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Article

The Assessment Process of Pupils’ Learning in Saudi Education System: A Literature Review

1Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

2General Administration of Education in Najran region, Ministry of Education, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 883-891
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yahya Al Alhareth, Ibtisam Al Dighrir. The Assessment Process of Pupils’ Learning in Saudi Education System: A Literature Review. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):883-891. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-6.

Correspondence to: Yahya  Al Alhareth, Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. Email: alhareth_y@yahoo.com

Abstract

Assessments are essential components of teaching and learning programmes and help shape individual learning. Assessment at secondary and higher education levels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) uses an examination system and it relies solely on the teacher to assess students. The assessment does not assess the ability of students to design and carry out experiments or even evaluate their understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. Thereby, this paper will review the literature of the assessment process in the Saudi General Education System by considering several different aspects. This consideration will include the definitions and purpose of assessment as a means of learning about students and the progression of their learning. The different forms of assessment will also be considered as well the assessment practices in mathematics, and in particular in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia as it can provide insights into the quality of assessment practices.

Keywords

References

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[8]  Al-Sadan, I., (2000), Educational Assessment in Saudi Arabian Schools, Assessment in Education, 7 (1): pp. 143-155.
 
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[10]  Berry, R., (2008), Assessment for Learning, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
 
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Article

Evaluating the University's Governing Board: A Comprehensive Review of Its Domains and Indicators

1Health Management and Economics Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2Department of Health Services Management, Iran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Vice Provost for Diversity and Academic Initiatives of Kent State University, Ohio, USA

4Chancellery Office, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 892-897
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Haniye Sadat Sajadi, Mohammadreza Maleki, Hamid Ravaghi, Steve o. Michael, Mohammad Hadi. Evaluating the University's Governing Board: A Comprehensive Review of Its Domains and Indicators. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):892-897. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-7.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Hadi, Chancellery Office, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Email: hadi@mui.ac.ir

Abstract

Background: Existing evidence with regard to the indicators of board performance evaluation of the University demonstrated that a comprehensive review of literature is required. The aim of this article is to add to the literature on performance evaluation of the universities’ governing boards by providing a summary of literature-based perspectives. Methodology: Systematic literature searches were undertaken, and relevant studies identified using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected studies were appraised, and their findings synthesized.Principal Findings: Fourteen relevant studies were identified, mostly from the USA. Fifty six indicators, categorized in seven domains, were identified to evaluate board performance in different universities. Conclusion: Our results showed a gap in the literature with respect to the performance evaluation of universities’ governing boards. Given the unique context of these universities, it is suggested that more research need to be done in order to understand the indicators of the board performance evaluation in these institutions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Leadership and Competence Development in Higher Education: Reconstituting the Human – Machine Interfaces in the Space of Digital Systems

1Philosophical Studies, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 898-905
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Milan Jaros. Leadership and Competence Development in Higher Education: Reconstituting the Human – Machine Interfaces in the Space of Digital Systems. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):898-905. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-8.

Correspondence to: Milan  Jaros, Philosophical Studies, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom. Email: Milan.Jaros@ncl.ac.uk

Abstract

It is an outstanding intellectual and leadership challenge in higher education to develop effective ‘competence’ delivery and evaluation practices complementary to and building upon the traditional programs. The key obstacle is the growing generic gap between systems of thought and organization governing the established curriculum and those required for decision making conditioned by the radical changes in the divisions of labor. It is argued that this decision making takes place in an open problem space in which success depends on being able to recognize and make use of the pathways imposed upon us by digitalization of knowledge systems and work practices. These are the highways along which the current thoughts and material exchanges travel and collide, and which condition the much needed synergy of inputs spanning disparate knowledge and power systems. Two aspects of this structural problem are of particular interest here. Firstly, the boundary separating human and machinic contributions have become blurred beyond repair. Secondly, the failure to recognise fully the impact of new work practices amounts to de facto abdication by humans from taming runaway complexification. This rapidly reduces the space in which to make efforts required to ensure that the human condition - and the standing of higher education as a guardian of the consititutive role of human –human engagenment in particular - remain open for debate and perpetual re-positioning in rapidly changing circumstances. The aim here is to establish pedagogy for a fresh re-appraisal of this constitutive process in the liminal space of human and machinic contributions, and one capable of engendering the human-centered character of University without depriving staff and students of benefits brought by the maturing post-mechanical culture.

Keywords

References

[1]  Jaros, M., “Leadership and Methodology Challenges in Higher Education: Developing Competence in the Digital Age”, Global Education Review 2, 64-89, 2014.
 
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Article

The Issue of Residential Mobility in the Congo; Case of the City of Brazzaville

1School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 906-910
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin, Li Jiang Feng, Koua Stephen Faller, Mabiala Koyo Grace, Mouele Mboungou Patrick Joe Stivell, Naoueyama Corine Elsa. The Issue of Residential Mobility in the Congo; Case of the City of Brazzaville. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):906-910. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-9.

Correspondence to: Mouele  Mboungou Patrick Joe Stivell, School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China. Email: nzoussik@yahoo.fr, Stephen_faller@yahoo.fr, mamamyalove@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Urbanization is the developing process of cities. For over a decade, African cities in general have had a very high population growth. We have observed the same trend within the same time period in Brazzaville, the political capital. This is probably due to the Political and Economic stability particularly marked by urbanization and the boom of the oil industry. This significant population growth, especially not controlled results in jeopardizing all the urbanization planning and cause a lot problems. Cities have certainly some advantages because they are opened to the world, however, it is a big challenge for everyone to live and comply with cities ‘constraints and requirements. Feeding, clothing and getting a decent accommodation are undoubtedly big issues the economically weak have to challenge. This article aims to study first the causes and consequences of residential mobility’s in Brazzaville, then offers some possible solutions in order to reduce this problem. These are the main objectives assigned to this work.

Keywords

References

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Article

‘Teaching the Way I Was Taught’: We Can and Should Do Better

1Centre for Learning Innovation and Professional Practice, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Australia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 911-918
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lorraine Bennett. ‘Teaching the Way I Was Taught’: We Can and Should Do Better. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):911-918. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-10.

Correspondence to: Lorraine  Bennett, Centre for Learning Innovation and Professional Practice, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Australia. Email: lorraine.bennett@federation.edu.au

Abstract

Consideration of the quality of higher education is a complex and multifaceted issue. A number of stakeholders contribute to this debate and have very diverse perspectives and distinctive opinions on what constitutes quality of, and quality in, higher education and how it should be described, fostered, measured and reported. Discussion at the meta-level tends to focus on aspects such as: national quality frameworks and standards; rankings; benchmarking; and, graduate employment outcomes. Over the past decade, in Australia and in other countries with similar higher education ideologies and structures, there have been concerted efforts to identify and map characteristics of teaching effectiveness and attributes of an effective teacher to better understand how these factors contribute to quality of higher education. Some research studies and educational commentators nominate the capacity and effectiveness of the teacher as critical components in providing a quality education experience. The irony is that in Australian universities, and similarly in higher education in many other countries, a tertiary teaching qualification is not required for employment as a teacher/lecturer in universities. Consequently, for many of our universities the practice of ‘teaching the way I was taught’ has become the default approach to engaging with increasingly diverse and mobile higher education student populations. This paper describes how a personalised Graduate Certificate in Education (Tertiary Teaching), for newly appointed and early career tertiary teachers, taken post-employment, is addressing this issue to some extent. However, in the final analysis the questions that need to be asked are: ‘What is the impact on the quality of higher education of not requiring our teaching staff to have a tertiary teacher education qualification as a pre-requisite for employment?’ and ‘Are we doing a disservice to our students by not requiring university teachers to have appropriate tertiary teacher education preparation?

Keywords

References

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Article

Lesson Study in Improving the Role of E-Portfolio on the Metacognitive Skill and Concept Comprehension: A Study on Cell Biology Subject in IKIP PGRI Madiun, Indonesia

1Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Education, IKIP PGRI MADIUN, Madiun, Indonesia

2Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Malang, Malang, Indonesia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 919-924
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marheny Lukitasari, Herawati Susilo, Ibrohim, A. Duran Corebima. Lesson Study in Improving the Role of E-Portfolio on the Metacognitive Skill and Concept Comprehension: A Study on Cell Biology Subject in IKIP PGRI Madiun, Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):919-924. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-11.

Correspondence to: A.  Duran Corebima, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Malang, Malang, Indonesia. Email: durancorebima@yahoo.com

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine the potency of the implementation of e-portfolio supported by the implementation of Lesson Study to improve the metacognitive skill and concept comprehension of Cell Biology. The activities of the lesson study aimed for developing and enhancing e-portfolio implementation habit carried out done seventh times with the same Cell Biology material. The study was followed by quasi experimental study conducted on two classes, consisting of 26 and 27 students. One class underwent seven meetings of portfolio and another class underwent seven meetings of e-portfolio. The data of the study related to the concept comprehension were obtained by valid and reliable pretest and posttest. The data related to the metacognitive skill were obtained too by the pretest and posttest supported by a special rubric. The data of the lesson study were analyzed qualitatively. The data of the quasi experimental study were analyzed by ANACOVA test, to uncover the difference between the two treatments. The results of the study showed that there were significant effects of the implemented treatment on the metacognitive skill and the cell biology concept comprehension of the students. The average score of the metacognitive skill of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 39,4% higher than that of the portfolio class. The average score of the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 15% higher than that of the portfolio class without lesson study. The implementation of lesson study was significantly effective in improving the metacognitive skill and the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class compared to that of portfolio class, regardless the previous research reported that the implementation of e-portfolio had unsignificant effect.

Keywords

References

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Article

Complex System Theory and College English Teaching Developments

1School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China

2Room 704, No. 8 Building, No. 155-2, Yingxuongshan Road, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 925-931
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liang Aimin, Cong Rizen. Complex System Theory and College English Teaching Developments. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):925-931. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-12.

Correspondence to: Liang  Aimin, School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China. Email: sfl_liangam@ujn.edu.cn

Abstract

Complex systems are composed of elements or agents that are of many different types and that interact in different ways. Complex System Theory, originating in the fields of physics and mathematics, and also popularly known as Chaos Theory or Dynamic System Theory, attempts to describe the interactions of different elements and agents with the features of heterogeneity, dynamics, openness, adaptation, non-linearity, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions etc and supplies new perspectives to the researches of Applied Linguistics. This article tries to reveal the prospect of the application of Complex System Theory in College English Teaching of China with the purpose to explore effective approaches to its developments of the following elements: such as, needs analysis, teaching objectives, teaching materials, testing, teaching models and evaluations.

Keywords

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Article

Home, School and Gender Differences in Early Reading Fluency among Standard Three Pupils in Primary Schools in Kiuu Sublocation, Kiambu County, Kenya

1Department of Educational Psychology, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi-Kenya


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 932-941
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tabitha Wang’eri, Doyne Mugambi. Home, School and Gender Differences in Early Reading Fluency among Standard Three Pupils in Primary Schools in Kiuu Sublocation, Kiambu County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):932-941. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-13.

Correspondence to: Tabitha  Wang’eri, Department of Educational Psychology, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi-Kenya. Email: tabitha.wangeri@gmail.com

Abstract

The intention of the study was to establish the relationship between home and school factors and reading fluency in Kiswahili and English languages among standard three pupils in Kiuu sub location, Kiambu County, Kenya. To achieve this, the study investigated family factors such as family size, number of children attending school, languages spoken at home, parental support such as helping with homework and the frequency of reading story books for children. The study also sought to establish school factors that support reading fluency such as languages of instruction teachers used as well as the number of Kiswahili and English text books children possessed. Bronfennbrener (1979) ecological systems theory was used to ground the study. The study sample consisted of four purposefully selected primary schools two of which were public and the other two privately owned. Data regarding the school and home factors were collected through a paper based questionnaire while the data relating to pupils’ Kiswahili and English reading fluency was collected through one-minute reading passages one in Kiswahili and the other in English. The results revealed that majority of the children lived with both parents and had between 1 and 3 siblings in school and the languages spoken at home, school and among the peers were mother tongue, Kiswahili and English. For majority of the children homework was overseen by the mother while many of them could not recall the last time a parent read to them a story book. With regard to accessing books for reading, the findings revealed that children in private schools had more access to English and Kiswahili books than their counterparts in public schools. With regard to reading fluency, the study established that the maximum number of English words read per minute were 171 while the least were 0 with a mode of 69. The maximum number of Kiswahili words read was 118 with a minimum of 0 and a mode of 61. Children in Private schools displayed better fluent reading than their counterparts in public schools and girls were more fluent readers than boys. The study recommended that the literary environments be improved both at home and in the schools and that the language policy be further interrogated given that the language children are exposed to at home is different from the language of instruction at school and also different from the language used among peers. Another recommendation of this study was that curriculum developers engage in material development both in Kiswahili and the various local languages in tandem with policy requirements. The study further recommended that methods of improving reading acquisition and fluency be sought.

Keywords

References

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Article

What is outside? The Early Years Foundation Stage in England: Outdoor Facilities, Organisation and Staff Attitudes

1Institute of Education, University of Reading, Reading, England


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 942-949
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Helen Bilton. What is outside? The Early Years Foundation Stage in England: Outdoor Facilities, Organisation and Staff Attitudes. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):942-949. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-14.

Correspondence to: Helen  Bilton, Institute of Education, University of Reading, Reading, England. Email: h.o.bilton@reading.ac.uk

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to report on the facilities available, organisation of, and staff attitudes to early years outdoor education from schools within the south east of England, focusing on provision for children aged three to five. One component of the successful education of the child involves providing an ‘environment for learning’, including the facilities, layout and routines. This paper presents findings concerning the type and variety of facilities available outside; the various styles of organisation of the space; staff attitudes about: their roles, their aims for the environment, children’s behaviour and learning, and perceived drawbacks to practice. This paper draws on empirical data collected from schools within the University of Reading partnership. The findings suggest that although all early years settings must adhere to the statutory framework there are a range of facilities available, and there are a number of ways this environment is organised. Further there appears to be uncertainty about the adult role outside and the aims for activities. The conclusions drawn indicate that staff do not appear to be linking their aims for outdoor education to the facilities provided or to their actions outside. This means there is not a clear link between what staff provide outside and the declared ambitions for learning. This study is important as all educators need to be certain about their aims for education to ensure best outcomes for children. The implications of these findings for early years teachers are that they need to be able to articulate their aims for outdoor education and to provide the correct facilities to achieve these aims. Finally this study was undertaken to raise debate, posit questions and to ascertain the parameters for further research about the early years outdoor environment.

Keywords

References

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Article

Corrective Feedback: A Bridge between Cognitive Interactionist and Social Interactionist Perspectives

1Department of Foreign Languages, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 950-954
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naif Althobaiti. Corrective Feedback: A Bridge between Cognitive Interactionist and Social Interactionist Perspectives. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):950-954. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-15.

Correspondence to: Naif  Althobaiti, Department of Foreign Languages, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Email: althobaiti@tu.edu.sa

Abstract

This presentation tries to explain oral corrective feedback (CF) as provided through conversational interaction. In this presentation, CF, as provided through the interaction, is viewed from two perspectives: the cognitive interactionist and the social interactionist. Although, both of these two perspectives value interaction, they explicate the provision of CF through interaction differently. The cognitive interactionists explain the provision of CF through, but not limited to, Interaction Hypothesis, Noticing Hypothesis, and Output Hypothesis. The social interactionists emphasize the roles of teachers and learners within the process of corrective feedback. They also emphasize the context in which they work and the specific pedagogic activity in which they are involved (Ellis, 2008; 2010). This presentation is hoped to contribute a better understanding of EFL learning facilitated through the provision of CF. In addition, it provides some recommendations for future researchers, language educators, and EFL teachers.

Keywords

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