American Journal of Environmental Protection»Articles

Article

Household Demand and Willingness to Pay for Solid Waste Management Service in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District, Ghana

1Department of Ecotourism & Environmental Management, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University for Development Studies


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 74-78
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kwetey Seth, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Wilhemina Asare, Abudu Ballu Duwiejuah. Household Demand and Willingness to Pay for Solid Waste Management Service in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District, Ghana. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):74-78. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Samuel  Jerry Cobbina, Department of Ecotourism & Environmental Management, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University for Development Studies. Email: cobbinasamuel@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was to examine whether respondents’ demographic characteristics (sex, age, educational level, income and employment) could affect the willingness to pay for waste management services in Tuobodom in the Techiman-North District of Ghana. The quota, systematic and convenience sampling techniques were employed in the selection of the 200 respondents. Even though many respondents demanded for improved waste management services, the study revealed that majority of the respondents (62%) were unwillingness to pay for the waste management services and 38% were willing to pay for waste services. The study observed illicit burning, open dumping of waste and lack of waste collection containers to receive refuse in the Tuobodom community which might be the reasons for their unwillingness to pay for improved waste management service. Probit analysis reveals that respondent’s socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, income and employment has no significant influence in the respondent’s willingness to pay for improved waste service. Based on the findings of this study, it is therefore recommended that the Techiman-North District Assembly should provide waste collection containers to receive waste generated to curb the menace of solid waste disposal that threatened the achievement of the seventh Millennium Development Goals.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genotoxicological Effects of Heavy Metals on Humans Cells

1Faculty of medical science, University” Goce Delcev” – Stip, Republic of Macedonia


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 71-73
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Velickova Nevenka, Kamcev Nikola. Genotoxicological Effects of Heavy Metals on Humans Cells. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):71-73. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Velickova  Nevenka, Faculty of medical science, University” Goce Delcev” – Stip, Republic of Macedonia. Email: nevenka.velickova@ugd.edu.mk

Abstract

Aims of this study was to detect cytogenetic damage in mine workers working in a lead–zinc mine, which could be associated with a combined exposure to lead, zinc and cadmium. Methods: This study involved 120 mine workers from the lead–zinc mine in Macedonia, and a control group (30) of local people who had never worked in the mine. The authors used peripheral blood lymphocytes as the target material. The total share of structural chromosome aberration (SCA) were searched out over the 3 years of monitoring. Also they measured the blood level of lead, zinc and cadmium with ISP-AES. Results: The authors concluded increased blood lead level in the exposed group (Mean= O,089mg/l) and in 20% in the control group (Mean=0,066mg/l); increased zinc blood level in the exposed (Mean=1,391mg/l) and in control group (Mean=1,074mg/l); increased cadmium blood level in 62% of the exposed (Mean=0,007mg/l) and in 50% of the control group (Mean=0,006mg/l); Chromosomal aberrations (like dicentric and acentric chromosome) were found to be elevated in 7% of exposed individuals (mine workers) non in the control group. Both chromosome type aberrations in the exposed group were accompanied with anemia, leucocitosis and anisocitosis. Conclusion: The group of exposed people showing increased levels of chromosome abnormalities has a higher risk of developing cancer and other deseasses.

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References

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Article

The U.S. Biofuel Policy: Review of Economic and Environmental Implications

1LSU AgCenter

2Former student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(4), 64-70
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naveen Adusumilli, Andrew Leidner. The U.S. Biofuel Policy: Review of Economic and Environmental Implications. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(4):64-70. doi: 10.12691/env-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Naveen  Adusumilli, LSU AgCenter. Email: nadusumillli@agcenter.lsu.edu

Abstract

A major national initiative to generate renewable fuels from plant matter has taken shape in the U.S., primarily to reduce dependency on foreign oil and achieve reduction in greenhouse gases. However, the biofuel policies in the U.S. ignored for the most part, the potential synergies between food and biofuel production. As a result, their production has produced negative impacts on food security, natural resources, and climate. This paper reviews some of the recent literature identifying the economic and environmental consequences of the U.S. renewable fuel policy. The aim of this review is to understand the key regional threats to water security in the context of projected food and energy demand growth. Failure to account for unintended consequences in future policy development can jeopardize achieving the energy, agricultural, and environmental policy goals of the biofuels program.

Keywords

References

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Article

Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics

2Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 59-63
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gurmail Singh, B. Singh. Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):59-63. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Gurmail  Singh, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics. Email: gurmailent@pau.edu

Abstract

The study was undertaken to determine the dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on tomato under field conditions and thereby to ensure consumer safety. Three applications of a combination formulation, Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) were made @ 350 and 700 g ha-1 at 7 days intervals. Tomato samples were collected at 0 (1 hr), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on tomato fruits were found to be 0.40 and 0.76 mg kg-1, and that of tebuconazole were 1.56 and 2.76 mg kg-1, at single and double dose, respectively. Half life of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 1.39 and 1.94 days, at single and double doses, respectively, whereas with respect to tebuconazole, these values were 0.93 and 0.78 days. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin, its metabolite CGA321113 and tebuconazole at their detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. Theoretical maximum residues contribution (TMRC) for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were calculated and found to be well below maximum permissible intake (MPI) on tomato at 0-day (1 hr after spraying) for the both the test doses. Thus, the application of combination formulation Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) at the recommended dose on tomatodidnot seem to pose any human health risk.

Keywords

References

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Article

Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study

1Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 51-58
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ruchi Pandey, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ram Lakhan Prasad, Ramesh Chandra Murthy. Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):51-58. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ramesh  Chandra Murthy, Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India. Email: murthyrc729@gmail.com

Abstract

Cucumis sativus peel (CSP), was investigated as a new adsorbent for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution under several varying conditions such as pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Maximum metal sorption was found to occur at initial pH 5.0. The adsorption capacity of CSP was found to be 28.25mg/g for initial Pb(II) concentration of 25 mg/l at 25°C. The equilibrium data best fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo first-order and pseudo second order mechanism were applied to examine the kinetics of the adsorption. The results showed that kinetic data were followed pseudo second-order model than the pseudo first-order equation. With no loss in the Pb(II) ion removal efficiency, CSP could be regenerated using 1M HNO3 during repeated sorption–desorption cycles and showed recovery of 93.5% for 25mg/l of Pb(II) ion concentration. Comprehensive characterization parameters using FTIR, and SEM were recorded before and after adsorption to explore the number and position of the functional groups available for Pb(II) binding onto adsorbent and changes in surface morphology of the adsorbent.

Keywords

References

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Article

Institutional Obstacles on the Development of Forest Management Unit: The Case of Indonesian Tasik Besar Serkap

1Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga Main Road, IPB Dramaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia

2Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Academic Ring Road, Campus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia

3Department of Communication of Rural and Agricultural Development, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Academic Ring Road, IPB Dramaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(2), 41-50
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Eno Suwarno, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Lala M Kolopaking, Sudarsono Soedomo. Institutional Obstacles on the Development of Forest Management Unit: The Case of Indonesian Tasik Besar Serkap. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(2):41-50. doi: 10.12691/env-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Eno  Suwarno, Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga Main Road, IPB Dramaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia. Email: enosuwarno2009@gmail.com

Abstract

Three years since its establishment in 2010, the forest management unit (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan, KPH)-Tasik Besar Serkap (KPH-TBS) in Riau Province–Indonesia has not been operated yet due to institutional problem. Therefore, the review on the institutional handicap is necessary. This study uses the Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework to analyze the policy implementation of KPH-TBS development. Analysis was conducted to describe the conditions of exogenous factors and the action arena that obstructing the policy implementation by Riau provincial government (RPG). Conceptually, the policy of KPHs development is institutional changing processes, which are changes in the value system and forest governance. The research found problems that became disincentives on biophysical conditions, such as problems on paradigm, forestry bureaucracy culture and several weaknesses in the rules in use. In addition, structural approach and physical assistance were mostly used by national government for its provincial government. In contrast, knowledge dissemination, communication and mutual trust building were still limitedly used. Former approaches do not address the needs of RPG for information and understanding regarding to the development of KPH. RPG responded to this situation slowly and lack of willingness to cooperate. They took the policy of KPHs development as a mere obligation, and did not get motivated to move by themselves. In addition, the reluctance to cooperate was also caused by the presence of conflict of interest in several government officials. Based on this research, national government need to changes the way of thinking that regulation is not the only instrument to guide the behavior of local participants. Although still needs to be repaired, it must be accompanied by improving of knowledge dissemination, communication and mutual trust building. These actions are highly required not only for resistance solution, but also for controling the paradigms transformation process and cultur of local participants in line with composed new values in the KPH concept.

Keywords

References

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Article

The concentration of Lead in Periwinkle (Tympanotonosfuscatus) and River sediments in Eagle Island River, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science &Technology Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, University of Port Harcourt Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(2), 37-40
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwuli. Donatus O., Ajuru Gospel, Holy Brown, Amadi. Fynface C. The concentration of Lead in Periwinkle (Tympanotonosfuscatus) and River sediments in Eagle Island River, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(2):37-40. doi: 10.12691/env-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Onwuli.  Donatus O., Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science &Technology Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email: onwuli.donatus@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this study, the concentrations of Lead (Pb) in periwinkles (Tympanotonosfuscatus) and river sediments and were determined from 25 sampling stations in Eagle Island River in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean ±SD concentrations of Pb in periwinkles and sediments are 0.91±0.54 mg/Kg and 0.22±0.19 mg/Kg respectively. The mean concentrations of the heavy metal Pb is higher in periwinkle than in sediment (p<0.05). The results obtained from this analysis in periwinkle also showed that it exceeded the tolerable values in fish (aquatic organism). The correlation coefficient between Pb in sediment and that in periwinkle is 61.5%. The result of this study shows that sea foods obtained from this river is a potential source heavy metal poisoning. This calls for adequate legislation to protect the water bodies from heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords

References

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Article

Women Participation in Environmental Protection and Management: Lessons from Plateau State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography, Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria

2Department of Geography, Gombe State University Gombe, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(2), 32-36
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Solomon Z.Wuyep, Vincent C.Dung, Arin H.Buhari, Daloeng H. Madaki, Baminda A. Bitrus. Women Participation in Environmental Protection and Management: Lessons from Plateau State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(2):32-36. doi: 10.12691/env-2-2-1.

Abstract

This study provides a general review and a case study of women’s involvement in environmental management in Plateau state. Primary data were generated from Questionnaire survey of women from six local government areas. Majority of the women (79.2%) are involved in farming and contributed significantly to land/soil conservation. (78.4%) of them have planted tree or flowers in the last five years while (79.2%) indicated clearing their surroundings daily in terms of sweeping, clearing drainages and refuse disposal. Problems faced by the women include lack of waste disposal equipment, poor drainage systems and lack of awareness among the general public. Appropriate recommendations were proffered to enhance women involvement in environmental protection and management.

Keywords

References

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Article

Distribution of Some Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Lichen and Moss Samples Collected from Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

1Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom

3Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 22-31
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Imaobong I. Udousoro, Udo J. Ibok. Distribution of Some Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Lichen and Moss Samples Collected from Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):22-31. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

The atmospheric deposition of some heavy metals was investigated using lichen (Parmelia caperata) and moss (Polytrichum juniperinum, Calymperes erosum and Racopilum africanum) samples collected from two oil–producing host communities viz Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Lichen and moss samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometry equipped with flame and graphite furnace after decomposition using acid digestion technique. The concentrations of heavy metals in lichen and moss samples ranged from 0.001 – 0.092 μg g−1 for cadmium (Cd); 0.004 – 8.793 μg g−1 for chromium (Cr); 0.989 – 1.950 μg g−1 for cobalt (Co); 2.350 – 110.760 μg g−1 for copper (Cu); 10.530 – 153.320 μg g−1 for manganese (Mn); 1.425 – 21.730 μg g−1 for nickel (Ni); 0.001 – 17.380 μg g−1 for lead (Pb), and 23.530 – 130.600 μg g−1 for zinc (Zn). The statistical significance of correlations between Cu–Pb, Cu–Zn, Pb–Ni and Mn–Zn concentrations confirmed anthropogenic sources mainly due to emissions from vehicular traffic, fossil fuel combustion, solid waste disposal and other local anthropogenic activities. In a direct comparison, some of the target heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn were accumulated at higher concentrations in moss samples compared to lichen from the same sampling site. The results obtained reveal important contributions towards understanding of heavy metal deposition patterns and provide baseline data that can be used for potential identification of areas at risk from atmospheric heavy metals contamination in the region. The use of epiphytic lichens and mosses provides a cost–effective approach for monitoring regional atmospheric heavy metal contamination and may be effectively used in large scale air pollution monitoring programmer.

Keywords

References

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Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolitic Material Derived from Sugarcane Straw Ash

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo ,Brasil

2Centro de Pós-Graduação “Oswaldo Cruz”, São Paulo-SP– Brasil


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 16-21
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Denise A. Fungaro, Thais V. S. Reis, Marco Antonio Logli, Nara A. Oliveira. Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolitic Material Derived from Sugarcane Straw Ash. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Denise  A. Fungaro, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo ,Brasil. Email: dfungaro@ipen.br

Abstract

Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA), an agricultural waste of sugar industry with disposal problems, was utilized as a source for the synthesis of zeolitic material. Zeolitic material was synthesized by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of crystallization time was studied and the conditions optimized. The materials were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques, particle size analyzer, TG /DSC and nitrogen physisorption. The presence of zeolite NaP1 in adsorbent confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. The physico-chemical properties of SCSA and zeolitic material were compared. The particle size distribution of zeolitic material was in the range of 0.796 – 399 µm and nitrogen adsorption indicated a surface area around 350 m2 g-1. Zeolitic material from sugarcane straw ash was examined by removal of Crystal violet from aqueous solution.

Keywords

References

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[13]  Yamaura, M. and Fungaro, D.A., “Synthesis and characterization of magnetic adsorbent prepared by magnetite nanoparticles and zeolite from coal fly ash,” Journal of Materials Science, 48. 5093-5101. 2013.
 
[14]  Izidoro J.C., Fungaro, D.A., Abbott, J.E. and Wang, S., “Synthesis of zeolites X and A from fly ashes for cadmium and zinc removal from aqueous solutions in single and binary ion systems,” Fuel, 103. 827-834. 2013.
 
[15]  Shah, B., Tailor, R.and Shah, A., “Adaptation of bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry solid waste into zeolitic material for the uptake of phenol,” Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 30. 358-367, 2011.
 
[16]  Shah, B., Tailor, R. and Shah, A., “Sorptive sequestration of 2- chlorophenol by zeolitic materials derived from bagasse fly ash,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 86. 1265-1275. 2011.
 
[17]  Shah, B., Tailor, R. and Shah, A., “Zeolitic bagasse fly ash as a low-cost sorbent for the sequestration of p-nitrophenol: equilibrium, kinetics, and column studies,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 19. 1171-86. 2012.
 
[18]  Worathanakul, P., Kittipalarak, S. and Anusarn, K., “Utilization Biomass from Bagasse Ash for Phillipsite Zeolite Synthesis,” Advanced Materials Research, 383-390. 4038-4042. 2011.
 
[19]  Kruk, M., Jaroniec, M. and Sayari, A, “Application of large pore MCM-41 molecular sieves to improve pore size analysis using nitrogen adsorption measurements,” Langmuir, 13. 6267-6273. 1997.
 
[20]  Barboza Filho, M.P. and Prabhu, A.S., Aplicação de silicato de cálcio na cultura do arroz (Application of calcium silicate in rice culture) - Circular Técnica 51, EMBRAPA. Santo Antônio de Goiás, 2002. (in portuguese).
 
[21]  Murayama, N., Yamamoto, H. and Shibata, “Mechanism of zeolite synthesis from coal fly ash by alkali hydrothermal reaction,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, 64. 1-17. 2002.
 
[22]  Derkowski, A. and Michalik, M., “Statistical approach to the transformation of fly ash into zeolites,” Mineralogia Polonica, 38. 47-69. 2007.
 
[23]  Moutsatsou, A., Stamatakis, E., Hatzitzotzia, K. and Protontarios, V., “The utilization of Ca-rich and Ca-Si-rich fly ashes in zeolites production,” Fuel, 85: 657-663, 2006.
 
[24]  Mouhtaris, T., Charistos, D., Kantiranis, N., Filippidis, A., KassoliFournaraki, A. and Tsirambidis, A., “GIS-type zeolite synthesis from Greek lignite sulphocalcic fly ashes promoted by NaOH solutions,” Microporous and Mesoporous Material, 61, 57-67. 2003.
 
[25]  Vadapalli, V.R.K., Gitari, W.M., Ellendt, A., Petrik, L.F. and Balfour, G., “Synthesis of zeolite-p from coal fly ash derivative and its utilisation in mine-water remediation,” South African Journal of Science, 106. 1-7. 2010.
 
[26]  Atun, G., Hisarliet, G., Kurtoglu, A.E. and Ayar, N., “A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 187. 562-573. 2011.
 
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Article

LDHs as Adsorbents of Phenol and Their Environmental Applications

1Azov Sea State Technical University, Mariupol, Ukraine

2SASOL Germany GmbH


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Butenko E., Malyshev A., Kapustin A.. LDHs as Adsorbents of Phenol and Their Environmental Applications. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Butenko  E., Azov Sea State Technical University, Mariupol, Ukraine. Email: butenkoeo@rambler.ru

Abstract

Developed a method of synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDH) of different composition. The investigations the processes of adsorption of phenols on LDH variable composition. Were designed kinetic parameters the processes of adsorption of phenols.

Keywords

References

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[[4]  Roostaei N. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption. / N. Roostaei, F. Handan Tezel // Environmental Management, 2004. V. 70. P. 157-164.
 
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Article

Environmental Health Implications of Motorcycles Emitted Gases in a Metropolitan Nigeria

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Ministry of Environment, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 7-10
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
JIMMY E. O. I., SOLOMON M. S., PETER A. I, ASUQUO’ C. Environmental Health Implications of Motorcycles Emitted Gases in a Metropolitan Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):7-10. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: JIMMY  E. O. I., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: medstedrecheo@yahoo.com

Abstract

A study to assess the various gases emitted by motorcycles in a metropolitan State, Uyo, in Nigeria was carried out. Two hundred commercial motorcycles the mostly available means of transport were used for the study drawn from seven motorcycle parks. The gases examined were nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. The overall collection results per motorcycle parks showed the following gases concentrations: Motor Park –A; NO2; 12.7ppm, SO2; 13ppm, CO; 1337ppm, H2S; 20.2ppm, NH4; 97ppm, Cl2; 20.3ppm, HCN; 80ppm. Motorcycle Park B-NO2; 12.1ppm, SO2, 11ppm, CO; 1508ppm, H2S; 20.4ppm, NH4; 116ppm, Cl2; 19.6ppm, HCN; 71ppm. Motorcycle: Park-C NO2; 11.7ppm, SO2; 8.7ppm, CO; 1084ppm, H2S; 14.1ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 18.6ppm, HCN; 65ppm. D: NO2; 5.1ppm, SO2; 4.7ppm, CO; 550ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm, CO; 550ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm, HCN; 101ppm. Motorcycle Park E:NO2; 5.4ppm, CO; 596ppm, H2S; 4.9ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 79ppm, HCN; 101pm. Motor Park F: NO2; 51ppm, SO2; 5.4ppm, CO; 596ppm, H2S; 4.9ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 7.3ppm, HCN; 40ppm. Motorcycle Park G: NO2; 11.9ppm, SO2; 10.5ppm, CO; 1616ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 185ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm; HCN; 101ppm. The most harmful gas; carbon monoxide was significantly high in all the parks and the general results showed an alarming degree of polluted gases emission.

Keywords

References

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Article

Climate Change and Community Forestry in Nepal: Local People’s Perception

1Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA

2Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Pokhara Campus, Hariyokharka, Pokhara, Nepal

3Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laxmi Timilsina-Parajuli, Yajna Timilsina, Rajan Parajuli. Climate Change and Community Forestry in Nepal: Local People’s Perception. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Laxmi  Timilsina-Parajuli, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA. Email: timi.laxmi@gmail.com

Abstract

Climate change is regarded as one of the most fundamental threats to sustainable livelihood and global development. There is growing a global concern in linking community-managed forests as potential climate change mitigation projects. This study was conducted to explore the local people’s perception on climate change and the role of community forestry (CF) to combat climate change impacts. Two active community forest user groups (CFUGs) from Kaski and Syangja Districts in Nepal were selected as study sites, and various participatory tools were applied to collect primary data. Although most of the respondents were unaware about the words “Climate Change” in study sites, they were quite familiar with the irregularities in rainfall season and other weather extremities. 60% of the respondents had the idea that, due to increase in precipitation, there is a frequent occurrence of erosion, floods and landslide. Around 85% of the people agreed that community forests help in stabilizing soil, reducing the natural hazards like erosion, landslide. Biogas as an alternative source of cooking energy, and changes in crops and their varieties are the common adaptation measures that local people start practicing in both CFUGs in Nepal.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Basnet R (2009) Carbon Ownership in Community Managed Forests. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 8(1).
 
[[2]  Bhusal YR (2009) Local Peoples’ Perceptions on Climate Change, Its Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Mid-Mountain Region of Nepal (A Case study from Kaski District).B.Sc. Forestry Research Thesis Submitted to Tribhubhan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal. http://www.forestrynepal.org/publications/thesis/4621.
 
[[3]  Chapagain BK, Subedi R, Paudel NS (2009) Exploring Local Knowledge of Climate Change: Some Reflections. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 8(1): 108-112.
 
[[4]  Dahal, NM (2009) Emerging trend of change in rainfall pattern and its impact on traditional farming system: a case study of paddy cultivation in Kirtipur municipality. (An unpublished thesis).
 
[[5]  FAO (2006) Forest and Climate Change: Better forest management has key role to play in dealing with climate change. http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/focus/2006/1000247/.
 
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[6]  Gaire D, Suvedi M, Amatya J (2008) Impacts Assessment and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Makawanpur District, Nepal. A report submitted to Action Aid Nepal, and Women and Child Development Forum (WCDF), Nepal.
 
[7]  Gurung GB, Bhandari D (2009) Integrated Approach to Climate Change Adaptation. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 8(1): 91-99.
 
[8]  ICAO (2012) Climate Change: Adaptation. International Civil Aviation Organization, A United Naitons Specialized Agency. http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/adaptation.aspx.
 
[9]  IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers-Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
 
[10]  Lamichhane T, Awasthi KD (2009) Change Climate in a Mountain Sub-watershed in Nepal. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 8(1).
 
[11]  Parajuli R, Pokharel RK, Lammichhane D (2010) Social discrimination in community forestry: Socio-economic and gender perspectives. Banko Janakari, 20(2): 26-33.
 
[12]  Regmi BR, Morcrette A, Paudyal A, Bastakoti R, Pradhan S (2010) Participatory tools and techniques for assessing climate change impacts and exploring adaptation options. Livelihoods and Forestry Program, Nepal. http://www.forestrynepal.org/publications/reports/4667.
 
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[14]  Sharma BD, Karky BS, Dahal N, Chapagain N, Basnet B (2004) Prospects and Challenges in Bringing Nepal's Community Forestry under Kyoto Protocol’s Carbon Trading Regime, In the proceeding Fourth National Community Forestry Workshop held at Kathmandu, Nepal, 64-71.
 
[15]  Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, Dibb JE (1999) Maximum Temperature Trends in the Himalaya and its Vicinity: An Analysis Based on Temperature Records from Nepal for the Period 1971-94. Journal of Climate, 12: 2775-2789.
 
[16]  Tiwari KR, Awasthi KD, Balla MK, Sitaula BK (2010) Local people’s perception on climate change, its impact an adaptation practices in Himalaya to Terai regions of Nepal. Himalayan Research Papers Archive. http://www.forestrynepal.org/publications/article/4837.
 
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Article

Corporate Water Footprint: Risks, Opportunities, and Management Options for Sustainable Development

1Center for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, University of Belgrade Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 120-123
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-8
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
N. Petrovic, M. Cirovic. Corporate Water Footprint: Risks, Opportunities, and Management Options for Sustainable Development. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):120-123. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-8.

Correspondence to: N.  Petrovic, Center for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, University of Belgrade Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. Email: petrovicn@fon.bg.ac.rs

Abstract

For many companies, freshwater is a basic ingredient for their operations, while effluents may lead to pollution of the local hydrological ecosystem. Initially, public pressure has been the most important reason for sustainable business initiatives, but today many companies recognize that failure to manage the freshwater issue raises risks, including damage to the corporate image, threat of increased regulatory control, financial risks caused by pollution, or insufficient freshwater availability for operations. It is therefore interesting to know the specific water requirements of various consumer goods, particularly the water-intensive ones. This paper discusses specialised water reporting instruments such as the ‘water footprint’ calculation method and demonstrates it's usefulness in measuring and monitoring corporate sustainability. The water footprint analysis can highlight how near or far a company is from being sustainable and identify those aspects that have the greatest negative effect on freshwater and entire environment. Also it can highlights further management options and ways that companies address in their use of freshwater as one of the aspects of sustainable business performance, because today, many companies recognise that proactive environmental management contributes to their profitability and competitiveness in green markets.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  R., Costanza, H.E. Daly, Natural capital and sustainable development, Conservation Biology, 1992, 6: 37-46.
 
[[2]  P.W. Gerbens-Leenes, H.C. Moll, A.J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp, Design and development of a measuring method for environmental sustainability in food production systems, Ecol Econ, 2003, 46:231-248.
 
[[3]  D.A. Rondinelli, M.A. Berry, Environmental citizenship in multinational corporations: social responsibility and sustainable development, Eur Manag J, 2003, 18(1):70-84.
 
[[4]  WWF, A water scarcity risk-a typology, World Wildlife Fund, Godalming, 2007.
 
[[5]  D. Slović, N. Petrović, Environmental performance indicators of organizations, SPIN 2011, VIII skup privrednika i naučnika – Operacioni menadžment u funkciji održivog ekonomskog rasta i razvoja Srbije 2011-2020, u Zbornik radova, FON, Privredna komora Srbije, Beograd, 2011.
 
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[8]  A.Y. Hoekstra, The global dimension of water governance: Nine reasons for global arrangements in order to cope with local water problems, [Online], 2006, http://doc.utwente.nl/58371/1/Report_20.pdf (accessed Apr. 15, 2012).
 
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[13]  A.K. Chapagain, A.Y. Hoekstra, Water footprints of nations, Value of water research report series no. 16. UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands, 2004.
 
[14]  W. Rees, M. Wackernagel, Ecological Footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: measuring the natural capacity requirements of the human economy, in Investing in Natural Capital, eds. A. Jansson,M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanza, Island Press, Washington DC, 1994.
 
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Article

Analysis of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Landuse/ Landcover Stuctures in the Kaduna Innercore City Region, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Regional Planning, faculty of Arts Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina State, Nigeria

2Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

3Department of Geography, College of Natural & Applied science, Kwararafa University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

4Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 112-119
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-7
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ndabula C., Averik P. D., Jidauna G.G., Abaje I., Oyatayo T. K., E. O Iguisi. Analysis of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Landuse/ Landcover Stuctures in the Kaduna Innercore City Region, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):112-119. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-7.

Correspondence to: Jidauna  G.G., Department of Geography and Regional Planning, faculty of Arts Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Email: gjidauna@fudutsinma.edu.ng

Abstract

This study in addition to the conventional monitoring and mapping of Landuse/Landcover Changes (LULCC), also has as its major objective to quantitatively analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of these LULCC structures or patterns using five (5) quantitative indices; Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI), Landuse/Landcover (LULC) Change Intensity Index (Ti), Dynamic Index (Ki), Integrated Index (Ld), and Rate of Change (Ai). These indices critically analyse the extent, rate, as well as the magnitude of change among various LULC in the study area, which provides a basis for comparisons with other places and to better explain the nature of spatio-temporal dynamics of LULC as an Index of land degradation. The NDVI on the one hand allows analysis of these LULCC in terms of change in quantity of vegetation cover or bareness of the land surface, while the other four indices on the other hand expressed the intensity with which the land surface is subjected to human activities. The methodology of RS/GIS was used for LULC mapping and NDVI analysis using multi-temporal satellite data sets. Results showed significant dynamics amongst the various LULC in both space and time with implication of decreasing vegetation cover and increasing bare surfaces and hence land degradation processes. Forest has the highest Change Intensity Index (Ti) of 5.75% followed by Built-up 4.08%, and similarly the highest contribution rates (Ai) of 49 and 35% respectively. Built-up has the highest Dynamic Index (Ki) of 2.29% followed by Floodplain Agricultural area 1.92%. Statistical analysis using different regression models as found applicable was performed to observe the trend in LULC change patterns.

Keywords

References

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[[2]  United States Climate Change Science Programme (US CCSP), Landuse/Landcover Changes. Final Report on Strategic Plan for Climate Change Science Programme, 2004. Available online at: www.climatescience.gov.
 
[[3]  B.L. Turner, W.C. Clark, R.W. Kates, J.F. Richards, J.T. Mathew, W.B. Meyer, (Eds) The Earth as Tranformed by Human Action. Global and Regional changes in the Biosphere over the past 300 years, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1990.
 
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[[5]  E.F. Lambin, et’al Landuse and Landcover Change: Implementation Strategy. IGBP Report No 48, IHDP Report No 10, Stockholm, Bonn, 1999.
 
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[7]  E. Lopez, G. Bocco, M. Mendozoa, and E. Duhau, E, Predicting Landcover/Landuse Change in the Urban Fringe. A case in Morelia City, Mexico. Landscape and Urban Planning 55(2001), pp 271-285.
 
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Article

Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture & Its Mitigating Priorities

1Department of Chemistry, Trident Academy of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

2Former Director Environment, Government of Odisha

3Department of Chemistry, C. V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 109-111
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manas Ranjan Senapati, Bhagirathi Behera, Sruti Ranjan Mishra. Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture & Its Mitigating Priorities. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):109-111. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-6.

Correspondence to: Manas  Ranjan Senapati, Department of Chemistry, Trident Academy of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Email: dr_senapati@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper considers the needed adaptation measures including changes needed for mitigation to improve agriculture sector in India. It considers the likely changes that climate change will bring in temperature, precipitation and extreme rainfall, drought, flooding, storms, sea-level rise and environmental health risks and the overall impact on agriculture. The agricultural sector is the major source of employment in . Climate change has adverse impacts on agriculture, hydropower, forest management and biodiversity. Anticipated impacts on agriculture from climate change and its various aspects have been studied.

Keywords

References

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Article

Geography of Environmental Crime in Albania-Demage, Cutting and Burned of Forests

1Department of Education, “Ismail Qemali” Vlora University, Vlore, Albania

2Department of Justice, “Ismail Qemali” Vlora University, Vlore, Albania


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 102-108
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Engjellushe Zenelaj, Myzafer Elezi. Geography of Environmental Crime in Albania-Demage, Cutting and Burned of Forests. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):102-108. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-5.

Correspondence to: Engjellushe Zenelaj, Department of Education, “Ismail Qemali” Vlora University, Vlore, Albania. Email: enxhizenelaj@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite talk about the importance of the environment more and more problems are always present. After 1990, Albania is constantly faced with numerous environmental problems. Their origins, as a result of various causes, have brought major negative impacts, the recovery of which will require more time and more financial cost. Forests are the lungs of the world, and their role in our life is irreplaceable, but human consciousness forgets this concept, and constantly undermines them. Burning and illegal cuttings in order to obtain immediate and unlawful benefits only for a certain group of individuals are serious environmental crimes which are massively widespread in Albania. The aim of the article is to present a comprehensive environmental crime in Albania, its geographical distribution, but stopping the longest regarding environmental crimes related to illegal cuttings or burning of forests.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Extent to Which Plastic Bag Waste Management Methods Used in Nairobi City Promote Sustainability

1Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kakamega, Kenya


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 96-101
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Catherine M. Aurah. Assessment of Extent to Which Plastic Bag Waste Management Methods Used in Nairobi City Promote Sustainability. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):96-101. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-4.

Correspondence to: Catherine M. Aurah, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kakamega, Kenya. Email: cataurah@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated sustainability of the methods used to manage plastic bag waste in Nairobi city, Kenya. Plastic bag waste appears in very high proportion in the municipal solid waste stream in Nairobi and is causing environmental problems such as choking of animals and soils; blockage of waterways; health problems, and resource depletion. Having knowledge of the methods used to curb this problem is one way of seeking lasting solutions aimed at sustainable development. The study adopted a mixed methods approach in which both quantitative data through a survey and qualitative data through focus group interviews and observations were collected. Results revealed that the problem of plastic bag waste is a consequence of ineffective by-laws on littering and illegal dumping; inadequate garbage collection by City Council of Nairobi (CCN), and throw-away culture by the public. It is recommended that CCN and reinforcing authorities such as National environmental Management Authority effectively enforce Solid Waste Management policies and guidelines and establish an elaborate recycling system for sustainable plastic bag waste management. The findings will shed more light on dynamic relationship of the variables and concepts involved in plastic bag waste production and management and promote proper planning and decision- making at CCN.

Keywords

References

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Article

Potential Application of Urea and NPK 15:15:15 Fertilizers as Biostimulants in the Bioremediation of Domestic Wastewater

1Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 91-95
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrew N. Amenaghawon, Peter A. Asegame, Kessington O. Obahiagbon. Potential Application of Urea and NPK 15:15:15 Fertilizers as Biostimulants in the Bioremediation of Domestic Wastewater. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):91-95. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-3.

Correspondence to: Andrew N. Amenaghawon, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Email: andrew.amenaghawon@uniben.edu

Abstract

The role of urea and NPK 15:15:15 fertilisers as biostimulants of microbes in the bioremediation of domestic wastewater was investigated in this study. Five samples of domestic wastewater supplemented with 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/L of urea, NPK as well as a combination of both fertilisers and the control were monitored for bioremediation. The indicating parameters such as pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) over a period of 5 weeks were used. The results obtained showed that there was a BOD reduction of 86.62, 85.24 and 86.85% for wastewater treated with urea, NPK and a combination of both respectively. Stimulation by the fertilisers improved the DO level by 76, 75 and 77.8% respectively for wastewater treated with urea, NPK and a combination of both respectively. Generally, the best results were obtained when both fertilisers were used together. The final values of pH, BOD and DO fell within the values of 6-9, 30 mg/L and 2 mg/L set by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). The results obtained indicate the effective use of urea and NPK fertilisers in stimulating the activity of microbes for bioremediation in wastewater.

Keywords

References

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Article

Petroleum Exploration and Production: Past and Present Environmental Issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta

1Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

2Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 78-90
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Udo J. Ibok, Margaret U. Ite, Sunday W. Petters. Petroleum Exploration and Production: Past and Present Environmental Issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):78-90. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-2.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok E. Ite, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Petroleum exploration and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta region and export of oil and gas resources by the petroleum sector has substantially improved the nation’s economy over the past five decades. However, activities associated with petroleum exploration, development and production operations have local detrimental and significant impacts on the atmosphere, soils and sediments, surface and groundwater, marine environment and terrestrial ecosystems in the Niger Delta. Discharges of petroleum hydrocarbon and petroleum–derived waste streams have caused environmental pollution, adverse human health effects, socio–economic problems and degradation of host communities in the 9 oil–producing states in the Niger Delta region. Many approaches have been developed for the management of environmental impacts of petroleum production–related activities and several environmental laws have been institutionalized to regulate the Nigerian petroleum industry. However, the existing statutory laws and regulations for environmental protection appear to be grossly inadequate and some of the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region have failed to adopt sustainable practices to prevent environmental pollution. This review examines the implications of multinational oil companies operations and further highlights some of the past and present environmental issues associated with petroleum exploitation and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Although effective understanding of petroleum production and associated environmental degradation is importance for developing management strategies, there is a need for more multidisciplinary approaches for sustainable risk mitigation and effective environmental protection of the oil–producing host communities in the Niger Delta.

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References

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Article

Gas Flaring and Venting Associated with Petroleum Exploration and Production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta

1Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK

2School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(4), 70-77
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-4-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Udo J. Ibok. Gas Flaring and Venting Associated with Petroleum Exploration and Production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(4):70-77. doi: 10.12691/env-1-4-1.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok E. Ite, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Global flaring and venting of petroleum–associated gas is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and airborne contaminants that has proven difficult to mitigate over the years. In the petroleum industry, poor efficiency in the flare systems often result in incomplete combustion which produces a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and inorganic contaminants. Over the past fifty years, gas flaring and venting associated with petroleum exploration and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta has continue to generate complex consequences in terms of energy, human health, natural environment, socio–economic environment and sustainable development. In some oil–producing host communities, most flaring and ventingsystems are located in close proximity to residential areas and/or farmlands; and the resultant emissions potentially contribute to global warming as well as somelocal and/or regional adverse environmental impacts.There are emerging facts in an attempt to understand the effect of flaring and venting practices and the complex interactions of thermal pollution, organic and inorganic contaminants emission in the environment. This review discusses environmental contamination, adverse human health consequences, socio–economic problems, degradation of host communities and other associated impacts of flaring and venting of associated gas in the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta. Effective understanding of the overall impact of associated gas flaring and venting in the petroleum industry is important for effective management of the energy resources, environmental risk mitigation, implementation of good governanceand sustainable development.

Keywords

References

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Article

Vorticity in Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer

1Department of Forest Science and Environment, University of Tuscia, Via De Lellis, Viterbo, Italy

2Laboratory Agro-ecological Monitoring, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A.Timiryazev, Moscow, Russian


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(3), 66-69
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-3-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Valentini R., Vasenev I.I, Nurgaliev I.S.. Vorticity in Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(3):66-69. doi: 10.12691/env-1-3-4.

Correspondence to: Nurgaliev I.S., Laboratory Agro-ecological Monitoring, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A.Timiryazev, Moscow, Russian. Email: ildus58@mail.ru

Abstract

Mathematical model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the nonzero vorticity. Generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for arbitrary number components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers.

Keywords

References

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Article

Master Plan as A Tool for Post-Mining Water Reservoirs Management – A Cases in Poland

1Faculty of Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

2Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(3), 59-65
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joanna Kulczycka, Elżbieta Pietrzyk-Sokulska. Master Plan as A Tool for Post-Mining Water Reservoirs Management – A Cases in Poland. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(3):59-65. doi: 10.12691/env-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: Joanna Kulczycka, Faculty of Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland. Email: kulczycka@meeri.pl

Abstract

Master plan can be a valuable tool used in planning process. Although there are no regulations in Poland on the development of master plans, it can play important role both for strategic, sector, local or urban planning projects. There is also called environmental master plan when it focus on solving individual environmental problems. Generally, master plan allow data to be collected, identify the baseline scenario and set targets against it, estimate the effects of plans and finally to utilize information for public consultancy and for financial planning. The scope of environmental master plan for two different (polluted and not-polluted) post-mining reservoirs, .i.e. Górka and Balaton, located nearby are presented. The main aim of this master plan was to find optimal solution, which can maintain good water quality in Balaton reservoir, through minimization of environmental hazards in Górka reservoir. Therefore in master plan current legal, environmental, technical, spatial, social and financial issues were analysed to indicate potential beneficiaries and treats. The results of these analysis were presented using SWOT methods. As it was complex study SWOT was created first for external factors and next for internal. It was found that such complex SWOT was useful for communication with local society and in decision making process. The proposed solution can be a benchmark for other similar objects, as it takes into account all important aspects as a basis for the selection of the strategic goal of increasing water resources and the maintenance of good quality water in the region.

Keywords

References

[[
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Article

Experiment for Arsenic Accumulation into Rice Cultivated with Arsenic Enriched Irrigation Water in Bangladesh

1Institute of Environmental Science, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Geology and Mining, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(3), 54-58
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M.A.K. Azad, A.H.M.F.K. Monda, I. Hossain, M. Moniruzzaman. Experiment for Arsenic Accumulation into Rice Cultivated with Arsenic Enriched Irrigation Water in Bangladesh. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(3):54-58. doi: 10.12691/env-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: M.A.K. Azad, Institute of Environmental Science, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: akazad_ies@yahoo.com

Abstract

A green house field experiment of rice (Oryza sativa L) with arsenic amended irrigation water was conducted at Institute of Environmental Science of Rajshahi University to observe the trend of arsenic (As) accumulation into rice and soil. Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4) amended irrigation water (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/l As) was used for cultivating a popular HYV-aman rice variety named BR-11. Arsenic accumulation of rice straw, grain and soil were investigated. A significant (p ≤ 0.01) increasing trend of arsenic accumulation in straw, grain and soil was found with increase of arsenic in irrigation water. The highest level of arsenic in straw, grain and soil was observed in the treatment of 4.0 mg/l As containing irrigation water and lowest level in control treatment. Arsenic in irrigation water showed a strong positive correlations with arsenic accumulation into soil, straw and grain, and the trend of accumulation was found as water > soil > straw > grain.

Keywords

References

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Article

Pollution Status of Heavy Metals in Water and Bottom Sediment of River Delimi in Jos, Nigeria

1Environmental Management Technology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Biological Sciences Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(3), 47-53
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sabo A, Gani A. M, Ibrahim A. Q. Pollution Status of Heavy Metals in Water and Bottom Sediment of River Delimi in Jos, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(3):47-53. doi: 10.12691/env-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sabo A, Environmental Management Technology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. Email: saboa2000@yahoo.com

Abstract

There has been a lot of concern on the rate at which industrial and domestic wastes are discharged into River Delimi in north central Nigeria. This study was an attempt to assess the status of heavy metal pollutants (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediment and water from River Delimi in Jos city, with a view to determining its ability to support aquatic life and suitability for use in vegetable crop irrigation. The study was conducted at three major irrigation sites at Gangare (station I), Farin Gada (station II) and main campus of University of Jos (station III) along River Delimi and one control site at Lamingo Dam (station IV) all within Jos city. The total metal contents in water and sediment were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after extraction with Conc. HNO3 and aqua-regia respectively. Results of the study revealed that the total metals content in water and sediment were generally higher at the study compared to the control site. At the study site, the mean Cd concentrations in water at stations I (0.14mg/L), II (0.381mg/L) and III (0.300mg/L), Cu at stations I (0.341mg/L) and II (0.371mg/L) were above the limits of 0.01mg/L and 0.20mg/L for Cd and Cu respectively for irrigation water recommended by FAO. Further analysis on the sediment pollution status using Contamination Factor (CF) revealed that Cd obtained from all the sampling sites showed considerable (3 ≤ CF ≤ 6) contamination while the other metals showed low (CF < 1) contamination. The use of Geoaccumulation Index (I-geo) also showed that only Zn at station IV (control site) attained unpolluted status (Class 0) It is recommended among others that measures should be put in place by relevant authorities to regulate the indiscriminate dumping of domestic waste and untreated industrial effluents into the river.

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References

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Article

Biodegradation of Turquoise Blue Dye by Bacillus Megaterium Isolated from Industrial Effluent

1Department of Biotechnology, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

2Department of Biotechnology, Government Science College, K. K. Shastri Educational Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 41-46
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhoomi Joshi, Khyati Kabariya, Sweta Nakrani, Arif Khan, Farzin M. Parabia, Hiren V. Doshi, Mukund Chandra Thakur. Biodegradation of Turquoise Blue Dye by Bacillus Megaterium Isolated from Industrial Effluent. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):41-46. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-5.

Correspondence to: Mukund Chandra Thakur, Department of Biotechnology, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. Email: mukundthakur@aribas.edu.in

Abstract

Turquoise blue dye (Remazol Blue BB) is a reactive dye which is used by almost all textile industries. The sample was collected from dye industries near VATVA G.I.D.C. (Gujarat) and adjourning surrounding area. On the basis of colony morphology and certain biochemical tests the strain was identified as Bacillus megaterium species and gave maximum decolourization of turquoise blue dye within 48 hours at pH 7.00 and 37°C in the medium followed by blue M2R, Safranin, Congo red, Malachite green Orange ME2RL and Yellow M8G dyes. This organism can decolourize turquoise blue dye up to a concentration of 5mg/ml but showed maximum dye degradation at 1mg/ml concentration. Glucose (1g%) was found to be the best Carbon source while NH4Cl (1g%) was found as the best Nitrogen source for maximum biodegradation process. The isolated strain is even able to degrade wide range of dyes. Further, there is a need to test this organism at large scale degradation of this dye.

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