai, Rajasthan, India

3Department of Physics, Nehru Gram Bharati University, Allahabad, U. P., India

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(6), 152-157
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pandey Suresh Chandra, Dubey Jay Prakash, Upadhyaya Kripa Shankar. Theoretical Approach of VTSM to Lattice Dynamical Study of Indium Antimonide (InSb). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(6):152-157. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: Dubey  Jay Prakash, Department of Physics, Dr. K. N. Modi University, Newai, Rajasthan, India. Email:


A theoretical study of InSb based on the effect of van der Waal’s interactions (VDWI) and three-body interactions (TBI) into the rigid shell model (RSM) of zinc blende structure (ZBS). The van der Waal’s three body shell model (VTSM) is performed to analyze the phonon dispersion curves, Debye temperatures variation, combined density of states (CDS) curves, two-phonon Raman and anharmonic elastic properties, where the short range interactions are operative upto the second neighbours. Our results are reasonably good agreement observed between theoretical and experimental data.



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A New Principle for Elimination of Applied Defects in the Relativity Theory

1Xi’an Institute of Metrology, N0.12, Laodong South Road, Xi’an, P.R. China

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(6), 158-175
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kexin Yao. A New Principle for Elimination of Applied Defects in the Relativity Theory. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(6):158-175. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Kexin  Yao, Xi’an Institute of Metrology, N0.12, Laodong South Road, Xi’an, P.R. China. Email:


This paper puts forward the force equilibrium invariance axiom and derives the force transformation formula of the special relativity; puts forward the correlation analysis law and eliminates some problems resulted from the improper application of relativity; puts forward the principle of absolute velocity, determines the running speed of any moving object in real time, and solves the problem of twin paradox; puts forward the corresponding principle and determines the relationship between the rest mass and the reference frame; puts forward the concept of absolute transformation and relative transformation and clarifies two different natures of Lorentz transformation; puts forward the field similarity principle and determines the gravitational mass as a constant that has nothing to do with the velocity; infers that the equivalence principle is false and that the general relativity is only applicable to low speed moving objects; puts forward the gravity double equilibrium principle and concludes that Black Hole could not exist. It also analyzes the limiting speed of manned spaceship, and concludes that human beings cannot realize time travel of practical significance.



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Characterization of Environmental Radioactivity Level in Al-Basrah City (Iraq)

1Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Researches, Al-Mustansiriyh University, College of Basic Education, Baghdad, Iraq

2Ministry of Science and Technology, Radiation & Nuclear Safety Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(6), 176-180
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhannad Kh. Mohammed, Nabeel H. Ameen, Mohammad Sh. Naji. Characterization of Environmental Radioactivity Level in Al-Basrah City (Iraq). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(6):176-180. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Nabeel  H. Ameen, Ministry of Science and Technology, Radiation & Nuclear Safety Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq. Email:


Soils and earth-derived building materials contain radioactive materials provide external exposure to nearby individuals and result in detrimental health effects including cancer. The risk of cancer incidence (morbidity) and mortality to individuals in Al-Basrah’s population (south of Iraq) related to external exposure to ambient gamma radiation is evaluated in this study. The risk estimations include delayed radiation effects (cancer morbidity, mortality and hereditary genetic damages). Radiation exposure rates were measured using BGS-4 gamma-ray scintillation (Scintrex, Canada) for the period 2012-2013. Absorbed dose rates in air and in human tissues are determined by applying typical conversion factors available in the literature. Age-dependent radiation dose is calculated for infants, children, and adults. Dose-to-risk conversion factors are applied to estimate potential risk to various body organs and tissues as a result of exposure to ambient gamma radiation. The findings of this study report that about 0.26% of Al-Basrah population are expected to be diagnosed with radiation-induced cancer over there lifetime. The lifetime fatal cancer probability (mortality) is found to be occurs at a rate of 0.19%. The risk of developing fatal stomach cancer is found to be occurs at a largest extent in comparison with other exposed body organs and tissues. Children and infants are found to be at a greater radiation risk than adults due to lower body weight. Other consequences of radiation injury such as genetic effects transmitted to succeeding generations are expected to occur at a rate of 0.03% in the offspring of Al-Basrah population as a result of changes transmitted via the genetic mechanisms due to irradiation of gonads.



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