ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi




Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash by Using Chemical Coagulation (CC) and Electro - coagulation [EC]

1D. Y. Patil College of Engineering and Technology Pimpri, Pune, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

2Department of Civil Engineering, S. B. Patil College of Engineering, Indapur, Dist: Pune-413106, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(5), 159-163
doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manoj. P. Wagh, P. D. Nemade. Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash by Using Chemical Coagulation (CC) and Electro - coagulation [EC]. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(5):159-163. doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-1.

Correspondence to: Manoj.  P. Wagh, D. Y. Patil College of Engineering and Technology Pimpri, Pune, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Email:


There is an urgent need to find best suitable economic technology to knock out the problems due to distillery industries creating pollution and ecological imbalance. In the present study electro-coagulation treatment is carried out by using different combination of aluminum and iron electrodes in a batch reactor. Also chemical coagulation treatment is carried out by using alum and lime dose to treat distillery spent wash. Maximum 96.09% colour removal was obtained by using Al-Al electrodes for pH 8 and maximum COD removal was obtained 85.7 % by using Al-Al electrodes for pH 3. Further experiments are carried out by using alum and lime coagulant dose to treat distillery spent wash maximum 66. 27 % COD was removed by using alum. Alum is more effective than lime to remove chemical oxygen demand.



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Organochlorine, Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment Samples from River Benue in Vinikilang, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Equipped with Electron Capture Detector

1Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

3School of General Studies, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(5), 164-173
doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joseph. C. Akan, Naomi Battah, Maimuna Waziri, Musa M. Mahmud. Organochlorine, Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment Samples from River Benue in Vinikilang, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Equipped with Electron Capture Detector. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(5):164-173. doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-2.

Correspondence to: Joseph.  C. Akan, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Email:


Water and sediment samples from ten (10) different sampling points along river Benue, in Vinikilang, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, were collected for the determination of organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT , p,p’-DDT dieldrin and aldrin), organophosphorus (dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Malathion) and pyrethriod (cypermethrin, bifenthrin, permethrin and deltamethrin) pesticide residues. Sample collection and preparation were carried out using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in water and sediment samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector. The concentrations of organochlorine, organophosphorus and Pyrethriod pesticide residues were significantly higher in the sediment samples than water samples. According to the concentrations and detection frequency, dieldrin and aldrin were the most dominant compounds among the organochlorine pesticide residues. The total concentration of aldrin in the water sample was 2.96 mg/l compared to 11.25 µg/g in the sediment sample and the total concentration of dieldrin in the water sample was 4.36 mg/l compared to 13.37 µg/g in the sediment sample. Chlorpyrifos and dichlovos were the most dominant compounds among the organophosphoruses with the total concentration of Dichlorvos in the water sample being 0.57 mg/l and 22.16 µg/g in the sediment sample. Permethrin and deltamethrin were the dominant compounds among the pyrethroid pesticides. The total concentration of cypermethrin in the water sample was 0.69 mg/l, whereas in the sediment samples, 10.64 µg/g was detected. Results from this study indicates that the water and sediment samples within the study area were contaminated by the studied pesticides. The results also show that there still exists a variety of the studied pesticides in the water and sediment from river Benue, Vinikilang, Yola, Adamawa State. Despite bans and restrictions on the usage of some of these pesticides in Nigeria, the observed concentrations of the Organochlorine, Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid pesticides from the ten sampling points could explain either their persistence in the environment or continued use within the banks and tributary of river Benue.



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Effect of Slope Position on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Cultivated Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchment, Gidan District, North Wollo

1Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Woldia University, Woldia

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(5), 174-179
doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Effect of Slope Position on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Cultivated Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchment, Gidan District, North Wollo. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(5):174-179. doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-3.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Woldia University, Woldia. Email:,


The research work was conducted on eroded soil at the Abuhoy Gara Catchment, which is located in the Gidan District of North Wello Zone in the Amhara National Regional State to determine the effect of slope position on soil physico-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from higher-slope, middle slope, intermediate slope and lower slope positions at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soil layers. Results showed a significant difference among the physicochemical properties of higher, middle, intermediate and lower slope soils. Clay fraction of the lower slope (27.08%) was the highest followed by middle slope (26.67%), intermediate slope (23.34%) and higher slope (22.92%). Conversely, sand (60%) was highest at higher slope and followed by middle slope (57.08%), intermediate slope (51.67%) and lower slope (49.58%), respectively. Likewise, Ca (8.41 cmol(+)/ kg), Mg (3.19cmol(+)/ kg), K (1.43cmol(+)/ kg), CEC (17.58cmol(+)/ kg), total nitrogen (0.104%), organic carbon (1.88%) and Available phosphorous (9.52 ppm) at higher slope followed by middle slope, intermediate slope and lower slope, respectively. The deterioration in chemical properties of lower slope as compared to other slopes were presumed to be due to continuous cultivation for longer period of time and past soil erosion effect that removed the soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study results concluded that increasing extent of continuous and intensive cultivation with minimum conservation practices and erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties. The control of such damaging effects would require proper soil conservation strategies such as proper land leveling, afforestation, crop rotation, fallowing, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on these lands.



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