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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Editor-in-Chief: Freddie W. Litton




Predicting Academic Achievement Motivation: Possible Selves of Undergraduate Students in Selected Universities in Kenya

1Associate Professor, Regina Pacis University College, Kenya

2Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

3Assistant Professor, United States International University-Africa, Kenya

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 43-49
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-7
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joash Mutua Wambua, Catherine Wambui Wambua, Peter Changilwa Kigwilu. Predicting Academic Achievement Motivation: Possible Selves of Undergraduate Students in Selected Universities in Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):43-49. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-7.

Correspondence to: Peter  Changilwa Kigwilu, Assistant Professor, United States International University-Africa, Kenya. Email:


The role of motivation in enhancing students’ academic achievement cannot be gainsaid, moreso intrinsic motivation. International discourses attribute students’ academic achievement to their perceived possible selves. However, most studies on possible selves have largely been conducted among students in high schools outside Africa. Thus, the concept of possible selves remains under-researched in the African context. This study investigated possible selves of undergraduate students from selected universities in Kenya. It explored possible selves’ differences between male and female students, private and public universities, and profession-vowed Catholic students versus those that are not. The study sampled 167 students in five universities; two public universities and three private universities. Questionnaires were piloted to 31 students and validated by experienced educational psychologists. The reliability of the questionnaires, measured using the Cronchbach statistic, was 0.78. The study found higher achievement possible selves among female students than male students. Students in both public and private universities held similar possible selves for achievement; however, female students had higher physical health possible selves than male students. Higher physical health possible selves were also found among students from private universities than in public universities. However, there was no significant difference in possible selves’ between students who were profession-vowed Catholics (fathers, brothers, and sisters) and the non-profession vowed students. Implication arising from the findings is that universities can build on the relatively high achievement possible selves of students to enhance their academic achievement. Universities may use the findings to interrogate student motivation hence improve academic advising accordingly.



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Development and Evaluation of a Practice Model Based on Questioning Framework in Science for Inducing Cognitive Conflicts in Case of the After-image Effect

1Kitauwa High School, Japan

2Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Japan

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 50-55
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-8
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Takekuni Yamaoka, Shinji Matsumoto. Development and Evaluation of a Practice Model Based on Questioning Framework in Science for Inducing Cognitive Conflicts in Case of the After-image Effect. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):50-55. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-8.

Correspondence to: Takekuni  Yamaoka, Kitauwa High School, Japan. Email:


The purpose of this study was to investigate the practice model in science based on questioning framework for inducing cognitive conflicts. Using “puzzling picture” effectively depends on the questions that the teacher asks. First, the teacher uses divergent questions to elicit various responses. After that, the teacher uses convergent questions to focus on science topics. The content of the experiment was to perform a description of the after-image effect. When one tries to observe the water droplets using a stroboscope, water droplets appear to fall, be stopped, or climb. The lesson pertaining to this educational program was administered to 96 in the 10th grade students to determine the effects of the questioning framework. The content of the survey-questionnaire and worksheet were analyzed by using quantitative manner. The following were the results of the study: 1) it is not just fun, it is also beneficial at learning principles of natural science; 2) through the use of “think-pair-share” worksheet describing the interaction with others, the results of reasons were to be easily observed; 3) using the prior knowledge, obtaining new knowledge from others, and formulating new questions.



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The Performance of Tutors from a Public Institution and the Encouragement for the Use of Learning Strategies by Students

1Departamento de Educação, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brasil

2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brasil

3Programa de Pós Graduação em Educação, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil

4Graduação em Pedagogia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brasil

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 56-62
doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-9
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paula Mariza Zedu Alliprandini, Gisele Fermino Demarque Jeronymo, Natália Moraes Góes, Ludimila Alves Silva, Camila Adriana de Oliveira. The Performance of Tutors from a Public Institution and the Encouragement for the Use of Learning Strategies by Students. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):56-62. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-9.

Correspondence to: Paula  Mariza Zedu Alliprandini, Departamento de Educação, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brasil. Email:


This paper is based on the theoretical referential of the Cognitive Psychology/ Information Processing Theory, aiming to investigate how people learn, structure and use the acquired knowledge. This study aimed to analyze reports about pedagogical practices executed by tutors on Distance Learning, regarding the encouragement to use cognitive, behavioral and self-regulatory learning strategies by the students. Fifty-six tutors from a Public Institution from the Center-West region of the country took place on it. Data collection was made by means of a questionnaire, using the tools of Google Drive made available to the tutors in the platform of the course. Answers were analyzed by means of the theoretical contribution of the Content Analysis. Generally, it was observed that the pedagogic practices of the participants were focused in promoting the use of learning strategies, being the cognitive ones the more encouraged ones with regards to the behavioral and self-regulatory ones. Behavioral and self-regulatory strategies of emotion control were the less incentivized ones. Thus, it is suggested that the training of tutors should be directed towards studies about learning strategies and that new studies are performed, especially regarding affective and emotional strategies regarding the emotion control of the student. Also, considering the lack of intervention studies, the execution of intervention proposals focused on using learning strategies, especially in Distance Learning, is suggested.



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