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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Editor-in-Chief: Freddie W. Litton


Google-based Impact Factor: 1.27   Citations


Teaching and Learning ESL Writing by Critical Thinking

1Hong Kong Chinese Institute of Engineers Ltd. Honorary Lecturer, HKUSPACE & CUHK, SCS

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(12), 854-860
doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Diana Po Lan SHAM. Teaching and Learning ESL Writing by Critical Thinking. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(12):854-860. doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-1.

Correspondence to: Diana  Po Lan SHAM, Hong Kong Chinese Institute of Engineers Ltd. Honorary Lecturer, HKUSPACE & CUHK, SCS. Email:,


In traditional ESL writing class, the English teacher/lecturer just gives the students a topic, a paragraph or a series of diagrams and then asks the class to write the essays individually. According to the revised Bloom’s taxonomy [1], there are six levels including Remember; Understand; Apply; Analyze; Evaluate; Create. When we apply the taxonomy in teaching ESL writing and create an innovative and interactive setting, we can lead the learners to go through all the critical thinking stages. As a result, they have widened their scope with more fun after brainstorming and better learning outcomes in writing. I have adopted this method in teaching the ESL undergraduates and adult learners in various universities in Hong Kong, and Zhuhai and found it very effective. In this paper, I am going to explain and analyze how the creative and interactive ESL writing classes are structured with an example and the students’ feedback.



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The Use of Cooperative Learning to Reduce Attention Deficits in Students with Learning Disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1Department of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Rafha Male Campus, Northern Border University, Rafha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(12), 861-867
doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mogbel Aid K Alenizi. The Use of Cooperative Learning to Reduce Attention Deficits in Students with Learning Disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(12):861-867. doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-2.

Correspondence to: Mogbel  Aid K Alenizi, Department of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Rafha Male Campus, Northern Border University, Rafha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).. Email:


Cooperative learning strategies have proven to be effective for all types of students. Children who have attention deficits appear to have a weakness in most areas of attention and their ability to deal with it. Children who are affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD hereafter) might face many difficulties in their lives as an effect of this disorder. Usually what the affected child faces during the taught lessons could lead to failing to gain knowledge. In addition, this can lead to permanent disorders, whether from their colleagues or from adults who cause them to worry under different circumstances. Because of this they are inflicted by more hits or wounds than other children who do not suffer from this disorder. They face difficulties in cooperating with their cohorts or adults because of this. The present study tries to see the use of such learning strategies to reduce the attention deficits in the students with learning disorders.



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Education Students’ Responses to Flipped Learning Methodology in the Lebanese University

1Faculty of Education, Lebanese University, Rawda, Lebanon

2School of Engineering, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

3School of Arts & Sciences, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(12), 868-871
doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Evelyne Girgis, Majed Khodr, Lee Waller. Education Students’ Responses to Flipped Learning Methodology in the Lebanese University. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(12):868-871. doi: 10.12691/education-4-12-3.

Correspondence to: Evelyne  Girgis, Faculty of Education, Lebanese University, Rawda, Lebanon. Email:


The aim of this research was to test and analyse student responses to the introduction of the flipped learning methodology at the Faculty of Education in the Lebanese University, to identify potential relationships between the responses and to determine underlying factors guiding the responses. A survey questionnaire was developed by a team of faculty and sent to students via an online survey software. The analysis employed dimension reduction techniques to ascertain underlying factors guiding responses. The two major factors identified were student engagement and course flexibility of the flipped classroom approach. The research concluded that the flipped learning methodology can be useful for improving learning and holds the potential to more adequately engage today’s learners.



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