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Article

Pre-reading Assignments: Promoting Comprehension of Classroom Textbook Materials

1English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 817-822
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-17
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sami A. Al-wossabi. Pre-reading Assignments: Promoting Comprehension of Classroom Textbook Materials. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):817-822. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-17.

Correspondence to: Sami  A. Al-wossabi, English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Email: sami_ed@hotmail.com

Abstract

Reading is seen today as one of the most fundamental skills to acquire knowledge in any discipline. The present study is an attempt to highlight such importance for EFL Saudi learners at Jazan University. It investigates the influence of pre-reading assignments on maximizing Saudi EFL learners' comprehension of classroom textbook materials. In this regard, 60 learners were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups designed to qualify the above statement. Participants in both groups were introduced to language acquisition learning theories for three-month period. However, in the experimental group, learners were instructed via the use of pre-reading assignments. An unpaired sample of T- test is used for this study to determine if there is a significant difference of achievement for subjects introduced to pre-reading assignments. The results of the study revealed that there is a strong correlation between the use of pre-reading assignments and better comprehension of classroom learning materials. The study concludes with a rationale to empower and utilize the use of pre- reading strategies in the EFL Saudi learning context.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Bottom up Evaluation at Universities

1Department of Economics and Management of Chemical and Food Industry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, the Czech Republic

2Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 823-827
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-18
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marek Botek, Tomáš Macák. The Bottom up Evaluation at Universities. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):823-827. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-18.

Correspondence to: Marek  Botek, Department of Economics and Management of Chemical and Food Industry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, the Czech Republic. Email: marek.botek@vscht.cz

Abstract

Evaluation is one of the most important tasks of a manager. Multi-criteria method is often used to increase objectivity. Opinion and satisfaction of students with their classes, courses, teaching and teachers is often used as a part of an evaluation at universities. This article wants to show that student surveys are not representative and objective. The opinion carried in this article is based on study which was made at a prestigious technical university in Prague, the Czech Republic. The paper has been processed based on the analysis and evaluation of secondary sources and outcome synthesis. Survey has been realized in June 2014. It included all subjects which are taught at the university during winter semester 2012/2013. Only laboratories were excluded. There was total of 330 subjects which were part of the study. In a conclusion of the article there are discussed ways for increasing representativeness of the bottom-up evaluation and also possibilities how to take the finding into evaluation in managerial practice.

Keywords

References

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Article

Teaching Recorder: Creating Excitement in the Instrumental Music Classes

1School of Music, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 828-831
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-19
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alan Caldas Simões. Teaching Recorder: Creating Excitement in the Instrumental Music Classes. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):828-831. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-19.

Correspondence to: Alan  Caldas Simões, School of Music, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Email: alanmp@yahoo.com.br

Abstract

In this paper we describe strategies for teaching recorder in elementary school. We seek to answer the following question: How to develop teaching strategies that allow students to make music since the first lesson in a pleasant, and appropriate to their musical environment, age and technical level? Traditional musical education focuses on the teaching of instrumental technique and musical notation. These approaches may inhibit or discourage beginner’s music students. Furthermore, in many cases, the repertoire chosen by the teacher does not take into account the student's everyday lives. Thus we developed a recorder method for beginners based on the principles of learning folk musicians, seeking technical and theoretical work in context and meaningful to the student. This method was applied during the year 2013-2014 in four classes of elementary school in Brazil. In our article, we describe the process of creating songs for beginners and the results of its application in the classroom. We present the scores for these songs and analyze their implications for teaching and learning music. The results indicate that: (a) the style, arrangement and technical level of execution of songs worked on in the classroom can be determinant stimulus for beginner students continue with their musical studies; (b) approaches that value the music active listening allow the student to develop increased autonomy in the classroom; and (c) an exciting musical practice should take into account age, musical knowledge and student's reality.

Keywords

References

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Article

Does Russian English Exist?

1ESP Department, The Moscow State Institute for Tourism Industry n.a. Yu. Senkevich, Moscow, Russia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 832-839
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-20
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olga Bondarenko. Does Russian English Exist?. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):832-839. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-20.

Correspondence to: Olga  Bondarenko, ESP Department, The Moscow State Institute for Tourism Industry n.a. Yu. Senkevich, Moscow, Russia. Email: orbon@mail.ru

Abstract

The researcher investigated and described the characteristic features of English of Russian EFL users in the context of World Englishes. Russian-like English in use is regarded at different levels, from pronunciation to syntactic structures and further to written and oral discourse. The Russian accent in English was studied through frequent and typical errors made by Russian natives and was interpreted as a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural phenomenon. Russian error analysis became the framework of this research. The analysis was made at several levels with contrastive analysis techniques involved and the results were explicated as negative interference. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken, the results of which were summarized and illustrated with examples. The quantitative evidence was provided of error spread and individual error profiles, i.e. the most numerous types of errors in each individual error count and the most common combinations of such error type peaks. The research was based on the analysis of a considerable corpus of written and oral discourse samples featuring Russian errors in English made by Russians and collected by the researcher during the years of teaching practice from 2000 to 2014. The research results are suggestive of regarding Russian accent in English as a performance variety of English.

Keywords

References

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Article

Use of Orientation Exercise towards Effective Teaching-Practice Supervision in Teacher Education Programmed

1Kwara State College Of Education, Ilorin


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(9), 840-842
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-9-21
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
AbdulRahaman I. Ibrahim. Use of Orientation Exercise towards Effective Teaching-Practice Supervision in Teacher Education Programmed. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(9):840-842. doi: 10.12691/education-2-9-21.

Correspondence to: AbdulRahaman  I. Ibrahim, Kwara State College Of Education, Ilorin. Email: abdulrahamanibrahim2@gmail.com

Abstract

Supervision of the student teachers is essential during the teaching practice exercise; however the way or manner that some of the newly employed lecturers handle it tend to discourage the student teachers. This suggests that these categories of teachers needed an orientation exercise/seminar to put them through in their assessment and supervision. This paper therefore highlight the objective of Teaching practice (TP), functions/roles of supervisors, stages of supervision and recommendations are made towards ensuring an itch free and effective teaching practice supervision.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Ijaiya, N.Y.S (1991). A guide to supervision of Instruction. Ilorin: My Grace Repro. Co.
 
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[6]  National commission for colleges of Education (1996). Minimum Standard for Nigeria Certificate in Education (Rev. ed). Kaduna: The author.
 
[7]  Orebanjo, M. A (1982), Aids to teaching practice. Ijebu Ode: National press.
 
[8]  Schimmels, C. (2009), A white paper on lesson planning & Facility website/resources/white paper html.
 
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Article

School-University Collaboration Initiative: Benefits and Challenges in Uganda

1Department of Science, Technical and Vocational Education, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

2Department of Distance and Lifelong Learning, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 843-849
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Charles Opolot-Okurut, Juliana Bbuye. School-University Collaboration Initiative: Benefits and Challenges in Uganda. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):843-849. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-1.

Correspondence to: Charles  Opolot-Okurut, Department of Science, Technical and Vocational Education, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Email: copolok@gmail.com

Abstract

This investigation examined academic staff, school administrators and school teachers’ perceptions of the university-school collaboration. A qualitative research paradigm was followed through a case study of Makerere University’s use of Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa-(TESSA) project materials. The case study focused on gaining a wealth of detailed information on a small sample of academic staff, school administrators, and school teachers while addressing the research questions of the study. Twelve participants were used for data collection from the university (three) and the primary schools (nine). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews organized around the key research questions. Results indicated that the gap between university academics and school teachers is narrowing. Some school teachers have changed their practices that appear to have improved their methods of delivery of content to the learners. The use of TESSA materials is altering teachers’ teaching practices. But, the resources for university-school collaboration are varied and expensive. Teachers’ workload appears to leave them little time to be effectively involved in collaborative activities. Conclusions from these findings were that there are both merits and constraints to university school partnership to the advantage of each institution; teachers are incorporating TESSA materials into their teaching practices. The implications of these findings for the university-school partnership include the increased need for university and school administrators to support school teachers benefit from the collaboration; and to create more time for the involvement of all participating parties so that they can better implement the collaboration activities.

Keywords

References

[1]  Broadbent, C. and Brady, J., Leading change in teacher education in Australia through university-school partnerships. The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences (eISSN: 2301-2218). 687-703. 2013.
 
[2]  Gray, B., Collaborating: Finding common ground for multiparty problems, Jossey-Bass, London, 1998.
 
[3]  Clarken, R. H. University/school collaboration: A case study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC, 1999.
 
[4]  Kruger, T., Davies, A., Eckersley, B., Newell, F. and Cherednichenko, B., Effective and sustainable university-school partnerships: Beyond determined efforts by inspired individuals, Victoria University, Canberra, 2009.
 
[5]  Arsenault, J., Forging nonprofit alliances, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1998.
 
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[6]  Clarken, R. H. Toward more effective education through university and school collaboration. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA, 2001.
 
[7]  Wasonga, C. O., Rari, B. O. and Wanzare, Z. O. (2011). Re-thinking school-university collaboration: Agenda for the 21st century. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(22). 1036-1045. 2011
 
[8]  Whyte, A. and Ellis, N., The power of a network organization: A model for school-university collaboration. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 4(2). 137-151. 2004.
 
[9]  Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Marrison, K., Research methods in education, (6th edn.). Taylor & Francis, London, 2007. [E-Book] Available netLibrary e-Library.
 
[10]  Patton, M.Q., Qualitative research and evaluation methods, (3rd edn.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2002.
 
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[13]  Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin, and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 428-444, 1994.
 
[14]  Martin, J., Tett, L. and Kay, H., Developing collaborative partnerships: Limits and possibilities for schools, parents, and community education. International Studies in Sociology of education, 9(1). 59-75. 1999.
 
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Article

Failure Factors of Teaching English as a Second Language Students in teaching Graduate Programme at Institute of Teacher Education

1Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 850-855
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Akbar Zahidi. Failure Factors of Teaching English as a Second Language Students in teaching Graduate Programme at Institute of Teacher Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):850-855. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-2.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Akbar Zahidi, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA. Email: akbar_zahidi@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

This study was about the failure factors of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) students in teaching graduate programme (TGP) at institute of teacher education (ITE). Thus, this study identified the factors of failure from personal problems, lecturer, facility, syllabus and school factors. Furthermore, this study used a mixed mode method such as semi-structural interview and questionnaires. To answer the interview instrument, a total of 12 TGP students were selected from maximum variation method based on six different zones. Then, to answer the questionnaires, this research involved 40 TGP students at random. Next, descriptive statistics of SPSS 21.0 software was used to analyze the factors in five domains. The findings of the study indicated that the domain of syllabus factors contributed to the cause of the failure at the highest level. However, the finding of the lecturer communication was the highest among the items. Therefore, failure was causing some effects such as feeling sad, frustrated and stressed out to deal with colleagues and family members.

Keywords

References

[1]  Sulaiman Fatimah, The concept of teaching through e-learning, Journal of Distance Education, 8(12), 18-27 (2012).
 
[2]  Sulan Ibrahim, Lecturers teaching approaches and methods of distance education, Journal of Management Education, 8(3), 54-66 (2010).
 
[3]  Jamaluddin Khalid, Satisfaction of students through distance education, Journal of Distance Education, 2(13), 34-41 (2011)
 
[4]  Rauzah N. A. M. A and Muhammad A. Z., Strengths and weaknesses of distance learning, Journal of Educational Administration and Management, 5(8), 32-43 (2013).
 
[5]  Rosli Kamaruddin, Failure of distance education students in physical education, Journal of Physical Education, 9(2), 23-38 (2013).
 
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[6]  Halim Siti Hasanah, Self-learning techniques in distance students, Journal of Management Education, 2(8), 21-29 (2013).
 
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Article

The Experiences of Some Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning Community Participants

1Department of Educational Studies, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA

2Department of Elementary Education, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 856-861
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tobin Richardson, James Stroud. The Experiences of Some Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning Community Participants. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):856-861. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-3.

Correspondence to: Tobin  Richardson, Department of Educational Studies, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA. Email: tmrichardso2@bsu.edu

Abstract

Many factors may influence how a student experiences his or her residence community involvement. Ball State University, an institution with a history of innovative and effective housing programs, recently implemented a living-learning community comprised of students declaring majors within their Department of Elementary Education. A total of 15 participants who had resided within this living-learning community for a minimum of one academic-year were interviewed. Interviews focused on students overall experience within the Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning Community. Common themes emerging from the semi-structured interviews included participants feeling connected and comfortable quickly within their college transition, social benefit including the development and maintenance of long-term friendships, and academic benefit including better course performance and more commitment towards the field of study.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Los Angeles: Sage.
 
[4]  Eshbaugh, E.M. (2008). Brief Report: Gender, Social Support, and Loneliness among Residence Hall Students. Journal of College & University Student Housing, 35 (2), 24-33.
 
[5]  Foste, Z., Edwards, K., & Davis, T. (2012). Trial and error: Negotiating manhood and struggling to discover true self. Journal of College & University Student Housing, 8/39 (2/1), 124-139.
 
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[16]  Shushok, F., & Sriram, R. (2009). Exploring the effect of a residential academic affairs-student affairs partnership: The first year of an engineering and computer science living-learning center. Journal of College & University Student Housing, 36 (2), 68-81.
 
[17]  Stassen, M. A. (2003). Student outcomes: The impact of varying living-learning communitymodels. Research in Higher Education, 44 (5), 581.
 
[18]  Szelényi, K., Denson, N., & Inkelas, K. (2013). Women in STEM majors and professional outcome expectations: The role of living-learning programs and other college environments. Research in Higher Education, 54 (8), 851-873.
 
[19]  Yongyi, W., Arboleda, A., Shelley II, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2004). The influence of residence hall community on academic success of male and female undergraduate students. Journal of College & University Student Housing, 33, 16-22.
 
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Article

21st Century Curriculum Change Initiative: A Focus on STEM Education as an Integrated Approach to Teaching and Learning

1Department of Defense Educational Activity, Fort Rucker Alabama, United States of America


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 862-875
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kimberly Barcelona. 21st Century Curriculum Change Initiative: A Focus on STEM Education as an Integrated Approach to Teaching and Learning. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):862-875. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-4.

Correspondence to: Kimberly  Barcelona, Department of Defense Educational Activity, Fort Rucker Alabama, United States of America. Email: kimbobkizzy@sbcglobal.net

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to apply Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change in transforming traditional school organizationsinto models for 21st century instruction and explore research that suggests the change process was effectively implemented in order to improve student achievement. This paper is developed through inquiry and research that describes a course of action for a change initiative to enrich curricula and meet a vision for competency-based curricular reform. Two analyses were conducted including (1) review of literature and statistics driving the need for curricular reform and (2) a qualitative analyses of data collection from studies conducted on schools which instituted curricular reform to develop interdisciplinary curricula in the areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Analyzing and using the statistics and data from school systems in the state of Maine, which have made changes in their curricula and instructional methods, allows for critical review of the success of the change process. Results reveal that curriculum reform in the areas of STEM that creates a shift towards a more integrated approach in curriculum design has improved student achievement. Improving curriculum and instruction would be a hollow gesture without identifying and reviewing the research that suggests the use and application of the principles from John Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change outlined in his book Leading Changewas applied to deeply root successful change. Curriculum reform is a response to the growing need for educating future innovators that can continue to keep our world moving forward. Kotter’s first step to creating change begins with a sense of urgency and currently we have a wealth of studies that are conducted that speak loudly to our society that we must focus on curriculum that involves students in problem solving challenges and innovative thinking activities to prepare them for the needs our society today and in the future. The educational system we have today is a product of the industrial age and was organized like an assembly line to produce a standardized product, which was considered the educated. At the time, it fit the needs of businesses. It is time that we begin asking what skills we will need our learners to know in the next twenty years. Engineers work in teams to solve large, complex problems and educational systems lack necessary skill building activities to foster what industries will need for the future success of our global society (Senge, 2014). As our economy moves from a manufacturing-based economy to, an information and service-based economy, the demand for a workforce well educated in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) is growing. Unfortunately, the number of students who choose STEM fields continues to decline (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009; Galloway, 2008; National Research Council Committee on Science, Engineering Education Reform, 2006; Mooney & Laubach, 2002). As such, there is a great need to spark interest among our K-12 youth in STEM, and to develop and facilitate quality engineering experiences for K-12 students (National Science Board, 2003; Frantz, DiMiranda & Siller, 2011) (Table 1).

Keywords

References

[1]  Anderson, R.D. (2000). Study of Curriculum Reform. [Volume I: Findings and Conclusions.] Studies of Education Reform. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
 
[2]  Barker, B. S., &Ansorge, J. (2007). Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 229-243.
 
[3]  Becker, K. & Park, K. (2011). “Effects of integrative approaches among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects on students’ learning: A preliminary meta-analysis.” Journal of STEM Education, Volume 12.
 
[4]  Brown, J. (2013). “The Current Status of STEM Education Research”. Journal of STEM Education. Retrieved from http://ojs.jstem.org/index.php?journal=JSTEM&page=article&op=view&path[]=1652&path[]=1490.
 
[5]  Foy, P., Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (2012). TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science. Chestnut Hill, MA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
 
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[6]  Honey, M., Pearson G., &Schweingruber, H. (2014). STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research.National Academy of Engineering; National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=18612&page=5.
 
[7]  Horn, M. (2014). Disrupting Class. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=i3Xzz2T59eU#t=137.
 
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[12]  Maine STEM Collaborative (2014). Maine Mathematics & Science Alliance. Augusta, ME. Retrieved from www.umaine.edu/epscor/STEMCollab.htm, www.mmsa.org, www.mainestem.org.
 
[13]  National Research Council (2011). STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Committee on Highly Successful Science Programs for K-12 Science Education. Board on Science Education and Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
 
[14]  Pinnell, M., Rowly, J.,Preiss, S., Franco, S., Blust, R. & Beach, R. (2013). “Bridging the Gap Between Engineering Design and PK-12 Curriculum Development Through the use of the STEM Education Quality Framework.”Journal of STEM Education, Volume 14. Retrieved from http://ojs.jstem.org/index.php?journal=JSTEM&page=article&op=view&path[]=1804&path[]=1562.
 
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[18]  Senge, P. (2014). Organizational Dynamics, Culture and Generational Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AAkJqzJYHJc.
 
[19]  Singer, S.R., Nielsen, N.R. & Schweingruber, H.A. (2012). Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering Committee on the Status, Contributions, and Future Directions of Discipline-Based Education. Research Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. National Research Council of the National Academies.
 
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Article

Analyzing the Labours of Hercules

1Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Qom.


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(10), 876-882
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-10-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alireza Nabilou. Analyzing the Labours of Hercules. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(10):876-882. doi: 10.12691/education-2-10-5.

Correspondence to: Alireza  Nabilou, Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Qom.. Email: dr.ar_nabiloo@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this research, Labours of Hercules has been studied from the viewpoint of Greimas. Features of story have been explained and then narration and narratology has been studied. Greimas is one of the narratologists who modified Propp’s theory about seven scops of fictional actions and mentioned new attitude for studying structure of narration by mentioning six actants (Object/subject; sender/receiver; helper/ Opposer). He also introduced three separate sequences in narration which were known as contractual, the performative and the disjunctive. By studying this story from the viewpoint of Greimas, we find valuable points. In this narration, Hercules is subject and the goals are expiation, atone and immortalize. Senders are Eurystheus and oracle Pythoness. Hercules is helped by Thespius, Athena, Iolaus, Artemis, Atlas, Zeus, Hermes etc. Hera, Nessus, creatures and agents in Labours decide to fight against Hercules and defeat him. Sender and receiver are common in labours of Hercules; Eurystheus is Sender and Receiver. As we see, Hercules is Receiver and Subject. Of other issues of Greimas which have been studied in this story are three narrative sequences i.e. contractual, the performative and the disjunctive and as shown, these sequences are available in the discussed story. Therefore it is proved based on Greimas’ theory that Labours of Hercules has fixed design and pattern and systematic narrative structure.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Green, Kaeith & LeBihan, Jill. (2004). Critical theory and Practice: A coursebook, Trans. Goruhe Motarjeman, Tehran: Roznegar.
 
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