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Article

Rebranding Ukrainian Generations and Generation Y through the Prism of Modern Views

1Bohdan Khmelnytskyy National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12B), 83-86
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12B-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anatoliy Kuzminskyy. Rebranding Ukrainian Generations and Generation Y through the Prism of Modern Views. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12B):83-86. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12B-15.

Correspondence to: Anatoliy  Kuzminskyy, Bohdan Khmelnytskyy National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine. Email: ntaras7@ukr.net

Abstract

The article offers a short survey of the Ukrainian generations of 1900 through 2000. It details on the main features of the epoch and the environment in which generation Y was formed. The author specifies on the generation born in 1983 – 2003 and connects it with the peculiar features of the “millennials”’ entry into higher education.

Keywords

References

[1]  Grenier, A. Crossing age and generational boundaries: Exploring intergenerational research encounters, Journal of Social Issues 63 (4): 718, 2007, Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00532.x/abstract;jsessionid=FA4114020A67ED770547C114ABF1E757
 
[2]  Hoover, E. (11 October 2009), “The Millennial Muddle”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 12 August 2014, Available: http://chronicle.com/article/The-Millennial-Muddle-How/48772.
 
[3]  Horovitz, B. (May 4, 2012). After Gen X, Millennials, what should next generation be?, USA Today. Retrieved August 16, 2014, Available: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/advertising/story/2012-05-03/naming-the-next-generation/54737518/1.
 
[4]  Hunt, Tristram (2004-06-06). One last time they gather, the Greatest Generation, The Observer (London). Retrieved: August 16, 2014, Available: http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/jun/06/secondworldwar.
 
[5]  Huntley, R. Political parties ignore Generation Y at their own peril, Available: http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=2568.
 
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[6]  Jones, L. Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1980.
 
[7]  Mannheim, K. The problem of generation, in K. Mannheim, Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, London: RKP, 1952.
 
[8]  Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992. (Reprint), P. 324.
 
[9]  Strauss, William & Howe, Neil (1991). Generations. New York, NY: Harper Perennial. p. 318. Available: http://www.lifecourse.com/.
 
[10]  Ulrich, J. Introduction: A (Sub) cultural Genealogy. In Andrea L. Harris. GenXegesis: essays on alternative youth. P. 3. Available: http://books.google.com.ua/books?id=v10ZUR.
 
[11]  Williams, R. Is Gen Y Becoming the New "Lost Generation?. Wired for Success. Available: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wired-success/201304/is-ge.
 
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Article

Preface

1Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12C), 0-0
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12C-0
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Carlos Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas. Preface. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12C):0-0. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12C-0.

Correspondence to: Carlos  Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. Email: carlos.vargas@ibge.gov.br

Abstract

References

[1]  Bastos, C., Gava, G., Vargas, C. Jerry Fodor and the Reinterpretation of the Phrenological Model. Special Issue on Philosophy of education: contemporary perspectives, American Journal of Educational Research, Newark, Forthcoming Edition, 2015.
 
[2]  Gava, G. The Philosophy of Distance Education. Special Issue on Philosophy of education: contemporary perspectives, American Journal of Educational Research, Newark, Forthcoming Edition, 2015.
 
[3]  Hunt, J. From Western English to Global English: Issues in Cultural and Pragmatic Instruction. Special Issue on Philosophy of education: contemporary perspectives, American Journal of Educational Research, Newark, Forthcoming Edition, 2015.
 
[4]  Vargas, C. Project for Implementation of the Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment Programme in Adult Literacy. Special Issue on Philosophy of education: contemporary perspectives, American Journal of Educational Research, Newark, Forthcoming Edition, 2015.
 

Article

The Philosophy of Distance Education

1Core Human Formation, Positivo University Online, Curitiba, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12C), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12C-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gustavo Luiz Gava. The Philosophy of Distance Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12C):1-3. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12C-1.

Correspondence to: Gustavo  Luiz Gava, Core Human Formation, Positivo University Online, Curitiba, Brazil. Email: gustavoluizgava@hotmail.com

Abstract

It is understood that the digital era is one of the major transitions to situate philosophy and other disciplines, in the virtual world: online teaching. Moreover, from there, enabling the student to include himself in his worldly field: cognitive virtual to the actual goal. A reverse engineering knowledge.

Keywords

References

[1]  Deleuze, G, Guattari, F, What is philosophy? Columbia University Press, New York, 2003.
 
[2]  Gardner, H,. Changing minds: the art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2008.
 
[3]  Halévy, M, A era do conhecimento: princípios e reflexões sobre a revolução noética no século XXI. Editora Unesp, São Paulo, 2010.
 
[4]  Palloff, R, Pratt, K, The virtual student: a profile and guide to working with online learners. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2003.
 
[5]  Veen, W, Vrakking, B, Homo zappiens: growing up in a digital age. Network Continuum Education, London, 2006.
 

Article

From Western English to Global English: Issues in Cultural and Pragmatic Instruction

1Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, Cavite, Philippines


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12C), 4-7
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12C-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Josiah Gabriel Hunt. From Western English to Global English: Issues in Cultural and Pragmatic Instruction. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12C):4-7. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12C-2.

Correspondence to: Josiah  Gabriel Hunt, Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, Cavite, Philippines. Email: huntj@aiias.edu

Abstract

This paper examines the impact globalization has had on the English language. As English has arisen to become the de facto official language of over 90 nations, the question is asked: Whose culture should be taught in language classrooms? It is suggested that cultural instruction should not be limited to that of Western nations, but must be globally inclusive taking into account diverse perspectives. In doing so, language learners develop the communicative competence needed to effectively interact in cross-cultural exchanges.

Keywords

References

[1]  Amaya, L, “Teaching culture: Is it possible to avoid pragmatic failure?” Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 21. 11-24. 2008.
 
[2]  Anderson, C., Nicklas, S., and Crawford, A, Global understandings: A framework for teaching and learning, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, 1994.
 
[3]  Byram, M., Gribkova, B., Starkeym, H, Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 2002.
 
[4]  Carrio-Pastor, M, Content and language integrated learning: Cultural diversity, Peter Lang AG International Academic Publishers, Bern, 2009, 31-46.
 
[5]  David, M, and Dumanig, F, “Nativization of English in Malaysia and the Philippines as Seen in English Dailies,” Research Gate, April 30, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228709538_Nativization_of_English_in_Malaysia_and_the _Philippines_as_Seen_in_English_Dailies. [Accessed Apr. 7, 2014].
 
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[6]  DeCapua, A, and Wintergerst, A, Crossing cultures in the language classroom, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2010.
 
[7]  “Era of 1.5 million foreigners.” The Korea Times, June 18, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2013/06/610_137670.html. [Accessed Apr. 3, 2014].
 
[8]  Ethnologue, “Languages of the world: English,” 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.ethnologue.com/language/eng. [Accessed Mar. 21, 2014].
 
[9]  Frank, J, “Raising cultural awareness in the English language classroom,” English teaching forum, 51 (4). 2-11. 2013.
 
[10]  Kim, I, “Number of foreign nationals in Korea tops 1.5 million,” KBS News, Jun. 10, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://english.kbs.co.kr/news/news_view.html?id=Dm&No=96462. [Accessed Apr. 3, 2014].
 
[11]  Lowenberg, P, “Testing English as a world language: Issues in assessing non-native proficiency,” in B. Kachru (Ed), The other tongue: English across cultures, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1992, 108-121.
 
[12]  Mahler, S, Culture as comfort. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, 2013.
 
[13]  Milambiling, J, “Bringing one language to another: multilingualism as a resource in the language classroom,” English teaching forum, 49 (1). 18-25. 2011.
 
[14]  Nelson, C, “My language, your culture: Whose communicative competence?” In B. Kachru (Ed), The other tongue: English across cultures, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 327-339.
 
[15]  Nuske, K, “Global Englishes in Asian contexts: Current and future debates [Review of the book Global Englishes in Asian contexts: Current and future debates, by K. Murata & J. Jenkins],” Tesol quarterly, 45 (4). 806-808. Dec. 2011.
 
[16]  Peters, L, Global education: using technology to bring the world to your students, International Society for Technology in Education, Washington DC, 2009.
 
[17]  Song, J. “Globalization, children’s study abroad, and transnationalism as an emerging context for language learning: A new task for language teacher education,” Tesol quarterly, 45 (4). 749-758. Dec. 2011.
 
[18]  Strevens, P, “English as an international language: Directions in the 1990s,” In B. Kachru (Ed), The other tongue: English across cultures, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1992, 27-47.
 
[19]  Wise, J, Cultural Globalization: A user’s guide, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, 2008.
 
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Article

Jerry Fodor and the Reinterpretation of the Phrenological Model

1PPGF, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

2Core Human Formation, Positivo Online University, Curitiba, Brazil

3Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12C), 8-10
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12C-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Cleverson Leite Bastos, Gustavo Luiz Gava, Carlos Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas. Jerry Fodor and the Reinterpretation of the Phrenological Model. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12C):8-10. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12C-3.

Correspondence to: Cleverson  Leite Bastos, PPGF, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. Email: leite.bastos@pucpr.br

Abstract

In tentative to support the “vertical tradition” in faculty psychology, Jerry Fodor reached resources in the phrenological model of Franz Gall. Fodor offers a reinterpretation of Gall’s work to demonstrate the emphasis investigative in the study of the mental structures and, indirectly, in the actual memory research, judgment, attention, among others. Jerry Fodor sought to highlight affirmative evidence that hides the phrenology of Gall, correcting and improving the phrenological model to research functional subsystems in the human mind. Deeping this issue, it is understood that the issue of modularity of mind contributed to undertake the current studies on the processes of teaching and learning, departing from the modular model proposed by Gall and Fodor.

Keywords

References

[1]  Candiotto, K. Fundamentos epistemológicos da teoria modular da mente de Jerry A. Fodor. Trans/Form/Ação, Marília, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 119-135, 2008.
 
[2]  Fiori, N. As neurociências cognitivas. Vozes, Petrópolis, 2008.
 
[3]  Fodor, J. The Modularity of Mind. Massachusetts, Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1983.
 
[4]  Gardner, H. Estruturas da mente: a teoria das inteligências múltiplas. Edusp, São Paulo, 1996.
 
[5]  Goodwin, J. História da psicologia moderna. Cultrix, São Paulo, 2005.
 
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[6]  Lashley, K. The problem of serial order in behavior. In: Jeffress, L. (ed.). Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior, pp. 506–528. New York: Wiley, 1951.
 
[7]  Mithen, S. A pré-história da mente: uma busca das origens da arte, da religião e da ciência. Unesp, São Paulo, 2002.
 
[8]  Morgan, H. Real Learning: A Bridge to Cognitive Neuroscience. Lanham: Scarecrown Education: R & L Education, 2003.
 
[9]  Sabbatini, R. O mapa frenológico. Campinas: Unicamp, 1997. Acessado em 09 julho, 2014, de http://cerebromente.org.br/n01/frenolog/frenologia_port.htm. [Accessed Nov. 25, 2014].
 
[10]  Ratcliffe, M. The Phenomenology and Neurobiology of Moods and Emotions. In: Gallagher, S.; Schmicking, D. Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010, p. 123-140.
 
[11]  Singh, A. K. The Comprehensive History of Psychology. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991.
 
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Article

A Project for Implementation of the Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment Programme in Adult Literacy

1Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12C), 11-13
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12C-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Carlos Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas. A Project for Implementation of the Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment Programme in Adult Literacy. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12C):11-13. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12C-4.

Correspondence to: Carlos  Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. Email: carlos.vargas@ibge.gov.br

Abstract

This project aims to provide an effective methodology and innovative local action in the area of youth and adults education. Justifying in the Brazilian social context and relying on the theory of the Dr. Reuven Feuerstein's mediated learning, a strategy of action will be presented to cognitively improve the performance of young people and adults in the literacy process.

Keywords

References

[1]  Blagg, N. Can We Teach Intelligence? A Comprehensive of Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment. Hillsdale: Erlbaum Associates, 1991. 217p.
 
[2]  CDCP. Experiência de Aprendizagem Mediada EAM. CDCP, 2001. Avaiable in: http://www.cdcp.com.br/pindex.htm.
 
[3]  Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., Roberts, R. Intelligence Theory, Assessment, and Research: The Israeli Experience. In: Sternberg, R. (ed.). International Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 212-247.
 
[4]  Feuerstein, R. Instrumental enrichment: an intervention program for cognitivie modifibility. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company: 1980.
 
[5]  Feuerstein, R., Falik, L. H., Feuerstein, R. The learning Potential Assessment Device: Na Alternative Approach to the Assessment of Learning Potential. In Samuda, R., Feuerstein, R. et alli. Advanced in Cross-Cultural Assessment. Thousand Oaks: London: New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998. 311p.
 
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[6]  Feuerstein, R., Hoffman, M. B. Mediating Cognitive Processes to the Retarded Performer – Rationale, Goals, and Nature of Intervention. In: Schwebel, M., Fagley, N. S., Maher, C. A. Promoting Cognitive Growth Over the Life Span. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990.
 
[7]  Feuerstein, R., Hoffman, M. B. et alli. Learning to Learn: Mediated Learning Experiences and Instrumental Enrichment. In: Schwebel, M. S., Maher, C. A.(org.). Facilitating Cognitive Development: International Perspectives, Programs, and Practices. 1986. New York: The Harworth Press, 1986.
 
[8]  Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Rynders, J. Don’t Accept me as I am: Helping “Retarded” People to Excel. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, 1988. 322p.
 
[9]  Greenberg, K. H. The Cognitive Enrichment Advantage Teacher Handbook. Knoxville: KCD Harris & Associates Press, 2000. 240p.
 
[10]  Gibson, G. D. Cognitive Literacy: A 21st Century Imperative for Education and Community Revitalization. In: UNEVOC Canada & ICELP International Conference: Unlocking The Human Potential To Learn. Manitoba: UNEVOC: ICELP, 2001.
 
[11]  Hoon, A. S., Seng, T. O. Mediating Learning Experience. In: Fisher, C. B., Lerner, R. M. (org.). Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science. Thousand Oaks: London: New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2005.1298p.
 
[12]  Moraes, R. Direito à inteligência: o educador Reuven Feuerstein aplica no ensino público baiano seu método revolucionário que afirma que todos são capazes de aprender. In: Revista Istoé, Nº 1545, 12 de maio de 1999. São Paulo: Editora 3, 1999. Avaiable in: http://www.cdcp.com.br/pindex.htm.
 
[13]  Sasson, D. Programa de Enriquecimento Instrumental do Prof. Feuerstein – PEI. Curitiba: CDCP, 2000. Avaiable in: http://www.cdcp.com.br/pindex.htm.
 
[14]  Sasson, D. Educador de educadores: o papel do gestor como mediador de seus professores. In: Gestão educacional: novembro, 2005. Curitiba: Humana Editorial, 2005.
 
[15]  Sasson, D. Todos são capazes de mudar e aprender mais: método de aprendizado promove modificação da capacidade intelectual – entrevista. Curitiba: Gazeta do Povo, 29 jan. 2006. p. 11.
 
[16]  Sasson, D., Macionk, M. Curso de Formação – PEI –Nível 1- Organização de Pontos, Orientação Espacial 1, Comparações, Percepção Analítica. Curitiba: CDCP, 2001a.
 
[17]  Sasson, D., Macionk, M. Curso de Formação – PEI –Nível 2- Classificações, Relações Familiares, Ilustrações, Orientação Espacial II, Relações Temporais. Curitiba: CDCP, 2001b.
 
[18]  Sasson, D., Macionk, M. Curso de Formação – PEI –Nível 3- Progressões Numéricas, Instruções, Silogismos, Relações Transitivas, Desenho de Padrões. Curitiba: CDCP, 2001c.
 
[19]  Sasson, D., Macionk, M. FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions. Curitiba: CDCP, 2001d. Avaiable in: http://www.cdcp.com.br/pindex.htm.
 
[20]  Skuy, M., Mentis, M., Feuersten, R. Bridgind Learning In and Out of the Classroom. Arlington Heights: SkyLight Training and Publishing, 1999. 134p.
 
[21]  Vargas, C. Elementos de Filosofia da Educação a partir da Teoria da Modificabilidade Cognitiva Estrutural de Feuerstein. Aprender: Caderno de Filosofia e Psicologia da Educação, Vitória da Conquista, Ano V, n. 8, p. 145-159, 2007.
 
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Article

The Student Wheels Strategy in Teaching Speaking Skills to Cultivate Politeness at Junior High School

1English Department FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12), 1211-1217
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nanik Mariani Effendie. The Student Wheels Strategy in Teaching Speaking Skills to Cultivate Politeness at Junior High School. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12):1211-1217. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-13.

Correspondence to: Nanik  Mariani Effendie, English Department FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Email: nanikmariani59@yahoo.com

Abstract

The English Course is one of the foreign language courses that must be taught as a compulsory subject at school, especially in the Junior High School. It is more stressed on knowledge of the four standards of competence or the four language skills, without considering the ethical values contained in that four language skills. It means that the teaching and learning English, especially in speaking skills, should be taught not only in the cognitive skills, but also in the affective skills as well. The education regarding how language-speaking politely, considering the value of tolerance, sympathy, and empathy. So implementing politeness in the process of teaching English speaking skills is important. Politeness is the rules of conduct established and agreed upon jointly by a particular community so that politeness as well as be concluded by the prerequisite of social behavior. To cultivate politeness in English speaking class, the English teachers at Junior High Schools (SMP) can use the teaching strategy, such as Student wheels strategy. Student Wheels is adopted from Hadfield (in Sulistiyowati, 2009: 72-73) to get the students more active in speaking class and accustomed in using polite language. Using Student wheels, all students can get their roles in speaking because they have to interact each other by standing in two circles formed as wheels. In this strategy, all students use the expressions of English speaking thought by the teacher and they can accustom by themselves in implementing politeness in the classroom.

Keywords

References

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[4]  Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. Politeness Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press, 1998, 80.
 
[5]  Chaer, Abdul, Kesantunan Barbahasa. Jakarata: Rineka Cipta, 2010, 6-9
 
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[9]  Halliwell, Susan. 1994. Teaching English in The Primary Classroom. London and New York: Longman, 1994, 38.
 
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Article

Democratic Values and Democratic Approach in Teaching: A Perspective

1Assistant. Professor, Dept. of Education, Southfield College, Darjeeling, West Bengal, INDIA


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12A), 37-40
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12A-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dipty Subba. Democratic Values and Democratic Approach in Teaching: A Perspective. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12A):37-40. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12A-6.

Correspondence to: Dipty  Subba, Assistant. Professor, Dept. of Education, Southfield College, Darjeeling, West Bengal, INDIA. Email: Diptysubba1@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper introduces the importance of Democratic Values and place the role of teachers in the present democratic world. India is the solitary country in the world where greater importance is attached to the teacher. Schools are places where democratic ideals such as equality, freedom, justice are instilled in individuals. Teachers are the ultimate instruments of change. For democracy to continue to thrive, children must be taught to value it as a way of life. The necessary skills for building democracy do not develop automatically in children. Teaching democracy means preparing children to become citizens who will preserve and shape democracy in the future. Therefore democracy should be a key aspect in every form of education at the earliest age possible. Children should learn about taking responsibility for their action. These educational outcomes are only possible through action. While key concepts of democracy should be understood by children, living and acting in a democratic environment is the only and the best exercise. Schools, institutions, children’s clubs and organizations and even families that respect democratic principles and have real democratic structures function as the best models to help children learn what democracy is about. The qualities like tolerance, acceptance, a wider view, global awareness, reflection and equal justice rests within the teachers to shape the child in all possible ways to face this competitive world of today. Teachers' beliefs, thoughts and decisions on educational matters occupy the major part of the psychological context of teaching process. Teacher educators should democratize their pedagogy so that their trainees learn understandings and skills of democratic practice throughout their training experience. The appropriate balance between critical components skills, knowledge and dispositions, on one hand, and an open, dynamic and critically engaged curriculum, and teaching and learning conceptual framework, on the other hand has not yet been attained.

Keywords

References

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Article

Beyond Knowledge and Pedagogy: Academic Optimism of Teachers in High Need Schools

1School of Education, Drexel University, Korman Center 222, Philadelphia, Pa 19104


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12), 1218-1224
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12-14
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sheila R. Vaidya. Beyond Knowledge and Pedagogy: Academic Optimism of Teachers in High Need Schools. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12):1218-1224. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-14.

Correspondence to: Sheila  R. Vaidya, School of Education, Drexel University, Korman Center 222, Philadelphia, Pa 19104. Email: vaidyasr@drexel.edu

Abstract

The question that drives the research presented in this paper is –why are some teachers in a cohort more effective than others, despite the fact that the academic preparation is the same for all? We find the answers in the teacher academic optimism- teacher beliefs and attitudes of efficacy about the students and themselves. Next, we visit their classrooms, review their journals, question them about how they use mentors. Based on this data, we present five case studies, characterize teacher beliefs and philosophy while observing how their academic optimism plays out in their classroom behavior.

Keywords

References

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Article

Flipping the Classroom for Pharmacokinetics

1School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia

2Deakin Learning Futures, Deakin University, Burwood VIC 3125, Australia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12), 1225-1229
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12-15
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jennifer Schneider, Irene Munro, Siva Krishnan. Flipping the Classroom for Pharmacokinetics. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12):1225-1229. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-15.

Correspondence to: Jennifer  Schneider, School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia. Email: Jennifer.Schneider@newcastle.edu.au

Abstract

A flipped classroom approach was implemented in a pharmacokinetics course to encourage active student learning and enable the development of higher level learning skills. Students viewed written and/or audio-visual recordings of content materials prior to active face-to-face engagement where they then applied their learning through the evaluation and analysis of different clinical scenarios, calculation of dosing regimens, and synthesis of information to create resources. Student outcomes for the flipped pharmacokinetics course in 2013 were compared with student outcomes for the traditionally taught pharmacokinetics course in 2012 which acted as control. Student evaluations of the course showed significantly stronger satisfaction with their learning experience by students in the innovative 2013 course compared to students in the traditional 2012 control (P=0.01).Although students in the 2013 cohort strongly agreed that flipping the classroom enabled them to apply their learning and that it had a positive effect on their learning, there was no significant difference in the major assessment results between the 2013 and 2012 cohorts.

Keywords

References

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