American Journal of Environmental Protection

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV

Article

Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge and Coal Fly Ash in Brick Manufacturing

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(5), 83-88
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Denise Alves Fungaro, Mauro Valério da Silva. Utilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge and Coal Fly Ash in Brick Manufacturing. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(5):83-88. doi: 10.12691/env-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Denise  Alves Fungaro, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Email: dfungaro@ipen.br

Abstract

Sludge from a treatment water Brazilian plant station is, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, fly ash is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. An efficient disposal of coal fly ash is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical possibilities of incorporating cyclone fly ash (CFA) and sludge from a waste water treatment plant (SWTP) in the production of ecological bricks. The wastes were analyzed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. Various mixtures were prepared by incorporating these industrial wastes in brick production. The effects of wastes incorporation on physical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption have been determined. The best result, in terms of compression strength and water absorption, was reached by the series of bricks produced with 60 % soil, 12 % cement, 8 % coal fly ash and 20 % SWTP by weight. The results showed that SWTP and CFA presented a potential to be used as waste additives in the production of soil-cement bricks.

Keywords

References

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Article

Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) as Intercrop in Grewia Optiva Based Traditional Agroforestry System along Altitudinal Gradient and Aspect in Mid Hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India

1Indian Institute of Forest management (IIFM) Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462 003, M.P., India

2Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(5), 89-94
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arvind Bijalwan, Manmohan J. R. Dobriyal. Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) as Intercrop in Grewia Optiva Based Traditional Agroforestry System along Altitudinal Gradient and Aspect in Mid Hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(5):89-94. doi: 10.12691/env-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Arvind  Bijalwan, Indian Institute of Forest management (IIFM) Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462 003, M.P., India. Email: arvindbijalwan276@gmail.com

Abstract

Grewia optiva, wonder tree of western Himalaya locally known as Bhimal is the most common multipurpose tree is a boon for the inhabitants of Garhwal Himalayan region. About 2/3rd of the cultivated area of Garhwal is rainfed and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the predominant food grain crop cultivated on the sloppy terraces in combination of G. optiva trees on terrace bunds. In Present study the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as intercrop in Grewia optiva based traditional agroforestry system along altitudinal gradient and aspect in mid hills of Garhwal Himalaya, India revels that G. optiva occupied average highest frequency (85%), stem density (145 trees/ha), TBC (7.68 m2/ha), IVI (86.51), tree height (7.38 m), Crown spread (5.34 m) in the elevation 1000-1500 m of Northern aspect (E1/N site). In the elevation 1000-1500 m, it was observed that there is a reduction in grain, straw and biological yield of wheat as 17.59%, 17.77% and 17.71% respectively on the southern aspect compared to northern aspect. Further elevation 1500-2000 m, the reduction in the average grain yield was recorded 37.31% under G. optiva based traditional agroforestry system in E2/S site. The phenophases of the wheat crop is sown in the month of December which emerges to crown root initiation (CRI) in January followed by tillering, milking, maturity and final harvest during May while G. optiva remain dormant from December to February, leafless in March and new flush of shoots in May. This reversal phenopases of two components are complimentary in tree crop interaction to enhance productivity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Environmental Fate of Heavy Metals in Soil of Ido-Osun Waste Dump Site, Osogbo, Osun, Nigeria

1Chemical Sciences Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, P.M.B. 5533, Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, P. O. Box 0001, Ojo campu, Lagos, Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olayiwola Olajumoke Abidemi, Onwordi Chionyedua Theresa. Environmental Fate of Heavy Metals in Soil of Ido-Osun Waste Dump Site, Osogbo, Osun, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Onwordi  Chionyedua Theresa, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, P. O. Box 0001, Ojo campu, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: teresachiedu@yahoo.com

Abstract

Wastes, if not properly managed can cause severe complications within ecosystem. Farmers use soil from dumpsites without regards for the health implication the heavy metal contents of such soil type may pose. The levels of these heavy metals need to be ascertained to know their fate. Five heavy metals (chromium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper) were analysed for their levels in soil at four different directions (east, west, north and south) by wet digestion spectrophotometrically. Heavy metals in soil were zinc (1133±897 mg/kg), nickel (26.3± 51.1 mg/kg), copper (110±90 mg/kg), lead (137± 64 mg/kg) and chromium (3.63±2.46 mg/kg). Concentration in sampling site were higher than soils from background with factors of 67 (zinc), 18 (copper), and 20 (lead). Index of geo-accumulation revealed soil to be moderately to strongly polluted with zinc, copper and lead. Inter-element correlation was in the range 0.90 – 0.99. Near-by farmlands are exposed to these heavy metals. Surface water near the site will not be usable for irrigation and other categories of water usages. Wastes from the dump site can be reduced, reused and recycled.

Keywords

References

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Article

Payment for Environmental Services: an Environmental Zoning Guardianship Instrument

1Professor of Environmental Urbanistic Law of the Master's Program on Environmental Law at Caxias do Sul University, Caxias do Sul - Brazil


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 5-11
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adir Ubaldo Rech. Payment for Environmental Services: an Environmental Zoning Guardianship Instrument. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):5-11. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Adir  Ubaldo Rech, Professor of Environmental Urbanistic Law of the Master's Program on Environmental Law at Caxias do Sul University, Caxias do Sul - Brazil. Email: aurech@ucs.br

Abstract

Environmental services potentially available in nature, such as the air that we breathe, the water we drink, etc. are indispensable to assure an ecologically balanced environment and the preservation of biodiversity as elements of sustainability and assurance of human life and dignity. Since man needs and tends to occupy every space for dwelling and for the production of food, it is necessary to define and designate spaces to be preserved, aiming to guarantee fulfillment of these essential functions of nature, which we call environmental services. The instrument to organize such spaces is sought for in Law – environmental zoning – and payment for environmental services as a means of effective guardianship of the environment bounded by such zoning is described.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sustainable Development Policy of Global Economy

1Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 12-29
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Haradhan Kumar Mohajan. Sustainable Development Policy of Global Economy. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):12-29. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Haradhan  Kumar Mohajan, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: haradhan1971@gmail.com

Abstract

In the 21st century sustainable development is an essential issue for the humankind. Modern economic growth began in England in 1760 and eventually spread to the entire world. Before the Industrial Revolution the world was nearly equal in its poverty. Industrial Revolution changed human history and human destiny but increases huge gap between the rich and the poor. At present at least 1.2 billion people live in absolute poverty, whose income is $1.25/day, they live in for mere survival every day, and most of them are in Sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries of Asia. They face the daily life-and-death challenges of insufficient nutrition, lack of health care, unsafe shelters and the lack of safe drinking water and without sanitation facilities. In 2014, population of the world become 7.29 billion and it is estimated that this figure will be 9 billion by the early 2040s. In 2014, about 50% of the populations of the world live in the cities and global urbanization is increasing very rapidly. Global climate change and loss of biodiversity are great problems and it is believed that recent increase of natural calamities is due to global warming. The world is economically developed but not achieved sustainable development. Human has become a serious threat to its own future well-being, and perhaps even survival in the 21st century.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Different Land Use Soils in Maybar Lake Watershed of Albuko District, South Wello Zone, North Ethiopia

1Research and Development Director, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 30-36
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Different Land Use Soils in Maybar Lake Watershed of Albuko District, South Wello Zone, North Ethiopia. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):30-36. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Research and Development Director, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia. Email: gebeyaw2006@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was conducted at the Maybar watershed, which is located in the Albuko District of South Wello Zone in the Amhara National Regional State. The aims of the study were to identify the effects of different land use management practices on the magnitudes and directions of soil fertility using selected physicochemical indicators. Depending on their similarities three forest land representative fields, three grazing land representative fields and three cultivated land representative fields were selected, and from each representative field of land use types, fifteen soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm each in a radial sampling scheme using an auger. We collected a total of two hundred seventy samples (ninety samples per land use type) of soil which is one hundred thirty five samples from 0-20 cm and one hundred thirty five samples from 20-40 cm of soil horizon. Standard soil analysis for physical and chemical properties was used to analyze the soil samples. The results showed that soil organic carbon declined exponentially following deforestation and subsequent conversion to cultivated land. The imbalance in soil organic carbon addition from the crops and loss of soil organic carbon have led to the continuous decline of soil organic carbon in the cultivated land soils by 41.6% and 86.5% as compared to the forest and grazing lands, respectively. Soil texture (sand, silt and clay) and all of the soils chemical properties studied were significantly affected (P ≤ 0.05 and/or P ≤ 0.01) by land use. Furthermore, considering the soil depths, higher mean values of Fe (38.59 mg/kg) were recorded in the surface (0-20 cm) soil layer than in the subsurface (20-40 cm) depth. The results obtained from the study indicated that the direction and magnitude of changes in soil attributes under land uses reflect the long-term impact of human being on the landscape as the consequences of increasing human as well as livestock populations.. All the above values were higher than the critical values of 4.2, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg for Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively. Also the test analysis showed that the content of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and organic matter were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in grazing soils than in forest and cultivated soils, while pH was higher in forest soils. The results of correlation analysis revealed that Cu had significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation with silt content and Fe (r = 0.56* and 0.51*, respectively) but negative and non-significant with clay fraction. Iron and Cu were significant with organic matter (r =0.55* and 0.89**, respectively). The manner in which soils are managed has a major impact on agricultural productivity and its sustainability. Therefore, strategies to feed the expanding population in the country have to seek a sustainable solution that better addresses soil fertility management.

Keywords

References

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Article

Benthic Studies and Environmental Assessment in the Oil Producing Area of the Niger Delta

1Department of Petroleum Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri-Nigeria


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(1), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.I.C. Anyadiegwu, N. Uwaezuoke. Benthic Studies and Environmental Assessment in the Oil Producing Area of the Niger Delta. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(1):37-43. doi: 10.12691/env-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: N.  Uwaezuoke, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri-Nigeria. Email: unnaemeka@yahoo.com

Abstract

The oceans of the world are divided into two areas; the benthic zone or seafloor environment and the pelagic zone or water environment. The continental slope and beyond make up the benthic zone and includes the deepest part of the ocean floor which are made up of sediments consisting of rock particles and organic remain such as calcium carbonate shells of small organisms. From the high-tide mark along the shore to the depths of the ocean are found plants and animals of the sea. Plant and animal life in the benthic zone is most abundant in the coastal waters on the continental shelf. The benthos lives on and depends on the sea bottom and includes benthic fauna like deposit and filter feeders such as barnacles, bryozoans, sponges, mussels, hydroids, pycnogonid sea spiders and stalked crinoids. Plants are found only in the epipelagic zone of the pelagic zone where there is enough light for photosynthesis. Light does not penetrate below the mesopelagic zone. Benthic organisms are good indicators of oil pollution because they live in the sediment for all or most of their lives with limited mobility and differ in their tolerance to amount and types of pollution. Much of the benthic ecosystem/habitat have been either lost or destabilized due to pollution resulting from exploration and production activities in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. The pollution could have been in the form of noise, heat and motion in addition to chemicals. It was discovered that the pollutions could have been prevented or properly assessed if the government had implemented all the guidelines concerning marine and land exploration and production activities through its agencies and if standard baseline reports from benthic studies carried out before the spills that could serve as references are available.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Aniefiok E. Ite, Udo J. Ibok, Margaret U. Ite, and Sunday W. Petters, “ Petroleum Exploration and Production: Past and Present Environmental Issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta.” American Journal of Environmental Protection I, no. 4 (2013): 78-90.
 
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Article

The Impact of Climate Change on Composition of Agricultural Output in Nigeria

1Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University

2College of Management Sciences, Bells University of Technology


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 44-47
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Akinbobola. T. O., Adedokun. S. A., Nwosa. P. I.. The Impact of Climate Change on Composition of Agricultural Output in Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):44-47. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Nwosa.  P. I., College of Management Sciences, Bells University of Technology. Email: nwosaphilip@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study examined the impact of climate change on the composition of agricultural output in Nigeria for the period 1981 to 2011. Using an Ordinary Least square (OLS) estimation technique, the study observed that with exception to fishery production, climate change had a significant and positive impact on the composition of agricultural output in Nigeria. This finding is in contrast to a priori expectation and also in contrast to the findings obtained by previous studies. Thus, the study recommends the need for further study on this issue to verify the claims of this and also by using other indicators of climate change.

Keywords

References

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Article

Impact of Di-methyl Ether (DME) as an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution

1Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

2Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia

3Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi

4Department of Environment, Govt. of NCT of Delhi


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 48-52
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sanjoy Maji, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Weqar Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Anil Kumar. Impact of Di-methyl Ether (DME) as an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):48-52. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Sanjoy  Maji, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Email: sanjoymaji@gmail.com

Abstract

With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking nonpetroleum based alternative fuels to increase the efficiency of energy use. Di-methyl ether (DME) can be used as a clean, high-efficiency compression ignition (CI) engine fuel with reduced NOx, SOx, and particulate matter. DME’s diesel engine-compatible properties are its high cetane number and low auto-ignition temperature. However, physical properties of DME (viz. lower viscosity, lubricity, combustion enthalpy and boiling point) demands modifications to diesel engine internal structures and components. The technology with pure DME as an alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle is still under development stage. However, if DME is used as an additive fuel with diesel, the relative “goodness” of each fuel might be utilized. This paper analyses the potential benefit of blending DME in diesel fuel in reduction of urban air pollution.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hotel Food Scraps Go to the Animals-Reduces Disposal Cost and Saves Environment

1Hi-Tech Institute of Technology, Industrial Estate Khurda-752057


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(2), 53-59
DOI: 10.12691/env-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. S. Rohella, S.K. Panda, Partha Sarathi Das. Hotel Food Scraps Go to the Animals-Reduces Disposal Cost and Saves Environment. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(2):53-59. doi: 10.12691/env-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: R.  S. Rohella, Hi-Tech Institute of Technology, Industrial Estate Khurda-752057. Email: rsrohella@yahoo.com

Abstract

The waste generated in the hotel industries both in kitchen and eateries on the daily basis is big challenge. In addition to the man power, cost of waste disposal and environmental pollution, the waste also needs space to store and dispose of safely. The waste from hotel industries were collected from the hotels and dumped for composting. This normally generates biogas which sometimes is collected and utilized and most of the times let-off in atmosphere for further pollution. Some of the bid hotels have even installed bio-methanation plant to generate biogas for their kitchen to save in fuel. Recently some private industries have come up which collect the waste food scrapes directly from hotels and take it their farm, do basic process like sort out the animal waste, grind and process further to feed to their pigs and or animals as feed supplement to save on animal food. Certain health regulations for the animals being fed and the personals handling the waste have strictly to be followed and regularly monitored. This has benefitted the both hotel industries and farm owners. The case studies from within country in Bangalore and a few from abroad have been presented. This mode of food scrapes going to animals trend is getting popular, economical and environment friendly and is expected to grow further and further.

Keywords

References

[1]  Municipal Solid Waste Management\HOTEL WASTE MANAGEMENT- “RAIN DROPS” The environmental impact by nearby businesses.html. Jan. 08, 2012.
 
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[3]  Food Scraps Go to the Animals: Barthold Recycling and Roll-off Services. www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/foodwaste/success/barthold.htm
 
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[6]  Recycling Food Waste into Animal Feed within the UK’s Legislative Framework 6 August 2013, By Ben Messenger Managing Editor. Waste Management World. Recycling Food Waste into Animal Feed within the UK’s Legislative Framework.
 
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