ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi




Effect of Slope Position on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Cultivated Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchment, Gidan District, North Wollo

1Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Woldia University, Woldia

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(5), 174-179
doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Effect of Slope Position on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Cultivated Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchment, Gidan District, North Wollo. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(5):174-179. doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-3.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Woldia University, Woldia. Email:,


The research work was conducted on eroded soil at the Abuhoy Gara Catchment, which is located in the Gidan District of North Wello Zone in the Amhara National Regional State to determine the effect of slope position on soil physico-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from higher-slope, middle slope, intermediate slope and lower slope positions at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soil layers. Results showed a significant difference among the physicochemical properties of higher, middle, intermediate and lower slope soils. Clay fraction of the lower slope (27.08%) was the highest followed by middle slope (26.67%), intermediate slope (23.34%) and higher slope (22.92%). Conversely, sand (60%) was highest at higher slope and followed by middle slope (57.08%), intermediate slope (51.67%) and lower slope (49.58%), respectively. Likewise, Ca (8.41 cmol(+)/ kg), Mg (3.19cmol(+)/ kg), K (1.43cmol(+)/ kg), CEC (17.58cmol(+)/ kg), total nitrogen (0.104%), organic carbon (1.88%) and Available phosphorous (9.52 ppm) at higher slope followed by middle slope, intermediate slope and lower slope, respectively. The deterioration in chemical properties of lower slope as compared to other slopes were presumed to be due to continuous cultivation for longer period of time and past soil erosion effect that removed the soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study results concluded that increasing extent of continuous and intensive cultivation with minimum conservation practices and erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties. The control of such damaging effects would require proper soil conservation strategies such as proper land leveling, afforestation, crop rotation, fallowing, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on these lands.



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Chemical Profile and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Freshwater Species of Rupsha River, Bangladesh

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Bioscience, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore, Bangladesh

2Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

3Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

4Science and Math Program, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(6), 180-186
doi: 10.12691/env-3-6-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samad M.A., Mahmud Y., Adhikary R.K., Rahman S.B.M., Haq M.S., Rashid H.. Chemical Profile and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Freshwater Species of Rupsha River, Bangladesh. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(6):180-186. doi: 10.12691/env-3-6-1.

Correspondence to: Samad  M.A., Department of Fisheries and Marine Bioscience, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore, Bangladesh. Email:


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the chemical profile of the water and to determine heavy metal concentrations in water and muscles of certain freshwater fish and crayfish species of Rupsha River, Bangladesh. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined in six fish and crayfish species: Peneaus monodon, Macrognathus aculeatus, Gudusia chapra, Channa punctatus, Glossogobius giuris and Barilius bola. Fish and crayfish samples as well as chemical parameters of water were measured in three different sampling stations for six months during the year of 2010. Three sampling stations in the Rupsha River were - main industrial discharge site (S1), river site close to effluents from fish processing plants, brick yards and agricultural runoff (S2), and apparently low industrial waste discharge point but rich in sewage and municipal wastes admixing with Fe compounds from Ship breaking yard (S3). The heavy metals concentrations were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Among the water quality parameters, the values of Dissolved oxygen (DO), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N) and Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3-N) were detected beyond the acceptable limit whereas pH and alkalinity were within the permissible limits, respectively. DO levels below and NO3-N levels beyond suitable limits indicated a low water quality of Rupsha River and therefore, a habitat unfavorable for fish and other aquatic animals. Heavy metals measured from the river water were Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn, and those from fish and crayfish muscles were Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Mn and Ni. The heavy metal concentrations in Rupsha River water were found within the permissible limits except for Fe. The mean Fe concentrations were recorded to be 0.68±0.48, 0.77±0.38 and 0.67±0.35 mgL-1 at sampling points S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The accumulations of heavy metals in fish and crayfish muscles were found within the permissible limits. However, bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for metals in fish and crayfish muscles showed unacceptable concentrations for Zn, Pb and Mn. BAF results indicate that consumption of fish and crayfish species from Rupsha River is likely to exert health hazards for human being.



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Study Patterns of Public Participation in Integrated Watershed Management (Case Study: Catchment Taleghan)

1Rural Development, Social Science College Tehran University, Iran

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(6), 187-192
doi: 10.12691/env-3-6-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shima Safa MA. Study Patterns of Public Participation in Integrated Watershed Management (Case Study: Catchment Taleghan). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(6):187-192. doi: 10.12691/env-3-6-2.

Correspondence to: Shima Safa MA, Rural Development, Social Science College Tehran University, Iran. Email:


Sustainable exploitation of resources in watersheds and protect it involves looking at all aspects of the system, including the necessary attention to the role of local communities in the watershed. After more than two decades, the second generation of watershed management activities in Iran, the country experienced different patterns of collaborative management of watersheds, but has not been evaluated as necessary. Analytical models of collaborative management with internal and external research and field studies conducted in the watersheds of an internal model, using methods such as PRA and RRA participatory assessment been carried out Library and information field data and results of the socio-economic impacts and conservation of resources and the availability of participatory management objectives. To provide for the comprehensive management of watersheds, have been collected and analyzed. The results show that, in general, create a barrier and enter the area for the construction of the dam to the participation of makes it less .What government agencies and non-governmental programs or opinion should be more emphasis on public participation.



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