International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

   

Article

The Effect of Zr Concentration on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 PZT Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition Technique

1Department of Physics, University of Baghdad / College of Sciences

2Department of Physics, University of Tikrit/College of Education


International Journal of Physics. 2017, 5(1), 30-36
doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-1-5
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ghuson H. Mohammed, Abdul Kareem D. Ali, Hameed A. Radwan. The Effect of Zr Concentration on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 PZT Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition Technique. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(1):30-36. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-1-5.

Correspondence to: Hameed  A. Radwan, Department of Physics, University of Tikrit/College of Education. Email: ham2348378@gmail.com

Abstract

Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 PZT thin films with various ratio of Zr / Ti (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) deposited on glass by pulsed laser deposition technique to investigate the structural, optical and electrical properties in these films. The films were deposited at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for PZT illustrated a perovskite phase with a polycrystalline structure at RT for all samples. Optical studies showed that the optical energy gap increases with increasing Zr concentration. The d.c. conductivity (σd.c) decreased with increasing of Zr content. It was observed that the films have two activation energies that decrease with the increase of Zr content. Hall measurements showed that all the films were p-type and the carriers concentration were increase with the increasing of Zr, the mobility inversely proportional with the carriers concentration.

Keywords

References

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Article

Radon Concentrations in Tap and Ground Water in Kirkuk Governorate Using Active Detecting Method RAD7

1Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq

2Department of Physics, College of Education for pure Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq


International Journal of Physics. 2017, 5(2), 37-42
doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed Abad Ibrahim, Issa Zainalabdin Hassan, Sara Hlal moklofe. Radon Concentrations in Tap and Ground Water in Kirkuk Governorate Using Active Detecting Method RAD7. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(2):37-42. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-1.

Correspondence to: Sara  Hlal moklofe, Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq. Email: Sara.hlal.Kirkuk6@gmail.com

Abstract

Radon gas represents, one of the significant natural sources of public radioactive exposure. Monitoring it's concentrations in air, water and soil is of great importance. In the present work, radon concentrations and Annual Effective Dose in tap and ground water have been investigated at Kirkuk governorate. Fifteen tap water samples along with (fifteen) ground water samples have been taken from (fifteen) different areas at Kirkuk governorate. The electronic radon detector RAD7, has been used thought the research. For tap water, the highest, lowest and average concentration was (2.740 Bq.l-1), (0.0359 Bq.l-1) and (0.33104 Bq.l-1) respectively. The annual effective dose to an individual consumer was (1.501 mSv.y-1). For ground water, the highest, lowest and average concentration was (5.630 Bq.l-1), (0.108 Bq.l-1) and (2.316 Bq.l-1) respectively. The annual effective dose for individual consumer was (10.136 mSv.y-1). This result is expected since, underground is directly in contact with the soil and rock layer which are the source of radon parents. After storing the samples for one month radon concentration are measured again. The average concentration is lowered to 9.84% of the original one before storage.

Keywords

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Article

String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field

1Department of Mathematics, Science College, Congress Nagar


International Journal of Physics. 2017, 5(2), 43-45
doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. M. Pund, H.A. Nimkar. String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(2):43-45. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-2.

Correspondence to: A.  M. Pund, Department of Mathematics, Science College, Congress Nagar. Email: ashokpund64@rediffmail.com

Abstract

A string cosmological models with magnetic field along X and Z-axis are investigated in the context of Ruban’s space time. To obtain a determinant solution, equation of state for string model and relation between metric potential is considered. The physical and geometrical aspects are also discussed.

Keywords

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