American Journal of Environmental Protection

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

Article

Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study

1Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 51-58
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ruchi Pandey, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ram Lakhan Prasad, Ramesh Chandra Murthy. Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):51-58. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ramesh  Chandra Murthy, Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India. Email: murthyrc729@gmail.com

Abstract

Cucumis sativus peel (CSP), was investigated as a new adsorbent for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution under several varying conditions such as pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Maximum metal sorption was found to occur at initial pH 5.0. The adsorption capacity of CSP was found to be 28.25mg/g for initial Pb(II) concentration of 25 mg/l at 25°C. The equilibrium data best fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo first-order and pseudo second order mechanism were applied to examine the kinetics of the adsorption. The results showed that kinetic data were followed pseudo second-order model than the pseudo first-order equation. With no loss in the Pb(II) ion removal efficiency, CSP could be regenerated using 1M HNO3 during repeated sorption–desorption cycles and showed recovery of 93.5% for 25mg/l of Pb(II) ion concentration. Comprehensive characterization parameters using FTIR, and SEM were recorded before and after adsorption to explore the number and position of the functional groups available for Pb(II) binding onto adsorbent and changes in surface morphology of the adsorbent.

Keywords

References

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Article

Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics

2Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 59-63
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gurmail Singh, B. Singh. Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):59-63. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Gurmail  Singh, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics. Email: gurmailent@pau.edu

Abstract

The study was undertaken to determine the dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on tomato under field conditions and thereby to ensure consumer safety. Three applications of a combination formulation, Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) were made @ 350 and 700 g ha-1 at 7 days intervals. Tomato samples were collected at 0 (1 hr), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on tomato fruits were found to be 0.40 and 0.76 mg kg-1, and that of tebuconazole were 1.56 and 2.76 mg kg-1, at single and double dose, respectively. Half life of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 1.39 and 1.94 days, at single and double doses, respectively, whereas with respect to tebuconazole, these values were 0.93 and 0.78 days. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin, its metabolite CGA321113 and tebuconazole at their detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. Theoretical maximum residues contribution (TMRC) for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were calculated and found to be well below maximum permissible intake (MPI) on tomato at 0-day (1 hr after spraying) for the both the test doses. Thus, the application of combination formulation Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) at the recommended dose on tomatodidnot seem to pose any human health risk.

Keywords

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Article

The U.S. Biofuel Policy: Review of Economic and Environmental Implications

1LSU AgCenter

2Former student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 64-70
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naveen Adusumilli, Andrew Leidner. The U.S. Biofuel Policy: Review of Economic and Environmental Implications. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):64-70. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Naveen  Adusumilli, LSU AgCenter. Email: nadusumillli@agcenter.lsu.edu

Abstract

A major national initiative to generate renewable fuels from plant matter has taken shape in the U.S., primarily to reduce dependency on foreign oil and achieve reduction in greenhouse gases. However, the biofuel policies in the U.S. ignored for the most part, the potential synergies between food and biofuel production. As a result, their production has produced negative impacts on food security, natural resources, and climate. This paper reviews some of the recent literature identifying the economic and environmental consequences of the U.S. renewable fuel policy. The aim of this review is to understand the key regional threats to water security in the context of projected food and energy demand growth. Failure to account for unintended consequences in future policy development can jeopardize achieving the energy, agricultural, and environmental policy goals of the biofuels program.

Keywords

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Article

Genotoxicological Effects of Heavy Metals on Humans Cells

1Faculty of medical science, University” Goce Delcev” – Stip, Republic of Macedonia


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 71-73
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Velickova Nevenka, Kamcev Nikola. Genotoxicological Effects of Heavy Metals on Humans Cells. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):71-73. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Velickova  Nevenka, Faculty of medical science, University” Goce Delcev” – Stip, Republic of Macedonia. Email: nevenka.velickova@ugd.edu.mk

Abstract

Aims of this study was to detect cytogenetic damage in mine workers working in a lead–zinc mine, which could be associated with a combined exposure to lead, zinc and cadmium. Methods: This study involved 120 mine workers from the lead–zinc mine in Macedonia, and a control group (30) of local people who had never worked in the mine. The authors used peripheral blood lymphocytes as the target material. The total share of structural chromosome aberration (SCA) were searched out over the 3 years of monitoring. Also they measured the blood level of lead, zinc and cadmium with ISP-AES. Results: The authors concluded increased blood lead level in the exposed group (Mean= O,089mg/l) and in 20% in the control group (Mean=0,066mg/l); increased zinc blood level in the exposed (Mean=1,391mg/l) and in control group (Mean=1,074mg/l); increased cadmium blood level in 62% of the exposed (Mean=0,007mg/l) and in 50% of the control group (Mean=0,006mg/l); Chromosomal aberrations (like dicentric and acentric chromosome) were found to be elevated in 7% of exposed individuals (mine workers) non in the control group. Both chromosome type aberrations in the exposed group were accompanied with anemia, leucocitosis and anisocitosis. Conclusion: The group of exposed people showing increased levels of chromosome abnormalities has a higher risk of developing cancer and other deseasses.

Keywords

References

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Article

Household Demand and Willingness to Pay for Solid Waste Management Service in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District, Ghana

1Department of Ecotourism & Environmental Management, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University for Development Studies


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 74-78
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kwetey Seth, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Wilhemina Asare, Abudu Ballu Duwiejuah. Household Demand and Willingness to Pay for Solid Waste Management Service in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District, Ghana. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):74-78. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Samuel  Jerry Cobbina, Department of Ecotourism & Environmental Management, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University for Development Studies. Email: cobbinasamuel@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was to examine whether respondents’ demographic characteristics (sex, age, educational level, income and employment) could affect the willingness to pay for waste management services in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District of Ghana. The quota, systematic and convenience sampling techniques were employed in the selection of the 200 respondents. Even though many respondents demanded for improved waste management services, the study revealed that majority of the respondents (62%) were unwillingness to pay for the waste management services and 38% were willing to pay for waste services. The study observed illicit burning, open dumping of waste and lack of waste collection containers to receive refuse in the Tuobodom community which might be the reasons for their unwillingness to pay for improved waste management service. Probit analysis reveals that respondent’s socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, income and employment has no significant influence in the respondent’s willingness to pay for improved waste service. Based on the findings of this study, it is therefore recommended that the Techiman-North District Assembly should provide waste collection containers to receive waste generated to curb the menace of solid waste disposal that threatened the achievement of the seventh Millennium Development Goals.

Keywords

References

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Article

Palaeobiogeographical and Paleoenvironmental Study of the Middle-Upper Jurassic Corals in East-Central Iran Carbonate Platform

1Department of Soil and Water, Institute of Scientific Applied Higher Education of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Education and Extension Organization, Ministry of Agriculture Karaj-Iran

2Faculty of Basic Sciences, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(5), 79-82
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kaveh Khaksar, Keyvan Khaksar. Palaeobiogeographical and Paleoenvironmental Study of the Middle-Upper Jurassic Corals in East-Central Iran Carbonate Platform. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(5):79-82. doi: 10.12691/env-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Kaveh  Khaksar, Department of Soil and Water, Institute of Scientific Applied Higher Education of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Education and Extension Organization, Ministry of Agriculture Karaj-Iran. Email: kavehkhaksar@gmail.com

Abstract

This research gives a general outline of the Middle-Upper Jurassic sequences cropping out Central-East Iran. Jurassic rocks are spread widely in central-East Iran. In the Jurassic, East-Central Iran carbonate Platform, in the aspect of biogeography, has been located in the north of Gondwana paleocontinent and near northern margin of Paleo Tethys Ocean. The corals of the Jurassic of the Iranian carbonate platform have been compared with the Jurassic corals of the other provinces of the world. The whole assemblage of Iran show higher similarity with the Europe and South Asia Provinces assemblages. The Central East Iranian corals dominantly formed by colonies and belongs to reefal environment.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Pandey, D. K., and Fürsich, F. T. Jurassic corals of east-central Iran, Beringeria, Heft 32: 1-140, 2003.
 
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Article

Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge and Coal Fly Ash in Brick Manufacturing

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(5), 83-88
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Denise Alves Fungaro, Mauro Valério da Silva. Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge and Coal Fly Ash in Brick Manufacturing. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(5):83-88. doi: 10.12691/env-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Denise  Alves Fungaro, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Email: dfungaro@ipen.br

Abstract

Sludge from a treatment water Brazilian plant station is, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, fly ash is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. An efficient disposal of coal fly ash is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical possibilities of incorporating cyclone fly ash (CFA) and sludge from a waste water treatment plant (SWTP) in the production of ecological bricks. The wastes were analyzed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. Various mixtures were prepared by incorporating these industrial wastes in brick production. The effects of wastes incorporation on physical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption have been determined. The best result, in terms of compression strength and water absorption, was reached by the series of bricks produced with 60 % soil, 12 % cement, 8 % coal fly ash and 20 % SWTP by weight. The results showed that SWTP and CFA presented a potential to be used as waste additives in the production of soil-cement bricks.

Keywords

References

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Article

Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) as Intercrop in Grewia Optiva Based Traditional Agroforestry System along Altitudinal Gradient and Aspect in Mid Hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India

1Indian Institute of Forest management (IIFM) Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462 003, M.P., India

2Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(5), 89-94
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arvind Bijalwan, Manmohan J. R. Dobriyal. Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) as Intercrop in Grewia Optiva Based Traditional Agroforestry System along Altitudinal Gradient and Aspect in Mid Hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(5):89-94. doi: 10.12691/env-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Arvind  Bijalwan, Indian Institute of Forest management (IIFM) Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462 003, M.P., India. Email: arvindbijalwan276@gmail.com

Abstract

Grewia optiva, wonder tree of western Himalaya locally known as Bhimal is the most common multipurpose tree is a boon for the inhabitants of Garhwal Himalayan region. About 2/3rd of the cultivated area of Garhwal is rainfed and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the predominant food grain crop cultivated on the sloppy terraces in combination of G. optiva trees on terrace bunds. In Present study the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as intercrop in Grewia optiva based traditional agroforestry system along altitudinal gradient and aspect in mid hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India revels that G. optiva occupied average highest frequency (85%), stem density (145 trees/ha), TBC (7.68 m2/ha), IVI (86.51), tree height (7.38 m), Crown spread (5.34 m) in the elevation 1000-1500 m of Northern aspect (E1/N site). In the elevation 1000-1500 m, it was observed that there is a reduction in grain, straw and biological yield of wheat as 17.59%, 17.77% and 17.71% respectively on the southern aspect compared to northern aspect. Further elevation 1500-2000 m, the reduction in the average grain yield was recorded 37.31% under G. optiva based traditional agroforestry system in E2/S site. The phenophases of the wheat crop is sown in the month of December which emerges to crown root initiation (CRI) in January followed by tillering, milking, maturity and final harvest during May while G. optiva remain dormant from December to February, leafless in March and new flush of shoots in May. This reversal phenopases of two components are complimentary in tree crop interaction to enhance productivity.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bhatt, R.K. and Pathak, P.S. 2003. Upscaling quality fodder production in semi-arid tropics by Grewia optiva. ICAR News. 9 (1) January to March 2003.
 
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Article

Environmental Fate of Heavy Metals in Soil of Ido-Osun Waste Dump Site, Osogbo, Osun, Nigeria

1Chemical Sciences Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, P.M.B. 5533, Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, P. O. Box 0001, Ojo campu, Lagos, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olayiwola Olajumoke Abidemi, Onwordi Chionyedua Theresa. Environmental Fate of Heavy Metals in Soil of Ido-Osun Waste Dump Site, Osogbo, Osun, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Onwordi  Chionyedua Theresa, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, P. O. Box 0001, Ojo campu, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: teresachiedu@yahoo.com

Abstract

Wastes, if not properly managed can cause severe complications within ecosystem. Farmers use soil from dumpsites without regards for the health implication the heavy metal contents of such soil type may pose. The levels of these heavy metals need to be ascertained to know their fate. Five heavy metals (chromium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper) were analysed for their levels in soil at four different directions (east, west, north and south) by wet digestion spectrophotometrically. Heavy metals in soil were zinc (1133±897 mg/kg), nickel (26.3± 51.1 mg/kg), copper (110±90 mg/kg), lead (137± 64 mg/kg) and chromium (3.63±2.46 mg/kg). Concentration in sampling site were higher than soils from background with factors of 67 (zinc), 18 (copper), and 20 (lead). Index of geo-accumulation revealed soil to be moderately to strongly polluted with zinc, copper and lead. Inter-element correlation was in the range 0.90 – 0.99. Near-by farmlands are exposed to these heavy metals. Surface water near the site will not be usable for irrigation and other categories of water usages. Wastes from the dump site can be reduced, reused and recycled.

Keywords

References

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Article

Payment for Environmental Services: an Environmental Zoning Guardianship Instrument

1Professor of Environmental Urbanistic Law of the Master's Program on Environmental Law at Caxias do Sul University, Caxias do Sul - Brazil


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 5-11
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adir Ubaldo Rech. Payment for Environmental Services: an Environmental Zoning Guardianship Instrument. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):5-11. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Adir  Ubaldo Rech, Professor of Environmental Urbanistic Law of the Master's Program on Environmental Law at Caxias do Sul University, Caxias do Sul - Brazil. Email: aurech@ucs.br

Abstract

Environmental services potentially available in nature, such as the air that we breathe, the water we drink, etc. are indispensable to assure an ecologically balanced environment and the preservation of biodiversity as elements of sustainability and assurance of human life and dignity. Since man needs and tends to occupy every space for dwelling and for the production of food, it is necessary to define and designate spaces to be preserved, aiming to guarantee fulfillment of these essential functions of nature, which we call environmental services. The instrument to organize such spaces is sought for in Law – environmental zoning – and payment for environmental services as a means of effective guardianship of the environment bounded by such zoning is described.

Keywords

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