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Article

Lesson Study in Improving the Role of E-Portfolio on the Metacognitive Skill and Concept Comprehension: A Study on Cell Biology Subject in IKIP PGRI Madiun, Indonesia

1Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Education, IKIP PGRI MADIUN, Madiun, Indonesia

2Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Malang, Malang, Indonesia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 919-924
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marheny Lukitasari, Herawati Susilo, Ibrohim, A. Duran Corebima. Lesson Study in Improving the Role of E-Portfolio on the Metacognitive Skill and Concept Comprehension: A Study on Cell Biology Subject in IKIP PGRI Madiun, Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):919-924. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-11.

Correspondence to: A.  Duran Corebima, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Malang, Malang, Indonesia. Email: durancorebima@yahoo.com

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine the potency of the implementation of e-portfolio supported by the implementation of Lesson Study to improve the metacognitive skill and concept comprehension of Cell Biology. The activities of the lesson study aimed for developing and enhancing e-portfolio implementation habit carried out done seventh times with the same Cell Biology material. The study was followed by quasi experimental study conducted on two classes, consisting of 26 and 27 students. One class underwent seven meetings of portfolio and another class underwent seven meetings of e-portfolio. The data of the study related to the concept comprehension were obtained by valid and reliable pretest and posttest. The data related to the metacognitive skill were obtained too by the pretest and posttest supported by a special rubric. The data of the lesson study were analyzed qualitatively. The data of the quasi experimental study were analyzed by ANACOVA test, to uncover the difference between the two treatments. The results of the study showed that there were significant effects of the implemented treatment on the metacognitive skill and the cell biology concept comprehension of the students. The average score of the metacognitive skill of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 39,4% higher than that of the portfolio class. The average score of the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 15% higher than that of the portfolio class without lesson study. The implementation of lesson study was significantly effective in improving the metacognitive skill and the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class compared to that of portfolio class, regardless the previous research reported that the implementation of e-portfolio had unsignificant effect.

Keywords

References

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Article

Complex System Theory and College English Teaching Developments

1School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China

2Room 704, No. 8 Building, No. 155-2, Yingxuongshan Road, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 925-931
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liang Aimin, Cong Rizen. Complex System Theory and College English Teaching Developments. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):925-931. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-12.

Correspondence to: Liang  Aimin, School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China. Email: sfl_liangam@ujn.edu.cn

Abstract

Complex systems are composed of elements or agents that are of many different types and that interact in different ways. Complex System Theory, originating in the fields of physics and mathematics, and also popularly known as Chaos Theory or Dynamic System Theory, attempts to describe the interactions of different elements and agents with the features of heterogeneity, dynamics, openness, adaptation, non-linearity, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions etc and supplies new perspectives to the researches of Applied Linguistics. This article tries to reveal the prospect of the application of Complex System Theory in College English Teaching of China with the purpose to explore effective approaches to its developments of the following elements: such as, needs analysis, teaching objectives, teaching materials, testing, teaching models and evaluations.

Keywords

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Article

Home, School and Gender Differences in Early Reading Fluency among Standard Three Pupils in Primary Schools in Kiuu Sublocation, Kiambu County, Kenya

1Department of Educational Psychology, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi-Kenya


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 932-941
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tabitha Wang’eri, Doyne Mugambi. Home, School and Gender Differences in Early Reading Fluency among Standard Three Pupils in Primary Schools in Kiuu Sublocation, Kiambu County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):932-941. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-13.

Correspondence to: Tabitha  Wang’eri, Department of Educational Psychology, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi-Kenya. Email: tabitha.wangeri@gmail.com

Abstract

The intention of the study was to establish the relationship between home and school factors and reading fluency in Kiswahili and English languages among standard three pupils in Kiuu sub location, Kiambu County, Kenya. To achieve this, the study investigated family factors such as family size, number of children attending school, languages spoken at home, parental support such as helping with homework and the frequency of reading story books for children. The study also sought to establish school factors that support reading fluency such as languages of instruction teachers used as well as the number of Kiswahili and English text books children possessed. Bronfennbrener (1979) ecological systems theory was used to ground the study. The study sample consisted of four purposefully selected primary schools two of which were public and the other two privately owned. Data regarding the school and home factors were collected through a paper based questionnaire while the data relating to pupils’ Kiswahili and English reading fluency was collected through one-minute reading passages one in Kiswahili and the other in English. The results revealed that majority of the children lived with both parents and had between 1 and 3 siblings in school and the languages spoken at home, school and among the peers were mother tongue, Kiswahili and English. For majority of the children homework was overseen by the mother while many of them could not recall the last time a parent read to them a story book. With regard to accessing books for reading, the findings revealed that children in private schools had more access to English and Kiswahili books than their counterparts in public schools. With regard to reading fluency, the study established that the maximum number of English words read per minute were 171 while the least were 0 with a mode of 69. The maximum number of Kiswahili words read was 118 with a minimum of 0 and a mode of 61. Children in Private schools displayed better fluent reading than their counterparts in public schools and girls were more fluent readers than boys. The study recommended that the literary environments be improved both at home and in the schools and that the language policy be further interrogated given that the language children are exposed to at home is different from the language of instruction at school and also different from the language used among peers. Another recommendation of this study was that curriculum developers engage in material development both in Kiswahili and the various local languages in tandem with policy requirements. The study further recommended that methods of improving reading acquisition and fluency be sought.

Keywords

References

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Article

What is outside? The Early Years Foundation Stage in England: Outdoor Facilities, Organisation and Staff Attitudes

1Institute of Education, University of Reading, Reading, England


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 942-949
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Helen Bilton. What is outside? The Early Years Foundation Stage in England: Outdoor Facilities, Organisation and Staff Attitudes. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):942-949. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-14.

Correspondence to: Helen  Bilton, Institute of Education, University of Reading, Reading, England. Email: h.o.bilton@reading.ac.uk

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to report on the facilities available, organisation of, and staff attitudes to early years outdoor education from schools within the south east of England, focusing on provision for children aged three to five. One component of the successful education of the child involves providing an ‘environment for learning’, including the facilities, layout and routines. This paper presents findings concerning the type and variety of facilities available outside; the various styles of organisation of the space; staff attitudes about: their roles, their aims for the environment, children’s behaviour and learning, and perceived drawbacks to practice. This paper draws on empirical data collected from schools within the University of Reading partnership. The findings suggest that although all early years settings must adhere to the statutory framework there are a range of facilities available, and there are a number of ways this environment is organised. Further there appears to be uncertainty about the adult role outside and the aims for activities. The conclusions drawn indicate that staff do not appear to be linking their aims for outdoor education to the facilities provided or to their actions outside. This means there is not a clear link between what staff provide outside and the declared ambitions for learning. This study is important as all educators need to be certain about their aims for education to ensure best outcomes for children. The implications of these findings for early years teachers are that they need to be able to articulate their aims for outdoor education and to provide the correct facilities to achieve these aims. Finally this study was undertaken to raise debate, posit questions and to ascertain the parameters for further research about the early years outdoor environment.

Keywords

References

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Article

Corrective Feedback: A Bridge between Cognitive Interactionist and Social Interactionist Perspectives

1Department of Foreign Languages, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 950-954
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naif Althobaiti. Corrective Feedback: A Bridge between Cognitive Interactionist and Social Interactionist Perspectives. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):950-954. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-15.

Correspondence to: Naif  Althobaiti, Department of Foreign Languages, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Email: althobaiti@tu.edu.sa

Abstract

This presentation tries to explain oral corrective feedback (CF) as provided through conversational interaction. In this presentation, CF, as provided through the interaction, is viewed from two perspectives: the cognitive interactionist and the social interactionist. Although, both of these two perspectives value interaction, they explicate the provision of CF through interaction differently. The cognitive interactionists explain the provision of CF through, but not limited to, Interaction Hypothesis, Noticing Hypothesis, and Output Hypothesis. The social interactionists emphasize the roles of teachers and learners within the process of corrective feedback. They also emphasize the context in which they work and the specific pedagogic activity in which they are involved (Ellis, 2008; 2010). This presentation is hoped to contribute a better understanding of EFL learning facilitated through the provision of CF. In addition, it provides some recommendations for future researchers, language educators, and EFL teachers.

Keywords

References

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Article

Rhetorical Texts of the 4th Century A.D. about Wealth and Its Loss

1Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Greek Language, Department of Preschool Education, University of Ioannina

2Doctor of Byzantine Literature, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 955-962
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-16
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
N. Tsitsanoudis-Mallidis, Ch. Stergioulis. Rhetorical Texts of the 4th Century A.D. about Wealth and Its Loss. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):955-962. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-16.

Correspondence to: Ch.  Stergioulis, Doctor of Byzantine Literature, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Email: nitsi@cc.uoi.gr; babisterg@yahoo.gr

Abstract

With this announcement we will try to present to the most possible extent, how wealth and its loss is dealt with by Basil of Caesarea and John Chrysostom, but also the way in which man is forced to deal with problems arising from both acquisition and possession and also loss-always according to the eternal word of the Gospel and of the orthodox viewpoint. Both texts belong to the homilitikon genre. The oration of Basil of Caesarea «Πρς τος πλουτοντας» belongs to the Homilitikon category of his work and the content is practical and moral. It begins with a very short prologue (exordium). From the first lines of oration he makes sure he illustrates a portrait of the rich young man. The largest part of his speech is covered by the “πίστις” (probatio). Basil begins the main part of his oration justifying the formulation of his view in the preamble of the rich young man. Getting to the main point of the Cappadocian bishop, he brings forward the following reasonable question to the rich young man and indirectly to his audience: "If you have guarded from your youth the command of love and attributed to the poor as much as you have offered to yourself, then how have you accumulated this very large fortune?" In the following section of his oration he makes sure to go to a new question: "But how are you going to exploit wealth?" Man should manage his wealth in the way that the Lord commands. Then wealth remains to the ownership of the person who possesses it, though when man tries to save it, its lost. Basil even castigates the habit of the avaricious wealthy to bury and save their precious possessions in vaults, bringing up the excuse that the future is uncertain. In the next section of his oration Basil the Great goes over to the question: «And how will we live without precious possessions?" The confrontation of wealth is a trial of whether we want a true life or a temporary enjoyment. Special emphasis is given to how to deal with the situation, when the woman is involved. If the woman too loves wealth, the disease is even greater, this would motivate a man to a number of pleasures. The ecclesiastical man also castigates with harshness the greediness of the rich. The desire to acquire more and more possessions creates a dependency relation of them. And indeed man feels poverty, since he constantly has the need of acquiring more. The following section of the “Πρς πλουτοντας” oration refers to punishment suffered by the rich who live in contrary to God's will by the fair Judge. An issue that also employs Basil of Caesarea is the "nature of wealth". Wealth should not be a gallows for souls nor a hook of death. Basil the Great even catches up before any objections are made, that the acquisition of wealth is necessary for the future of children. Finally, before passing in to the epilogue of his oration refutes to the arguments of those who are childless and plead the excuse that they do not offer part of their wealth to the poor, "because of their needs." The epilogue small in length is designed to motivate the listener to abandon the futile attempt to acquire wealth and help him to prepare as best as possible for the kingdom of Heaven. In the same direction with the archbishop of Caesarea concerning the proper management of wealth John Chrysostom also moves in his oration “Περ πλούτου κα πενίας” as in “Περί πλουτοντας” of Basil of Caesarea the preamble (exordium) is short. In the occasion of the comparison of the rich man and Lazarus Chrysostom criticizes those who resent God, because they themselves are not wealthy and do not imitate the poor Lazarus. Chrysostom passes over to the main part of his oration through a rhetorical question: "Why do you think being wealthy is so important?" And the reasons why man hunts wealth are: pleasure, flattery, fear and vengeance. So wealth according to Chrysostom is an ungrateful slave sadistic and ‘androfonos’, who is ready to be paid to lead his master to slaughter. After referring to the example of Eutropius, Chrysostom will pass to a new section of his oration: wealth betrays those who do not use it correctly. He also finds it appropriate to deal with the issue of equality between human beings: rich and poor are equal and do not differ in anything. Thus believers must cease to envy the rich and become imitators of the Apostles, the Prophets and of Christ Himself. He fails to understand the behavior of people who prefer the small instead of the large, once they fall in the trap of the devil. Therefore, wealth, according to Chrysostom is not a “great possession” great possession is the acquisition of fear of God. The last section begins with a question: "Isn’t it a nonsense not to know what is beneficial for you?" There is no, more brainless man from the slave of money. God gave wealth, not to lead man to destruction, but to use them in pleasing to God works and in this way to be saved. Finally, in the epilogue, Chrysostom advises believers to face with Christian manner possible loss of their property and to bear in mind the example of “fair Jov”. Both great Fathers as the only way to deal with avarice and as for the only means of getting out of it, propose the adoption of an ascetic morality in the accordance of a Christian model: self-control and self-sufficiency in daily life. Besides the moral problem of ascetic it is consisted in man's relationship with material possessions and not their management, as appropriately pointed out in the two inspiring orations.

Keywords

References

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Article

Additional Technical Training on Telecommunications Engineering Sciences

1Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

2Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 963-969
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Flávio Jorge, Paula Cardoso. Additional Technical Training on Telecommunications Engineering Sciences. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):963-969. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-17.

Correspondence to: Flávio  Jorge, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. Email: flaviojorge@ua.pt

Abstract

The Telecommunications Engineering Sciences are presented as an embracing field of studies with central importance on both scientific and technological development, and cuts across many areas of knowledge, such as maths and physics. Recognizing this value, the Instituto de Telecomunicações together with the Universidade de Aveiro developed already several projects among hundreds of high school students, following the main goal of spread scientific knowledge on Telecommunications Engineering. The first one, entitled Tele-Loucuras, followed the philosophy “hands on the mass”, and the full results obtained through an inquiry are evaluated, proving the importance of these kinds of initiatives to the students’ additional technical training. Following this project, a second one raised entitled Atreve-te!, which followed a more theoretical philosophy, but addressed more than a thousand students. A qualitative assessment to the project performance is presented based on the feed-back received. Also following the first project, a third one also raised entitled Radio, Antennas and Space Propagation, which is a summer course covering the physical layer of the Telecommunications Engineering, since the radio channel to the radio equipment and radio systems and a qualitative assessment to this initiative is also performed based on the experience and feed-back received from the students.

Keywords

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Article

Curriculum Shift: Innovative Teaching and Learning through STEM Initiatives

1Winthrop Elementary School, New London Public Schools, New London CT, United States of America


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 970-974
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-18
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kimberly Barcelona. Curriculum Shift: Innovative Teaching and Learning through STEM Initiatives. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):970-974. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-18.

Correspondence to: Kimberly  Barcelona, Winthrop Elementary School, New London Public Schools, New London CT, United States of America. Email: kimbobkizzy@sbcglobal.net

Abstract

Today, we live in an ever-changing global society. The task of schools continues to go through changes that must help students analyze situations, problem solve, and make informed decisions. The basic goal and purpose of education has changed dramatically, as has the complexity of the learning task. Economic needs in our global workforce require that schools prepare students with more than the basic memorization of facts. Students must have the ability to understand numerous variables and process data in efficient and effective ways. In order to meet the needs of 21st century learners, the New London Public School system in Connecticut adopted new ways of thinking about the structure of its schools. This paper discusses how the New London Public School system as changed the traditional views of school structure and the process necessary to achieve innovative teaching institutions.

Keywords

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Article

Relating Creativity and Imagination: Studying Collective Models of Creative Collaboration

1Projects Department, ELISAVA Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona – UPF, Barcelona, Spain


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 975-980
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Raffaella Perrone. Relating Creativity and Imagination: Studying Collective Models of Creative Collaboration. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):975-980. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-19.

Correspondence to: Raffaella  Perrone, Projects Department, ELISAVA Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona – UPF, Barcelona, Spain. Email: rperrone@elisava.net

Abstract

This paper focuses on collective creativity in process design. The purpose of this contribution is to spotlight the factors that play a role in defining students’ creativity, with a special emphasis on the relationship between creativity and imagination, studying collective models of creative collaboration. We present two case studies in which we have specifically worked with groups of students to create a collective project proposing methodologies of experimental work. In both cases, the collective creation favoured the development of individual creativity.

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References

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Article

Exploration on Characteristics of Idea Discovery Process Based on Assumption Reversal Thinking Skill: Focusing on Undergraduate Students in Korea

1Department of Pedagogy, Dankook University, Jukjeon, Korea

2Department of Chemistry Education, Korea National University of Education, Chung-Buk, Korea


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 981-989
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-20
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jihyun Yoon, Ji-Young Park, Seong-Joo Kang. Exploration on Characteristics of Idea Discovery Process Based on Assumption Reversal Thinking Skill: Focusing on Undergraduate Students in Korea. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):981-989. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-20.

Correspondence to: Seong-Joo  Kang, Department of Chemistry Education, Korea National University of Education, Chung-Buk, Korea. Email: sjkang@knue.ac.kr

Abstract

The core of the creative problem solving is the idea discovery process. However, Korean students are shown the idea discovery process more difficult than other processes in the creative problem solving. Thus, there is a need to provide in detail the methodological aspect to induce ideas for Korean students. This research examined the elements and the characteristics appearing in the idea discovery process based on assumption reversal thinking skill by Korea’s undergraduate students. As a result of the research, the idea discovery process applying the assumption reversal thinking skill could be classified into the idea generation phase and the idea evaluation phase. In addition, in the idea generation phase, ‘search for assumption reversal object’, ‘extraction of internal or external attributes of assumption reversal object’, and ‘idea generation through assumption reversal thinking skill’ elements could be confirmed. In the idea evaluation phase, ‘evaluation standard setting’, ‘evaluation’, and ‘prototype’ elements could be confirmed. The circulation of elements appearing in the idea discovery process could be confirmed as well. For example, the idea generation phase and the idea evaluation phase were repetitively circulated by closely interacting with each other. In the idea evaluation phase, the evaluation-related elements were repetitively circulated by closely interacting with each other, and in this case, two circulation types could be observed. For example, in some groups, the ‘evaluation standard setting’, ‘suitability evaluation of idea through prototype’, ‘idea disposal and generation’, or ‘final idea selection’ were circulated. In other groups, the circulation was conducted in two stages, and in the first stage, the ‘evaluation standard setting’, ‘idea evaluation pursuant to the evaluation standard’, ‘idea disposal’, and ‘idea generation’ were circulated. In the second stage, the ‘prototype of idea passing the evaluation standard’, ‘idea evaluation through prototype’, ‘idea disposal and generation’, or ‘final idea selection’ were circulated. The educational implications were discussed.

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