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AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil

1Bandeirante University, Sao Paulo, Brazil

2Ponta Grossa StateUniversity, Ponta Grossa Brazil

3Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 41-45
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vanessa Pepeliascov, Kleber de Magalhães Galvão, Dones Cláudio Janz Jr, Helen Dutra Leite, Felipe de Lara Janz. AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):41-45. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Felipe  de Lara Janz, Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Email:


High blood pressure (HBP) is a multifactorial disease that affects millions of people around the world and contributes to a large number of deaths due to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and chronic kidney disease. Its etiology remains inconclusive, but it is known that it arises of central and peripheral catecholaminergic dysfunction. Thus, cellular mechanisms are still under investigation. Its pathophysiology is characterized by an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The national and international guidelines for hypertension indicate that effective pharmacotherapy provides a control in blood pressure values and mortality⁄ morbidityreduction. Classes of antihypertensive drugs available for clinical use are diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, sympatholytic, calcium channel antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists of angiotensin II (ARBs). ARBs (i.e.: candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan and valsartan)represent current and often used drug class in Brazil.They have different molecular configurations with independent action mechanismsin angiotensin II AT1 receptor. The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of hypertension, emphasizing the antagonists of angiotensin II used in Brazil, since they constitute a class of antihypertensive drugs that has fewer side effects and greater therapeutic efficacy.



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Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(3), 46-64
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bablu Lal Rajak, Meena Gupta, Dinesh Bhatia. Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(3):46-64. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dinesh  Bhatia, Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Email:


Centuries of study has unfolded our understanding regarding different bodily movement routinely performed. It has been observed that all these movements require intricate communication between the brain and associated muscles. Our sensory systems help in guiding this communication by providing information about the external environment and surroundings, thereby helping the motor system plan the different movements leading to controlled action by the muscles. Billions of neuron with quadrillion connections between them and muscles are responsible for coordinated movements that humans perform routinely. Though our knowledge and understanding about motor neuron diseases and neuro-degeneration disorders are limited, yet efforts have been made to overcome or improve the present state of these disorders either by drugs, artificial prosthetic devices, robotics, stimulation or stem cell therapy. These treatments are attempts to help relieve symptoms, improve functionality, provide support and effectively slow down the disease's progression. Furthermore, disabled individuals were aided with walking stick, wheelchair or stroller till recently; however, significant technological advancements in the past few decades have brought in more of man-machine interactive devices such as deployment of artificial prosthetics, improved brain-computer interactions and advanced neuroprosthetics for supporting activities of daily living in these patients. Additionally, new tools like computer simulations, medical imaging and computational models are being used to simulate simple movement tasks and compare the outcomes with real limb control and neural elements, thereby testing how brain signals are processed to achieve sophisticated motor control. Researchers are regularly improving existing devices for ease of use and efficiency, and new ones are being developed such that it can mimic the maneuverability of the natural limb.



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Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study

1School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan

2Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Science, Gifu University of Medical Science, Seki, Gifu, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naoki Kamiya, Norimitsu Shinohara. Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Naoki  Kamiya, School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan. Email:


Data in Japan shows that the risk of developing breast cancer increases after the age of 40 and peaks in the late 40s. The most common method of breast cancer screening in Japan is through mammograms, and in recent years, experts have considered combining mammograms with an ultrasound to increase the detection rate of breast cancer. Meanwhile, in the United States, physicians alert the patients of their mammary gland density after the mammogram. The physician offers the possibility of tumors being covered up by the mammary tissue, and use this data to determine the appropriate interval between check-ups. However, this advice based on mammary gland density relies on the physician's visual assessment, and reproducibility remains a challenge. Software that quantitatively evaluates mammary gland density is already commercially available, but is optimized for the Western population. This study aims for the automatic evaluation of mammary gland density of Japanese subjects. We define an evaluation index of the mammary gland amount based on the breast thickness obtained from the DICOM header, and the characteristic amount of breast tissue measured through image analysis. We verified the accuracy of the proposed indicator in its ability to correctly classify mammary gland density across 458 cases, and found it consistent with the physician's classification in 98.5% of the cases. In the future, we look to create an index to calculate average glandular dose (AGD) based on this index.



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