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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/EDUCATION

Article

Preparation of Mathematics Teachers: Lessons from Review of Literature on Teachers’ Knowledge, Beliefs, and Teacher Education

1Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, University of Botswana, P/Bag 0022, Gaborone; Botswana

2Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 505-513
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-18
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dumma C. Mapolelo, Mojeed K. Akinsola. Preparation of Mathematics Teachers: Lessons from Review of Literature on Teachers’ Knowledge, Beliefs, and Teacher Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(4):505-513. doi: 10.12691/education-3-4-18.

Correspondence to: Mojeed  K. Akinsola, Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Email: akinsolamk@gmail.com

Abstract

Teachers’ mathematics knowledge has been known to have a significant impact on instructional practices. This paper discusses research on teachers’ mathematics knowledge. The paper has been summarised in five main areas: (a) the role of subject matter knowledge in teaching and learning, (b) teachers’ beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning, (c) beliefs and beliefs-in-practice: inconsistencies, (d) teacher education and its impact on instructional practices, and (e) future research on teachers’ mathematics knowledge. The review indicated that teachers are critical factors in the learning of mathematics and the extents of their content and pedagogical knowledge do determine students’ achievement. Also, the paper acceded to the view that, a teacher’s memories from the school years is a central influencing factor that affects its mathematics related beliefs, hence there is a need to enhance pre-service teachers’ positive attitude towards mathematics during training. The paper suggested further areas of research should look at: different theoretically-and empirically distinction in content knowledge for teaching and investigate their relationship, separately and in combination, to student achievement; whether mathematics teachers’ knowledge affects their lesson planning strategies and whether the provision of ‘mathematical knowledge for teaching’ by teacher training institutions improve pre-service teachers’ beliefs about mathematics and mathematics teaching. The paper concluded that, mathematics teacher education programme should provide pre-service teachers with awareness of conception of mathematics which may influence their teaching.

Keywords

References

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Article

Determinants of Drop-out among Public Islamic School Girls in the Techiman Municipality

1Department of Basic Educationm, University of Education, Wiineba, Ghana

2Municipal Directorate, Ghana Education Service, Techiman, Ghana


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 514-526
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-19
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Asonaba Kofi Addison, Daniel Djoto. Determinants of Drop-out among Public Islamic School Girls in the Techiman Municipality. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(4):514-526. doi: 10.12691/education-3-4-19.

Correspondence to: Asonaba  Kofi Addison, Department of Basic Educationm, University of Education, Wiineba, Ghana. Email: kofiasobee@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was to investigate into the factors that inform decisions for Islamic girl children to drop out of school, with special reference to parental attitude. Data were collected using questionnaire and structured interview. Fifty Techiman girl children of the Islamic background and their parents who were randomly selected formed the population for the study. Data were analysed using multiple regression and frequency tables. The findings of the study point to five factors two of which are social in nature and three of which are academic in nature, as responsible for the high rate of dropout among Islamic school girls in the Techiman municipality. The study established that contrary to the general perception that parents have to be blamed for dropout among school girls, parent of these Islamic schools girls have positive attitude towards their wards’ education. Discussion of the result were made and conclusions drawn. Recommendations were made.

Keywords

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Article

Determining the Cultural Identity of a Child through Folk Literature

1Doctor of University of Ioannina Greece, Special Educator, Kindergarten teacher Scientific associate- Instructor at Technological Institute of Epirus, Ioannina (Greece)


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 527-534
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-20
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ekaterina P. Stavrou. Determining the Cultural Identity of a Child through Folk Literature. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(4):527-534. doi: 10.12691/education-3-4-20.

Correspondence to: Ekaterina  P. Stavrou, Doctor of University of Ioannina Greece, Special Educator, Kindergarten teacher Scientific associate- Instructor at Technological Institute of Epirus, Ioannina (Greece). Email: kstavrou@cc.uoi.gr

Abstract

The concept of cultural identity is characterized by many dimensions and being investigated in several studies of culture and many social theories. Cultural identity is recognized and determined through the interplay of different identifying elements such as location, language, ethnicity, myths, religious culture, history, art and traditions that make up the national cultural heritage. Folk Literature is a prime scientific area through which a child develops his identity and physiognomy, as it points out the diverse nature of things during the pedagogical process. This fact should be taken into account by educators so that they can substantially and effectively guide children to find real truth and knowledge and, at the same time, realize their true essence through tradition. Therefore, tradition, which involves the cultural heritage of centuries, has the power to consciously or unconsciously penetrate into the soul of a child, which shapes his identity at an immature stage of development. Our intervention focuses on folk tales, folk songs, proverbs, myths and legends.

Keywords

References

[1]  Antti Aarne. The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography. The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, Helsinki, 1961. AaTh (2004). The types of Folktale. A classification and Bibliography. International folktales Uther, Hans-Jörg.Part 1: Animal tales, Tales of magic, Religions and realistic tales. Helsinki. F.F.C. 284. AaTh (2004). The types of Folktale. A classification and Bibliography. International folktales Uther, Hans-Jörg Part 2: Tales of stupid ogre, anecdotes and jokes and formula tales. Helsinki. F.F.C. 285. AaTh (2004). The types of Folktale. A classification and Bibliography. International folktales Uther, Hans-Jörg (2004). Part 3: Appendices. Helsinki. F.F.C. 286.
 
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Article

Probability Concepts in Primary School

1Department of Primary Education, University of Western Macedonia, Florina, Greece


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 535-540
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-21
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Helen Tsakiridou, Eleni Vavyla. Probability Concepts in Primary School. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(4):535-540. doi: 10.12691/education-3-4-21.

Correspondence to: Helen  Tsakiridou, Department of Primary Education, University of Western Macedonia, Florina, Greece. Email: etsakir@uowm.gr

Abstract

In recent years, many countries have tried to incorporate the probability concepts into the curriculum of primary school. The researchers disagree as to what the age of children dealing with probability contents should be. The aim of this study was to investigate the grade of understanding of the probability concepts in primary school students depending on their age and their gender. 404 pupils of the second to the sixth grade of elementary school participated in the study. It has been concluded that the majority of students was able to recognize different events and categorize them depending on their likelihood. The major difference in their abilities was noticed between the children of the second grade and those of the third grade whereas it has been experienced that girls performed better in all the tasks and in all the grades except for the fourth grade in which boys present a slightly better score.

Keywords

References

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Article

Using Pattern of Internet and E-resources by the Students and Faculty Members of a Private University in Bangladesh

1Department of Information Science and Library Management, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Library and Information Science, KhwajaYunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 541-546
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Maidul Islam, Umme Habiba. Using Pattern of Internet and E-resources by the Students and Faculty Members of a Private University in Bangladesh. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):541-546. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-1.

Correspondence to: Md. Maidul Islam, Department of Information Science and Library Management, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: maidul@du.ac.bd

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to find out the using pattern of internet and e-resources by the Eastern University (EU) students and faculty members. A printed version of the questionnaire was distributed in the respective students and faculty members of EU. To analyze the influence of demographic information on overall satisfaction on internet and e-resources simple frequency were carried out. The results showed that students and faculty members are generally satisfied with the current level of internet and e-resources. They identified limited number of titles, difficulty in finding information, limited access to computers and slow download speed as major constraints. These constraints do affect internet and e-resources use in a private university. However, these constraints are mainly related to the poor IT infrastructure and limited access to internet and e-resources, which may also lead to other constraints such as an unwillingness to use the internet and e-resources regularly and consequently low satisfaction with such resources.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ahmed, S.M.Z (2013),Use of electronic resources by the faculty members in diverse public universities in Bangladesh”, The Electronic Library, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 290-312.
 
[2]  Aqil, M. and Ahmed, P. (2011), “Use of the internet by research scholars and post- graduate students of the Science Faculty of Aligarh Muslim University”, Library Philosophy & Practice, Paper 538, available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/538 (accessed 29 November, 2014).
 
[3]  Arthur, C. and Brafi, P.O. (2013), “Internet use among students in tertiary institutions in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana”, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), Paper 859, available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/859 (accessed 13 October, 2014).
 
[4]  Ayiah, E.M. and Kumah, C.H. (2011), “Social networking: a tool to use for effective service delivery to clients by African Libraries”, available at: http://conference.ifla.org/past-wlic/2011/183-ayiah-en.pdf (accessed 2 January, 2015).
 
[5]  Bhat, I, and Mudhol, M.V. (2014), “Use of e-resources by faculty members and students of Sher-E-Kashmir institute of medical science (SKIMS)”,DESIDOCJournal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 28-34.
 
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[8]  Habiba, U. and Chowdhury, S. (2012), “Use of electronic resources and its impact: a study of Dhaka University Library users”, Eastern Librarian, Vol. 23 No. I, pp. 74-90.
 
[9]  Islam, M.M. (2013), “Measuring Dhaka University students’ internet use behavior of the department of Information Science and Library Management”, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), Paper 920, available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/920 (accessed 12 December, 2014).
 
[10]  Kaur, A. Manhas, R. (2008), “Use of internet services and resources in the engineering colleges of Punjab and Haryana (India): a study”, The International Information & Library Review, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 10-20.
 
[11]  Mulla, K.R. (2011), “Use of electronic resources by faculty members in HKBK College of Engineering: a survey”, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), Paper 593, available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/593 (accessed 5 October, 2014).
 
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Article

Identifying Dimensions of Creative Thinking in Preschool Children during Implementation of Philosophy for Children (P4C) Program: A Directed Content Analysis

1Associate professor of Educational philosophy Department of Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2M.A. in Educational Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3Phd candidate. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 547-551
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yahya Ghaedi, Mona Mahdian, Fatemeh Khoshnavay Fomani. Identifying Dimensions of Creative Thinking in Preschool Children during Implementation of Philosophy for Children (P4C) Program: A Directed Content Analysis. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):547-551. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-2.

Correspondence to: Fatemeh  Khoshnavay Fomani, Phd candidate. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: f-khoshnava@razi.tums.ac.ir

Abstract

Background: fostering creativity thinking in children needs a program with focusing on process and let children expressing their own ideas and listening to others ideas as well challenging them and creating new ideas. To develop creativity in children teachers should be able to accept children uniqueness and their idea. Before children start the school, they need learning experiences to promote their cognitive, social, moral and emotional development and this lays the foundation for later success at school. One of the programs that developed for enhancing creative thinking alongside other thinking and social skills is philosophy for children (P4C).Implementing this program on school age children have shown effectiveness of P4C on creative thinking but little is known about this related to preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study is identifying the elements of creativity thinking based on Torrance creative thinking framework during implementing P4C program for preschool children. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design with directed content analysis was conducted to explore four aspects of creative thinking during implementing P4C program. 6 healthy children five to six years old selected from one preschool in Tehran and P4C program conducted for 16 sessions. All of the sessions recorded and after each session all events of the recorded films were transcript. Torrance creative thinking aspects were the framework in this study and data and codes classified into these four elements and their definitions as main criterion. The codes emerged from data, compared to the main framework and if they matched with the definitions and evidences, they classified as a sub group of the themes. Results: All four aspects of creative thinking were seen in codes and categories. Even in first days of running the program there was a little evidence for creative thinking but gradually the related creativity codes emerged. Conclusion: according to finding implementation of P4C program helps preschool children to develop their creativity thinking. More investigation is needed to empower these results and answer to the questions about why and how this is happened.

Keywords

References

[1]  Almeida, Leandro S., Prieto, Lola Prieto, Ferrando, Mercedes, Oliveira, Emma, & Ferrándiz, Carmen. (2008). Torrance Test of Creative Thinking: The question of its construct.
 
[2]  validity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(1), 53-58.
 
[3]  Craft, Anna. (2006). Fostering creativity with wisdom. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36(3), 337-350.
 
[4]  DeBord,K., North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. North Carolina State University College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. Child Development: Creativity in Young Children. Available online: www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/.../fcs470.pdf. Accessed 2014/10/23.
 
[5]  Fisher, Robert. (2006). Robert Fisher Teaching thinking and creativity Developing creative minds and creative futures Talking to Think: Why Children Need Philosophical Discussion.
 
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[7]  Gasparatou, Renia, & Kampeza, Maria. (2012). Introducing P4C in Kindergarten in Greece. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 33(1), 72-82.
 
[8]  Glăveanu, Vlad Petre. (2011). Children and creativity: A most (un)likely pair? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6(2), 122-131.
 
[9]  Gruioniu, Octavian. (2013). The Philosophy for Children, an Ideal Tool to Stimulate the Thinking Skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 76(0), 378-382.
 
[10]  Hosseini, A, & Hejazi, E. (2014). Effectiveness of implementing philosophy for children program on students’ creativity. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(6), 375-380.
 
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Article

Accuracy of Parameter Estimation and Concordance Method Based on Item Response Theory

1Mathematics and Science Department, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia, Kampus UNJ, Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, Jakarta


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 552-555
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wardani Rahayu. Accuracy of Parameter Estimation and Concordance Method Based on Item Response Theory. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):552-555. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-3.

Correspondence to: Wardani  Rahayu, Mathematics and Science Department, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia, Kampus UNJ, Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, Jakarta. Email: wardani.rahayu@unj.ac.id

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate estimation and concordance method’s accuracy parameter based on item response theory. Estimation method used were Joint Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian and Bayesian Modal; and concordance method used were mean and sigma method, and robust mean and sigma method with sample size of 500 and 800. Data source used was test of tryout of Senior High School year 2012. Hypothesis testing on comparative values of root mean square difference (RMSD) using one way anova and t test. The results were parameter estimation method of Joint Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian and Bayes Modal on two logistic model parameters that produced similar estimation result using sample size more than 500, robust mean and sigma method was more accurate than mean and sigma method.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessing In-Service Needs of Basic School Natural Science Teachers in New Juaben Municipality, Ghana

1Department of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

2Department of Science Education, SDA College of Education, Asokore, Koforidua, Ghana


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 556-563
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ernest Ngman-Wara, Thomas Tachie Young, Sylvester Kosi Mawusi. Assessing In-Service Needs of Basic School Natural Science Teachers in New Juaben Municipality, Ghana. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):556-563. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-4.

Correspondence to: Ernest  Ngman-Wara, Department of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Email: immaare@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated in-service needs of basic school Natural Science teachers in the New Juaben Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The study was to ascertain the in-service needs of 234 Natural Science teachers across gender. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the teachers’ feedback on eight dimensions of science teachers’ needs: generic pedagogical knowledge and skills, knowledge and skills in science subjects, managing and delivering science instruction, diagnosing and evaluating students, planning science instruction, administering science instructional facilities and equipment, integration of multimedia technology and the use of English language in science instruction. Data were descriptively analyzed, followed by chi square analysis. Results of the descriptive analysis demonstrate that the topmost in-service needs of Natural Science teachers were the acquisition of knowledge and skills in science subjects, generic pedagogical knowledge and skills and planning of science instruction. The chi square analysis did not yield significant association between gender and science teachers’ needs in all dimensions except knowledge and skills in science subjects. It was recommended among others that in-service organisers need to assess the in-service needs of participants before providing INSET services.

Keywords

References

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Article

Environmental Health Hazards and Rural Community Development in Abia State of Nigeria

1Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural & Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 564-569
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
MODEBELU M. N., DUVIE A. N.. Environmental Health Hazards and Rural Community Development in Abia State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):564-569. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-5.

Correspondence to: MODEBELU  M. N., Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural & Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: meloodyne@gmail.com

Abstract

The study assessed the influence of environmental hazards on the development of rural communities in Abia state. The population of the study was one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two (1,772) executive members in one hundred and seventy-five (175) Community Development Associations. A sample of five hundred and nine (509) executive members from seventy (70) Community Development Associations was drawn through proportionate stratified sampling technique. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Researchers’ self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. It was face and content validated by two experts in Educational Administration and Educational Measurement/Evaluation from Abia State University, Uturu. The reliability of the instrument was pilot-tested on 25 executive members of Ayamele and Ifite-Ogwari Community Development Associations, both are Local Government Areas in Anambra State. Reliability coefficient of 0.88 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha estimate. Data from the research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Also, the null hypotheses were tested for using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed the influence of deforestation, agricultural development and industries and technology on the environment. The study therefore recommended among others that Abia State Government should organize seminars, workshop and conferences for Community Development Associations Executive Officers and other community leaders on the issues concerning environmental protection.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Modebelu, M. N. (2013). Quality secondary education through school-based management committee and climate change management. International Journal of Management & Computing Sciences (IJMCS), 3(1), 52-61.
 
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Article

Effects of Dehumanizing Communication Reified in Higher Institutions of Learning: Issues and Suggestions

1Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural and Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 570-575
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Modebelu Melody Ndidi. Effects of Dehumanizing Communication Reified in Higher Institutions of Learning: Issues and Suggestions. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):570-575. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-6.

Correspondence to: Modebelu  Melody Ndidi, Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural and Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. Email: meloodyne@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of dehumanizing communication reified in higher institutions of learning, among undergraduates and lecturers. Dehumanization is the act of degrading people with respect to their best qualities and denial of humanness to others. On the other hand communication is human interaction and learning. Communication becomes rude when it is deliberately directed resulting in dehumanizing communication. The paper therefore examines dehumanizing communication in terms of its being intentional and unintentional and dehumanizing communication between lecturers and students and among students. It also took a swipe on the effects of dehumanizing communication on students and lecturers as well as proffer solutions to mitigating effect of dehumanizing communication between lecturer and students and among students. The suggested solutions among others include, inter-group dialogue programme among contending groups in the student community, establishment of multicultural centers on campus in order to bring contending groups together i.e. lecturers and students of all races and ethnicity. A compulsory course on “pedagogy of positiveness” is also recommended in the university curriculum to instill in the students the value of respecting people who may be different.

Keywords

References

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