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American Journal of Educational Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/EDUCATION

Article

Accuracy of Parameter Estimation and Concordance Method Based on Item Response Theory

1Mathematics and Science Department, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia, Kampus UNJ, Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, Jakarta


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 552-555
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wardani Rahayu. Accuracy of Parameter Estimation and Concordance Method Based on Item Response Theory. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):552-555. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-3.

Correspondence to: Wardani  Rahayu, Mathematics and Science Department, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia, Kampus UNJ, Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, Jakarta. Email: wardani.rahayu@unj.ac.id

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate estimation and concordance method’s accuracy parameter based on item response theory. Estimation method used were Joint Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian and Bayesian Modal; and concordance method used were mean and sigma method, and robust mean and sigma method with sample size of 500 and 800. Data source used was test of tryout of Senior High School year 2012. Hypothesis testing on comparative values of root mean square difference (RMSD) using one way anova and t test. The results were parameter estimation method of Joint Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian and Bayes Modal on two logistic model parameters that produced similar estimation result using sample size more than 500, robust mean and sigma method was more accurate than mean and sigma method.

Keywords

References

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[15]  Cohen, Allan S. and Seock-Ho Kim, “Comparison of Linking and Concurenrent Calibration Under Item Rersponse Theory,” Applied Psychological Measurement, 26(1), 131-143. 2002.
 
[16]  Kim, Jee-Seon Kim and Bradley A. Hanson, “Test Equating the Multiple-Choice Model’, Applied Psychological Measurement, 26 (3), 255-270. 2002.
 
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Article

Assessing In-Service Needs of Basic School Natural Science Teachers in New Juaben Municipality, Ghana

1Department of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

2Department of Science Education, SDA College of Education, Asokore, Koforidua, Ghana


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 556-563
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ernest Ngman-Wara, Thomas Tachie Young, Sylvester Kosi Mawusi. Assessing In-Service Needs of Basic School Natural Science Teachers in New Juaben Municipality, Ghana. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):556-563. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-4.

Correspondence to: Ernest  Ngman-Wara, Department of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Email: immaare@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated in-service needs of basic school Natural Science teachers in the New Juaben Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The study was to ascertain the in-service needs of 234 Natural Science teachers across gender. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the teachers’ feedback on eight dimensions of science teachers’ needs: generic pedagogical knowledge and skills, knowledge and skills in science subjects, managing and delivering science instruction, diagnosing and evaluating students, planning science instruction, administering science instructional facilities and equipment, integration of multimedia technology and the use of English language in science instruction. Data were descriptively analyzed, followed by chi square analysis. Results of the descriptive analysis demonstrate that the topmost in-service needs of Natural Science teachers were the acquisition of knowledge and skills in science subjects, generic pedagogical knowledge and skills and planning of science instruction. The chi square analysis did not yield significant association between gender and science teachers’ needs in all dimensions except knowledge and skills in science subjects. It was recommended among others that in-service organisers need to assess the in-service needs of participants before providing INSET services.

Keywords

References

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Article

Environmental Health Hazards and Rural Community Development in Abia State of Nigeria

1Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural & Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 564-569
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
MODEBELU M. N., DUVIE A. N.. Environmental Health Hazards and Rural Community Development in Abia State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):564-569. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-5.

Correspondence to: MODEBELU  M. N., Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural & Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: meloodyne@gmail.com

Abstract

The study assessed the influence of environmental hazards on the development of rural communities in Abia state. The population of the study was one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two (1,772) executive members in one hundred and seventy-five (175) Community Development Associations. A sample of five hundred and nine (509) executive members from seventy (70) Community Development Associations was drawn through proportionate stratified sampling technique. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Researchers’ self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. It was face and content validated by two experts in Educational Administration and Educational Measurement/Evaluation from Abia State University, Uturu. The reliability of the instrument was pilot-tested on 25 executive members of Ayamele and Ifite-Ogwari Community Development Associations, both are Local Government Areas in Anambra State. Reliability coefficient of 0.88 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha estimate. Data from the research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Also, the null hypotheses were tested for using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed the influence of deforestation, agricultural development and industries and technology on the environment. The study therefore recommended among others that Abia State Government should organize seminars, workshop and conferences for Community Development Associations Executive Officers and other community leaders on the issues concerning environmental protection.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Dehumanizing Communication Reified in Higher Institutions of Learning: Issues and Suggestions

1Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural and Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 570-575
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Modebelu Melody Ndidi. Effects of Dehumanizing Communication Reified in Higher Institutions of Learning: Issues and Suggestions. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):570-575. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-6.

Correspondence to: Modebelu  Melody Ndidi, Department of Educational Foundations, College of Agricultural and Science Education, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. Email: meloodyne@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of dehumanizing communication reified in higher institutions of learning, among undergraduates and lecturers. Dehumanization is the act of degrading people with respect to their best qualities and denial of humanness to others. On the other hand communication is human interaction and learning. Communication becomes rude when it is deliberately directed resulting in dehumanizing communication. The paper therefore examines dehumanizing communication in terms of its being intentional and unintentional and dehumanizing communication between lecturers and students and among students. It also took a swipe on the effects of dehumanizing communication on students and lecturers as well as proffer solutions to mitigating effect of dehumanizing communication between lecturer and students and among students. The suggested solutions among others include, inter-group dialogue programme among contending groups in the student community, establishment of multicultural centers on campus in order to bring contending groups together i.e. lecturers and students of all races and ethnicity. A compulsory course on “pedagogy of positiveness” is also recommended in the university curriculum to instill in the students the value of respecting people who may be different.

Keywords

References

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Article

Writing Professional Genres in a Second Language: Results from a Spanish University Clil Context

1Department of Philology, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 576-580
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maria Del Mar Sanchez Perez, Maria Sagrario Salaberri Ramiro. Writing Professional Genres in a Second Language: Results from a Spanish University Clil Context. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):576-580. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-7.

Correspondence to: Maria  Del Mar Sanchez Perez, Department of Philology, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain. Email: spm727@ual.es

Abstract

Bilingual educational programmes and projects have increased during the last few years and are currently being implemented in different Spanish universities through new teaching approaches such as CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) or EMI (English-Medium Instruction). Research conducted at university level reveal that university students often have difficulty in performing the cognitive and discursive operations involved in the comprehension and production of written texts. These difficulties aggravate when this written performance is conducted in a non-native language, which is being increasingly demanded to university students participating in CLIL programmes. In Higher Education, both lecturers and students belong to certain communities of knowledge and practice, thus the second language needs to be acquired considering the different genre types used in different subjects as products connected to particular fields of knowledge. The present study analyses the written production of a professional genre type by Engineering university students in a second language (English) at a Spanish university. Results show the relationship between their academic performance (content achievement) and their linguistic awareness of the genre produced in a second language, being the higher marked texts (in terms of content performance) those which show a better writing (language) performance. These differences are more remarkable at a textual and discourse level. Fewer differences between higher and lower-marked texts are found at a sentence level.

Keywords

References

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Article

Entry-Level Biology Courses for Majors and Non-Majors: Performance and Assessment

1Lamar University, Beaumont, TX

2Texas State University, San Marcos, TX


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 581-587
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mamta Singh, Sandra West. Entry-Level Biology Courses for Majors and Non-Majors: Performance and Assessment. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):581-587. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-8.

Correspondence to: Mamta  Singh, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX. Email: mamtasingh1328@gmail.com

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to assess students’ performance in entry-level biology courses. The instruments used for this study were pre-post content knowledge tests to address two research questions: 1. Did students’ scores improve from pre-to post- tests and were there differences between cohort one and cohort two on the content knowledge test in Functional and Orgaismal Biology? 2. Did students correctly answer more questions at the three higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy test from pre-to post-tests and were there differences in cohorts on the content knowledge in Functional Biology and Organismal Biology? The results indicated that students’ scores on the content knowledge tests increased from pre-to post- tests and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) between cohort one and cohort two on the content knowledge test in Functional and Orgaismal Biology. Furthermore, the students were able to answer higher order thinking skill questions on the post-test and pre-posttests’ scores difference were statistically significant (p<0.05).

Keywords

References

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Article

Global Oil Industry Conflict: An Apocalyptic End?

1University of Derby, UK


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 588-593
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Beloveth Odochi Nwankwo. Global Oil Industry Conflict: An Apocalyptic End?. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):588-593. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-9.

Correspondence to: Beloveth  Odochi Nwankwo, University of Derby, UK. Email: belovethodo@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study is aimed at analyzing the perennial global conflicts over oil resources. Oil has been branded a curse hence, most countries with the abundance oil natural resources has been faced with violent conflicts, either caused by oil or exacerbated by oil. Therefore, this study is determined to identify the attributes of oil that makes it conflict prone. Most importantly, the article would analyze from history to present day, how oil has contributed to conflict and genocide as well as providing practical examples of countries that have experienced oil warfare agony. After evaluating the impact of oil resources in terms of conflict, this study will provide recommendations on how this conflict can be resolved by the use of permanent measures, such as the provision of energy through other means apart from oil; in order to avoid oil causing a world apocalypse.

Keywords

References

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Article

Self-Evaluated Evidence-Based Medicine Skills Improve among Last Year Medical Student, within Nine Weeks, When Introducing a Blended EBM Teaching Approach

1Department of Paediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 594-598
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-10
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Daniel Novak, Már Tulinius. Self-Evaluated Evidence-Based Medicine Skills Improve among Last Year Medical Student, within Nine Weeks, When Introducing a Blended EBM Teaching Approach. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):594-598. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-10.

Correspondence to: Daniel  Novak, Department of Paediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Email: daniel.novak@gu.se

Abstract

The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is important for medical students to master to optimize their future clinical decision-making and improve the quality of health care. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish final-year medical students’ self-evaluated EBM skills and to evaluate the effect of actively teaching EBM during a nine-week pediatric course. A control group (n=39) and an intervention group (n=44) consisted of last year medical students enrolled in a nine week pediatric course. Both groups only differed by the year of starting the studies: year 2012 vs year 2013. Students anonymously self-evaluated their EBM skills at the beginning and at the end of the course. The intervention consisted of blended EBM teaching by medical teachers in both class room and clinical settings. The control group did not receive an intervention. The participation rate in the intervention group was 91% (40/44) and in the control group 75% (29/39). Students’ overall baseline EBM skills score was 5.1 (on a scale of 10) in the intervention group and 5.5 in the control group. After the intervention, searching for EBM increased by 1.45 (95% CI: 0.78–2.11), critically appraising EBM increased by 1.51 (95% CI: 0.88–2.15), and applying EBM in patient care increased by 2.08 (95% CI: 1.46–2.70). The findings show that many final-year Swedish medical students rate their own EBM skills as low. However, it is possible with a small investment of time from the medical teacher during a nine-week pediatric course to significantly improve students’ self-evaluated EBM skills.

Keywords

References

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Article

Leading as Fugitives: the Case of Militant Groups in Nigeria’s Oil Producing Communities

1University of Derby, UK


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 599-603
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-11
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Beloveth Odochi Nwankwo. Leading as Fugitives: the Case of Militant Groups in Nigeria’s Oil Producing Communities. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):599-603. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-11.

Correspondence to: Beloveth  Odochi Nwankwo, University of Derby, UK. Email: belovethodo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The activities of militia leaders made the region the hot spot of resource based violence in Nigeria and Africa. It has been observed that militant groups and their leaders in Nigeria’s oil producing states have gained prominence in recent times as there is hardly any week that their affairs are not discussed or reported in the polity. With emphasis on the context and objectives of militancy, the paper identifies the modus operandi of militia leaders in the Niger Delta. The article made use of secondary sources relevant to the topic and media reports on the situation in oil producing communities. The article maintains that the main reason militia leaders live like fugitives are to protect their goals from being endangered and also to evade possible arrest by the federal government. It would do the country more good to discover the sources of militancy, why people wake up and form militia groups.

Keywords

References

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Article

Improving Design Performance of Students in Interior Architecture Undergraduate Education

1Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Interior Architecture Department, Taşkışla, Taksim, Istanbul/Turkey


American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(5), 604-609
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-5-12
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Deniz Ayşe Yazıcıoğlu. Improving Design Performance of Students in Interior Architecture Undergraduate Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(5):604-609. doi: 10.12691/education-3-5-12.

Correspondence to: Deniz  Ayşe Yazıcıoğlu, Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Interior Architecture Department, Taşkışla, Taksim, Istanbul/Turkey. Email: denizayseyazicioglu@gmail.com, yazicioglude@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

Considering the developing conditions in interior architecture undergraduate education and inevitability of performing restructuring works to this end is a reality expressed also in the literature. "Performance-based design" is one of the key concepts in this approach. When the works as to interior design project performance are examined it can be observed that conducting assessments of user recognition correctly and fully at the preliminary stage of project is an important component affecting the design performance. This is because the success of interior space design is measured by considering to what extent the requirements of the users are met. In this context, the purpose of this study has been designated as the creation of documents the students will benefit from while determining user requirements at the preliminary stage of the project within the purview of "Interior Architecture Design Studio" courses within the interior design undergraduate education. The scope of the study is limited to only residential interior design projects with an eye to reach a more elaborate result. Literature and practical application resources were researched to determine the documents utilized for recognizing the users in residential interior design as methodology at the first stage in line with the scope and purpose defined. Subsequently, all the documents obtained were examined by making comparisons in a systematic manner and the shortcomings of the cited documents were revealed. And in the final stage, suggestions were made with a view to overcome these shortcomings. It will be possible to determine user requirements more accurately through utilization of documents created in line with suggestions to be made within the purview of the study at the preliminary stage of residential interior design projects by interior architecture undergraduate students and this will increase the students' success as to designing significantly.

Keywords

References

[1]  Yazıcıoğlu, D.A. (2014). An Analytical Approach on Improvement of Kitchen Design Performance In Terms of Psycho-Social User Requirements In Turkey, Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2014, pp. 179-186.
 
[2]  Arslan, S. and Kanoğlu, A. (2010). Başarım Tabanlı Yapım: Anahtar Kavramlar, Olanaklar, Bariyerler ve Bir Model, 1. Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Kongresi, 29 Eylül – 1 Ekim 2010 ODTÜ Kültür ve Kongre Merkezi, Ankara.
 
[3]  Karaaslan, T. and Yazicioglu, D.A. (2015). Enhancement of The Designer Performance In Office Interior Design, Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 139-146.,
 
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