Special Issue "Regional studies"

A special issue of International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management

Deadline for manuscript submissions: (October 20, 2014)

Special Issue Editor(s)

Chief Guest Editor

Andrey Mikhaylov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Email: ikbfu39@gmail.com

Special Issue Information

In the early 19th century a French sociologist Frederic Le Play has suggested to consider the inter-dependence and relationship of geography and social development. His idea has given the basis to alienate the regions of the natural world, studied long ago as a separate dependent research subject of the geoscience, from the “physical regions”, established by communities of people, actively influencing its borders and structure. The regional studies are interdisciplinary a priori; hence the notion of a region is a topic of research in numerous fields of science: geography, economics, political science, sociology, cultural studies, history, etc. A number of prominent scholars, such as Niosi, Asheim and Isaksen, note that the region as an object of study should be one of the priorities in the regional studies. The contemporary socio-economic research suggests four main paradigms to consider the region: 1) region as a quasi-state, described as a subsystem of the state and national economy, having relative isolation in decision-making; 2) region as a quasi-corporation pointing at the regional and municipal property, which is engaged in economic relations with other market participants; 3) region as a society, considering the region through the lens of different social groups, their roles and interests in the context of the issues related to the reproduction of social life and the development of the socio-economic system; 4) region as a market, meaning either a common conditions for economic activity in certain territorial boundaries and the presence of the distinctive features of the resource markets in different regions, or the interest of regional authorities in the creation of a favorable business climate.

Giving credits to the classical approach of the regional studies, nowadays researchers consider additional factors in this scope. Strengthening hyper-competition, which sets the growing interest in innovation as a source of competitive advantage, increases the importance of cooperative intra-regional ties in innovation (the concept of open innovation H. Chesbrough). This fact has led to the development of a new approach to define a region – an independent and direct participant in the internationalization and cooperation processes in the economy.

Regions are increasingly eager to benefit from interactions with the outside world through the formation of networks (Stubbs Richard and Geoffrey Underhill), changing the balance in the “center – periphery” (Frank A.G.; Friedmann J.). In this case, the positioning of the region and its movement in the direction of openness or isolationism is dependent on various external and internal factors. As an alternative to the traditional hierarchy ‘from the center to the regions’, comes the network form of organization of social control. The network approach determines the region as a network itself and as an element of an even larger network (Cooke P., Dreger C., Erber G.). Analyzing the changes that occur with the region in a globalized world, the scientists note that the notion of region does not disappear, but it re-appears in a regional-network form.

Keywods

  • Theoretical contributions in line with the spatial economics, location modeling, and empirical research over inter-industry analysis;
  • The aspects of demography and migration;
  • Transportation analysis;
  • Urban and rural development, including land use and resource management;
  • Environmental and ecological analysis;
  • Regional development policy analysis, industrial and innovative development of the regions;
  • Articles on geographical information systems, spatial data analysis.

Published Papers

   
Abstract: The methodical approach to the analysis of the spatial differentiation of conditions and factors in the development of innovative mesoeconomic systems (clusters) based on multi-dimensional classification of the resulting indicators in subspaces of overall economic efficiency of development of regions of the Russian Federation, the effectiveness of individual activities, the degree of development of small business and innovation indicators for regional development. The system of informative indicators for grouping regions on the resulting system gauges. In the resulting typologies tested the hypothesis of statistical significance of differences of quality characteristics of the institutional environment, the influence of factors of urbanization, etc.
Abstract: The following research paper addresses the issue of cluster internationalization process. The methodological approach is based on analyzing pan-European projects of transnational inter-organizational cooperation, while giving emphasis on identifying networked linkages across the spatial reach of the Baltic region. Research results reveal a number of geographical locations that exhibit active cross-border regionalization processes, successfully implementing the international cluster initiative policies. A ponderable correlation between the level of urbanization of a territory and the number of ongoing international cluster initiatives is found. The distribution of international cluster initiatives in the Baltic region by specialization is presented, as well as the comparative analysis with the established cross-border clusters is given.
Abstract: The article defines the market volumes of knowledge in industrial regions of the Russian Federation for the period of 2000-2010; formulates the periodization of the knowledge market development in Russian with the indication of the volume ranges of knowledge market values; defines tendencies of development of the explicit and implicit knowledge market in industrialized federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Empirical research of knowledge market in Russian industrial regions is carried out; recommendations on the development of explicit and implicit knowledge markets are given. The analysis is based on data provided by the Russian official statistics office, ROSSTAT, methodological documents of ROSSTAT, statistical data of National research University "Higher school of Economics". The market analysis of the knowledge carried out on three levels: the macro-level, the level of the Russian industrial regions as meso-level, regional industrial enterprises as micro-level of the research. The indicator "expenses on technological innovations” is used in the study as the main indicator of the functioning of the knowledge management system in the organization.
Abstract: Article is devoted to the development issues of small and medium-sized, in particular, innovative, business in the regions of modern Russia. Urbanization of Russia continues. People move to the capital cities, as the development process occurs only in them, as many believe. This, as it seems to the author, is the primarily cause to the reduction in numbers of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Russian province. Deterioration of working conditions of business at all levels, slowing economic growth, economic and political sanctions are the causes of deterioration of the business climate in the country. Article emphasizes the need to preserve, enhance and further develop the various settlements on the territory of Russia, which is possible only by activating the economy. In turn, the economic recovery is only possible with the participation of the business. Economic slowdown adversely affects the prospects of the existence of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Russian Federation. Some measures to create conditions for the development of innovative small and medium-sized businesses in Russia are suggested.
Abstract: Nowadays relevance of studying of all aspects of the development of Northern regions of the Russian Federation consists in the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country North is considered as a source of resources for social and economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is as a separate object of state observation it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of North may become demographic potential of adjacent regions. The different points of view and approaches to definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On a basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions, since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions still have positive differences by age and sexual structure. The results can be used by regional governments by drawing up Strategic plans of social and economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations.
Abstract: In the current environment, the economic clusterization, which contributes to closer interrelations between the businesses operating within this system and promotes development of the involved regions, represents one of the key factors relating to competitive ability improvement of the active businesses. Identification and assessment of regional clusters is actually regarded as an insufficiently studied issue, which fact, first of all, is linked to complexity of the region as an economic system on the whole having rather a diversified profile. This paper deals with a study of theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to formation of clusters in the industrial sector of the region. The methodological approach as devised by the author of the present paper is based upon determination of localization coefficients, per capita production in the relevant sector, region’s specialization in manufacturing of products falling within the scope of a specific industrial sector, and integral index of clusterization potential. As a result of the calculations, several industrial sectors were identified that displayed the highest degree of clusterization reasonability, in particular, chemical, petrochemical and fuel industries. Formation and development of a petrochemical cluster, in opinion of the author, eventually will result in scoring a number of advantages for the regional economics, including new job formation, manufacturing new product lines, development of region infrastructure, upgrading the research and technology along with increasing the degree of their implementation efficiency etc.
Abstract: Article raises an issue on the differences between the production and retail networks. Taking an account of a network internationalization, these differences become even more profound. Paper provides a literature overview of the scientific approaches to differentiate and typologize the periods of retail internationalization in Europe, as well as the strategies adopted by the respective retail chains. The study provides a comparative analysis of the development process of retail networks in different groups of European countries, with an emphasis on internationalization processes. Results of a comparative study suggest that the Russian retail market in still being at the stage of a rapid development featuring a highly heterogeneous spatial dispersion of retail chains and a diversity of trade formats. The inward internationalization as well as intra-regional networking is rather underdeveloped, while the outward internationalization of the national retail chains requires an active participation in the global distribution channels.

Special Issue "Geography of Innovation and Economic Clusters: Evidence from Russia"

A special issue of International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management

Deadline for manuscript submissions: (July 31, 2014)

Special Issue Editor(s)

Chief Guest Editor

Andrey Mikhaylov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Email: ikbfu39@gmail.com

Special Issue Information

Studies on the effects of inter-firm and inter-industry interactions have long been the topic of scientific research around the globe. The industrial cluster approach, which is certainly associated with the name of M. Porter roots to research of E. Dahmen, A. Hirschman and J.R. Lasuen to name just a few. Recent authors discuss the inter-organizational collaboration of actors within the cluster, the backbone of which is involvement in to the process of value co-creation. The cluster ceased to be a geographical term and has transformed into the institutional framework of the new knowledge (networked) economy.

Over the last decade, the cluster concept has moved from being solely of interest to the respective scientific community on to the policy tool, which is being used by national and regional authorities all around the world. One of the latter countries in Europe to introduce the cluster policy was Russia. The special issue of the journal is dedicated to discover the fundamentals and major results of the Russian cluster policy so far. Authors are expected to provide their research results on cluster initiatives being implemented on the regional level, give their critical view on intermediate results, as well as suggest certain methods of analyzing the effects of clustering.

The priority will be given to the econometric articles, aimed at providing quantitative analysis in addition to suggested empirical evidence.

Keywods

  • Case study on clustering in Russia (overview and in-depth analysis of regional clusters and innovation networks in the regions of Russia);

  • Use of economic and statistical methods of analysis in cluster research (analysis of efficiency and drawbacks, SWOT analysis in relation to certain economic sectors and regional economies, factor analysis, etc.);


  • Process and mechanism of formation of clusters in Russia (it is proposed to pay special attention to the stage of emergence of a cluster; the cluster initiative and proto-cluster);


  • Regional cluster policies (an overview of the role of governmental authorities in establishing favorable economic conditions for the cluster formation);

  • Impact and effects of clustering on the regional economy;
  • Inter-cluster cooperation (inter-regional and international cluster cooperation; cluster alliances and cluster networks);

  • Development of clusters in high-tech and traditional sectors of economy;
  • Comparative analysis of organized and organic clusters in Russia;
  • Geography of regional clusters in Russia;
  • Institutional collaboration within innovative cluster network (university-business-government-non-profit organizations).

Published Papers

   
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of tourism clusters in the regions of Pribaikal, namely the Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia, using a variety of cluster identification methods. The findings suggest that the characteristics of tourism clusters are found in the Republic of Buryatia. However, in Irkutsk region they are not available, although the two regions are the object of a number of national and regional development programs of tourism clusters.
Abstract: Article provides an algorithm and defined criteria for the identification of educational clusters in the regional economy, adapted to the Russian reality. Identification of the leading industries as promising regional educational clusters in the economy of Perm Krai conducted on the basis of quantitative Shift-Share analysis and the calculation of the localization coefficient. Statistical base of the research were materials of the central statistical database of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation for 2007-2012 years by employment indicators. Qualitative diagnosis of educational clusters allowed to establish the shape and direction of development of strategic partnership in the educational system in the region, to identify the factors of competition. As a result, by applying a set of quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis of cluster, authors found that in the economy of Perm Krai has four potential educational clusters to be formed, the development of which should be a priority of educational policy in the region.
Abstract: The paper deals with a study of cluster-type development of regional economic systems. Positive influence on the social and economic growth of a number of regions in the Russian Federation has been evaluated owing to generation of territorial cluster-type formations. The paper includes findings of an investigation into theoretical nature of «cluster» as an economic category. As an example of positive influence of the clusterization strategy, the project of formation and development of the regional cluster of Nizhnekamsk Municipal District of the Republic of Tatarstan has been offered and validated from economic effectiveness point of view. For the purpose of the project feasibility validation, a methodological approach has been specifically designed for evaluation of economic potential of the city-forming enterprises. During approbation, the above mentioned approach brought to the front a number of intensive growth prospects for the enterprises in question in the course of integration, and, consequently, viability of the regional cluster became worthy of notice. At the same time, the project in question was rationalized from economic effectiveness perspective. For this line of the investigation a special methodological approach has been developed so as to allow predicting a level of synergetic effect of the clusterization.
Abstract: The article deals with the background and benefits of international inter-cluster interactions. Research shows that the cluster is the most effective form of innovative development based on the concept of innovation ecosystem, and intercluster international partnership is the most appropriate form of organization for the development of high-tech-based inter-sectoral cooperation and implementation of international projects. It is shown that the consideration of high-tech industry in the framework of the structural model as mega cluster means that the synergistic advantage can be seen only with a clear organizational structure and coordinated interaction of clusters. Analysis of necessity of inter-cluster interaction is considered on example of space industry. We propose tools for serching partners and assess the effectiveness of the scheme on the basis of inter-cluster interaction network approach and the results for the regional economy.
Abstract: Article is devoted to the issue on early markers of formation of economic clusters, which are the specific regional conditions. In contemporary Russian economic reality, when the state implements the initiation of cluster projects in different geographical regions and economic sectors, particularly relevant is the task to analyze and identify the regional environment conducive to the successful cluster formation. In order to complete the task, authors propose to use non-parametric methodology of examination, allowing to analyze objects with a complex quality structure. Paper describes this technique, and tests it in an example of the emerging pharmaceutical cluster in the Volgograd region. Following the results of the study, a conclusion on the feasibility of establishing a cluster in the area, and the main insufficient conditions are identifies, the improvement of which will have a positive impact on the process of formation of the Volgograd pharmaceutical cluster.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of objective statistical data authors identified a global megatrend of the XXI century and the related growth of knowledge-intensive clustering, which provides high efficiency and competitiveness of the world economy. Based on the study of synergy, the self-organization theory and the eastern philosophy on original principles of synergy, the synergetic approach to the cluster development is elaborated. Article shows an artificial and rapid creation and development of clusters that uses the achievements of synergy, in particular ultrafast processes of the hyperbolic growth. The proposed model of clustering considers these processes.
Abstract: The article describes the features of the cluster methodology and cluster systems. The Russian practice in implementation of the cluster approach and the experience on the use of the cluster approach in the implementation of socio-economic development strategy of the region. The study uses an example of the Republic of Dagestan (Russian Federation). The main focus is made on clusters “Caspian HUB” (transport-trade-logistics cluster) and “People’s House” (a unique cluster, aimed at stimulating the development of human capital) being nodal in the regions’ strategy. Aspects of the innovation potential of the region and the main directions of innovative activities of major enterprises of the industrial cluster of Republic of Dagestan (‘Aviaagregat’, ‘Hajiyev Plant’, ‘Research Institute ‘Sapphire’, ‘Dagfos’, etc.) are disclosed. Research results enabled to identify the main directions of the republic's economy required to stimulate clustering. The proposed initiatives are based on the improvement of mechanisms of state support for innovation at the regional level and on encouragement of the inflow of financial capital in the regional innovation system. The major objectives of the innovation potential of the Republic of Dagestan are defined.
Abstract: The article provides a review of the evolution of scientific concepts on the innovation process. Two main approaches to the innovation process are presented: linear and non-linear, and their distinctive features are defined. Within each approach the main types of models of the innovation process are considered. The stages of formation and development of a linear model of the innovation process are reviewed. Analyzed the influence of various factors on the occurrence of non-linear models of the innovation process. Highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of linear and non-linear approaches to the development of models of the innovation process. The effect of trends in the localization of the innovation process in the current models of the innovation process are studied. The modeling of the innovation process at the present stage is proposed to be considered as a complex, interactive, nonlinear localized learning process.
Abstract: The special issue on the “Geography of Innovation and Economic Clusters: Evidence from Russia” is held in order to provide insights on the theoretical elaboration and practical implementation of the cluster concept in the regions of the Russian Federation. Multidimensional nature of the phenomenon of economic clustering has led to the need for a transdisciplinary approach in studying the features of spatial distribution of regional economic entities and institutions of the region in the framework of knowledge economy. We therefore invite scholars to consider the development of the cluster concept by taking into account the impact of the neighboring areas of science, focused on in-depth study of each of the three key features of the cluster concept – interconnectedness, systemic properties, and spatial proximity. The eight articles of the special issue uncover the aspects of the innovation process in the regional context, the factor of international inter-cluster collaboration, the methods of cluster mapping and identification of the early indications to track the emergence of a cluster, as well as the case studies on the industry cauterization in various parts of the country.