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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Editor-in-Chief: Freddie W. Litton


Google-based Impact Factor: 1.27   Citations


The Scientific Practices on the Science’s Textbook in the Fifth Grade of Greek Primary School

1Department of Education Sciences in Early Childhood, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(14), 1008-1014
doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tsetsos Stavros. The Scientific Practices on the Science’s Textbook in the Fifth Grade of Greek Primary School. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(14):1008-1014. doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-4.

Correspondence to: Tsetsos  Stavros, Department of Education Sciences in Early Childhood, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. Email:


A plethora of studies related to science teaching and learning in the last two decades, has prompted the design and development of a new framework in order to improve the quality of scientific literacy for all students. The new framework incorporates the coexistence of three dimensions of learning: the scientific practices, the core ideas and the cross-cutting concepts. However, although the importance of the three dimensions of learning is paramount, the research that is focused on the analysis of the teaching material on the three dimensions is very limited. In this research, we focus on the dimension of scientific practices. The aim of this study was the analysis of the science textbook titled “Inquire and discover” (part of the teaching package) in the fifth grade of Greek Primary School on the scientific practices involved in its content. The term scientific practice does not coincide with the term practical skills because the participation in scientific research does not require only skills, but special knowledge and experience for every skill as well. The analysis was carried out by a grid that was structured by the scientific practices as conceptual categories. A part of the scientific practices of the new framework is not evident into the textbook content and important aspects of other scientific practices do not enter into units of analysis. The textbook is not satisfactorily aligned with the new framework of science learning and perhaps these findings negatively affect the scientific literacy of Greek students in Primary School.



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Effectiveness of School Principals' Transformational Leadership in Reducing Teachers' Burnout under Normally Demanding versus Extremely Demanding Work Conditions

1Max Stern Yezreel Valley College, Israel

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(14), 1015-1018
doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sarit Rashkovits, Yael Livne. Effectiveness of School Principals' Transformational Leadership in Reducing Teachers' Burnout under Normally Demanding versus Extremely Demanding Work Conditions. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(14):1015-1018. doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-5.

Correspondence to: Sarit  Rashkovits, Max Stern Yezreel Valley College, Israel. Email:


This study examines the effect of transformational leadership of school principals on teachers' level of burnout under two types of work conditions, i.e. extremely demanding versus normally demanding schools. Data were obtained from a sample of 263 teachers working in both types of schools, and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results supported all three research hypotheses, showing that (a) burnout level is higher in extremely demanding schools in comparison to normally demanding schools; (b) school principals' level of transformational leadership negatively affects the level of teachers' burnout; (c) this effect is moderated by school type (extremely- vs. normally demanding), such that transformational leadership is more effective in reducing burnout in less demanding schools rather than in high demanding schools. The finding shed light on contextual contingencies of the transformational leadership-burnout relationship.



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Leveraging Correlates of Innovative Teacher Behaviour for Educational Development in Developing Societies

1Ravi J Mathai Centre for Education Innovation, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India

American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(14), 1019-1024
doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rukmini Manasa Avadhanam, Vijaya Sherry Chand. Leveraging Correlates of Innovative Teacher Behaviour for Educational Development in Developing Societies. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(14):1019-1024. doi: 10.12691/education-4-14-6.

Correspondence to: Rukmini  Manasa Avadhanam, Ravi J Mathai Centre for Education Innovation, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India. Email:


The public system of elementary education in developing countries is often criticized for its poor performance, but a better understanding of the innovative teachers in this system who achieve their educational goals might offer insights for teacher development. What are the specific individual factors associated with the performance of such teachers? We draw on on-going work to identify the correlates of innovative work performance of government school teachers. It was hypothesized that intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy were high correlates of workplace innovative performance, openness to experience and proactivity, perceived job complexity and learning orientation of teachers were moderate correlates, and demographic factors were weak correlates. Three hundred and forty seven teachers were selected by systematic circular random sampling from 5650 teachers whose work had been peer-rated for innovativeness and performance. Intrinsic motivation of teachers was found to be the most significant correlate of innovative performance, along with qualification in a teacher eligibility test conducted by the government. All other factors did not seem to be critical. One implication for large-scale teacher training is the design of a model of professional development which relies on the principle of learning from the motivated teachers—those who have realized their educational goals, regardless of the constraints that are a feature of the more general educational context. This is best done through decentralized peer-driven teacher networks that seek to highlight the work of the innovative teachers as motivational triggers for the wider teaching community.



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