You are here

American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Editor-in-Chief: Freddie W. Litton




Design and Evaluation of Demonstration Tools for Newton’s Law of Motion

1Lapasan National High School, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

2Department of Science Education, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(2), 155-160
doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-8
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Cristy R. Malonzo, Maria Teresa M. Fajardo. Design and Evaluation of Demonstration Tools for Newton’s Law of Motion. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(2):155-160. doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-8.

Correspondence to: Maria  Teresa M. Fajardo, Department of Science Education, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines. Email:


In the absence of readily available teaching resources and laboratories, science teachers are often challenged to improvise instructional tools and materials. This study is aimed to design and evaluate indigenous toy carts intended for teaching Newton’s Law of Motion. Fifteen science teachers from two public high schools were asked to evaluate the developed indigenous toy carts using an evaluation form. A randomly selected intact class of Grade 8 students was also asked to perform a physics activity using the instructional tools developed by the researchers and evaluate the experience using an adopted Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. The demonstration tools were rated at most as acceptable by science teachers on constructional appearance and economy; ease of construction and scientific rigor and usability. Majority of the Grade 8 students found the activity with the indigenous carts interesting and enjoyable. It is recommended that science teachers be given more training and workshops on instructional tools and materials development to enhance the science experience of students.



[1]  Aschbacher, P. R., Li, E., & Roth, E. J. “Is science me? High school students' identities, participation and aspirations in science, engineering, and medicine”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2010, 47(5), 564-582.
[2]  Bryan, R. R., Glynn, S. M., & Kittleson, J. M. “Motivation, achievement, and advanced placement intent of high school students learning science”. Science Education, 2011, 95(6), 1049-1065.
[3]  SEI-DOST & UP NISMED, (2011). Science framework for Philippine basic education. Manila: SEI-DOST & UP.
[4]  Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[5]  Lau, S. & Roeser, R. “Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students’ Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science”. Educational Assessment, 2002, 8 (2), 139-162.
Show More References
[6]  Holstermann, N., Grube, D. & Bögeholz, S. “Hands-on Activities and Their Influence on Students’ Interest”. Res Sci Educ (2010) 40: 743.
[7]  Hazari, Z., Sonnert, G, Sadler, P. & Shananan, M. “Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2010, 47 (8), 978-1003.
[8]  Rotgans, J.I., & Schmidt, H.G., “Situational interest and academic achievement in the active-learning classroom”, Learning and Instruction, 2010.
[9]  Windschitl, M. Thompson, J., Braaten, M. & Stroupe, D. “Proposing a Core Set of Instructional Practices and Tools for Teachers of Science”, 2012, 96 (8), 878-903.
[10]  Haak, D., HilleRislamber, J., Piter, E. & Freeman, S. “Increased Structure and Active Learning Reduce the Achievement Gap in Introductory Biology” Science, 2011, 332, 1213.
[11]  Khan, M. Muhammad, N. Ahmed, M. Saeed, F. & Khan, S. “Impact of Activity –based teaching on Students’ Academic Achievement in Physics at Secondary Level”. Academic Research International, 2012, 3 (1).
[12]  Stump, G., Hilpert, J., Husman, J, Chung, W. & Kim, W. “Collaborative Learning in Engineering Students: Gender and Achievement”, Journal of Engineering Education, 2011, 100 (3), 1-24.
[13]  Watkins, J. & Mazur, E. “Retaining Students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Majors.” Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013, 42(5).
[14]  Wang, M. , Eccles, J. & Kenny, S. “Not Lack of Ability but More Choice: Individual and Gender Differences in Choices of Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” Psychological Science, 2013.
[15]  Crumb, C. Moore, C. & Ramos-Wada, A. “Who wants to have a Career in Science or math? Exploring Adolescents’ Future Aspirations by Gender and Race/Ethnicity”. Science Education, 2010 Wiley Online Library (
[16]  Vedder-Weiss, D. & Fortus, D. “Adolescent’s Declining Motivation to Learn Science: inevitable or Not? “Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2011, 48(2), 199-216.
[17]  Swarat, S., Ortony, A., & Revelle, W. (2012). “Activity matters: Understanding student interest in school science”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(4), 515-537.
[18]  Krapp, A. & Prenzel, M. “Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods and Findings”. International Journal of Science Education, Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2011, 33(01), pp.27-50.
[19]  Gerard, Ll. Varma, K., Corliss, S. & Linn, M. “Professional Development for Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Science.” Review of Educational Research. 2011, 81 (3), 408-448.
[20]  Ashar, A., Ellington, R., Rice, E. Johnson, F. & Prime, G. “Supporting STEM Education in Secondary Science Context”. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 2012, 6 (20), 85-125.
Show Less References


The Association of Grade Reporting Method, Student Performance, and Student Motivation on a Veterinary Clinical Rotation

1Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA

2Cat Hospital of Orlando, Altamonte Springs, FL 32701, USA

3Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas Veterinary Medical Center 4474 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4474, USA

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(2), 161-171
doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-9
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrew C. Bugbee, Annette Louviere, Jo R. Smith, Cynthia R. Ward, Kate E. Creevy. The Association of Grade Reporting Method, Student Performance, and Student Motivation on a Veterinary Clinical Rotation. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(2):161-171. doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-9.

Correspondence to: Andrew  C. Bugbee, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. Email:


The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing student motivation for learning and performance on a small animal internal medicine (SAIM) rotation, with a particular emphasis on the impact of the type of grade reporting system utilized. Veterinary students rotating through 3-week SAIM rotations at the University of Georgia between March 4, 2013 and May 1, 2014 were randomized to receive either conventional pass/fail (CONV) or proxy discriminating letter grades (PROX) as their interim and final individual performance evaluations. Additionally, each student was asked to complete a motivation self-assessment questionnaire on the last day of the rotation to determine which factors contributed to their performance accomplishments and learning strategies during the rotation. A total of 157 students completed the SAIM rotation during the 14-month period, and 107 students completed the questionnaire. There was no difference in scores on interim or final performance evaluations between CONV and PROX groups. Results of questionnaire responses suggested that the type of grade reporting system utilized infrequently impacted student motivation to exceed performance standards and did not influence specific learning techniques employed during their clinical rotation. Ultimately, the value placed on patient care, client relations, and future professional success were the most commonly reported motivating factors by the clinical students.



[1]  T. J. Parkinson, M. Gilling, and G. T. Suddaby, “Workload, study methods, and motivation of students within a BVSc program,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 33, pp. 253-265, Sum 2006.
[2]  S. A. Santen, D. B. Holt, J. D. Kemp, and R. R. Hemphill, “Burnout in Medical Students: Examining the Prevalence and Associated Factors,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 103, pp. 758-763, Aug 2010.
[3]  V. H. Dale, S. E. Pierce, and S. A. May, “The importance of cultivating a preference for complexity in veterinarians for effective lifelong learning,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 37, pp. 165-171, 2010.
[4]  J. Husman and W. Lens, “The role of the future in student motivation,” Educational Psychologist, vol. 34, p. 113, Spring 1999.
[5]  R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being,” American Psychologist, vol. 55, pp. 68-78, 2000.
Show More References
[6]  R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions,” CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 25, pp. 54-67, 2000.
[7]  A. Wigfield, J. T. Guthrie, S. Tonks, and K. C. Perencevich. (2004) Children's Motivation for Reading: Domain Specificity and Instructional Influences. [research article]. 299. Available:
[8]  E. L. Deci, “Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971.
[9]  E. L. Deci, W. F. Cascio, and N. Y. Rochester Univ, “Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats,” 1972.
[10]  J. M. Harackiewicz, G. Manderlink, and C. Sansone, “Competence processes and achievement motivation: Implications for intrinsic motivation,” in Achievement and motivation: A social-developmental perspective., A. K. Boggiano, T. S. Pittman, A. K. Boggiano, and T. S. Pittman, Eds., ed New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 115-137.
[11]  R. J. Vallerand and G. Reid, “ON THE CAUSAL EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED COMPETENCE ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION - A TEST OF COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY,” Journal of Sport Psychology, vol. 6, pp. 94-102, 1984.
[12]  L. W. Lackey and W. J. Lackey, “Grade Inflation: Potential Causes and Solutions,” International Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 22, pp. 130-139, 2006.
[13]  B. R. Rush, R. G. Elmore, and M. A. Sanderson, “Grade Inflation at a North American College of Veterinary Medicine: 1985-2006,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 36, pp. 107-113, 2009.
[14]  R. A. Dudas, J. M. Colbert, S. Goldstein, and M. A. Barone, “Validity of faculty and resident global assessment of medical students' clinical knowledge during their pediatrics clerkship,” Acad Pediatr, vol. 12, pp. 138-41, Mar-Apr 2012.
[15]  S. M. Rhind, “Competence at graduation: implications for assessment,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 33, pp. 172-175, 2006.
[16]  A. A. Lipnevich and J. K. Smith, “Effects of differential feedback on students’ examination performance,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 15, pp. 319-333, 2009.
[17]  K. L. Kettle and G. Häubl, “Motivation by anticipation: Expecting rapid feedback enhances performance,” Psychological Science, vol. 21, pp. 545-547, 2010.
[18]  J. Barenberg and S. Dutke, “Metacognitive monitoring in university classes: anticipating a graded vs. a pass-fail test affects monitoring accuracy,” Metacognition & Learning, vol. 8, pp. 121-143, 2013.
[19]  J. Mikkonen, M. Ruohoniemi, and S. Lindblom-Ylänne, “The role of individual interest and future goals during the first years of university studies,” Studies in Higher Education, vol. 38, pp. 71-86, 2013.
[20]  M. L. De Volder and W. Lens, “Academic achievement and future time perspective as a cognitive-motivational concept,” Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, vol. 42, pp. 566-571, 1982.
[21]  J. Mikkonen and M. Ruohoniemi, “How do veterinary students' motivation and study practices relate to academic success?,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 38, pp. 298-304, 2011.
[22]  M. Ruohoniemi, A. Parpala, S. Lindblom-Ylänne, and N. Katajavuori, “Relationships Between Students' Approaches to Learning, Perceptions of the Teaching–Learning Environment, and Study Success: A Case Study of Third-Year Veterinary Students,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 37, pp. 282-288, 2010.
[23]  R. A. Bloodgood, J. G. Short, J. M. Jackson, and J. R. Martindale, “A change to pass/fail grading in the first two years at one medical school results in improved psychological well-being,” Academic Medicine, vol. 84, pp. 655-662, 2009.
[24]  L. S. Robins and et al., “The Effect of Pass/Fail Grading and Weekly Quizzes on First-Year Students' Performances and Satisfaction,” Academic Medicine, vol. 70, pp. 327-29, 04/01/ 1995.
[25]  D. E. Rohe, P. A. Barrier, M. M. Clark, D. A. Cook, K. S. Vickers, and P. A. Decker, “The Benefits of Pass-Fail Grading on Stress, Mood, and Group Cohesion in Medical Students,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 81, pp. 1443-1448, 1/1/2006 2006.
[26]  L. D. Edgar, D. M. Johnson, D. L. Graham, and B. L. Dixon, “Student and faculty perceptions of plus/minus grading and its effect on course grade point averages,” College Student Journal, vol. 48, pp. 184-197, Spring 2014.
[27]  C. E. Lewis, J. R. Hiatt, L. Wilkerson, A. Tillou, N. H. Parker, and J. O. Hines, “Numerical Versus Pass/Fail Scoring on the USMLE: What Do Medical Students and Residents Want and Why?,” Journal of Graduate Medical Education, vol. 3, p. 59, 2011.
[28]  J. A. Dietrick, M. T. Weaver, and H. W. Merrick, “Pass/fail grading: a disadvantage for students applying for residency,” American Journal Of Surgery, vol. 162, pp. 63-66, 1991.
[29]  J. L. Provan and L. Cuttress, “Preferences of program directors for evaluation of candidates for postgraduate training,” CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 153, pp. 919-923, 1995.
[30]  I. C. McManus, P. Richards, B. C. Winder, and K. A. Sproston, “Clinical experience, performance in final examinations, and learning style in medical students: prospective study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 316, pp. 345-350, Jan 31 1998.
[31]  S. Raidal and S. Volet, “Preclinical students’ predispositions towards social forms of instruction and self-directed learning: a challenge for the development of autonomous and collaborative learners,” Higher Education, vol. 57, pp. 577-596, 2009.
[32]  AVMA Council on Education. (June 10, 2016). COE Accreditation Policies and Procedures: Requirements. Available:
[33]  R. E. Mayer, “Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving,” Instructional Science, vol. 26, pp. 49-63, 1998.
[34]  E. J. Short and J. A. Weissberg-Benchell, “The triple alliance for learning: Cognition, metacognition, and motivation,” in Cognitive strategy research, ed: Springer, 1989, pp. 33-63.
[35]  R. A. Kusurkar, G. Croiset, K. V. Mann, E. Custers, and O. t. Cate, “Have Motivation Theories Guided the Development and Reform of Medical Education Curricula? A Review of the Literature,” Academic Medicine, vol. 87, pp. 735-743, 2012.
[36]  J. Nevid, Essentials of psychology: Concepts and applications: Cengage Learning, 2011.
[37]  J. Dewey, Interest and effort in education: Houghton Mifflin, 1913.
[38]  D. A. Cook and A. R. Artino, Jr., “Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories,” Med Educ, vol. 50, pp. 997-1014, Oct 2016.
[39]  J. S. Eccles and A. Wigfield, “Motivational beliefs, values, and goals,” Annu Rev Psychol, vol. 53, pp. 109-32, 2002.
[40]  M. Delong and D. Winter, Learning to teach and teaching to learn mathematics: Resources for professional development: Mathematical Assn of Amer, 2002.
[41]  C. B. White, “Smoothing Out Transitions: How Pedagogy Influences Medical Students’ Achievement of Self-regulated Learning Goals,” Advances in Health Sciences Education, vol. 12, pp. 279-297, 2007.
[42]  B. Zhao and D. D. Potter, “Comparison of Lecture-Based Learning vs Discussion-Based Learning in Undergraduate Medical Students,” Journal of surgical education, 2015.
[43]  S. A. Roop and L. Pangaro, “Effect of clinical teaching on student performance during a medicine clerkship,” The American journal of medicine, vol. 110, pp. 205-209, 2001.
[44]  S. D. Goldstein, B. Lindeman, J. Colbert-Getz, T. Arbella, R. Dudas, A. Lidor, et al., “Faculty and resident evaluations of medical students on a surgery clerkship correlate poorly with standardized exam scores,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 207, pp. 231-235, 2014.
[45]  C. M. Reid, D. Y. Kim, J. Mandel, A. Smith, and V. Bansal, “Correlating surgical clerkship evaluations with performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 190, pp. 29-35, 2014.
[46]  K. D. Royal and K. G. Hecker, “Rater errors in clinical performance assessments,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, pp. 1-4, 2015.
[47]  I. Carmen Fuentealba and K. G. Hecker, “Clinical preceptor evaluation of veterinary students in a distributed model of clinical education,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 35, pp. 389-396, 2008.
[48]  S. M. Rhind, S. Baillie, F. Brown, M. Hammick, and M. Dozier, “Assessing competence in veterinary medical education: where's the evidence?,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 35, pp. 407-411, 2008.
[49]  S. D. Dawson, T. Miller, S. F. Goddard, and L. M. Miller, “Impact of outcome-based assessment on student learning and faculty instructional practices,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 40, pp. 128-138, 2013.
[50]  C. B. White and J. C. Fantone, “Pass-Fail Grading: Laying the Foundation for Self-Regulated Learning,” Advances in Health Sciences Education, vol. 15, pp. 469-477, 2010.
[51]  J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, and M. Hojat, “An empirical study of the predictive validity of number grades in medical school using 3 decades of longitudinal data: implications for a grading system,” Medical education, vol. 38, pp. 425-434, 2004.
Show Less References


Evaluate the Effectiveness of Clinical Simulation and Instructional Video Training on the Nursing Students' Knowledge about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation: Comparative Study

1Adult Health Nursing, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Nursing Department, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Mental Health Nursing, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Nursing Department, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3Adult Health Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(2), 172-178
doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-10
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Murad Alkhalaileh, Abd Al-Hadi Hasan, Omar Al-Rawajfah. Evaluate the Effectiveness of Clinical Simulation and Instructional Video Training on the Nursing Students' Knowledge about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation: Comparative Study. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(2):172-178. doi: 10.12691/education-5-2-10.

Correspondence to: Omar  Al-Rawajfah, Adult Health Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University. Email:


Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of instructional video training method of teaching about CPR in comparison with conventional format. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with 210 students. Students were randomly assigned to receive instructional video training (n = 111) or conventional format of teaching (n = 90). The primary outcome measure was the baseline to endpoint change in knowledge level. Results: A significantly higher overall post-test score was observed for instructional video training group as compared to lecture. Conclusions: instructional video training is as effective as conventional format of teaching in teaching and learning basic emergency skills.



[1]  American Heart Association. History of CPR 2006 [Available from:
[2]  Madden C. Undergraduate nursing students’ acquisition and retention of CPR knowledge and skills. Nurse education today. 2006; 26(3): 218-27.
[3]  Ackermann AD. Investigation of learning outcomes for the acquisition and retention of CPR knowledge and skills learned with the use of high-fidelity simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2009; 5(6): e213-e22.
[4]  Hamilton R. Nurses’ knowledge and skill retention following cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: a review of the literature. Journal of advanced nursing. 2005; 51(3): 288-97.
[5]  Perno M. Life-Threatening Emergencies: Are You Ready? The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 2002; 28(4): 7-8.
Show More References
[6]  Gombotz H, Weh B, Mitterndorfer W, Rehak P. In-hospital cardiac resuscitation outside the ICU by nursing staff equipped with automated external defibrillators—the first 500 cases. Resuscitation. 2006; 70(3):416-22.
[7]  Schimming LM. Measuring medical student preference: a comparison of classroom versus online instruction for teaching PubMed. Journal of the Medical Library Association. 2008; 96(3): 217-26.
[8]  Chamberlain D, Smith A, Woollard M, Colquhoun M, Handley AJ, Leaves S, et al. Trials of teaching methods in basic life support (3): Comparison of simulated CPR performance after first training and at 6 months, with a note on the value of re-training. Resuscitation. 2002; 53(2): 179-87.
[9]  Kozma RB. Learning with media. Review of educational research. 1991; 61(2): 179-211.
[10]  Koh LC. Practice-based teaching and nurse education. Nursing Standard. 2002; 16(19): 38-42.
[11]  Lynch B, Einspruch EL. With or without an instructor, brief exposure to CPR training produces significant attitude change. Resuscitation. 2010; 81(5): 568-75.
[12]  Grześkowiak M. The effects of teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation—a comparison between first and sixth year medical students. Resuscitation. 2006; 68(3): 391-7.
[13]  Braslow A, Brennan RT, Newman MM, Bircher NG, Batcheller AM, Kaye W. CPR training without an instructor: development and evaluation of a video self-instructional system for effective performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2008; 34(3): 207-20.
[14]  Todd KH, Heron SL, Thompson M, Dennis R, O’Connor J, Kellermann AL. Simple CPR: a randomized, controlled trial of video self-instructional cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in an African American church congregation. Annals of emergency medicine. 1999; 34(6): 730-7.
[15]  Price CS, Bell SF, Janes SE, Ardagh M. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation training, knowledge and attitudes of newly-qualified doctors in New Zealand in 2003. Resuscitation. 2006; 68(2): 295-9.
[16]  Curran VR, Aziz K, O'Young S, Bessell C. Evaluation of the effect of a computerized training simulator (ANAKIN) on the retention of neonatal resuscitation skills. Teaching and learning in medicine. 2004; 16(2): 157-64.
[17]  Hertel JP, Millis BJ. Using simulations to promote learning in higher education: An introduction: Stylus Publishing, LLC.; 2002.
[18]  McCausland LL, Curran CC, Cataldi P. Use of a human simulator for undergraduate nurse education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 2004; 1(1).
[19]  Creutzfeldt J, Hedman L, Medin C, Wallin C, Felländer-Tsai L. Effects of repeated CPR training in virtual worlds on medical students' performance. Studies in health technology and informatics. 2007; 132: 89-94.
[20]  Mäkinen M, Castren M, Tolska T, Nurmi J, Niemi-Murola L. Teaching basic life support to nurses. European journal of anaesthesiology. 2006; 23(04): 327-31.
[21]  Churkovich M, Oughtred C. Can an online tutorial pass the test for library instruction? An evaluation and comparison of library skills instruction methods for first year students at Deakin University. Australian Academic & Research Libraries. 2002; 33(1): 25-38.
[22]  Whitten P, Ford DJ, Davis N, Speicher R, Collins B. Comparison of face-to-face versus interactive video continuing medical education delivery modalities. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 1998; 18(2): 93-9.
[23]  Brannon TS, White LA, Kilcrease JN, Richard LD, Spillers JG, Phelps CL, editors. Use of instructional video to prepare parents for learning infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings; 2009: Baylor University Medical Center.
[24]  Rehberg RS, Diaz LG, Middlemas DA. Classroom versus computer-based CPR training: a comparison of the effectiveness of two instructional methods. Athletic Training Education Journal. 2009;4(3):98-103.
[25]  Spence AD, Derbyshire S, Walsh IK, Murray JM. Does video feedback analysis improve CPR performance in phase 5 medical students? BMC Medical Education. 2016;16(1):203.
[26]  Milic NM, Trajkovic GZ, Bukumiric ZM, Cirkovic A, Nikolic IM, Milin JS, et al. Improving education in medical statistics: implementing a blended learning model in the existing curriculum. PloS one. 2016;11(2):e0148882.
[27]  Saiboon IM, Jaafar MJ, Ahmad NS, GILBERT JH. Emergency skills learning on video (ESLOV): A single-blinded randomized control trial of teaching common emergency skills using self-instruction video (SIV) versus traditional face-to-face (FTF) methods. Medical Teacher. 2014;36(3):245-50.
[28]  Wik L, Thowsen J, Steen PA. An automated voice advisory manikin system for training in basic life support without an instructor. A novel approach to CPR training. Resuscitation. 2001;50(2):167-72.
[29]  Kidd T, Kendall S. Review of effective advanced cardiac life support training using experiential learning. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2007;16(1):58-66.
[30]  Smith A, Colquhoun M, Woollard M, Handley AJ, Kern KB, Chamberlain D. Trials of teaching methods in basic life support (4): comparison of simulated CPR performance at unannounced home testing after conventional or staged training. Resuscitation. 2004; 61(1):41-7.
[31]  McCutcheon K, Lohan M, Traynor M, Martin D. A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of advanced nursing. 2015; 71(2):255-70.
[32]  Paul F. An exploration of student nurses’ thoughts and experiences of using a video-recording to assess their performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during a mock objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Nurse education in practice. 2010; 10(5):285-90.
[33]  Kardong-Edgren S, Adamson KA. BSN medical-surgical student ability to perform CPR in a simulation: Recommendations and implications. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2009;5(2):e79-e83.
[34]  van Duijn AJ, Kathy Swanick P, Ellen Kroog Donald PT M. Student learning of cervical psychomotor skills via online video instruction versus traditional face-to-face instruction. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2014;28(1):94.
[35]  Porter WW, Graham CR, Spring KA, Welch KR. Blended learning in higher education: Institutional adoption and implementation. Computers & Education. 2014;75:185-95.
[36]  Moule P, Ward R, Lockyer L. Nursing and healthcare students’ experiences and use of e-learning in higher education. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2010;66(12):2785-95.
[37]  Gerdprasert S, Pruksacheva T, Panijpan B, Ruenwongsa P. An interactive web-based learning unit to facilitate and improve intrapartum nursing care of nursing students. Nurse Education Today. 2011;31(5):531-5.
[38]  Begley S. Teaching minds to fly with discs and mice. Newsweek May. 1994;31:47.
[39]  Toner P, Connolly M, Laverty L, McGrath P, Connolly D, McCluskey D. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a ‘peer-training’model-results of the ‘ABC for life’programme. Resuscitation. 2007; 75(1): 169-75.
[40]  Michel S. What do they really think? Assessing student and faculty perspectives of a web-based tutorial to library research. College & Research Libraries. 2001;62(4):317-32.
[41]  Saraç L, Ok A. The effects of different instructional methods on students’ acquisition and retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills. Resuscitation. 2010;81(5):555-61.
[42]  Spooner BB, Fallaha JF, Kocierz L, Smith CM, Smith SC, Perkins GD. An evaluation of objective feedback in basic life support (BLS) training. Resuscitation. 2007;73(3):417-24.
Show Less References