ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

   

Article

Adsorption of Chromium Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Activated Carbon Derived from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes

1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Allied Health and Environmental Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

3School of Environmental Health Studies, College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(1), 7-20
doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A.T. Adeolu, O.T. Okareh, A.O Dada. Adsorption of Chromium Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Activated Carbon Derived from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(1):7-20. doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: A.T.  Adeolu, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Allied Health and Environmental Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria. Email: deetee4all@yahoo.com

Abstract

Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) wastes are readily available in Nigeria and if not properly managed, they constitute nuisance to the environment. They could be used, however to produce resource materials, such as activated carbon that are of public health importance. Therefore, this study assessed the use of plantain wastes in the bio-sorption of chromium from battery recycling effluent. Plantain wastes were collected from a plantation, sun-dried and ground. These were then carbonized and activated using phosphoric acid at high temperature. Samples of effluent from Ogunpa River were subjected to physico-chemical (pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and Chromium (Cr)) analyses, using standard methods. Batch experiment studies were used in determining the adsorption isotherms of the adsorbents at varied effects of pH (2 to 12) and adsorbent doses (0.1 to 2.0g) with treatments by plantain prepared activated carbons. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Means of pH, conductivity, TDS and Cr+6 of the effluent sample were: 2.0 ± 0.2, 2164.7 ± 0.6 µs/cm, 895 ± 0.00 mg/l and 13.5 ± 0.0 mg/l respectively. The highest quantities (68.02%) of Cr were removed at pH 10 while the optimum adsorbent dose (2.0g) removed 68.91% of Cr. The adsorbents showed satisfactory fits of adsorption to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorbents had capacity for the uptake of chromium from effluent generated from battery recycling plant with plantain peel activated carbon having the highest adsorption capacity. Conversion and treatment of effluent with plantain wastes should be encouraged in battery recycling plant, to reduce its menace in the environment and promote effective waste management.

Keywords

References

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Article

Petroleum Industry in Nigeria: Environmental Issues, National Environmental Legislation and Implementation of International Environmental Law

1Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Research and Development Unit, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

5Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(1), 21-37
doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Usenobong F. Ufot, Margaret U. Ite, Idongesit O. Isaac, Udo J. Ibok. Petroleum Industry in Nigeria: Environmental Issues, National Environmental Legislation and Implementation of International Environmental Law. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(1):21-37. doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Advances in the development of petroleum resources has contributed enormously to the global energy demand and economic development over the past decades, however, it has left profound negative impacts on the natural environment and adverse human health effects in most oil-producing host communities around the world. Apart from the loss of petroleum-derived revenue to corruption and ineffective government's petroleum development policies, the Niger Delta region has experienced a wide range of environmental pollution, degradation, human health risks and socio-economic problems associated with petroleum exploration, development and production. Over the years, several environmental laws have been institutionalized to regulate the petroleum sector in Nigeria. The Nigerian government and other African countries have played tremendous roles in the emergence of international environmental law that regulate the establishment of environmental institutions and legislations as well as strategies for conservation and management of natural resources. However, the existing Nigeria statutory laws and regulations for environmental protection appear to be grossly inadequate and some of the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region have failed to adopt sustainable practices to prevent environmental pollution. Poor implementation of national and international environmental policies associated with petroleum exploitation and production in the Niger Delta region have resulted in huge environmental costs, degradation and issues of responsibilities from the oil companies. Therefore, this research paper examines some of the contributions of multinational oil companies operation towards environmental degradation and the role of Nigerian Government in the implementation of the petroleum-related environmental policies in the Niger Delta region.

Keywords

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Article

Heavy Metals in Epiphytic Lichens and Mosses of Oil–Producing Communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Research and Development, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Science, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(2), 38-47
doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Uwem U. Ubong, Usoro M. Etesin, Edet W. Nsi, Emmanuel J. Ukpong, Akanimo N. Ekanem, Usenobong F. Ufot, Anietimfon I. Udo. Heavy Metals in Epiphytic Lichens and Mosses of Oil–Producing Communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(2):38-47. doi: 10.12691/env-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: aniefiokite@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Epiphytic lichen (Parmelia carperata) and moss (Polytrichum juniperinum, Calymperes erosum and Racopilum africanum) samples were used as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in oil–producing host communities of Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. Sampling of lichen and moss species that are found to grow extensively and abundantly on the stems and branches of several plants was performed during September 2014 at 25 sampling location sevenly distributed over the two oil–producing host communities studied. Unwashed, oven dried and homogenized powdered lichen and moss samples were mineralized using wet digestion with 3:1 mixture of concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid in Teflon beakers on a Gerhardt digestion hot plate. The concentrations of heavy metals and/or trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or graphite furnace systems. The concentration of heavy metals in lichen and moss samples ranged from 0.003 – 0.009 μg g−1 for Cadmium (Cd); 0.006 – 7.654 μg g−1 for Chromium (Cr); 1.120 – 1.999 μg g−1 for Cobalt (Co); 8.954 – 116.760 μg g−1 for Copper; 25.980 – 193.260 μg g−1 for Manganese (Mn); 2.268 – 23.783 μg g−1 for Nickel (Ni); 0.034 – 14.880 μg g−1 for Lead (Pb), and 26.230 – 98.780μg g−1 for Zinc (Zn).The mean concentration of heavy metals in the lichen and moss samples can be arranged in the decreasing order as follows: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Cd and the statistical analyses revealed that strong correlations exist between Cu–Pb, Cu–Zn, Pb–Ni and Mn–Zn concentrations. Some of the target heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn were accumulated at higher concentrations in mosses compared to lichens from the same sampling location. There is some evidence that different site–specific characteristics affect the spatial distributions patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in the two oil–producing communities of Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria. However, a comparison with the previous study conducted in 2004by Ite et al. showed a slightly decreasing trend of atmospheric heavy metal deposition and these results confirmed that air quality has not further deteriorated in the two oil–producing communities studied over the last 10 years.

Keywords

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