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The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria

2Laboratory of Biomechanics, Polymers and Structures, ENIM-Metz, France

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 6-22
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samir Zahaf, Bensamine Mansouri, Abderrahmane Belarbi, Zitouni Azari. The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):6-22. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Samir  Zahaf, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria. Email:


The objective of this work is to study the effect of the backpack on the components of the spine system of a child, know the effect of an eccentric force on the intervertebral discs, the creating a 3D model of the spine of child of 38 kg overall weight under the effect of three eccentric load (P2, P3, P4) plus P1 compression load and calculated by the element method ends, For the boundary conditions we fixed the sacrum (Embedding the sacrum). We propose in this section to draw up a comprehensive study of the distributions of stresses and normal elastic strain of Von Mises in the intervertebral discs based on loads supported. The results show that the stress and strain of Von Mises are highest and concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3 and D4), which causes a problem that calls (herniated disc). We concluded that the cause of the posterior load, a 300 mm lever arm with a 150N force present maximum Von Mises stresses concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3, D4), which justifies the distance between the load which is the point of application of the load and the axis of the spine plays a very important role in increasing the solicitation of the latter.



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Fluorescence Correlation Analysis for Diagnosis Based on Molecular Dynamics

1Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 23-30
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yasutomo Nomura. Fluorescence Correlation Analysis for Diagnosis Based on Molecular Dynamics. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):23-30. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Yasutomo  Nomura, Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan. Email:


Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method in clinical laboratory where a lot of samples of patients will be determined because it enables to measure concentration and molecular weight of tested molecules without any physical separation steps. Nevertheless it may not yet be used as widely as one expected. The reason is that it is likely to be difficult for many users to understand the theoretical background. In this method, the users measured intensity fluctuation of fluorescence resulted from the molecules entering and exiting tiny volume element, namely Brownian motion in solution. Using the time series data of fluorescence intensity, the autocorrelation function was calculated. When the function was fit to the analytical model derived from diffusion theory, concentration and molecular weight of fluorophores were obtained. This minireview described the theoretical background of Brownian motion, physical meaning of the correlation analysis, and its usage properly dependent on samples from homogeneous solution to inhomogeneous cell. Furthermore the recent advances are also outlined.



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Significance of Bilateral Coactivation Ratio for Analysis of Neuromuscular Fatigue of Selected Knee Extensor Muscles during Isometric Contractions at 0º in Sportspersons

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana, India

2Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

3Biomedical Engineering Department, North Eastern Hill University Shillong, India

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(2), 31-36
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sanjeev Nara, Manvinder Kaur, Dhananjoy Shaw, Dinesh Bhatia. Significance of Bilateral Coactivation Ratio for Analysis of Neuromuscular Fatigue of Selected Knee Extensor Muscles during Isometric Contractions at 0º in Sportspersons. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Dinesh Bhatia, Biomedical Engineering Department, North Eastern Hill University Shillong, India. Email:


Muscle coactivation is the activation of two or more muscles simultaneously around a joint. Coactivation of knee muscles especially quadriceps is considered to be an important phenomenon for the stabilization of patellofemoral joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Coactivation ratio of selected knee extensor muscles as measure of neuromuscular fatigue in relation to gender, performance and side (right and left) of male (n1=19) and female (n2=8) during isometric contraction. The isometric contraction consisted of performing knee extension with an angle between 0º to 10º with a load of 30 repetition maximum (RM) on the CYBEX exerciser. The statistical analysis applied were ANOVA with post hoc analysis to determine the influence of fatigue in terms of gender, performance and side (right and left). The results showed significant decrease in the coactivation ratio of the selected muscles pair during isometric contraction with progression of fatigue (time). It also showed male dominance behavior over females in coactivation of Vastus Medialis (VM) and Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscles.. The results of this study would help to better understand the changes in activation strategies that can provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that alter neuromuscular activity.



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