Welcome to American Journal of Environmental Protection

American Journal of Environmental Protection is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of environmental protection. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of environmental protection.

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233

Editor-in-Chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ENV



Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Waters of Lomé Lagoon System (Togo)

1Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux, Faculté Des Sciences, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo

2Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Limoges, Limoges Cedex, France

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(4), 145-150
doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ayah M., Grybos M., Bawa L. M., Bril H., Djaneye-Boudjou G.. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Waters of Lomé Lagoon System (Togo). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(4):145-150. doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Ayah  M., Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux, Faculté Des Sciences, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo. Email: a8yann@hotmail.com


The aims of study is to distinguish the different origins of dissolved organic matter and emphasizes the spatial variations of dissolved organic matter quality in Lomé lagoon system composed by three lakes and Equilibrium canal. The results showed that, the three lakes of Lomé are dominated by biological dissolved organic matter (HIX < 4) except the site O11 (HIX = 5.75) with high biological activity (BIX included between 0.8 and 1). This high biological activity could due to the water contribution from north plateau and offshore bar. Apart from O11 and C4 the information brought by the ratio Iγ/Iα shows that the dissolved organic matter of the lagoon is autochthonous and composed by labile organic compounds. Lomé lagoon system is composed in majority by humic substances with a small amount of microbial products.



[1]  Powe A. M., Flandcher K. A., St Luce N. N., Lowry M., Neal S., Mc Carroll M. (2004). Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence spectromandry. Anal Chem; 76:4614-34.
[2]  Antunes, M. C. G., Esteves da Silva, J. C. G. (2005). Multivariate curve resolution analysis excitation-emission matrices of fluorescence of humic substances. Anal. Chim. Acta 546, 52-59.
[3]  Baker A. (2002). Fluorescence properties of some farm wastes: implications for water quality monitoring. Water Res; 36:189-95.
[4]  Fu, P. Q., Wu, F. C., Liu, C. Q. (2004). Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix characterization of a commercial humic acid. Chin. J. Geochem. 23: 309-318.
[5]  Sierra M. M. D., Giovanela M., Parlanti E., Soriano-Sierra E. J. (2005). Fluorescence fingerprint of fulvic and humic acids from varied origins as viewed by single-scan and excitation/emission matrix techniques. Chemosphere; 58:715-33.
Show More References
[6]  Larsson, T., Wedborg, M., Turner, D. (2007). Correction of inner-filter effect in fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectromandry using Raman scatter. Anal. Chim. Acta; 583: 357-363.
[7]  Richard C., Guyot G., Trubandskaya O., Trubandskoj O., Grigatti M., Cavani L. (2009). Fluorescence analysis of humic-like substances extracted from composts: influence of composting time and fractionation. Environ. Chem. Landt.; 7: 61-65.
[8]  Coble PG, Green SA, Blough NV, Gagosian RB. (1990). Characterization of dissolved organic matter in the Black Sea by fluorescence spectroscopy. Nature; 348:432-4.
[9]  Sierra M. M. D., Donard O. F. X., Andcheber H., Soriano-Sierra E. J., Ewald M. (2001). Fluorescence and DOC contents of porewaters from coastal and deepsea sediments in the Gulf of Biscay. Org Geochem; 32: 1319-28.
[10]  Baker A, Curry M. (2004). Fluorescence of leachates from three contrasting landfills. Water Res; 38: 2605-13.
[11]  Matthews B. J. H., Jones A. C., Theodorou N. K., Tudhope A. W. (1996). Excitation– emission-matrix fluorescence spectroscopy applied to humic acid bands in coral reefs. Mar Chem; 55: 317-32.
[12]  Marhaba T. F., Van D., Lippincott R. L. (2000). Rapid identification of dissolved organic matter fractions in water by spectral fluorescent signatures. Water Res; 34: 3543-50.
[13]  Parlanti E., Morin B., Vacher L. (2002). Combined 3D-spectrofluorimandry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for the characterization of dissolved organic matter in natural waters. Org Geochem; 33: 221-36.
[14]  Cannavo P., Dudal Y., Boudenne J. L., Lafolie F. (2004). Potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to assess the quality of the soil waterextracted organic matter. Soil Sci; 169: 688-96.
[15]  Mladenov N., Mc Knight D. M., Wolski P., Ramberg L. (2005). Effects of annual flooding on dissolved organic carbon dynamics within a pristine wandland, theOkavango Delta, Botswana. Wandlands; 25:622-38.
[16]  Leloup M., Nicolau R., Pallier V., Yépremian C., Feuillade G-C. (2013). Organic matter produced by algae and cyanobacteria: quantitative and qualitative characterization. Journal of Environmental Sciences; 26 (6) 1089-1097.
[17]  Katsuyama M., Ohte N. (2002). Dandermining the sources of stormflow from the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic carbon in a forested headwater catchment. J Hydrol; 268:192-202.
[18]  Stedmon C. A., Markager S., Bro R. (2003). Tracing dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments using a new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy. Mar Chem; 82:239-54.
[19]  Alberts J .J., Takacs M. (2004). Total luminescence spectra of IHSS standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids and natural organic matter: comparison of aquatic and terrestrial source terms. Org Geochem; 35:243-56.
[20]  Baker A. (2005). Fluorescence tracing of diffuse landfill leachate contamination in rivers. Water Air Soil Pollut; 163: 229-44.
[21]  Mariot M., Dudal Y., Furian S., Sakamoto A., Vallès V., Fort M., Barbiero L. (2007). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence as a water-flow tracer in the tropical wandland of Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil. Science of the Total Environment 388: 184-193
[22]  Jiji R. D., Cooper G. A., Booksh K. (1999). Excitation–emission matrix fluorescence based dandermination of carbamate pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chim Acta; 397: 61-72.
[23]  Dudal Y, Holgado R, Maestri G, Dupont L, Guillon E. (2006). Rapid screening of DOM's mandal-binding abilitiy using a fluorescence-based microplate assay. Sci Total Environ; 354: 286-91.
[24]  Coble PG. (1996). Characterization of marine and terrestrial DOM in seawater using excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy. Mar Chem; 51:325-46.
[25]  Chen, W., Westerhoff, P., Leenheer, J. A., Booksh, K. (2003). Fluorescence excitation– emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ. Sci. Technol.; 37: 701-5710.
[26]  Patel-Sorrentino N. , Mounier S., Benaim J.Y. (2002). Excitation–emission fluorescence matrix to study pH influence on organic matter fluorescence in the Amazon basin rivers. Water Research; 36 : 2571-2581.
[27]  Zsolnay A., Baigar E., Jimenez M., Steinweg B., Saccomandi F. (1999). Differentiating with fluorescence spectroscopy the sources of dissolved organic matter in soils subjected to drying. Chemosphere 38, 45-50.
[28]  Zsolnay A. (2003). Dissolved organic matter: artefacts, definitions and functions. Geoderma 113 : 187-209
[29]  Vacher L. (2004). Andude par fluorescence des propriétés de la la matière organique dissoute dans les systèmes estuariens. Cas des estuaires de la Gironde and de la Seine. Ph.D. Thesis, Université Bordeaux 1.
[30]  Kalbitz, K., Schmerwitz, J., Schwesig, D., Matzner, E. (2003a): Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties. Geoderma 113: 273-291.
[31]  Parlanti, E., Worz, K., Geoffroy, L., and Lamotte, M. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry 31, 1765-1781.
[32]  Smart P. L., Finlayson B. L., Rylands W. D., Ball C. M. (1976). The relation of fluorescence to dissolved organic carbon in surface waters. Water Res; 10:805-11.
[33]  Weishaar J. L., Aiken G. R., Bergamaschi B. A., Fram M. S., Fujij R., Mopper K. (2003). Evaluation of specific ultravioland absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 37: 4702-4708.
[34]  Labanowski J., Feuillade G. (2011). Dissolved organic matter: Precautions for the study of hydrophilic substances using XAD resin. Water Research, vol. 45, pp. 315-327.
[35]  Davranche, M., Dia, A., Fakih, M., Nowack, B., Gruau, G., Ona-nguema, G., Petitjean, P., Martin, S., Hochreutener, R., (2012) Organic matter control on the reactivity of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides and associated As in wetland soils: A kinetic modeling study a Géosciences. Chemical Geology 335 (2013) 24-35.
[36]  Kang K-H., Shin H. S., Park H. (2002). Characterization of humic substances present in landfill leachates with different landfill ages and its implications. Wat. Res.; 36(16): 4023-4032.
[37]  Berthe C., Redon E., Feuillade G. (2008). Fractionation of the organic matter contained in leachate resulting from two modes of landfilling: An indicator of waste degradation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 154, pp. 262-271.
[38]  Tcha-Thom M. (2014). Evaluation de l’impact des fractions de matières organiques extraites de lixiviats de déchets ménagers et assimilés sur les caractéristiques des sols agricoles togolais et français. Mémoire de Master 2, Université de Limoges; 36p.
[39]  Mounier S., Patel N., Quilici L., Benaim J. Y., Benamou C. (1999). Fluorescence 3D de la matière organique dissoute du fleuve Amazone. Water Res; 33(6):1523-33.
Show Less References


Assessing Heavy Metals Pollution in the Agricultural Lands of Gaza Strip that Has Undergone Three Successive Wars

1Environmental Engineering Department. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza

2Department of Chemistry. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(4), 151-158
doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Al- Najar, H. Alrayes N., Dokhan Al., Saqer A., Silmi R., S. Al-Kurdi. Assessing Heavy Metals Pollution in the Agricultural Lands of Gaza Strip that Has Undergone Three Successive Wars. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(4):151-158. doi: 10.12691/env-3-4-6.

Correspondence to: Al-  Najar, Environmental Engineering Department. The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box. 108 Gaza. Email: halnajar@iugaza.edu.ps


The intensive airstrikes on agricultural lands in the Gaza Strip create craters of 20 m diameter and 10 m depths. Samples from the craters are collected from fourteen different locations, were analyzed to assess the impact of war activities on soil pollution. Soil samples were analyzed for major heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Co and Pb) by using hotplate digestion and A Perkin-Elmer Analyst 600 GF-AAS analyzer, equipped with pyrolytically coated graphite tube with integrated platform Zeeman background and correction. The results showed that most of the soils had mean Ni concentration that was over four times higher than the control, Cr was five times, Cu was thirty one times higher, Mn was greatly higher than the control (114 times), Co was five times higher while Pb was twelve times higher than the control. Due to its texture, some samples from sandy soil origins had not significant higher metals concentration than the control. Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Co and Pb clearly contributed by the content of munitions of the airstrike. Soil pollution by Cu, Mn and Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by munitions. The results also indicate that the concentration of specific heavy metals depends on the type of the explosives material and the soil texture. The current research highlighted the danger and risk of munitions on the agricultural lands. It is highly recommend for the relevant institutions to monitor and follow up research program to investigate the fate of the metals in soil, groundwater and food chain to protect the environment and health.



[1]  Environmental Quality Authority (EQA). 2014. The environmental impact of the Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip. EQA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[2]  Coastal Municipalities Water Utilities (CMWU). 2014. Water and wastewater sector damage assessment report. Palestinian National Authority. PWA library, Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[3]  Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). 2014. Agricultural sector damage assessment and losses. MOA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[4]  Ministry of Planning (MOP). 2008. Regional plan for Gaza Governorates 2005-2025. MOP library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[5]  Khalaf A.; H. Al-Najar; and J. Hamad. 2006. Assessment of rainwater run off due to the proposed regional plan for Gaza Governorates. J. Applied Sci., 6 (13): 2693-2704.
Show More References
[6]  Palestinian Water Authority (PWA). 2013. Agricultural and Municipal Water Demand in Gaza Governorates for 2012, Strategic Planning Directorate. PWA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[7]  Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, PCBS. 2013. “Statistic Brief (Population, Housing and Establishment Census)”, Palestinian National Authority, Gaza, Palestine.
[8]  Ministry of Planning (MOP). 2014. Technical Maps Atlas for Gaza Governorate, Second Version. Gaza, Palestinian National Authority (PNA library).
[9]  Ministry of Local Government (MOLG). 2010. Structural and land use plan for Gaza Strip cities. PNA library. Gaza, Gaza Strip.
[10]  Standard Test Method for Determination of Lead by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), or Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) Techniques. 2012. E1613-12.
[11]  Al-Najar H.; R. Schulz; Kaschl A. and V. Roemheld 2005. The effect of thallium fractions in the soil and pollution origin on Tl uptake by hyperaccumulator plants: A key factor for assessment of phytoextraction. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 7(1): 55-67.
[12]  Al-Najar, H., R. Schulz and V. Roemheld 2005. Phytoremediation of thallium contaminated soils by Brassicaceae. In: Environmental Chemistry. Green Chemistry and Pollutants in Ecosystems. E. Lichtfouse, J. Schwarzbauer, D. Robert (Eds.) Chap. 17, 187-196.
[13]  Goris, K. and Samain, B. (2001). Sustainable Irrigation in the Gaza Strip. M.Sc Thesis. Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.
[14]  Dudeen B. The soils of Palestine (The West Bank and Gaza Strip) current status and future perspectives. In : Zdruli P. (ed.), Steduto P. (ed.), Lacirignola C. (ed.), Montanarella L. (ed.). Soil resources of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries. Bari : CIHEAM, 2001. p. 203-225. (Options Méditerranéennes : Série B. Etudes et Recherches; n. 34).
[15]  Yahaya Ahmed Iyaka. 2011. Nickel in soils: A review of its distribution and impacts. cientific Research and Essays Vol. 6(33), pp. 6774-6777.
[16]  Mandina Shadreck and Tawanda Mugadza. 2013. Chromium, an essential nutrient and pollutant: A review. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vol. 7(9), 310-317.
[17]  Reed, S.T. 1993. Copper Adsorption/Desorption Characteristics on Copper Amended Soils. Dissertation, December 25, 1993, Blacksburg,VA.
[18]  Guest, C, Schulze, D., Thompson, I., Huber,D. 2002. Correlating manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra with extractable soil manganese. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1172-1181.
[19]  Millaleo,R., M. Reyes-Diaz, A.G. Ivanov, M.L. Mora, and M. Alberdi. 2010. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: Transport, accumulation and resistance mechanism. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10 (4): 470-481
[20]  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2004. Public health statement-Cobalt. Division of Toxicology 1600 Clifton Road NE Mailstop F-32 Atlanta, GA 30333. CAS#: 7440-48-4.
[21]  Chibuike, G. and S. Obiora. 2014. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Volume 2014, Article ID 752708, 12 pages.
[22]  Mirsal, I. A. 2004. Soil Pollution, origin, monitoring and remediation.
[23]  The impact of the 50-day Israeli aggression on Gaza's children. 2014. New Weapons Committee Research Group. Rome. Italy.
[24]  Simone Morais, Fernando Garcia e Costa and Maria de Lourdes Pereira 2012. Heavy Metals and HumanHealth, Environmental Health - Emerging Issues and Practice, Prof. Jacques Oosthuizen (Ed.), InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/environmental-health-emerging-issues and-practice/heavy-metals-and-human-health
Show Less References


Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash by Using Chemical Coagulation (CC) and Electro - coagulation [EC]

1D. Y. Patil College of Engineering and Technology Pimpri, Pune, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

2Department of Civil Engineering, S. B. Patil College of Engineering, Indapur, Dist: Pune-413106, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015, 3(5), 159-163
doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manoj. P. Wagh, P. D. Nemade. Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash by Using Chemical Coagulation (CC) and Electro - coagulation [EC]. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2015; 3(5):159-163. doi: 10.12691/env-3-5-1.

Correspondence to: Manoj.  P. Wagh, D. Y. Patil College of Engineering and Technology Pimpri, Pune, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Email: profmpwagh@gmail.com


There is an urgent need to find best suitable economic technology to knock out the problems due to distillery industries creating pollution and ecological imbalance. In the present study electro-coagulation treatment is carried out by using different combination of aluminum and iron electrodes in a batch reactor. Also chemical coagulation treatment is carried out by using alum and lime dose to treat distillery spent wash. Maximum 96.09% colour removal was obtained by using Al-Al electrodes for pH 8 and maximum COD removal was obtained 85.7 % by using Al-Al electrodes for pH 3. Further experiments are carried out by using alum and lime coagulant dose to treat distillery spent wash maximum 66. 27 % COD was removed by using alum. Alum is more effective than lime to remove chemical oxygen demand.



[1]  Beltran F.J, Alvarez PM, Rodriguez E.M, Garcia-Araya J.F, Rivas, J Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrating aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation, Biotechnology. Prog. 2001, 17, pp. 462-467.
[2]  Mohana. S, Acharya. B. K, and Madamwar. D Review on Distillery Spent wash treatment technologies and potential applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2009,163, pp. 12-25.
[3]  Saha. N. K, Balakrishanan. M, Batra. V. S, Improving industrial water use, 2005, case study for an Indian distillery.
[4]  Vijayaraghavan. K, Ramanujam, T.K and Balasubramanian In situ hypochlorous acid generation for the treatment of distillery spent wash, IND. Eng. Chem. Res, 1999, 38, pp. 2264-2267.
[5]  Sangave P.C., Pandit A. B. Ultrasound and enzyme assisted biodegradation of distillery wastewater, Journal of Env. Mgt. 2006. Vol. 80(1), pp. 34-46.
Show More References
[6]  Beltran, F. J, Garcia-araya, J. F, & Alvarez, P. M., Wine Distillery Wastewater Degradation Improvement of Aerobic Biodegradation by Means of an Integrated Chemical (Ozone) -Biological Treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1999, pp.47-3919.
[7]  Yadav S, Degradation and decolourization of post methanated distillery effluent in biphasic treatment system of bacteria and wetland plant for environmental safety PhD thesis 2012, school of life science, Pandit Ravi Shankar Shukla University.
[8]  Pant. D, Adholeya. A. Biological approaches for treatment of distillery waste water: review, Bio Technol. 2007, 98, pp. 2321-2334.
[9]  Kobyaa. M and Gengecb.E Decolourization of melanoidins by a electrocoagulation process using aluminium electrodes Environmental Technology, 2012, pp 1-10.
[10]  Mohana.S, Desai.C, and Madamwar.D, Biodegrading and decolourization of anaerobically treated distillery spent wash by a novel bacterial consortium, Biores. Technol. 2007, 98, pp. 333-339.
[11]  Yadav Sangeeta and Ram Chandra, Effect of pH on melanoidin extraction from post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) and its decolourization by potential bacterial consortium, “International Journal of Recent Scientific research”, 2013, Vol 4, issue 10, pp 1492-1496.
[12]  Dhale A.D, Mahajani V.V, Treatment of distillery waste after bio-gas generation: wet oxidation, “Indian J. Chem. Technol”. 2013, 7, pp. 11-18.
[13]  Asaithambi. P., Lakshminarayana Garlanka, N.Anantharaman, and Manickan Matheswaran, “Influence of Experimental parameters in the treatment of distillery effluent by electrochemical oxidation”, Separation Science and Technology, 2012. pp 470-481.
[14]  Khandegar. V. and Saroha. K. Electrochemical treatment of distillery spent wash using Aluminum and iron electrodes, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2012, 20(3) pp 439-443.
[15]  Krishna. B. M., Murthy. U. N., Kumar. B. M and Lokesh. K. S.:“Electrochemical pretreatment of distillery waste water using aluminum electrode, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2001, Vol 40, pp. 663-667.
[16]  Thakur. C, Srivastava. V. C and Mali. I. D., Electrochemical treatment of a distillery wastewater: parametric and residue disposal study, Chemical Engineering, Journal, 2009, Vol 148, pp. 494-505.
[17]  Manisankar. P, Rani. C and Vishwanathan. S “Effect of Halides in the Electrochemical Treatment of Distillery Effluent”, Chemosphere, 2004, pp. 57-961
[18]  Khandegar. V, Saroha. A. K Treatment of Distillery Spent wash by Electro coagulation, “Journal of Clean Energy Technologies”, 2014, Vol 2, pp. 244-247.
[19]  Krishna. B. M., Murthy. U. N., Kumar. B. M and Lokesh. K. S. Study of the Electrochemical process for distillery waste water treatment, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 2010, Vol 5.No.1, pp. 134 -140.
[20]  Khandegar.V. and Anil .K.Saroha, Electro coagulation of Distillery Spent wash for Complete Organic Reduction, “International Journal of Chem Tech Research, Vol 5, No. 2, pp. 712-718
[21]  Manoj Wagh, P. D. Nemade, Colour and COD removal of Distillery spent wash by using Electro coagulation, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science” Volume 3, Issue 3,pp. 1159-1173.
Show Less References