International Journal of Data Envelopment Analysis and *Operations Research*. 2014, 1(2), 21-27DOI:
Abstract: The expansion of HIV/ADIS epidemic has now become a burning issue globally. HIV infection has changed from a fatal condition to a manageable chronic illness mainly due to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Even if ART treatment has shown significant clinical importance by meeting the goal of therapy, we are still facing a number of deaths due to certain socio-economic, demographic, behavioral risk and health factors. The aim of this study is for identifying determinant factors for the Survival of HIV/ADIS Infected Patients under the follow-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Boru Meda and Dessie Referral Hospitals and Kombolcha Health Center. The data for this research were collected during the follow-up time from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011. Out of a population of HIV-patients who were taking antiretroviral therapy in the hospitals and health center in that period, 654 patients were selected based on simple random sampling technique for this study. The study subjects were people in the age range from 15 to 75 years. The Kaplan-Meier Method was employed to estimate survival; the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Method was used to identify determinants of survival. After initiation of the antiretroviral treatment, HIV-positive patients the estimate median survival age was found to be 48 months (CI: 2.98-4.97 years). Living rural, order baseline age, not working due to illness, smaller CD4 count, weight, and lymphocyte count, HIV-TB co-infection developing and being in WHO clinical Stage IV were identified as a documented risk factors for shortened the survival experience of the HIV-patients who are in care of ART. The mortality among our patients was comparable to that reported from other low-income countries. Earlier initiation of ART may reduce the high mortality rates observed. Similar studies in the future need to consider predictors in addition to those considered in this study and the clinical advantage of ART that brings improvement on the clinical characteristics in the follow up period.