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Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

   

Article

Petroleum Industry in Nigeria: Environmental Issues, National Environmental Legislation and Implementation of International Environmental Law

1Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Research and Development Unit, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

5Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(1), 21-37
doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Usenobong F. Ufot, Margaret U. Ite, Idongesit O. Isaac, Udo J. Ibok. Petroleum Industry in Nigeria: Environmental Issues, National Environmental Legislation and Implementation of International Environmental Law. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(1):21-37. doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Advances in the development of petroleum resources has contributed enormously to the global energy demand and economic development over the past decades, however, it has left profound negative impacts on the natural environment and adverse human health effects in most oil-producing host communities around the world. Apart from the loss of petroleum-derived revenue to corruption and ineffective government's petroleum development policies, the Niger Delta region has experienced a wide range of environmental pollution, degradation, human health risks and socio-economic problems associated with petroleum exploration, development and production. Over the years, several environmental laws have been institutionalized to regulate the petroleum sector in Nigeria. The Nigerian government and other African countries have played tremendous roles in the emergence of international environmental law that regulate the establishment of environmental institutions and legislations as well as strategies for conservation and management of natural resources. However, the existing Nigeria statutory laws and regulations for environmental protection appear to be grossly inadequate and some of the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region have failed to adopt sustainable practices to prevent environmental pollution. Poor implementation of national and international environmental policies associated with petroleum exploitation and production in the Niger Delta region have resulted in huge environmental costs, degradation and issues of responsibilities from the oil companies. Therefore, this research paper examines some of the contributions of multinational oil companies operation towards environmental degradation and the role of Nigerian Government in the implementation of the petroleum-related environmental policies in the Niger Delta region.

Keywords

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Article

Heavy Metals in Epiphytic Lichens and Mosses of Oil–Producing Communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Research and Development, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Science, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(2), 38-47
doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Uwem U. Ubong, Usoro M. Etesin, Edet W. Nsi, Emmanuel J. Ukpong, Akanimo N. Ekanem, Usenobong F. Ufot, Anietimfon I. Udo. Heavy Metals in Epiphytic Lichens and Mosses of Oil–Producing Communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(2):38-47. doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Epiphytic lichen (Parmelia carperata) and moss (Polytrichum juniperinum, Calymperes erosum and Racopilum africanum) samples were used as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in oil–producing host communities of Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. Sampling of lichen and moss species that are found to grow extensively and abundantly on the stems and branches of several plants was performed during September 2014 at 25 sampling location sevenly distributed over the two oil–producing host communities studied. Unwashed, oven dried and homogenized powdered lichen and moss samples were mineralized using wet digestion with 3:1 mixture of concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid in Teflon beakers on a Gerhardt digestion hot plate. The concentrations of heavy metals and/or trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or graphite furnace systems. The concentration of heavy metals in lichen and moss samples ranged from 0.003 – 0.009 μg g−1 for Cadmium (Cd); 0.006 – 7.654 μg g−1 for Chromium (Cr); 1.120 – 1.999 μg g−1 for Cobalt (Co); 8.954 – 116.760 μg g−1 for Copper; 25.980 – 193.260 μg g−1 for Manganese (Mn); 2.268 – 23.783 μg g−1 for Nickel (Ni); 0.034 – 14.880 μg g−1 for Lead (Pb), and 26.230 – 98.780μg g−1 for Zinc (Zn).The mean concentration of heavy metals in the lichen and moss samples can be arranged in the decreasing order as follows: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Cd and the statistical analyses revealed that strong correlations exist between Cu–Pb, Cu–Zn, Pb–Ni and Mn–Zn concentrations. Some of the target heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn were accumulated at higher concentrations in mosses compared to lichens from the same sampling location. There is some evidence that different site–specific characteristics affect the spatial distributions patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in the two oil–producing communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. However, a comparison with the previous study conducted in 2004by Ite et al. showed a slightly decreasing trend of atmospheric heavy metal deposition and these results confirmed that air quality has not further deteriorated in the two oil–producing communities studied over the last 10 years.

Keywords

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Article

Is Media Communication Solving Environmental Challenges: The Case of Buea, South West Region of Cameroon

1Resource Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development (RCESD), Cameroon. P.O Box 30, Buea, South West Region, Cameroon

2Catholic University Institute of Buea (CUIB), P.O Box 563, South West Region Cameroon

3Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Great Zimbabwe University, P.O Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(2), 48-54
doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mbunya Francis Nkemnyi, Fualefeh Ndobegang, Leonard Itayi Chirenje, Naseli Okha Dioh. Is Media Communication Solving Environmental Challenges: The Case of Buea, South West Region of Cameroon. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(2):48-54. doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Mbunya  Francis Nkemnyi, Resource Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development (RCESD), Cameroon. P.O Box 30, Buea, South West Region, Cameroon. Email: nmbunyaf@gmail.com

Abstract

This study assessed the influence of media communication on environmental behavior in Buea, Cameroon. Effective media communication has the potential of motivating friendly environmental habits. However, media communication approaches to influence effective conscious environmental behavior is still a challenge. This study was conducted in Buea, South West Region. Mixed methodology including household questionnaires, in-depth interviews and field observations were used. The main findings revealed that media communication on environmental issues is still conducted merely as a public obligation rather as a tool to influence behavorial change towards the environment. Moreover, media communication was revealed to be very expensive for individuals and institutions that are willing to promote environmental education through the media. Despite the increase in media presence in the study area, media communication has not been able to capture and utilize approaches that can lead to interactive communication, and influence positive environmental habits. There is therefore an urgent need to explore detail strategies that conform to local ethics and has the potential to initiate interactive environmental communication.

Keywords

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