Welcome to Biomedical Science and Engineering

Biomedical Science and Engineering is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of biomedical science and engineering. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of biomedical science and engineering.

ISSN (Print): 2373-1257

ISSN (Online): 2373-1265

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/BSE



EMG Signals for Co-Activations of Major Lower Limb Muscles in Knee Joint Dynamics

1Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Saga University 1 Honjo-machi, Saga, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 9-14
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. T. I. Khan, T. Kurita. EMG Signals for Co-Activations of Major Lower Limb Muscles in Knee Joint Dynamics. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Md.  T. I. Khan, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Saga University 1 Honjo-machi, Saga, Japan. Email: khan@me.saga-u.ac.jp


Integrity analysis of knee joint involves a detail study of several anatomical parts such as bones, cartilage, tendons etc. Any disorder or damage of these anatomical parts causes severe knee disease, like osteoarthritis (OA), which is generally found in an increasing tendency, particularly, in an aged society. Although, the reasoning of OA in knee joint is not concentrated to the present paper, however, the influences of related muscular co-activities to knee flexor-extensor actions are figured out in the present research. Particularly, the muscle reflection actions of two major skeletal muscles at knee are investigated with aging functions of participants. EMG signals have been collected from the vastus lateralis and the gastrocnemius for the dynamic movements (standing and sitting) of knee joint. Aged participants (over 60 years old) and young participants (20 -25 years old) joined the experiments. Data have been collected from both legs, however, analysis is shown only for left leg in this paper. EMG sensors and the related devices of the present sensing technique have been installed based on the instructions of Biometric Co. Ltd. Result show that the voltage amplitudes of EMG signals fluctuate largely with increasing ages and thus, the result focuses on the postural effectiveness in muscular activities for the stability challenges of knee joints in their movements.



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Assessment Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Yield for Energizing Prosthetics Production Plant Based on Bacterial Growth and Shaking Rate

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

4Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 15-22
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, P. C. Agu, B. C. Chukwudi, S. O. Nwakpa, I. A. Ijomah, N. E. Idenyi. Assessment Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Yield for Energizing Prosthetics Production Plant Based on Bacterial Growth and Shaking Rate. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):15-22. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com


This paper presents an assessment evaluation of bio-ethanol yield based on the bacteria growth (BG) and shaking rate (SR) during bioprocessing of sugar cane molasses with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Critical computational analysis of generated experimental results indicates that the bio-ethanol yield response typified an empirical model which is exponential-linear in nature. The model was validated prior to evaluation of the yield response coefficient and predictive analysis of generated results. The validity of the derived model expressed as; ζ = 4.6335e[0.0068(ϑ/ɤ)] + 0.00012₰ - 0.00004ε was rooted on the core model expression ζ - 0.00012 ₰ = 4.6335e 0.0068(ϑ/ɤ) - 0.00004ε where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Results of ethanol yield were generated using regression model and its trend of distribution was compared with that from derived model for the purpose of verifying its validity relative to experimental results. The results of the verification process show very close dimensions of covered areas and alignment of curves designating ethanol yield, which precisely translated into significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental (ExD), derived model (MoD) and regression model-predicted (ReG) results. Ethanol yield per unit input ratio SR/ BG were evaluated from experimental, derived model & regression model predicted results as 0.0496, 0.0573 & 0.0565 rpm/ O.D respectively. Standard errors incurred in predicting ethanol yield for each value of SR, BG & SR/ BG considered as obtained from experiment, derived model and regression model were 0.13369, 0.9674 and 1.3380%, 1.3096, 1.3615 and 1.5300 % & 1.3701, 0.5969 and 1.1459 x 10-5 respectively. The operationally viable deviation range of model-predicted ethanol yield from the experimental results was 0.9 -13.47 %. This translated into 86.53-99.1 % operational confidence and reliability level for the derived models, as well as 0.86 - 0.99 yield response coefficient of ethanol to the input ratio SR/ BG. Consequently, in order to obtain high confidence level, the derived model considers input parameter value; 50 rpm (shaking rate) very extraneous. This was as a result of 23.66% deviation associating the use of this input parameter value.



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Potential Role of Nutraceuticals in the Management of Knee and Hip Joint Osteoarthritis

1Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Kamla Raje PG (Autonomous) College, Gwalior (M.P.) India

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 23-29
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Garima Sharma, D.S. Rathore. Potential Role of Nutraceuticals in the Management of Knee and Hip Joint Osteoarthritis. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):23-29. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Garima  Sharma, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Kamla Raje PG (Autonomous) College, Gwalior (M.P.) India. Email: sharmagarima_s@rediffmail.com


Nutraceuticals is a broad umbrella term that is used to describe any product derived from food sources with extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value of that food. Over the years nutraceuticals have attracted considerable interest due to their potential nutritional, safe and therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic and life style related diseases like coronary blockage, diabetes and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, better considered as a wear and tear of joint is a result of gradual deterioration of underlying cartilage tissue. The disease results in joint pain, stiffness and its long term effect leads to functional impairment. The current treatment modalities of OA include physical, pharmacological and surgical interventions. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics, corticosteroids and hyaluronic injections have proved significantly effective in pain relief and symptomatic management of this disease however their prolonged use have proven side effects on kidney, heart and liver functioning. The surgical methods like total joint arthroscopy, joint debridement, joint irrigation etc. are employed in severe disease state however recovery and post surgical complications are inevitable. In this view focus is being shifted on the use of alternative therapies and nutritional supplements as pain relieving and cartilage protective agents. In the past 3-4 decades significant research has been conducted on the clinical and in vitro testings of nutraceuticals like Glucosamine, Chondroitin sulfate, Hyaluronic acid and others on osteoarthritic subjects and tissues. A large number of dietary supplements are used for a long time for pain relief like cod liver oil for arthritic patients and nowadays as many as one third of suffering populations is using them to improve their clinical condition. The common food sources of these compounds are spinach like leafy vegetables, shark shell, skinned meat etc. Some of the studies have suggested that the efficacy of these nutritional compounds in joint pain relief is equal to non steroidal antiinflammmatory drugs however their onset action is slow. One of the most important limitations associated with their use in treatment of joint related disease is that their clinical efficacy and trials are still lacking. Since nutraceuticals are marketed in a variety of forms like food supplements, injections and powders which have made their effect nonspecific and uncontrollable. In this paper we have covered the results of studies on three well established nutraceuticals (Glucsamine, Chondroitin and Hyaluronic acid) as joint protectors especially in two large weight bearing joints of the body i.e. knee and hip. The results of the studies have indicated that nutraceuticals could represent good alternative means of management of OA however further controlled clinical studies are required for differentiating the effect of purified compound and dose with that of whole food source.



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