American Journal of Environmental Protection

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

Article

Benthic Studies and Environmental Assessment in the Oil Producing Area of the Niger Delta

1Department of Petroleum Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri-Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.I.C. Anyadiegwu, N. Uwaezuoke. Benthic Studies and Environmental Assessment in the Oil Producing Area of the Niger Delta. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):37-43. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: N.  Uwaezuoke, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri-Nigeria. Email: unnaemeka@yahoo.com

Abstract

The oceans of the world are divided into two areas; the benthic zone or seafloor environment and the pelagic zone or water environment. The continental slope and beyond make up the benthic zone and includes the deepest part of the ocean floor which are made up of sediments consisting of rock particles and organic remain such as calcium carbonate shells of small organisms. From the high-tide mark along the shore to the depths of the ocean are found plants and animals of the sea. Plant and animal life in the benthic zone is most abundant in the coastal waters on the continental shelf. The benthos lives on and depends on the sea bottom and includes benthic fauna like deposit and filter feeders such as barnacles, bryozoans, sponges, mussels, hydroids, pycnogonid sea spiders and stalked crinoids. Plants are found only in the epipelagic zone of the pelagic zone where there is enough light for photosynthesis. Light does not penetrate below the mesopelagic zone. Benthic organisms are good indicators of oil pollution because they live in the sediment for all or most of their lives with limited mobility and differ in their tolerance to amount and types of pollution. Much of the benthic ecosystem/habitat have been either lost or destabilized due to pollution resulting from exploration and production activities in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. The pollution could have been in the form of noise, heat and motion in addition to chemicals. It was discovered that the pollutions could have been prevented or properly assessed if the government had implemented all the guidelines concerning marine and land exploration and production activities through its agencies and if standard baseline reports from benthic studies carried out before the spills that could serve as references are available.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Aniefiok E. Ite, Udo J. Ibok, Margaret U. Ite, and Sunday W. Petters, “ Petroleum Exploration and Production: Past and Present Environmental Issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta.” American Journal of Environmental Protection I, no. 4 (2013): 78-90.
 
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[4]  Deepwater Sediment Sampling to Assess Post-Spill Benthic Impacts from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Deepwater Benthic Communities Technical Working Group, 2011.
 
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[18]  Woke, G.N., Wokoma Aleleye, I.P. “Effect of Organic Waste Pollution on the Macrobenthic Organisms of Elechi Creek Portharcourt,” African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology, 2007.
 
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Article

The Impact of Climate Change on Composition of Agricultural Output in Nigeria

1Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University

2College of Management Sciences, Bells University of Technology


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 44-47
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Akinbobola. T. O., Adedokun. S. A., Nwosa. P. I.. The Impact of Climate Change on Composition of Agricultural Output in Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):44-47. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Nwosa.  P. I., College of Management Sciences, Bells University of Technology. Email: nwosaphilip@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study examined the impact of climate change on the composition of agricultural output in Nigeria for the period 1981 to 2011. Using an Ordinary Least square (OLS) estimation technique, the study observed that with exception to fishery production, climate change had a significant and positive impact on the composition of agricultural output in Nigeria. This finding is in contrast to a priori expectation and also in contrast to the findings obtained by previous studies. Thus, the study recommends the need for further study on this issue to verify the claims of this and also by using other indicators of climate change.

Keywords

References

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Article

Impact of Di-methyl Ether (DME) as an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution

1Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

2Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia

3Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi

4Department of Environment, Govt. of NCT of Delhi


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 48-52
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sanjoy Maji, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Weqar Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Anil Kumar. Impact of Di-methyl Ether (DME) as an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):48-52. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Sanjoy  Maji, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Email: sanjoymaji@gmail.com

Abstract

With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking nonpetroleum based alternative fuels to increase the efficiency of energy use. Di-methyl ether (DME) can be used as a clean, high-efficiency compression ignition (CI) engine fuel with reduced NOx, SOx, and particulate matter. DME’s diesel engine-compatible properties are its high cetane number and low auto-ignition temperature. However, physical properties of DME (viz. lower viscosity, lubricity, combustion enthalpy and boiling point) demands modifications to diesel engine internal structures and components. The technology with pure DME as an alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle is still under development stage. However, if DME is used as an additive fuel with diesel, the relative “goodness” of each fuel might be utilized. This paper analyses the potential benefit of blending DME in diesel fuel in reduction of urban air pollution.

Keywords

References

[1]  ARAI, Automotive Research Association of India, CPCB, 2007. EF development for Indian Vehicles, as a part of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Emission Source Apportionment Studies. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/DRAFTREPORT-on-efdiv.pdf.
 
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Article

Hotel Food Scraps Go to the Animals-Reduces Disposal Cost and Saves Environment

1Hi-Tech Institute of Technology, Industrial Estate Khurda-752057


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 53-59
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. S. Rohella, S.K. Panda, Partha Sarathi Das. Hotel Food Scraps Go to the Animals-Reduces Disposal Cost and Saves Environment. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):53-59. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: R.  S. Rohella, Hi-Tech Institute of Technology, Industrial Estate Khurda-752057. Email: rsrohella@yahoo.com

Abstract

The waste generated in the hotel industries both in kitchen and eateries on the daily basis is big challenge. In addition to the man power, cost of waste disposal and environmental pollution, the waste also needs space to store and dispose of safely. The waste from hotel industries were collected from the hotels and dumped for composting. This normally generates biogas which sometimes is collected and utilized and most of the times let-off in atmosphere for further pollution. Some of the bid hotels have even installed bio-methanation plant to generate biogas for their kitchen to save in fuel. Recently some private industries have come up which collect the waste food scrapes directly from hotels and take it their farm, do basic process like sort out the animal waste, grind and process further to feed to their pigs and or animals as feed supplement to save on animal food. Certain health regulations for the animals being fed and the personals handling the waste have strictly to be followed and regularly monitored. This has benefitted the both hotel industries and farm owners. The case studies from within country in Bangalore and a few from abroad have been presented. This mode of food scrapes going to animals trend is getting popular, economical and environment friendly and is expected to grow further and further.

Keywords

References

[1]  Municipal Solid Waste Management\HOTEL WASTE MANAGEMENT- “RAIN DROPS” The environmental impact by nearby businesses.html. Jan. 08, 2012.
 
[2]  United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA530-F-00-007. April 2000. www.epa.gov/tribalmsw
 
[3]  Food Scraps Go to the Animals: Barthold Recycling and Roll-off Services. www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/foodwaste/success/barthold.htm
 
[4]  Feeding Animals-The Business Solution to Food Scraps. The State University of New Jersey. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1200 Pennsylvania. Avenue, NW, Washington, DC. 20460. www.epa.gov. EPA530-F-09-022 October 2009.
 
[5]  "Innovations" Case Studies: Food Waste Recovery. San Francisco Commercial Food and Organics Recycling Case Study. www.calrecycle.ca.gov/ L G Central/Library/... /SanFrancisco.htm. http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/pubs/food-guide.pdf
 
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[6]  Recycling Food Waste into Animal Feed within the UK’s Legislative Framework 6 August 2013, By Ben Messenger Managing Editor. Waste Management World. Recycling Food Waste into Animal Feed within the UK’s Legislative Framework.
 
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Article

Aquifers Characterization in Agaie, North-Central Nigeria Using Electrical Resistivity Method and Borehole Lithologs

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 60-66
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olasehinde P. I., Amadi A. N., Idris-Nda A., Katu M. J., Unuevho C. I., Jimoh M. O.. Aquifers Characterization in Agaie, North-Central Nigeria Using Electrical Resistivity Method and Borehole Lithologs. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):60-66. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Olasehinde  P. I., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

The aquifer systems in Agaie area, North-Central Nigeria have been characterized using electrical resistivity technique and borehole lithologs. Electrical resistivity techniques of geophysical survey were used for data generation through Schulumberger and Wenner configuration. The acquired data were subjected to manual and computer aided interpretation methods which enabled the delineation of the lithological sequence of the subsurface. A total of nineteen boreholes were drilled and systematically logged during the drilling process. The geoelectric sections were overlaid with lithological logs and the result used in the characterization of the aquifer in the area. Information obtained from 98 hand-dug wells inventory and 19 drilled boreholes were used to supplement the geophysical investigation. The study revealed area with shallow and deep wells in relation to the groundwater flow direction of NE and SW corresponding to high groundwater potential while the southern portion of Agaie has medium groundwater potential. The geoelectric section and lithologs obtained presents two aquitards (sandy-clay and clayey-sand) and sandstone aquifer with fine to medium grained. The failure of most boreholes in the area was the inability to delineate aquifer from aquitard in the area. A minimum depth of 50-60m was recommended for borehole and 20-25m for hand-dug well in the study area. Siting of boreholes and hand-dug wells away from soakaway, toilet and dumpsite is advocated. Good hygiene practice is also suggested for the people of the area to avoid water borne disease in the future.

Keywords

References

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Article

Geotechnical Assessment of Clay Deposits in Minna, North-Central Nigeria for Use as liners in Sanitary Landfill Design and Construction

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

2Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 67-75
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amadi A. N., Okunlola I. A., Eze C. J., Jimoh M. O., Unuevho C. I., Abubakar Fahad. Geotechnical Assessment of Clay Deposits in Minna, North-Central Nigeria for Use as liners in Sanitary Landfill Design and Construction. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):67-75. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A. N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Sanitary landfills are waste disposal method that functions without creating nuisance to the environment. It confines waste to the available area, reduce waste to the minimum practical volume. The waste in a landfill reacts to release a cocktail of contaminants called leachate, which posses treat to the surrounding environment (soil and groundwater). Therefore, barrier soils are required for the lining of a landfill to prevent seepage of leachate into the surrounding groundwater and subsequent contamination of the groundwater system. Some clay in Minna was assessed using geotechnical techniques to determine its suitability as barrier soils. Five samples of clay were subjected to grain size analysis, atterberg limits, compaction tests and mineralogy test. From the grain size analysis and the atterberg limit, the soil is classified as a clayey material. The liquid limit ranged from 45.5%-61% with a mean value of 51.8% which is an indication of high plasticity and low hydraulic conductivity, the plastic limit ranged from 29.2%-35.8% with a mean value of 32.44% and its plasticity index ranged from 13.7%-25.2% with a mean value of 19.37% which implies that the clay can withstand volumetric shrinkage on drying and exhibit a low to medium swelling potential when wet. The compaction test reveal an optimum moisture content(OMC) ranging from 17.7% to 24% with a mean value of 19.94% and a maximum dry density (MDD) that varied from 1.59g/cm3 to 1.76g/cm3 with a mean value of 1.7g/cm3. This results of these geotechnical analysis suggests that the clay in the area meets the requirement for a barrier soil. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite dominated clay and mixed clay (kaolinite-illite). These minerals have the capability to attenuate and contain leachates from wastes. Hence, the studied clays are good barrier soils.

Keywords

References

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Article

Flood Vulnerability Assessment of Niger Delta States Relative to 2012 Flood Disaster in Nigeria

1Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

2National Centre for Technology Management (Federal Ministry of Science & Technology), South-South Office, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

3Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 76-83
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
AMANGABARA Gordon Tami, OBENADE Moses. Flood Vulnerability Assessment of Niger Delta States Relative to 2012 Flood Disaster in Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):76-83. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: AMANGABARA  Gordon Tami, Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: amangabaragt@gmail.com

Abstract

Flooding is recorded every year in all the states along the River Niger and its tributaries, frequently causing disasters but the magnitude of 2012 flood caught the country napping. Moreover, two thirds of Bayelsa State and Delta State are inundated by devastating floods for at least a quarter of each year. Communities along the River Niger-Benue system are also under threat of constant flooding. Vulnerability assessment which many regions of the world have commenced becomes the way forward. This paper investigates the vulnerability of communities in three of the Niger Delta States and found out that a total of 1,110 towns are at risk of being inundated and about 7,120,028 people risk displacement. The paper evolves a well thought-out mitigation and adaptation measures which can be adopted by all stake holders including Governments at all tiers, community leaders and the vulnerable population.

Keywords

References

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Article

Simulation of Modeling Approach for Flood Condition and Proposed Flood Protection at Midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

1Graduate School of Civil and Structural Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 84-94
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Cham Tau Chia, Mitani Yasuhiro, Ikemi Hiroaki. Simulation of Modeling Approach for Flood Condition and Proposed Flood Protection at Midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):84-94. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: Cham  Tau Chia, Graduate School of Civil and Structural Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Email: coreyhut@gmail.com, cham@doc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

2011 Thailand flood has resulted in serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River. Study on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin has rarely been conducted. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya RiverBasin, which includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. Flood condition at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model, MIKE FLOOD to understand the flood generation. The model is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured at study area and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Furthermore, scenarios of flood control at 3 rivers are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to calculate the flood distribution area and flood volume. Subsequently, 2 kinds of suitable flood control measurements are proposed. Results shows flood control at midstream helps reduce the risk of reflooding or flood return from small streams and flood plain into starting of Chao Phraya River. However, flood volume before confluence of Ping River and Nan River, which is Bung Boraphet area will be increased. Therefore, the land use planning and regulation at area nearby Bung Boraphet need to be considered.

Keywords

References

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Article

Organic Solvent Exposure: Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, and Haematotoxicity Assessment amongst Vehicle Spray Painters in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

1Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Chemical Pathology, LadokeAkintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

3School of Medical Laboratory Science, Haematology Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Patholgy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 95-99
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oduola Taofeeq, Raheem Gassal Olayinka, Oke Olusegun Taiwo, Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu, Dallatu Mohammed Kabiru, Mainasara Abdullahi Suleiman. Organic Solvent Exposure: Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, and Haematotoxicity Assessment amongst Vehicle Spray Painters in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):95-99. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Oduola  Taofeeq, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. Email: oduolataofeeq@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exposure to different organic solvents have been reported to cause adverse effects on the functional integrity of different tissues in the biological systems.Vehicle spray painters are a group of artisan that could be occupationally exposed to health risk due to the constituents of materials used in spray painting, hence this study was designed to examine the effects of exposure to these solvents on liver, kidney and bone marrow function in this artisan in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 75 Nigerian male vehicle spray painters with age range 28 – 59 years (X 47.5) were recruited for the study. They were classified into 5 groups based on duration of exposure with 15 in each group. Another group of 15 people of different professions of the same age and gender who were not exposed were recruited as control. Blood samples were collected, liver, kidney and bone marrow function parameters were determined using standard techniques. RESULT: Values obtained for total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the exposed groups than the control groups, however, the values were within the reference range. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in all other liver function parameters between the exposed painter and non-exposed control. Kidney function profiles showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the exposed painters and non-exposed control. Haematological profiles revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in packed cell volume (PCV) between the exposed painters and non-exposed control, total white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly lower(P<0.05) in exposed painters than in non-exposed control. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the findings of this study neither reveal hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity nor haematotoxicity. Although we observed slight elevations and slight decrease in some of the liver function profiles and WBC respectively among the exposed painters when compared to non-exposed control, the values were within the reference range. Since these painters are constantly exposed to organic solvents from paints and because of adverse effects it may cause on their health without knowing when it may happen, it is important they do period medical check-up.

Keywords

References

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Article

Long-term Effect of Mixed Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Properties, Fruit Quality and Heavy Metal Contamination of Citrus

1Environmental Studies and Research Institute (ESRI), Univ of Sadat City (USC), Sadat City, sixth zone, Egypt


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(3), 100-105
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-3-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hoda A. A. Galal. Long-term Effect of Mixed Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Properties, Fruit Quality and Heavy Metal Contamination of Citrus. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(3):100-105. doi: 10.12691/env-3-3-6.

Correspondence to: Hoda  A. A. Galal, Environmental Studies and Research Institute (ESRI), Univ of Sadat City (USC), Sadat City, sixth zone, Egypt. Email: hodagalal2002@yahoo.com, hoda.galal@esri.usc.edu.eg

Abstract

Wastewater contains essential elements for plant growth as well as heavy metals which may be toxic for plant and human. In the northern regions of the Nile Delta, mixed water (wastewater mixed with fresh water) is used in land irrigation long time ago. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of long-term irrigation with mixed water (MW); compared to Nile fresh water (FW), on “Navel” orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards (aged 10 to 12 years). Some soil properties, yield, fruit quality and heavy metals contamination were evaluated in three orchards irrigated with mixed water and compared with another three orchards irrigated with Nile water. The Results indicated that long term application of MW induced significant (p<0.05) increase of soil pH and Ec, particularly in the surface layer. In comparison with FW irrigated soil, mixed water resulted in accumulation of K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni and Na in the soil. On the other hand, MW irrigation increased yield parameters (fruit weight and yield/tree), soluble solids content and Brix/acid ratio. Fruit is still looking apparently healthy despite increasing of K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni and Na in its peel and pulp. It can be concluded that MW irrigation may be useful in the reduction of fertilizers applied to orchards. Whereas, there is a potential risks associated with crops consumption that irrigated for a long-term with mixed water. Therefore, we have to be careful about mixed water irrigation and use it under controlled conditions to protect soil properties and minimize hazards from heavy metal accumulation in agricultural products and the food chain.

Keywords

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