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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Editor-in-Chief: Freddie W. Litton




Sex Education in Nigeria: When Knowledge Conflicts with Cultural Values

1Department of Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 69-75
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-11
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jude Mukoro. Sex Education in Nigeria: When Knowledge Conflicts with Cultural Values. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):69-75. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-11.

Correspondence to: Jude  Mukoro, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium. Email:


Sex education consists of the two main elements of knowledge and value, since both aspects are fundamental to a good sex education [1]. This position resonates with that of Halstead and Reiss in their affirmation that sex education is a value-laden activity [2]. In an ideal case scenario, the knowledge and values which form the basis of sex education ought to be in harmony, and also support and complement each other instead of expressing contradictory positions. In other words, proven scientific facts and cultural practices that are communicated in sex education ought to be in sync with each other in order to prevent a disorganised or confusing sex education. Yet in reality, this is often not the case. This article engages with the problems which ensue when friction or disharmony between knowledge and values in sex education exist. An important aspect of this article is to demonstrate the distinction between facts and values, particularly when this occurs in sex education in the Nigerian context. Thereafter, several possible models of confronting these problems are analysed in order to discover their strengths and weaknesses. On this basis, conflict-awared sex education is advanced as a much better model of sex education in the light of these problems.



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Evaluation of Marine Education’s Effect inElementary and Junior High Schools—Analysis ofthe Value Consciousness Using Text Mining

1Institute of Noto Satoumi Education and Studies, Japan

2Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Japan

3Faculty of Education, Shiga University, Japan

4School of Teacher Education, Kanazawa University College of Human and Social Science, Japan

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 76-81
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-12
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kyoko Matsumoto, Kimihito Takeno, Makoto Urata, Michio Matsubara, Takahiro Kato, Nobuo Suzuki, Kazuichi Hayakawa. Evaluation of Marine Education’s Effect inElementary and Junior High Schools—Analysis ofthe Value Consciousness Using Text Mining. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):76-81. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-12.

Correspondence to: Kyoko  Matsumoto, Institute of Noto Satoumi Education and Studies, Japan. Email:


In Japan “Basis Act on Ocean Policy” was enacted in 2007 and then “Basic Plan on Ocean Policy” was enacted in 2013, which is advocated “to be enriched education about ocean in elementary, junior and senior high school.” However the learning contents of marine education, teaching methods and measurement of effectiveness are still remains an open research problem due to less practice cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of marine education in elementary and junior high schools through an analysis of the value consciousness using text mining. This study was employed a questionnaire survey targeting all elementary school’s 4th, 5th, 6th and junior high school’s 1st, 2nd, 3rd grades in Noto town, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan. Only one elementary school had received marine education, which is called satoumi learning, as a pilot school. A comparison was made between the students of the pilot school and the students of the other four elementary schools and the students of four junior high schools. The students of the pilot school have the highest motivation to engage in satoumi learning compared to other elementary and junior high school students. According to the structure of consciousness, the students of the pilot school used term of “precious” to present about ocean. The results appear to show that marine education affected their value consciousness. On the other hand, other elementary school students imagined a connection with ocean through daily life. The junior high school students recognized that satoumi learning is connected to their community, life, and future. Therefore, the study determined that implementing relatable learning content in a child’s daily life is required to foster their relationship with nature.



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Parental and Teacher Acceptance-Rejection, Sense of Loneliness, and Social Dissatisfaction in Children with and without Special Educational Needs: Implications for Practice

1Department of Primary Education, University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece

2Department of Psychology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

3Laboratory of Clinical Psychology, Psychopathology and Psychoanalysis (PCPP), University Paris, Descartes – Sorbonne, Paris, France

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 80-87
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-13
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kourkoutas E., Stavrou P.-D., Propersi F.. Parental and Teacher Acceptance-Rejection, Sense of Loneliness, and Social Dissatisfaction in Children with and without Special Educational Needs: Implications for Practice. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):80-87. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-13.

Correspondence to: Stavrou  P.-D., Department of Psychology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Email:


Grounded in IPARTheory and risk/protective systemic perspective, the present study aims to examine the Sense of Loneliness, the Social Dissatisfaction, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and the Teacher Acceptance-Rejection, as perceived by students with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and without SEN– typical classroom students (TCS). The sample of the study was composed by 284 primary education students, aged 8 to 12 years old, from the island of Crete (urban, semi-urban, and rural areas). The results of the study showed that SEN students experience stronger feelings of loneliness and perceive themselves as displaying lower social competence and higher levels of social dissatisfaction than their non SEN peers. In addition, the Linear Regression Analysis showed that for the SEN group, both the Maternal Hostile/Aggressive attitude and the Teacher Hostile/Aggressive attitude, as perceived by the students significantly predict the Sense of Loneliness in the SEN group. As for the TCS group, the Paternal Hostile/Aggressive attitude significantly predicts in a lesser degree the Sense of Loneliness.



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