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International Journal of Physics

## Article

# Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity

^{1}High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 45-51

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Preeti Agarwal, A. Ray, A. Roy Chowdhury. Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):45-51. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Preeti Agarwal, High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India. Email: preeti.optics@gmail.com

## Abstract

_{2}) as well as the higher order dispersion terms .

## Keywords

## References

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## Article

# Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy

^{1,}

^{1}B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 52-57

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-2

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Arne Bergstrom. Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):52-57. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Arne Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A. Bergstrom, “Relativistic invariance and the expansion of the universe”, Nuovo Cimento 27B, 145-160 (1975). | ||

[2] | A. Bergstrom, “Lorentz-covariant quantum transport and the origin of dark energy”, Phys. Scr. 83, 055901 (2011). | ||

[3] | A. Bergstrom, “Is CMB just an observational effect of a universe in accelerated expansion?”, International Journal of Physics 1, 133-137 (2013). | ||

[4] | A. Bergstrom, “Dark energy, exponential expansion, CMB, wave-particle duality - all result from Lorentz-covariance of Boltzmann’s transport equation”, International Journal of Physics 2, 112-117 (2014). | ||

[5] | E. R. Harrison, Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (Cambridge University Press, 2000), Ch 23. | ||

[6] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sand_Reckoner retrieved 2014-06-16. | ||

[7] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_(spacecraft) retrieved 2014-06-16. | ||

[8] | A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 232. | ||

[9] | J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), p. 550. | ||

[10] | A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 235. | ||

[11] | G. I. Bell and S. Glasstone, Nuclear Reactor Theory (Van Nostrand, 1970), p 54. | ||

[12] | N. L. Johnson, S. Kotz, and N. Balakrishnan, Continuous Univariate Distributions. vol 1 (Wiley, 1994). | ||

[13] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_and_chessboard_problem retrieved 2014-06-16. | ||

[14] | A. Bergstrom, “Big Crunch, Big Rip – or a self-similar expansion replenished by dark matter and dark energy?”, International Journal of Physics 2, 146-150 (2014). | ||

## Article

# Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures

^{1}Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

^{2}National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 58-68

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-3

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

M. M. Krupa, V. G. Kostyshyn, A. M. Korostil. Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):58-68. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: A. M. Korostil, Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: amand@rambler.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Zutic, I., Fabian, J., Sarma, D., “Spintronics: Fundamentals and application,”Rev. Mod. Phys., 76(5). 323. Apr.2004. | ||

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[13] | Atxitia, U., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Walowski, J., Mann, A., Münzenberg, M., “Evidence for thermal mechanisms in laser-induced femtosecond spin dynamics,” Phys. Rev., B81. 174401. May.2010. | ||

[14] | Vahaplar, K., Kalashnikova, A.M., Kimel, A.V., Hinzke, D., Nowak, U., Chantrel, R., Tsukamoto, A., Itoh, A., Kirilyuk A., Rasing, Th., “Ultrafsat Path for Optical Magnetization Reversal via a Strongly Nonequilibrium State,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 117201-1. Sep.2009. | ||

[15] | Weisheit, M., Fähler, S., Marty, A., Souche, Y., Poinsignon, C., Givord, D., ‘Electric field-induced modification of magnetism in thin-film ferromagnets,’ Science, 315(5810). 349. Jun.2007. | ||

[16] | Zhu, J., Katine, J.A., Rowlands, G.E., Chen, Y.J., Duan, Z., Alzate, J.G., Upadhyaya, P., Langer, J., Amiri, P.K., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., “Voltage-InducedFerromagnetic Resonance in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 108. 197203. May.2012. | ||

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## Article

# A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches

^{1,}

^{1}B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 69-73

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-4

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Arne Bergstrom. A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Arne Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiway_switching. | ||

[2] | Richard Day, Wiring Multi Switches, Popular Science, Jan 1987, p 85. | ||

[3] | Michael Litchfield and Michael McAlister, Taunton's Wiring Complete: Expert Advice from Start to Finish, Second Ed. (Taunton Press, Newtown CT), 2013. | ||

[4] | Arne Bergstrom, Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement, International Journal of Physics 3, 40-44 (2015). | ||

[5] | Arne Bergstrom, Apparatus for Authenticating Bank Notes, European Patent Specification 0198819B1 (1988). | ||

[6] | Arne Bergstrom, Optoelectronic Circuit Element, US Patent 4, 254, 333 (1981). | ||

## Article

# An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid ^{3}Не-В

^{1}The State University of Management

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 74-83

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-5

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Liudmila B. Boldyreva. An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid

^{3}Не-В.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):74-83. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Liudmila B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Klyshko D.N, “Quantum optics: quantum, classical, and metaphysical aspect,” Physics Uspekhi,37, 1097-1122, 1994. | ||

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[10] | Volovic, G.E, The Universe in a Helium Droplet, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2003. | ||

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[12] | Boldyreva L.B, “The cavity structure effect in medicine: the physical aspect,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine, 20, 322-326, 2013. | ||

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## Article

# Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark* *Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

^{1}Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 84-87

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-6

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark

*Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena.*

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

**theory**

**of relativity, dark matter, dark energy**

## References

[1] | Lewis D. 1986. On the Plurality of Worlds. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. | ||

[2] | Green B. (2004). The Elegant Universe: Superstrings. Hidden Dimensions and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. W. W. Norton & Company. NY. | ||

[3] | Deutsch D. 2002. The structure of the multiverse. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 458, 2911-2923 | ||

[4] | Tegmark M. 2003. Parallel Universes. Scientific American. 288 (5), 40-51 | ||

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[6] | Carr B. ed. (2009). Universe or Multiverse? Cambridge Univ. Press. Сambridge. | ||

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[9] | Ellis G.F.R. 2011. Does the Multiverse Really Exist? Scientific American. 305, 38-43 | ||

[10] | Popper K.R. (2002). Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. London. | ||

[11] | Antonov А.А. 2014. Verification of the second postulate of the special relativity theory. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research A: Physics and Space Science. 14 (3). 51-59. | ||

[12] | Blanchard Ju. 1941. The History of Electrical Resonance. Bell System Technical Journal. 20 (4), 415-433 | ||

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[16] | Antonov A.A. 2009. Resonance on Real and Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 28 (2). 193-204. | ||

[17] | Antonov A.A. 2010. Oscillation Processes as a Tool of Physics Cognition. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1 (2). 342-349. | ||

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[23] | Kantor I.L. and Solodovnikov A.S. (1989). Hypercomplex numbers. Springer Verlag. Berlin. | ||

## Article

# Gapless Superconductivity

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 88-95

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-7

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | H.Kamerlingh-Onnes, “Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, ets. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temteratures”. Comm. Phys. Leb. Univ. Leiden, (120b). 13-18. 1911. | ||

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[10] | B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Theory of Superconductivity, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014). | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, New Theory of Superconductivity. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. arXiv: 1412. 6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[12] | D.I. Blokhintsev, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, (Higher School, Moscow, 1961). | ||

[13] | Yu.I. Sirotin, M.P. Shaskolskaya, Basic Crystallophysics, (Nauka, Moscow, 1979). | ||

## Article

# Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

^{1}Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 96-99

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Einstein A. (1905) “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper”, Annalen der Physik 17: 891. | ||

[2] | Randles J. (2005) “Breaking the Time Barrier: The Race to Build the First Time Machine”, Adult Publishing Group. | ||

[3] | Beiser A. (1973) “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd.. | ||

[4] | Hawking S. (1998) “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Bantam Dell Publishing Group. | ||

## Article

# On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation

^{1,}

^{1}Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 100-107

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-2

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Radwan M. Kassir. On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):100-107. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Radwan M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

## Abstract

*Phys. Rev. Lett*. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment,it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A.A. Michelson and E.H. Morley, “On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether,” Am. J. Sci. 34, 333-345 (1887). | ||

[2] | A. Einstein, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper,” Annalen der Physik 322 (10), 891–921 (1905). | ||

[3] | H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, “Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7), 215-226 (1938). | ||

[4] | B. Botermann, D. Bing, Ch. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T.W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, A. Krieger, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, Ch. Novotny, S. Reinhardt, R. Sánchez, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, A. Wolf, and G. Saathoff6, “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed,” Physical Review Letters 113, 120405 (2014). | ||

[5] | A. Einstein, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I,” English translations in Am. Jour. Phys. 45 (1977), Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4 (1907). | ||

[6] | R.M. Kassir, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays 27, 16 (2014). | ||

[7] | R.M. Kassir, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays 27 (2), 198-203 (2014). | ||

[8] | R.M. Kassir, “The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity,” International Journal of Physics 2 (6), 197-201 (2014). | ||

## Article

# Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 108-112

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-3

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):108-112. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Nauka, Moscow, 1964. | ||

[2] | K.Blum, Density Matrix Theory and Applications, Mir, Moscow, 1983. | ||

[3] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of cooperative process, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013, p. 621. | ||

[4] | G.Lindblad, On the Generators of Quantum Dynamical Semigroups, Commun. Math. Phys. 1976, v. 48: 2, p. 119-130. | ||

[5] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum markovian master equation for system of identical particles interacting with a heat reservoir, Physisa A, 1991, v. 176, p. 366-386. | ||

[6] | B.V. Bondarev, Conclusion quantum the kinetic equation from the Liouville-von Neumann equation, TMP, 1994, № 1, p. 33-43. | ||

[7] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix, Physisa A, 1992, v. 184, p. 205-230. | ||

[8] | N. Ashcroft, N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Mir, Moscow, 1979. | ||

[9] | B.V. Bondarev, On some peculiarities of electrons distribution function over the Bloch states, Vestnik MAI, 1996, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 56-65. | ||

[10] | B.V. Bondarev, New theory of superconductivity. Method of equilibrium density matrix. arXiv: 1412.6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of superconductivity, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014, p. 88. | ||

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