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Article

The Contribution of Homeroom Teachers’ Attachment Styles and of Students’ Maternal Attachment to the Explanation of Attachment-like Relationships between Teachers and Students with Disabilities

1Department of special education, Oranim-Academic College of Education, Tivon, Israel


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 764-774
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
David Granot. The Contribution of Homeroom Teachers’ Attachment Styles and of Students’ Maternal Attachment to the Explanation of Attachment-like Relationships between Teachers and Students with Disabilities. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):764-774. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-10.

Correspondence to: David  Granot, Department of special education, Oranim-Academic College of Education, Tivon, Israel. Email: dudi_g@oranim.ac.il

Abstract

Over the past 25 years, numerous studies have sought to explore the ways in which the quality of teacher-student relationship develops. Such relationships are considered particularly significant in the case of students diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study involved 65 dyads of Israeli homeroom teachers and their students (mean age = 10.9) with disabilities (LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD comorbidity) in regular educational settings, receiving special assistance from "integration teachers." The study examined the effect of student-teacher attachment features on day-to-day student-teacher “attachment-like” relationships. Students reported on their felt security with their mother using a maternal attachment security scale. Appraisal of the teacher as a secure base was conducted using availability/acceptance and rejection scales. Teachers completed the attachment style (secure, avoidant, and ambivalent) questionnaire and the teacher-student relationship scale concerning emotional closeness, conflict, and student dependency. Findings show that elementary and junior high school teachers and their students develop relational perceptions of secure and insecure attachment-like relationships. The teachers’ caregiver perception of the relationship was explained strictly by the students’ reports of day-to-day security in the teacher-student relationship. Student care receiver perception of the actual teacher-student relationship was explained with greater sensitivity by maternal attachment security, teacher attachment style, and teacher-reported day-to-day security in the teacher-student relationship. Finally, the teachers’ attachment level of security was found to moderate the association between student maternal attachment security and the students’ appraisal of teacher as a secure base. Students of teachers with a mid-to-high level of attachment security exhibited a positive association, whereas students of teachers with mid-to-low level of attachment security exhibited no association. Implications for teacher education and research are discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Teachers Perceptions towards Modules Used in Vocational and Technical Education

1Educational Science, Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Balıkesir, Türkiye

2Millli Eğitim Müdürlüğü, Bursa, Türkiye


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 775-781
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nihat UYANGÖR, Hasan Hüseyin ŞAHAN, Mustafa TANRIVERDİ. Teachers Perceptions towards Modules Used in Vocational and Technical Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):775-781. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-11.

Correspondence to: Nihat  UYANGÖR, Educational Science, Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Balıkesir, Türkiye. Email: nuyangor@balikesir.edu.tr

Abstract

This paper is a situational research aiming at determining teachers’ perceptions with regard to Modules Used in Vocational and Technical Education. The data were collected from 12 teachers via semi-structured interview method. Context analysis is applied for the data. According to the data, teachers have positive ideas in some main points with regard to the modules, but they stated that there were very important problems in the process of their application. There are two main reasons for these problems. First, modules were not prepared by specialist and they were very far from real business life. Teachers’ perceptions towards modules are not different from each other in three different institutions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Differences in Body Image and Health among Sport Active and Passive Adults as a Base for School Health Education

1Department of Psychology, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Pedagogy and Didactics, 162 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 782-787
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ludmila Fialová. Differences in Body Image and Health among Sport Active and Passive Adults as a Base for School Health Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):782-787. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-12.

Correspondence to: Ludmila  Fialová, Department of Psychology, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Pedagogy and Didactics, 162 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic. Email: fialova@ftvs.cuni.cz

Abstract

The contribution concerns the aspects of body image, self evaluation, physical self, sport activities, health care, personal satisfaction and the possibility of improvement. The aim of the research “Body image as a part of active life style” was to learn about the importance and level of satisfaction with particular aspects of the physical and psychological self and degree of felt control and opportunity for change. The questionnaire contains 8 parts: personal data, importance and satisfaction with “My body and health” and “My thinking and feelings”, self control, opportunity for change, health status, sport activities, somatic type. 866 women and 769 men were interviewed. The results show that the more physically active people value their body and health much higher and they prove a significantly higher satisfaction with monitored aspects of their own physical and psychological status. At the same time, they feel they have more control over their body and feelings. They also perceive more positively the opportunity to change, which indicates greater self confidence. The number of health complaints declared by these respondents is significantly lower than that reported by inactive participants. Control over thoughts and feelings was reported by approx. 65% of respondents and control of body and health by even fewer respondents (approx. 60%). There is an interesting difference in terms of control over activities for change or the ability to cope with negative things – this type of control was felt by 71% of women but only 46% of men. This result may indicate that men are less ready to deal with changes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Analogy Instructional Strategy, Cognitive Style and Gender on Senior Secondary School Students Achievement in Some Physics Concepts in Mubi Metropolis, Nigeria

1Department of Science Education, Adamawa Sate University, Mubi, Nigeria

2Government Junior Secondrary School, Muva, Mubi North, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 788-792
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
UGWUMBA AUGUSTINE OKORONKA, BITRUS ZIRA WADA. Effects of Analogy Instructional Strategy, Cognitive Style and Gender on Senior Secondary School Students Achievement in Some Physics Concepts in Mubi Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):788-792. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-13.

Correspondence to: BITRUS  ZIRA WADA, Government Junior Secondrary School, Muva, Mubi North, Nigeria. Email: Wadazy48@Gmail.com

Abstract

The study investigated the effects of analogy instructional strategy, cognitive style and gender on senior secondary school students achievement in some physics concepts in Mubi Metropolis, Nigeria. Instructional strategy at two levels was crossed with two levels of cognitive style and two levels of gender which served as moderator variables. A 2x2x2 matrix, pre-test, post-test, control group, quasi-experimental design was employed for matching the factors. Data were collected using two validated and reliable instruments namely: the Cognitive Style Test (CST) and Physics Achievement Test (PAT). A total of 82 senior secondary school two (SS 2) students from four schools took part in the study. Data were analysed using mean, t-test, factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) Post Hoc Mean Comparison Test. The results showed significant main effect of treatment on achievement and significant interaction effect on achievement when cognitive style was crossed with gender. The more effective treatment was the analogy instructional strategy. Analytical female students and non-analytical male students were homogeneous, while the analytical male and non-analytical females were not in the same homogeneous group.

Keywords

References

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Article

Moral or Authoritative Leadership: Which One is Better for Faculty Members?

1School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 793-800
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bilal Afsar. Moral or Authoritative Leadership: Which One is Better for Faculty Members?. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):793-800. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-14.

Correspondence to: Bilal  Afsar, School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand. Email: afsarbilal@yahoo.com

Abstract

While much has been written and empirically researched about leadership style, little effort has been made to make out what constitutes successful and effective leadership for university teachers of Pakistan. Paternalistic leadership is a promising body of research that has been tailored to the Pakistani context in this study. The research focuses on the impact of two most important dimensions of paternalistic leadership on the commitment and organization citizenship behavior of university teachers of Pakistan. A questionnaire was used in this research to survey the relationship among moral and authoritative leadership behaviors, organization citizenship behavior and organization commitment. Data was obtained from 798 faculty members from thirteen public sector universities of Pakistan. We found that: (i) morality increased teacher’s affective and continuance organization commitment, whereas authoritarianism negatively influenced the affective commitment; and (ii) morality positively affected the organization citizenship behavior and authoritarian paternalistic leadership negatively affected citizenship behavior.

Keywords

References

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Article

Principals’ Transformational Leadership Skills in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions and Academic Achievement in Nairobi County, Kenya

1Education Department, Tangaza University, Nairobi, Kenya

2Education Department, Egerton University, Nairobi, Kenya

3Education Department, Laikipia University, Nairobi, Kenya

4Education Department, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 801-810
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Beatrice Ndiga, Catherine Mumiukhacatherine khakasa, Fedha Flora, Margaret Ngugi, shem mwalwa. Principals’ Transformational Leadership Skills in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions and Academic Achievement in Nairobi County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):801-810. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-15.

Correspondence to: Catherine  Mumiukhacatherine khakasa, Education Department, Egerton University, Nairobi, Kenya. Email: kkhakasa@yahoo.com

Abstract

Due to reforms in the education sector, school managers need to appreciate the new policies and laws that guide school management, namely Children’s Act and Basic Education Act. Management of resources while ensuring accountability and integrity to the public is equally crucial. The reforms emanate from the Education changes brought about by the new constitution dispensation and the devolved system of Government. The managers of schools need to appreciate the new policies and laws that guide the management of schools such as: Education being a basic human right, therefore being free and compulsory and schools being disability friendly. There is also the element of participation which is important. Management of resources while ensuring accountability and Integrity to the public is equally crucial. Sessional Paper No 1 of 2005 emphasizes improving quality completion rates both at the primary and secondary school level of education (MOE: 2005). There have been reports about the literacy and academic achievement of students in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) and Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) Examination that point towards a decline in academic standards. With all these, the overall outlook of school managers has to change. This paper explores the way forward to a better understanding and management of schools in a new kind of leadership, transformational leadership, hence the need for this study. The study aimed to establish teachers’ and students’ perceptions on the Principals’ transformational leadership in Nairobi County, Kenya and correlate these to student academic achievement. Transformational leadership among the principals in Nairobi were examined and correlated with the study dependent variable, the student academic achievement. The two research objectives that guided the study were: (1) To find out the extent to which the principals in Nairobi County exhibit transformational leadership (2) To determine the correlation between the principals’ transformational leadership and student academic achievement. A mixed method approach was adopted by the study where both naturalistic and descriptive survey designs were used. Qualitative approach was utilized to gather more in- depth information from the principals and other respondents. A total of 21 eligible public secondary schools were drawn from a sampling frame of 73 schools through stratified sampling method. A total of ten teachers, ten students and the principal from each eligible school were sampled and included in the study. A total of 21 principals from each eligible school were included in the study. The total sample size was therefore four hundred and forty one (441) respondents drawn from the selected 21 public secondary schools. Questionnaires and interview guides were employed to collect data. Likert items with a 5-point response scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree were included in the questionnaire. The data was sorted out and analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlations and T-test were used to examine how well the transformational leadership factors correlated with student achievement. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft's Excel and data presented using tables. The results of the study indicated that (i) there was a moderate, negative correlation between student perception towards principals’ transformational leadership and student achievement, which was statistically significant (ii) there was a strong, positive correlation between teacher perception towards principals’ transformational leadership and student achievement, which was statistically significant. The study recommends action plan by TSC in establishing training needs and training principals in transformational leadership.

Keywords

References

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Article

Use of Standardized Test to Develop Literacy Levels of Students in Primary Schools

1Research Analyst, Supreme Court of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 811-816
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-16
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Horatio Morgan. Use of Standardized Test to Develop Literacy Levels of Students in Primary Schools. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):811-816. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-16.

Correspondence to: Horatio  Morgan, Research Analyst, Supreme Court of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. Email: horatio.morgan@yahoo.com

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the Grade Four Literacy Test (G4LT) in Jamaica as a preparatory agent for improved performances in the literacy levels of students who complete the standardized Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT). This research was based on the use of quantitative analysis and variable correlations. Data was collected from a secondary source on performance rates of students who completed the G4LT and the GSAT in the areas of Language Arts and Communication Task from 2003 to 2013. In-addition, data was obtained from the Devinfo Edustatjamaica Database of the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) and reviewed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Micro-Soft Word Excel. The results indicated that indeed there exist a relationship between the performance levels on the G4LT and the GSAT Examinations. It also showed that in both examinations, relative increases have taken place in the national averages of the students.

Keywords

References

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Article

Pre-reading Assignments: Promoting Comprehension of Classroom Textbook Materials

1English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 817-822
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sami A. Al-wossabi. Pre-reading Assignments: Promoting Comprehension of Classroom Textbook Materials. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):817-822. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-17.

Correspondence to: Sami  A. Al-wossabi, English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Email: sami_ed@hotmail.com

Abstract

Reading is seen today as one of the most fundamental skills to acquire knowledge in any discipline. The present study is an attempt to highlight such importance for EFL Saudi learners at Jazan University. It investigates the influence of pre-reading assignments on maximizing Saudi EFL learners' comprehension of classroom textbook materials. In this regard, 60 learners were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups designed to qualify the above statement. Participants in both groups were introduced to language acquisition learning theories for three-month period. However, in the experimental group, learners were instructed via the use of pre-reading assignments. An unpaired sample of T- test is used for this study to determine if there is a significant difference of achievement for subjects introduced to pre-reading assignments. The results of the study revealed that there is a strong correlation between the use of pre-reading assignments and better comprehension of classroom learning materials. The study concludes with a rationale to empower and utilize the use of pre- reading strategies in the EFL Saudi learning context.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Bottom up Evaluation at Universities

1Department of Economics and Management of Chemical and Food Industry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, the Czech Republic

2Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 823-827
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-18
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marek Botek, Tomáš Macák. The Bottom up Evaluation at Universities. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):823-827. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-18.

Correspondence to: Marek  Botek, Department of Economics and Management of Chemical and Food Industry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, the Czech Republic. Email: marek.botek@vscht.cz

Abstract

Evaluation is one of the most important tasks of a manager. Multi-criteria method is often used to increase objectivity. Opinion and satisfaction of students with their classes, courses, teaching and teachers is often used as a part of an evaluation at universities. This article wants to show that student surveys are not representative and objective. The opinion carried in this article is based on study which was made at a prestigious technical university in Prague, the Czech Republic. The paper has been processed based on the analysis and evaluation of secondary sources and outcome synthesis. Survey has been realized in June 2014. It included all subjects which are taught at the university during winter semester 2012/2013. Only laboratories were excluded. There was total of 330 subjects which were part of the study. In a conclusion of the article there are discussed ways for increasing representativeness of the bottom-up evaluation and also possibilities how to take the finding into evaluation in managerial practice.

Keywords

References

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Article

Teaching Recorder: Creating Excitement in the Instrumental Music Classes

1School of Music, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 828-831
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alan Caldas Simões. Teaching Recorder: Creating Excitement in the Instrumental Music Classes. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):828-831. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-19.

Correspondence to: Alan  Caldas Simões, School of Music, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Email: alanmp@yahoo.com.br

Abstract

In this paper we describe strategies for teaching recorder in elementary school. We seek to answer the following question: How to develop teaching strategies that allow students to make music since the first lesson in a pleasant, and appropriate to their musical environment, age and technical level? Traditional musical education focuses on the teaching of instrumental technique and musical notation. These approaches may inhibit or discourage beginner’s music students. Furthermore, in many cases, the repertoire chosen by the teacher does not take into account the student's everyday lives. Thus we developed a recorder method for beginners based on the principles of learning folk musicians, seeking technical and theoretical work in context and meaningful to the student. This method was applied during the year 2013-2014 in four classes of elementary school in Brazil. In our article, we describe the process of creating songs for beginners and the results of its application in the classroom. We present the scores for these songs and analyze their implications for teaching and learning music. The results indicate that: (a) the style, arrangement and technical level of execution of songs worked on in the classroom can be determinant stimulus for beginner students continue with their musical studies; (b) approaches that value the music active listening allow the student to develop increased autonomy in the classroom; and (c) an exciting musical practice should take into account age, musical knowledge and student's reality.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cruvinel, F. M, Educação Musical e Transformação social: Uma experiência com ensino coletivo de cordas, Instituto Centro-Brasileiro de Cultura, Goiânia, 2005.
 
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[4]  Almeida, J. C, “O ensino coletivo de instrumentos musicais: Aspectos históricos, políticos, didáticos, econômicos e socioculturais. Um relato,” in Proceedings of the I Encontro Nacional de Ensino Coletivo de Instrumento Musical, UFG, 1-10, 2004.
 
[5]  Álvares, S. A, “Incorporating traditional Choro music experiences into Brazilian university music curricula through class instruction using comprehensive musicianship concepts,” in Proceedings of the 30th ISME World Conference on Music Education, ISME, 120-125, 2012.
 
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