ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

   

Article

Prevalence of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Blantyre - Malawi

1Department of Civil and Water Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

2Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe Open University, Harare, Zimbabwe


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(3), 61-66
doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Makaya Eugine, Tanyanyiwa Vincent. Prevalence of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Blantyre - Malawi. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(3):61-66. doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Makaya  Eugine, Department of Civil and Water Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Email: eugine.makaya@nust.ac.zw

Abstract

The industrial and agricultural revolutions have led to the development of a variety of chemicals ranging from insecticides, pesticides, fungicides and bactericides. However the demand for these chemicals led the manufacturers to manufacture the chemicals without considering the sustainability of using such chemicals. During the last half of the 20th century, the global environment has become contaminated with a number of persistent and fat-soluble chemical contaminants, commonly referred to as the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). These compounds generally have low water solubility, do not degrade readily in the environment, bio-accumulate in food chains, and have been linked to adverse health effects in both humans and wildlife. In order to develop appropriate strategies and institutional responses, it is pertinent to assess the prevalence of the variety of organic pollutants and the people’s understanding and awareness of POPs that pose a threat to the biophysical aspect of the environment, if used or disposed of in unsupervised means. Thus, this study sought to assess the inventory of POPs, level of awareness and measures used in dealing with the chemicals in Blantyre, Malawi. The researchers used a qualitative research design. The research instruments used were a questionnaire, key-informant interviews and observations. The study focused on Ndirande peri-urban area comprising Mulanje, Thyolo, Zomba, Chiradzulu and Njuli. A random sample of sixty-four respondents was selected and a total of 64 questionnaires administered. The survey covered 5 sites that included markets, agro-dealers, hardware shops, estates and chemical companies. Descriptive statistics were obtained from key- informant interviews and observations. Findings revealed that despite the banning of POPs in Malawi as a signatory to the Stockholm Convention of 2001, the illegal usage and selling of banned POPs was rampant with hardware shops, agro-dealers and vendors. The survey also revealed low level of awareness and knowledge about POPs pesticides especially among the general public in Ndirande Peri-urban. There was presence of Chlordane as the most common pesticide used to control termites and was mainly sourced by the local farmers from the market vendors, hardware shops and Agro-dealers. The pesticide DDT was identified as resurfacing with its source into the country linked to Mozambican traders. The majority of the farmers cited DDT as the main pesticide used to control termites and protect crops such as maize after harvest. In addition the survey revealed the presence of a power utility with a number of obsolete transformers suspected to be contaminated with PCBs still waiting to be disposed for incineration at Blantyre West Sub-station. The researchers observed that this placed at high risk the workers at the power utility of PCBs due to lack of adequate protective wear. It was observed that children were mainly exposed through improperly disposed obsolete pesticides, insecticides and chemical containers. The study concluded that there is need for education of people to ensure their awareness of the dangers associated with the illegal pesticides usage. Integrated Pest Management was recommended as the best alternative approach in peri-urban agriculture.

Keywords

References

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Article

Inclusion of Local People and Their Cultural Practices in Biodiversity Conservation: Lessons from Successful Nations

1Department of General Arts Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(3), 67-78
doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dickson Adom. Inclusion of Local People and Their Cultural Practices in Biodiversity Conservation: Lessons from Successful Nations. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(3):67-78. doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Dickson  Adom, Department of General Arts Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: adomdick@yahoo.com

Abstract

The inclusion of local people and their cultural practices impact positively on biodiversity conservation. This is the underlying factors behind the success stories of countries with high numbers of biological diversity resources. It is sad to reckon that most biodiversity policies of developing countries like Ghana do not fully include the voices of the local people as well as their cultural practices. There was, therefore, the need to thoroughly review the national biodiversity strategies and action plans of some countries that have effectively factored the local people and their cultural practices in their biodiversity policies. This was to elucidate how and in what areas the views of the local people and their cultural practices can be effectively incorporated into biodiversity conservation initiatives. The study utilized qualitative research approach with document analysis method. Related literature on the subject from peer-reviewed manuscripts, biodiversity strategic reports and strategies of different countries were rigorously reviewed and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The study revealed that local people have time-tested conservation knowledge enfolded in their cultural practices like religious beliefs, taboos, etc. Legal backing was seen as the main driving force behind the utilization of the cultural practices of the local people in the biodiversity strategies reviewed. Moreover, the local people were fully involved in the development of the biodiversity strategies. This was seen in the areas of planning, management, and decision-making, recruitment of staff, as well as the dissemination and implementation of the biodiversity strategy. The study concluded that effective biodiversity policies must reflect the cultural practices and the views of local people since they are powerful instruments of conservation. It tasks biodiversity policy designers to fully incorporate local communities and their cultural practices in the development of biodiversity strategies.

Keywords

References

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Article

Community Forest and Forest Management in Nepal

1Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Japan


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(3), 79-91
doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhattarai Binod. Community Forest and Forest Management in Nepal. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(3):79-91. doi: 10.12691/env-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Bhattarai  Binod, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Japan. Email: binod_bhattarai2000@yahoo.com

Abstract

This Paper provides brief introduction to the Forest and Community Forest in Nepal and context and status of community forest in Nepal. Community forests in Nepal are built on the experience of other countries around the world, especially its neighbors in South Asia. In order to understand the context and particular designs and objectives of Nepal’s community forestry program, key literature on community forestry is summarized. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of community forestry in Nepal from first protecting local forests and forest products for subsistence needs, to an increased role in income generation and meeting national development goals, including poverty alleviation.

Keywords

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