Welcome to American Journal of Environmental Protection

American Journal of Environmental Protection is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of environmental protection. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of environmental protection.

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV



Assessment of Farmers’ Perceptions about Soil Fertility with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchemnt, Gidan District, North Wollo

1Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Development Office, Woldia University, Woldia

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(4), 137-144
doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Assessment of Farmers’ Perceptions about Soil Fertility with Different Management Practices in Small Holder Farms of Abuhoy Gara Catchemnt, Gidan District, North Wollo. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(4):137-144. doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-4.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Department of Soil and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Development Office, Woldia University, Woldia. Email: gebeyaw2006@yahoo.com, gebeyaw2006@gmial.com


The study was conducted at the Abuhoy Gara Catchment, which is located in the Gidan District of North Wello Zone in the ANRS in year 2014. The aim of the study was to study farmers’ perceptions about assessment of soil fertility and comparing them with the criteria of soil fertility used by researchers. To address this issue, semi-structured interviews were conducted in 60 households to gain insight into soil fertility management practices, local methods used to assess the fertility status of a field, and perceived trends in soil fertility. Thirty-three farmers were then asked to identify fertile and infertile fields. Characteristics of these fields in terms of the indicators mentioned in the interviews were recorded, and soil samples were taken for physicochemical analysis in a laboratory. The collected data were grouped according to altitude, slope and type of field. A total of six indicators (soil color, texture, soil depth, topography, soil drainage, and distance from home) were found to be used by farmers to evaluate and monitor soil fertility, which were classified into three categories: Crop production, soil fertility and soil degradation). The overall result showed that there was good agreement between farmers’ assessment of the soil fertility status of a field and a number of these indicators, particularly soil color and texture, which were examined in more detail. The soil physicochemical analysis also corresponded well with farmers’ assessment of soil fertility. The soil attributes under improper cultivated land showed an overall change towards the direction of loss of its fertility compared to the condition of the soils under proper management. The manner in which soils are managed has a major impact on soil fertility indicators. In order to bring sustainable change in soil quality, research activities must follow scientific and participatory approaches. Therefore, to design more appropriate research and to facilitate clear communication with farmers, researchers need to recognize farmers’ knowledge, perceptions about assessments of soil fertility. Because, as they included all soil factors affecting plant growth, farmers’ perceptions of soil fertility were found to be more long term day-to- day close practical experience finding than those of researchers.



[1]  Alemneh Dejene, 2003. Integrated natural resources managements to enhance food security: the cases for community- based approaches in Ethiopia. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the United Nations.
[2]  Barber, S., 1984. Soil Nutrient Bioavailability: Mechanstic Approach. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York, USA. 398p.
[3]  Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil, 2002. The nature and properties of soils, 13th Ed. Prentice- Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA. 960p.
[4]  Bremner D. C. and Mulvaney J. M. (1982). Total Nitrogen. In:Methods of Soil Analysis. (A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keaney, eds). Number 9 Part 2, Am. Soc. of Agron.
[5]  Corbeels, M., Shiferaw, A., Haile, M., 2000. Farmers’ knowledge of soil fertility and local management strategies in Tigray, Ethiopia. Managing Africa’s Soils 10, ii + 23.
Show More References
[6]  Dasgupta, P. and K.G. Mäler, 1994. Poverty, institutions and the environmental- resource base. World Bank environment paper 9, Washington, DC.
[7]  FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2006. Plant nutrition for food security: A guide for integrated nutrient management. FAO, Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 16, Rome, Italy.
[8]  Hugo, L.P., Johann, B., Juergen, G., Hiremagalur, G., Mohammad, J., Victor, M., John, M., Martin, O., and Mohamed, S., 2002. Linking Natural Resources, Agriculture and Human Health: Case Studies from East Africa. LEISA Magazine supplement, page 17-20.
[9]  Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder, 1986. Particle Size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part A. Klute (ed.). 2 Ed., Vol. 9 nd. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI, pp: 383-411.
[10]  Jones, J.B., 2003. Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils, and Their Fertility. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 482p.
[11]  Kuo, S., 1996. Phosphorus. In: Method of Soil Analysis. Part 3.Chemical Methods, Sparks, D.L., A.L. Page, P.A. Helmke, R.H. Leoppert and P.N. Soltanpour et al. (Eds.), Soil Science Society America, Inc. and America Soc. Agronomy, Inc., Wisconsin, ISBN-10: 0891188258, pp: 869-919.
[12]  Landon, J.R. (Ed.), 1991. Booker tropical soil manual: A Handbook for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Subtropics. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, New York. 474p.
[13]  McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. (Edited by A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisc, pp: 199-224.
[14]  Murage, E.W., Karanja, N.K., Smithson, P.C., Woomer, P.L., 2000. Diagnostic indicators of soil quality in productive and non-productive smallholders’ fields of Kenya’s Central Highlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 79, 1-8.
[15]  Murphy, H.F., 1968. A report on fertility status and other data on some soils of Ethiopia. Collage of Agriculture HSIU. Experimental Station Bulletin No. 44, Collage of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia: 551p.
[16]  Nelson, D.W. and L.E. Sommers, 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter: In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, pp: 539-579.
[17]  Okalebo, J.R., K.W. Gathua and P.L. Woomer, 1993. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: A working manual - KARI - UNESCO - ROSTA, pp: 88.
[18]  Pawluk, R.R., Sandor, J.A., Tabor, J.A., 1992. The role of indigenous soil knowledge in agricultural development. J. Soil Water Conserv. 47, 298-302.
[19]  Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties (A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney), (Eds.) American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America. Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, pp: 149-157.
[20]  Ryan, J., G. Estefan, and A. Rashid, 2001. Soil and plant analysis lab manual. 2nd ed. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dryland Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.
[21]  Saggar, S., K.R. Tate, C.W. Feltham, C.W. Childs and A. Parshotam, 1994. Carbon turnover in a range of allophonic soils amended with 14C-labelled glucose. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 26: 1263-1271.
[22]  Saggar, S., A. Parshotam, G.P. Sparling, C.W. Feltham and P.B.S. Hart, 1996. 14C-labelled ryegrass turnover and residence times in soils varying in clay content and mineralogy. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 28: 1677-1686.
[23]  Shrestha, B., Maskey, S.L., Shrestha, R.K., Tripathi, B.P., Khadka, Y.G., Munankarmi, R.C., Bhattari, E.M., Shrestha, S.P., 2000. Soil fertility management: farmers’ practices and perception in the hills of Nepal. Lumle Technical Paper No. 2000/4. Lumle Agriculture Research Station, Pokhara, Nepal.
[24]  Sumner, M.E. and B.A. Stewart, 1992. Soil Crusting: Chemical and Physical Processes. 1st Edn., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, ISBN-10: 0873718690, pp: 372.
[25]  Tekalign Tadese. 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working Document No. 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[26]  World Bank, 2008. Sustainable Land Management Project, Project Appraisal Document(PAD), Ethiopia/Report No 42927-ET, Project I.D P107139, http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/projects/.
Show Less References


Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Waters of Lomé Lagoon System (Togo)

1Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux, Faculté Des Sciences, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo

2Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Limoges, Limoges Cedex, France

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(4), 145-150
doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ayah M., Grybos M., Bawa L. M., Bril H., Djaneye-Boudjou G.. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Waters of Lomé Lagoon System (Togo). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(4):145-150. doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Ayah  M., Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux, Faculté Des Sciences, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo. Email: a8yann@hotmail.com


The aims of study is to distinguish the different origins of dissolved organic matter and emphasizes the spatial variations of dissolved organic matter quality in Lomé lagoon system composed by three lakes and Equilibrium canal. The results showed that, the three lakes of Lomé are dominated by biological dissolved organic matter (HIX < 4) except the site O11 (HIX = 5.75) with high biological activity (BIX included between 0.8 and 1). This high biological activity could due to the water contribution from north plateau and offshore bar. Apart from O11 and C4 the information brought by the ratio Iγ/Iα shows that the dissolved organic matter of the lagoon is autochthonous and composed by labile organic compounds. Lomé lagoon system is composed in majority by humic substances with a small amount of microbial products.



[1]  Powe A. M., Flandcher K. A., St Luce N. N., Lowry M., Neal S., Mc Carroll M. (2004). Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence spectromandry. Anal Chem; 76:4614-34.
[2]  Antunes, M. C. G., Esteves da Silva, J. C. G. (2005). Multivariate curve resolution analysis excitation-emission matrices of fluorescence of humic substances. Anal. Chim. Acta 546, 52-59.
[3]  Baker A. (2002). Fluorescence properties of some farm wastes: implications for water quality monitoring. Water Res; 36:189-95.
[4]  Fu, P. Q., Wu, F. C., Liu, C. Q. (2004). Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix characterization of a commercial humic acid. Chin. J. Geochem. 23: 309-318.
[5]  Sierra M. M. D., Giovanela M., Parlanti E., Soriano-Sierra E. J. (2005). Fluorescence fingerprint of fulvic and humic acids from varied origins as viewed by single-scan and excitation/emission matrix techniques. Chemosphere; 58:715-33.
Show More References
[6]  Larsson, T., Wedborg, M., Turner, D. (2007). Correction of inner-filter effect in fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectromandry using Raman scatter. Anal. Chim. Acta; 583: 357-363.
[7]  Richard C., Guyot G., Trubandskaya O., Trubandskoj O., Grigatti M., Cavani L. (2009). Fluorescence analysis of humic-like substances extracted from composts: influence of composting time and fractionation. Environ. Chem. Landt.; 7: 61-65.
[8]  Coble PG, Green SA, Blough NV, Gagosian RB. (1990). Characterization of dissolved organic matter in the Black Sea by fluorescence spectroscopy. Nature; 348:432-4.
[9]  Sierra M. M. D., Donard O. F. X., Andcheber H., Soriano-Sierra E. J., Ewald M. (2001). Fluorescence and DOC contents of porewaters from coastal and deepsea sediments in the Gulf of Biscay. Org Geochem; 32: 1319-28.
[10]  Baker A, Curry M. (2004). Fluorescence of leachates from three contrasting landfills. Water Res; 38: 2605-13.
[11]  Matthews B. J. H., Jones A. C., Theodorou N. K., Tudhope A. W. (1996). Excitation– emission-matrix fluorescence spectroscopy applied to humic acid bands in coral reefs. Mar Chem; 55: 317-32.
[12]  Marhaba T. F., Van D., Lippincott R. L. (2000). Rapid identification of dissolved organic matter fractions in water by spectral fluorescent signatures. Water Res; 34: 3543-50.
[13]  Parlanti E., Morin B., Vacher L. (2002). Combined 3D-spectrofluorimandry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for the characterization of dissolved organic matter in natural waters. Org Geochem; 33: 221-36.
[14]  Cannavo P., Dudal Y., Boudenne J. L., Lafolie F. (2004). Potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to assess the quality of the soil waterextracted organic matter. Soil Sci; 169: 688-96.
[15]  Mladenov N., Mc Knight D. M., Wolski P., Ramberg L. (2005). Effects of annual flooding on dissolved organic carbon dynamics within a pristine wandland, theOkavango Delta, Botswana. Wandlands; 25:622-38.
[16]  Leloup M., Nicolau R., Pallier V., Yépremian C., Feuillade G-C. (2013). Organic matter produced by algae and cyanobacteria: quantitative and qualitative characterization. Journal of Environmental Sciences; 26 (6) 1089-1097.
[17]  Katsuyama M., Ohte N. (2002). Dandermining the sources of stormflow from the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic carbon in a forested headwater catchment. J Hydrol; 268:192-202.
[18]  Stedmon C. A., Markager S., Bro R. (2003). Tracing dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments using a new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy. Mar Chem; 82:239-54.
[19]  Alberts J .J., Takacs M. (2004). Total luminescence spectra of IHSS standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids and natural organic matter: comparison of aquatic and terrestrial source terms. Org Geochem; 35:243-56.
[20]  Baker A. (2005). Fluorescence tracing of diffuse landfill leachate contamination in rivers. Water Air Soil Pollut; 163: 229-44.
[21]  Mariot M., Dudal Y., Furian S., Sakamoto A., Vallès V., Fort M., Barbiero L. (2007). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence as a water-flow tracer in the tropical wandland of Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil. Science of the Total Environment 388: 184-193
[22]  Jiji R. D., Cooper G. A., Booksh K. (1999). Excitation–emission matrix fluorescence based dandermination of carbamate pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chim Acta; 397: 61-72.
[23]  Dudal Y, Holgado R, Maestri G, Dupont L, Guillon E. (2006). Rapid screening of DOM's mandal-binding abilitiy using a fluorescence-based microplate assay. Sci Total Environ; 354: 286-91.
[24]  Coble PG. (1996). Characterization of marine and terrestrial DOM in seawater using excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy. Mar Chem; 51:325-46.
[25]  Chen, W., Westerhoff, P., Leenheer, J. A., Booksh, K. (2003). Fluorescence excitation– emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ. Sci. Technol.; 37: 701-5710.
[26]  Patel-Sorrentino N. , Mounier S., Benaim J.Y. (2002). Excitation–emission fluorescence matrix to study pH influence on organic matter fluorescence in the Amazon basin rivers. Water Research; 36 : 2571-2581.
[27]  Zsolnay A., Baigar E., Jimenez M., Steinweg B., Saccomandi F. (1999). Differentiating with fluorescence spectroscopy the sources of dissolved organic matter in soils subjected to drying. Chemosphere 38, 45-50.
[28]  Zsolnay A. (2003). Dissolved organic matter: artefacts, definitions and functions. Geoderma 113 : 187-209
[29]  Vacher L. (2004). Andude par fluorescence des propriétés de la la matière organique dissoute dans les systèmes estuariens. Cas des estuaires de la Gironde and de la Seine. Ph.D. Thesis, Université Bordeaux 1.
[30]  Kalbitz, K., Schmerwitz, J., Schwesig, D., Matzner, E. (2003a): Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties. Geoderma 113: 273-291.
[31]  Parlanti, E., Worz, K., Geoffroy, L., and Lamotte, M. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry 31, 1765-1781.
[32]  Smart P. L., Finlayson B. L., Rylands W. D., Ball C. M. (1976). The relation of fluorescence to dissolved organic carbon in surface waters. Water Res; 10:805-11.
[33]  Weishaar J. L., Aiken G. R., Bergamaschi B. A., Fram M. S., Fujij R., Mopper K. (2003). Evaluation of specific ultravioland absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 37: 4702-4708.
[34]  Labanowski J., Feuillade G. (2011). Dissolved organic matter: Precautions for the study of hydrophilic substances using XAD resin. Water Research, vol. 45, pp. 315-327.
[35]  Davranche, M., Dia, A., Fakih, M., Nowack, B., Gruau, G., Ona-nguema, G., Petitjean, P., Martin, S., Hochreutener, R., (2012) Organic matter control on the reactivity of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides and associated As in wetland soils: A kinetic modeling study a Géosciences. Chemical Geology 335 (2013) 24-35.
[36]  Kang K-H., Shin H. S., Park H. (2002). Characterization of humic substances present in landfill leachates with different landfill ages and its implications. Wat. Res.; 36(16): 4023-4032.
[37]  Berthe C., Redon E., Feuillade G. (2008). Fractionation of the organic matter contained in leachate resulting from two modes of landfilling: An indicator of waste degradation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 154, pp. 262-271.
[38]  Tcha-Thom M. (2014). Evaluation de l’impact des fractions de matières organiques extraites de lixiviats de déchets ménagers et assimilés sur les caractéristiques des sols agricoles togolais et français. Mémoire de Master 2, Université de Limoges; 36p.
[39]  Mounier S., Patel N., Quilici L., Benaim J. Y., Benamou C. (1999). Fluorescence 3D de la matière organique dissoute du fleuve Amazone. Water Res; 33(6):1523-33.
Show Less References


Assessing Heavy Metals Pollution in the Agricultural Lands of Gaza Strip that Has Undergone Three Successive Wars

1Environmental Engineering Department. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza

2Department of Chemistry. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(4), 151-158
doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Al- Najar, H. Alrayes N., Dokhan Al., Saqer A., Silmi R., S. Al-Kurdi. Assessing Heavy Metals Pollution in the Agricultural Lands of Gaza Strip that Has Undergone Three Successive Wars. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(4):151-158. doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-6.

Correspondence to: Al-  Najar, Environmental Engineering Department. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza. Email: halnajar@iugaza.edu.ps


The intensive airstrikes on agricultural lands in the Gaza Strip create craters of 20 m diameter and 10 m depths. Samples from the craters are collected from fourteen different locations, were analyzed to assess the impact of war activities on soil pollution. Soil samples were analyzed for major heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Co and Pb) by using hotplate digestion and A Perkin-Elmer Analyst 600 GF-AAS analyzer, equipped with pyrolytically coated graphite tube with integrated platform Zeeman background and correction. The results showed that most of the soils had mean Ni concentration that was over four times higher than the control, Cr was five times, Cu was thirty one times higher, Mn was greatly higher than the control (114 times), Co was five times higher while Pb was twelve times higher than the control. Due to its texture, some samples from sandy soil origins had not significant higher metals concentration than the control. Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Co and Pb clearly contributed by the content of munitions of the airstrike. Soil pollution by Cu, Mn and Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by munitions. The results also indicate that the concentration of specific heavy metals depends on the type of the explosives material and the soil texture. The current research highlighted the danger and risk of munitions on the agricultural lands. It is highly recommend for the relevant institutions to monitor and follow up research program to investigate the fate of the metals in soil, groundwater and food chain to protect the environment and health.



[1]  Environmental Quality Authority (EQA). 2014. The environmental impact of the Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip. EQA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[2]  Coastal Municipalities Water Utilities (CMWU). 2014. Water and wastewater sector damage assessment report. Palestinian National Authority. PWA library, Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[3]  Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). 2014. Agricultural sector damage assessment and losses. MOA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[4]  Ministry of Planning (MOP). 2008. Regional plan for Gaza Governorates 2005-2025. MOP library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[5]  Khalaf A.; H. Al-Najar; and J. Hamad. 2006. Assessment of rainwater run off due to the proposed regional plan for Gaza Governorates. J. Applied Sci., 6 (13): 2693-2704.
Show More References
[6]  Palestinian Water Authority (PWA). 2013. Agricultural and Municipal Water Demand in Gaza Governorates for 2012, Strategic Planning Directorate. PWA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[7]  Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, PCBS. 2013. “Statistic Brief (Population, Housing and Establishment Census)”, Palestinian National Authority, Gaza, Palestine.
[8]  Ministry of Planning (MOP). 2014. Technical Maps Atlas for Gaza Governorate, Second Version. Gaza, Palestinian National Authority (PNA library).
[9]  Ministry of Local Government (MOLG). 2010. Structural and land use plan for Gaza Strip cities. PNA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[10]  Standard Test Method for Determination of Lead by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), or Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) Techniques. 2012. E1613-12.
[11]  Al-Najar H.; R. Schulz; Kaschl A. and V. Roemheld 2005. The effect of thallium fractions in the soil and pollution origin on Tl uptake by hyperaccumulator plants: A key factor for assessment of phytoextraction. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 7(1): 55-67.
[12]  Al-Najar, H., R. Schulz and V. Roemheld 2005. Phytoremediation of thallium contaminated soils by Brassicaceae. In: Environmental Chemistry. Green Chemistry and Pollutants in Ecosystems. E. Lichtfouse, J. Schwarzbauer, D. Robert (Eds.) Chap. 17, 187-196.
[13]  Goris, K. and Samain, B. (2001). Sustainable Irrigation in the Gaza Strip. M.Sc Thesis. Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.
[14]  Dudeen B. The soils of Palestine (The West Bank and Gaza Strip) current status and future perspectives. In : Zdruli P. (ed.), Steduto P. (ed.), Lacirignola C. (ed.), Montanarella L. (ed.). Soil resources of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries. Bari : CIHEAM, 2001. p. 203-225. (Options Méditerranéennes : Série B. Etudes et Recherches; n. 34).
[15]  Yahaya Ahmed Iyaka. 2011. Nickel in soils: A review of its distribution and impacts. cientific Research and Essays Vol. 6(33), pp. 6774-6777.
[16]  Mandina Shadreck and Tawanda Mugadza. 2013. Chromium, an essential nutrient and pollutant: A review. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vol. 7(9), 310-317.
[17]  Reed, S.T. 1993. Copper Adsorption/Desorption Characteristics on Copper Amended Soils. Dissertation, December 25, 1993, Blacksburg,VA.
[18]  Guest, C, Schulze, D., Thompson, I., Huber,D. 2002. Correlating manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra with extractable soil manganese. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1172-1181.
[19]  Millaleo,R., M. Reyes-Diaz, A.G. Ivanov, M.L. Mora, and M. Alberdi. 2010. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: Transport, accumulation and resistance mechanism. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10 (4): 470-481
[20]  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2004. Public health statement-Cobalt. Division of Toxicology 1600 Clifton Road NE Mailstop F-32 Atlanta, GA 30333. CAS#: 7440-48-4.
[21]  Chibuike, G. and S. Obiora. 2014. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Volume 2014, Article ID 752708, 12 pages.
[22]  Mirsal, I. A. 2004. Soil Pollution, origin, monitoring and remediation.
[23]  The impact of the 50-day Israeli aggression on Gaza's children. 2014. New Weapons Committee Research Group. Rome. Italy.
[24]  Simone Morais, Fernando Garcia e Costa and Maria de Lourdes Pereira 2012. Heavy Metals and HumanHealth, Environmental Health - Emerging Issues and Practice, Prof. Jacques Oosthuizen (Ed.), InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/environmental-health-emerging-issues and-practice/heavy-metals-and-human-health
Show Less References