Welcome to Biomedical Science and Engineering

Biomedical Science and Engineering is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of biomedical science and engineering. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of biomedical science and engineering.

ISSN (Print): 2373-1257

ISSN (Online): 2373-1265

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/BSE



EMG Signals for Co-Activations of Major Lower Limb Muscles in Knee Joint Dynamics

1Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Saga University 1 Honjo-machi, Saga, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 9-14
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. T. I. Khan, T. Kurita. EMG Signals for Co-Activations of Major Lower Limb Muscles in Knee Joint Dynamics. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Md.  T. I. Khan, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Saga University 1 Honjo-machi, Saga, Japan. Email: khan@me.saga-u.ac.jp


Integrity analysis of knee joint involves a detail study of several anatomical parts such as bones, cartilage, tendons etc. Any disorder or damage of these anatomical parts causes severe knee disease, like osteoarthritis (OA), which is generally found in an increasing tendency, particularly, in an aged society. Although, the reasoning of OA in knee joint is not concentrated to the present paper, however, the influences of related muscular co-activities to knee flexor-extensor actions are figured out in the present research. Particularly, the muscle reflection actions of two major skeletal muscles at knee are investigated with aging functions of participants. EMG signals have been collected from the vastus lateralis and the gastrocnemius for the dynamic movements (standing and sitting) of knee joint. Aged participants (over 60 years old) and young participants (20 -25 years old) joined the experiments. Data have been collected from both legs, however, analysis is shown only for left leg in this paper. EMG sensors and the related devices of the present sensing technique have been installed based on the instructions of Biometric Co. Ltd. Result show that the voltage amplitudes of EMG signals fluctuate largely with increasing ages and thus, the result focuses on the postural effectiveness in muscular activities for the stability challenges of knee joints in their movements.



[1]  J. H. Lubowitz, B. J. Bernardini and J. B. Reid, Current concepts review: comprehensive physical examination for instability of the knee, Am. J. Sports Med., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 577-594, March 2008.
[2]  P. Conaghan et al., Osteoarthritis. National clinical guidelinne for care andmanagement in adults. Royal College of Physicians, London, 2008.
[3]  F. Robert et al., The anatomy of the medial part of the knee. J. Bone Joint Surg Am., Vol. 89, No.9, pp. 2000-2010, September 2007.
[4]  R. Merletti, A. Holobar and D. Farina, Analysis of motor units with high-density surface electromyography, J. Electromyography and Kinesiology, Vol. 18, pp. 879-890, 2008.
[5]  G. Drost, D. F. Stegeman, B. G. M. V. Engelen and M. J. Zwarts, Clinical applications of high-density surface EMG: a systematic review, J. Electromyography and Kinesiology, Vol. 16, Issue 6, pp. 586-602, December 2006.
Show More References
[6]  Y. I. Al-Mashhadany, Measurement of human leg joint angle through motion based on electromyography (EMG) signal, IJCCCE, Vol. 11,No. 2, pp. 46-55, January 2011.
[7]  FSM Alves, FS Oliveira, CHBF Junqueira, BMS Azevedo and VC Dionisio, Analysis of electromyographic patterns during standard and declined squats, Rev Bras Fisioter, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 164-172, April 2009.
[8]  Search engine (yahoo.com)à Knee Joint Image -Result.
[9]  H. J. Hislop, J. Montgomery, Daniels and Worthingham’s Muscle Testing: Techniques of Manual Examination, 8 Edition, ELSEVIER, 2007.
Show Less References


Assessment Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Yield for Energizing Prosthetics Production Plant Based on Bacterial Growth and Shaking Rate

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

4Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 15-22
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, P. C. Agu, B. C. Chukwudi, S. O. Nwakpa, I. A. Ijomah, N. E. Idenyi. Assessment Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Yield for Energizing Prosthetics Production Plant Based on Bacterial Growth and Shaking Rate. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):15-22. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com


This paper presents an assessment evaluation of bio-ethanol yield based on the bacteria growth (BG) and shaking rate (SR) during bioprocessing of sugar cane molasses with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Critical computational analysis of generated experimental results indicates that the bio-ethanol yield response typified an empirical model which is exponential-linear in nature. The model was validated prior to evaluation of the yield response coefficient and predictive analysis of generated results. The validity of the derived model expressed as; ζ = 4.6335e[0.0068(ϑ/ɤ)] + 0.00012₰ - 0.00004ε was rooted on the core model expression ζ - 0.00012 ₰ = 4.6335e 0.0068(ϑ/ɤ) - 0.00004ε where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Results of ethanol yield were generated using regression model and its trend of distribution was compared with that from derived model for the purpose of verifying its validity relative to experimental results. The results of the verification process show very close dimensions of covered areas and alignment of curves designating ethanol yield, which precisely translated into significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental (ExD), derived model (MoD) and regression model-predicted (ReG) results. Ethanol yield per unit input ratio SR/ BG were evaluated from experimental, derived model & regression model predicted results as 0.0496, 0.0573 & 0.0565 rpm/ O.D respectively. Standard errors incurred in predicting ethanol yield for each value of SR, BG & SR/ BG considered as obtained from experiment, derived model and regression model were 0.13369, 0.9674 and 1.3380%, 1.3096, 1.3615 and 1.5300 % & 1.3701, 0.5969 and 1.1459 x 10-5 respectively. The operationally viable deviation range of model-predicted ethanol yield from the experimental results was 0.9 -13.47 %. This translated into 86.53-99.1 % operational confidence and reliability level for the derived models, as well as 0.86 - 0.99 yield response coefficient of ethanol to the input ratio SR/ BG. Consequently, in order to obtain high confidence level, the derived model considers input parameter value; 50 rpm (shaking rate) very extraneous. This was as a result of 23.66% deviation associating the use of this input parameter value.



[1]  Osman, M. E., Khattab, O. H., Hammad, I. A., El-Hussieny, N. I. (2011).Optimization of Bio-Fuel Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Sugar Cane Bagasse. Journal of American Science. 7(5):485-492.
[2]  Shahbazali, E. (2013).Biorefinery: From Biomass to Chemicals and Fuel. Green Processing and Synthesis. 2(1): 87-88.
[3]  Gaur, K., (2006). Process Optimization for the Production of Ethanol via Fermentation. MSc. Dissertation, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala.
[4]  Antunes, F. A. F, Chandel, A. K., Milessi, T. S. S., Santos, J. C., Rosa, C. A., and Da Silva, S. S. (2014).Bioethanol Production from SugarCane Bagasse by a Novel Brazillian Pentose Fermenting Yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2014:8..
[5]  Morimura, S., Ling, Z. Y., and Kida, K. (1997). Ethanol production by repeated batch fermentation at high temperature in a molasses medium containing a high concentration of total sugar by thermotolerant flocculating yeast with improved salt tolerance. J Ferment Bioeng 83: 271-74.
Show More References
[6]  Agrawal, P. K., Kumar, S, and Kumar, S (1998). Studies on alcohol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane molasses, sugarbeet juice and sugarbeet molasses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NSI-113. Proceedings of the 60th Annual Convention of the Sugar Technologists Association of India, Shimla, India.
[7]  El- Diwany, A I, El-Abyad, M. S. and EL-Rafai, A. H, Sallam, L. A. and Allam, R. P. (1992). Effect of some fermentation parameters on ethanol production from beet molasses by Saccahromyces cerevisiae Y-7. Biores Technol 42: 191.
[8]  Bulawayo, B, Brochora, J. M., Munzondo, M. I .and Zvauya, R. (1996). Ethanol production by fermentation of sweet sorghum juice using various yeast strains. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12: 357-60.
[9]  Sree, N. K., Sridhar, M., Suresh, K., Bharat, I. M., and Rao, L. V. (2000). High alcohol production by repeated batch fermentation using immobilized osmotolerant S.cerevisiae. J Indust Microbiol Biotechnol 24: 222-26.
[10]  Beall, D. S., Bassat, L. O, Doran, A. B., Fowler, D .E., Hall, R. G., and Wood, B. E. (1992). Conversion of hydrolysate of corn cobs and hulls into ethanol by recombinant E.coli B containing integrated genes for ethanol production. Biotechnol Lett 14: 857.
[11]  Arni, S., Molinari., M, Borghi. M., Converti, A. (1999). Improvement of alcohol fermentation of a corn starch hydrolysate by viscosity raising additives. Starch Starke 218-24.
[12]  Othman, A. S., Othaman. M. N., Abdulrahim, A. R. and Bapar, S. A. (1992). Cocoa, Pineapples, Sugarcane Waste for ethanol production. Planter 68: 125.
[13]  Silva, C. A., Castro-Gomez, R. J. H., Abercio-da-Silva, C., and Gomez, R. J. H. C. (1995). Study of the fermentation process using milk whey and the yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis, Semina londrina 16: 17-21.
[14]  Ghalay, A. E. and Ben-Hassan, R. M. (1995). Kinetics of batch production of single cell protein from cheese whey. Appl Biochem Biotechnol - Part A, Enz Engin Biotechnol 50: 79-92. molasses by flocculating yeast for use as a alternative energy source.
[15]  Dabas, R., Verma, V. K., and Chauhary, K. (1997). Ethanol production from wheat starch. Indian J Microbiol vol 37: 49-50.
[16]  Sharma, S., and Tauro, P. (1986). Control of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of national symposium on yeast biotechnology held at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.
[17]  Yadav, A., Dilbaghi, N., and Sharma, S. (1997). Pretreatment of sugarcane molasses for ethanol production by yeast. Indian j. of Microbiol 37: 37-40.
[18]  Ok, T. and Hashinaga, F. (1997). Identification of sugar tolerant yeasts isolated from high sugar fermented vegetables extracts. J Gen Appl Microbiol 43: 39-47.
[19]  Skotnicki, M. L., Lee, K. J., Tribe, D. E and Rogers, P. L. (1981). Comparison of ethanol production by different Zymomonas strains. Applied and Environmental. Microbiol 889-893.
[20]  Bansal, R, and Singh, R. S. (2003). A comparative study on ethanol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. Indian J. Microbiol 43:261-64.
[21]  Uma, V. and Polasa, H. (1990). S.cerevisiae of palm wine enhanced ethanol production by using mutagens. J Indust Microbiol Biotechnol 5: 1-4.
[22]  Bertolini, M. C., Ernandes, J. R. and Laluce, C. (1991)New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation at higher sugar concentration. Biotechnol Lett 13: 197-202.
[23]  Nwoye, C. I., Odo, J. U., Chukwudi, B. C., and Asuke, F.(2011).Empirical Model for Assessment Evaluation and Optimization of Ethanol Production during Microbial Treatment of Sugar Cane Molasses. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Metallurgical Engineering, Abuja, Nigeria. Oct., 26-29.
[24]  Nwoye, C. I., Odo, J. U., Onyedika, G. O., and Ugwuegbu, C. C. (2011). Model for Predictive Analysis and Optimization of Bio-Fuel Production during Bio-treatment of Sugar Cane Molasses. Proceedings of the 3rd FUTO International Conference on Renewable and Alternative Energy and 2nd Annual Conference of the Renewable Energy and Alternative Energy Society of Nigeria, FUTO Owerri, Nigeria. Aug., 7-11.
[25]  Nwoye, C. I., Odo, J. U., Chukwudi, B. C., and Mbah, C. N. (2011). Model for Analysis and Prediction of Ethanol Production Based on Treatment Temperature and Microbial Growth during Biodegradation of Sugar Cane Molasses Combined Proceedings of the Nigerian Materials Congress and Meeting of the Nigerian Materials Research Society, Akure, Nigeria, Nov., 21-24.
[26]  Nwoye, C. I., (2008). Data Analytical Memory; C-NIKBRAN.
[27]  Nwoye, C. I., and Nwabanne J. T. (2013). Empirical Analysis of Methane Gas Yield Dependence on Organic Loading Rate during Microbial Treatment of Fruit Wastes in Digester. Advances in Applied Science Research 4(1): 308-318.
Show Less References


Potential Role of Nutraceuticals in the Management of Knee and Hip Joint Osteoarthritis

1Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Kamla Raje PG (Autonomous) College, Gwalior (M.P.) India

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 23-29
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Garima Sharma, D.S. Rathore. Potential Role of Nutraceuticals in the Management of Knee and Hip Joint Osteoarthritis. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):23-29. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Garima  Sharma, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. Kamla Raje PG (Autonomous) College, Gwalior (M.P.) India. Email: sharmagarima_s@rediffmail.com


Nutraceuticals is a broad umbrella term that is used to describe any product derived from food sources with extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value of that food. Over the years nutraceuticals have attracted considerable interest due to their potential nutritional, safe and therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic and life style related diseases like coronary blockage, diabetes and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, better considered as a wear and tear of joint is a result of gradual deterioration of underlying cartilage tissue. The disease results in joint pain, stiffness and its long term effect leads to functional impairment. The current treatment modalities of OA include physical, pharmacological and surgical interventions. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics, corticosteroids and hyaluronic injections have proved significantly effective in pain relief and symptomatic management of this disease however their prolonged use have proven side effects on kidney, heart and liver functioning. The surgical methods like total joint arthroscopy, joint debridement, joint irrigation etc. are employed in severe disease state however recovery and post surgical complications are inevitable. In this view focus is being shifted on the use of alternative therapies and nutritional supplements as pain relieving and cartilage protective agents. In the past 3-4 decades significant research has been conducted on the clinical and in vitro testings of nutraceuticals like Glucosamine, Chondroitin sulfate, Hyaluronic acid and others on osteoarthritic subjects and tissues. A large number of dietary supplements are used for a long time for pain relief like cod liver oil for arthritic patients and nowadays as many as one third of suffering populations is using them to improve their clinical condition. The common food sources of these compounds are spinach like leafy vegetables, shark shell, skinned meat etc. Some of the studies have suggested that the efficacy of these nutritional compounds in joint pain relief is equal to non steroidal antiinflammmatory drugs however their onset action is slow. One of the most important limitations associated with their use in treatment of joint related disease is that their clinical efficacy and trials are still lacking. Since nutraceuticals are marketed in a variety of forms like food supplements, injections and powders which have made their effect nonspecific and uncontrollable. In this paper we have covered the results of studies on three well established nutraceuticals (Glucsamine, Chondroitin and Hyaluronic acid) as joint protectors especially in two large weight bearing joints of the body i.e. knee and hip. The results of the studies have indicated that nutraceuticals could represent good alternative means of management of OA however further controlled clinical studies are required for differentiating the effect of purified compound and dose with that of whole food source.



[1]  Chaturvedi S., Sharma P.K., Garg V.K. “Role of Nutraceuticals in Health Promotion”. Int J PharmTech Res 3 (1) 442-44, 2011.
[2]  Henrotin Y., Lambert C., Couchourel D., Ripoll C., Chiotelli E. “Nutraceuticals: Do they represent a new era in the management of osteoarthritis?—A narrative review from the lessons taken with five products”. Osteoarthr. Cartilage. 19:1-21, 2011.
[3]  Frech T.M., Clegg D.O. “The utility of nutraceuticals in the treatment of osteoarthritis”. Curr Rheum Rep 9 (1) 25-30, 2007.
[4]  Yelin E “The economics of OA”. In Osteoarthritis. Brandt K.D., Doherty M., Lohmander L.S. (eds) Oxford: Oxford University Press: 17-21, 2003.
[5]  Cheng D.S., Visco C.J. Pharmaceutical therapy for osteoarthritis. PM&R. 2012;4:S82-S88.
Show More References
[6]  Patrignani P., Tacconelli S., Bruno A., Sostres C., Lanas A. “Managing the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs”. Exp. Rev. Clin. Pharm. 4,605-21, 2011.
[7]  Guimaraes A.G., Xavier M.A., de Santana M.T., Camargo E.A., Santos C.A., Brito F.A., Barreto E.O., Cavalcanti S.C., Antoniolli A.R., Oliveira R.C. “Carvacrol attenuates mechanical hypernociception and inflammatory response”. Naunyn. Schmiedebergs. Arch. Pharmacol. 385,253-263, 2012.
[8]  Guimaraes A.G., Oliveira G.F., Melo M.S., Cavalcanti S.C., Antoniolli A.R., Bonjardim L.R., Silva F.A., Santos J.P., Rocha R.F.. “Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol.” Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 107, 949-957, 2010.
[9]  Cavalcante Melo F.H., Rios E.R., Rocha N.F., Cito Mdo C., Fernandes M.L., De Sousa D.P., De Vasconcelos S.M., De Sousa F.C. “Antinociceptive activity of carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) in mice. “ J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 64, 1722-29, 2012.
[10]  Henrotin Y., Clutterbuck A.L., Allaway D., Lodwig E.M., Harris P., Mathy-Hartert M., Shakibaei M., Mobasheri A. “Biological actions of curcumin on articular chondrocytes.” Osteoarth. Cartilage. 18, 141-149, 2010.
[11]  Shen C.L., Smith B.J., Lo D.F., Chyu M.C., Dunn D.M., Chen C.H., Kwun I.S. “Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis”. J. Nutr. Biochem. 23, 1367-1377, 2012.
[12]  Daniel J. Leong Marwa Choudhury, David M. Hirsh, John A. Hardin, Neil J. Cobelli, Hui B. Sun. Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis”. Int J Mol Sci. 14(11) 23063-23085, 2013.
[13]  Akhtar N., Haqqi T.M. “Current nutraceuticals in the management of OA: a review” Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 4 (3) 181-207, 2012.
[14]  Jordan K.M., Arden N.K., Doherty M. “EULAR Recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee OA: Report of a Task Force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials” Ann Rheum Dis 62, 1145-55, 2003.
[15]  Ramsey S.D., Spencer A.C., Topolski T.D., et al. “Use of alternative therapies by older adults with osteoarthritis”. Arthritis Rheum 4, 222-27, 2001.
[16]  Ragle R.L., Sawitzke A.D. “Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a critical review”. Drugs Aging 29 (9), 717-31, 2012.
[17]  Reginster J.Y., Neuprez A., Lecart M.P. “Role of glucosamine in the treatment for osteoarthritis”. . Rheum Int 32 (10) 2959-67, 2012.
[18]  Gupta V.K., Zafer Z.K., Ahmad M. “The Concomitant Consumption of Cod Liver Oil Causes a Reduction in the Daily Diclofenac Sodium Usage in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study”. J Clin Diagn Res 7(7) 1347-51, 2013.
[19]  Cleland L. G., James M. J., Proudman S. M. “Fish Oil: What The Prescriber Needs To Know”. Arth Res and Therapy. 8, 202, 2006.
[20]  James M., Proudman S., Cleland L. “Fish Oil and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Past, Present and Future”. Proc Nutr Soc 69(3), 316-23, 2010.
[21]  National Institutes of Health. Glucosamine sulfate. November 12th 2013.
[22]  National Center for Complementary and Alternative Therapy. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely November 12th 2013.
[23]  Chard J, Lohmander S, Smith C. et al. “Osteoarthritis of the knee”. Clin Evid 14, 1506-22, 2005.
[24]  Clegg D.O. “Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.” New Eng. J. Med 354 (8) 795-808, 2006.
[25]  Felson D.T. “Chondroitin for Pain in Osteoarthritis”. Annal Int. Med. 146: 611-12, 2007.
[26]  Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, et al. “Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens”. Annal Rheum Dis 74(5), 851-8, 2015.
[27]  McAlindon T.E., Bannuru R.R., Sullivan M.C “OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis”. Osteoarth. Cartil. 22: 363-88, 2014.
[28]  Gouze J.N., Bianchi A., Becuwe P. “Glucosamine modulates IL-1-induced activation of rat chondrocytes at a receptor level and by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway”. FEBS Lett 510, 166-70, 2012.
[29]  Gouze J.N., Gouze E., Popp M.P. “Exogenous glucosamine globally protects chodrocytes from the arthritogenic effects of IL-1β” Arthritis Res Ther. 8, R173, 2006.
[30]  Nakamura H., Shibakawa A., Tanaka M. “Effects of glucosamine hydrochloride on the production of prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide and metalloproteases by chondrocytes and synoviocytes in osteoarthritis”. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 22, 293-99, 2004.
[31]  Uitterlinden E.J., Jahr H., Koevoet J.L. “Glucosamine decreases expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human OA cartilage explants” Osteoarth. Cartilage. 14, 250-57, 2006.
[32]  Taniguchi S., Ryu J., Seki M. “Long-term oral administration of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate reduces destruction of cartilage and up-regulation of MMP-3 mRNA in a model of spontaneous osteoarthritis in Hartley guinea pigs”. J Orthop Res. 30(5), 673-78, 2011.
[33]  Imagawa K., Andres M.C., Hashimoto K... “The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes-implications for osteoarthritis”. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 405(3), 362-67, 2011.
[34]  Setnikar I., Palumbo R., Canali S. “Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in man” Arzneimittelforschung 43 (10), 1109-13, 1993.
[35]  Leffler C.T., Philippi A.F., Leffler S.G.. “Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study”. Mil Med 164 (2), 85-91, 1999.
[36]  Rindone J.P., Hiller D., Collacott E. “Randomized, controlled trial of glucosamine for treating osteoarthritis of the knee”. West J Med. 172(2), 91-4, 2000.
[37]  Dudhia J. “Aggrecan, aging and assembly in articular cartilage”. Cell Mol Life Sci 62 (19-20), 2241-56, 2005.
[38]  Uebelhart D., Malaise M., Marcolongo R. “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo”. Osteoarth Cartil 12: 269-76, 2004.
[39]  Deal, C.L. “Neutraceuticals as Therapeutic Agents in Osteoarthritis.” Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 25 (2), 379-95, 1999.
[40]  Mazieres B, Combe B, Phan Van A, Tondut J, Grynfeltt M. “Chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective, double blind, placebo controlled multicenter clinical study”. J Rheumatol 28, 173-81, 2001.
[41]  Clegg D.O., Reda D.J., Harris C.L., Klein M.A., O’Dell J.R., Hooper M.M.l. “Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.” N Engl J Med 354, 795-808, 2006.
[42]  Ronca F., Palmieri L., Panicucci P., Ronca G.. “Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 6 (Suppl A), 14-21, 1998.
[43]  Chan P.S., Caron J.P., Orth M.W. “Effect of glucosamine and Chondroitin sulfate on regulation of gene expression of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in interleukin-1-challenged bovine articular cartilage explants”. Am J Vet Res 66, 187-6, 2005.
[44]  Orth M.W., Peters T.L., Hawkins J.N. “Inhibition of articular cartilage degradation by glucosamineeHCl and chondroitin sulphate.” Equine Vet J Suppl 224-9, 2002.
[45]  Campo G.M., Avenoso A., Campo S., Ferlazzo A.M., Altavilla D., Calatroni A. “Efficacy of treatment with glycosaminoglycans on experimental collagen-induced arthritis in rats”. Arthritis Res Ther 5:R122-131, 2002.
[46]  Chou M.M., Vergnolle N., McDougall J.J., Wallace J.L., Marty S., Teskey V. “Effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate in a dietary bar formulation on inflammation, interleukin-1beta, matrix metalloprotease-9, and cartilage damage in arthritis”. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 230, 255-62, 2005.
[47]  Chan P.S., Caron J.P., Rosa G.J., Orth M.W. “Glucosamine and Chondroitin sulfate regulate gene expression and synthesis of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) in articular cartilage explants”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 13,387-94, 2005.
[48]  Goto M., Hanyu T., Yoshio T., Matsuno H., Shimizu M., Murata N. “Intra-articular injection of hyaluronate (SI-6601D) improves joint pain and synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter clinical trial”. Clin Exp Rheumatol 19:377-83, 2001.
[49]  Omata T., Itokazu Y., Inoue N., Segawa Y. “Effects of chondroitin sulfate-C on articular cartilage destruction in murine collagen-induced arthritis”. Arzneimittelforschung 50, 148-53, 2005.
[50]  Canapp S.O., Jr, McLaughlin R.M., Jr, Hoskinson J.J, Roush J.K., Butine M.D. “Scintigraphic evaluation of dogs with acute synovitis after treatment with glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate”. Am J Vet Res 60, 1552-7, 1999.
[51]  Ronca F., Palmieri L., Panicucci P., Ronca G. “Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 6 (Suppl A) 14-21, 1998.
[52]  Verbruggen G., Veys E.M. “Influence of sulphated glycosaminoglycans upon proteoglycan metabolism of the synovial lining cells” Acta Rhumatol Belg, 1 75-92, 1977.
[53]  Nishikawa N., Mori I., Umemoto J. “Influences of sulfated glycosaminoglycans on biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid in rabbit knee synovial membrane”. Arch Biochem Biophys, 240, 146-153, 1985.
[54]  Sawitzke A.D., Shi H., Finco M.F. “The effect of glucosamine and/or CS on the progression of knee OA a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial.” Arthr. Rheum. 58(10), 3183-91, 2008.
[55]  Monfort J., Pelletier J.P., Garcia-Giralt N. “Biochemical basis of the effect of chondroitin sulphate on osteoarthritis articular tissues”. Ann Rheum Dis 67(6) 735-40, 2008.
[56]  Sharma G., Saxena R.K., Mishra P. “Synergistic effects of chondroitin sulfate and cyclic pressurization on articular chondrocytes morphology and biochemical properties in alginate matrix”. Osteoarth. Cartil., 16, 1387-1394, 2008.
[57]  Chan P.S., Caron J.P., Orth M.W. “Effects of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate on bovine cartilage explants under long-term culture conditions”. Am J Vet Res. 68(7) 709-15, 2007.
[58]  Balazs E. “The physical properties of synovial fluid and the specific role of hyaluronic acid. In Disorders of the Knee. Edited by Helfet AJ. Philadelphia: J B Lippincott; 61-74, 1982.
[59]  Lo G.H., LaValley M., McAlindon T. “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis”. JAMA 290: 3115-21, 2003.
[60]  Bannuru R.R., Natov N.S., Obadan I.E. “Therapeutic trajectory of hyaluronic acid versus corticosteroids in the treatment of knee OA: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Arthri. Rheum 61, 1704-11, 2009.
[61]  Ishijima M., Nakamura T., Shimizu K.. “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection versus oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial”. Arthritis Res. Therapy 16: R18, 2014.
[62]  Jang J.D., Moon Y.S., Kim Y.S.. “Novel repair technique for articular cartilage defect using a fibrin and hyaluronic acid mixture” Tissue Engg Reg. Med. 10 (1) 1-9, 2013.
[63]  Kim I.R.,Mauck R.L., Burdick J.A. “Hydrogel design for cartilage tissue engineering: A case study with hyaluronic acid” Biomaterials 32, 8771-82, 2011.
[64]  Smith M.M., Ghosh P. “The synthesis of hyaluronic acid by human synovial fibroblasts is influenced by the nature of the hyaluronate in the extracellular environment” Rheumatol Int 7: 113-122, 1987.
[65]  Pozo M.A., Balazs E.A., Belmonte C. “Reduction of sensory responses to passive movements of inflamed knee joints by hylan, a hyaluronan derivative”. Exp Brain Res. 116, 3-9, 1997.
[66]  Belmonte C., Pozo M.A., Balazs E.A. “Modulation by hyaluronan and its derivatives (hylans) of sensory nerve activity signaling articular pain. In Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications of Hyaluronan and Its Derivatives. Proceedings of the Wenner-Gren Foundation International Symposium. Edited by Laurent T. London: Portland Press; 205-217, 1998.
[67]  Kawasaki K., Ochi M., Uchio Y., Adachi N., Matsusaki M. “Hyaluronic acid enhances proliferation and chondroitin sulfate synthesis in cultured chondrocytes embedded in collagen gels”. J Cell Physiol 179, 142-8, 1999.
[68]  Ghosh P., Holbert C., Read R., Armstrong S. “Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) in experimental osteoarthritis”. J Rheumatol Suppl 43, 155-7, 1995.
[69]  Homandberg G.A., Hui F., Wen C., Kuettner K.E., Williams J.M. “Hyaluronic acid suppresses fibronectin fragment mediated cartilage chondrolysis: In vitro. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 5:309-19, 1997.
[70]  Kang Y., Eger W., Koepp H., Williams J.M., Kuettner K.E., Homandberg G.A. “Hyaluronan suppresses fibronectin fragment-mediated damage to human cartilage explant cultures by enhancing proteoglycan synthesis” J Orthop Res 17:858-69, 1999.
[71]  Ogawa Y. “Immunolocalization of stromelysin, tumor factor (TNF) alpha, and TNF receptors in atrophied canine articular cartilage treated with hyaluronic acid and transforming growth factor beta”. Am J Vet Res 57, 1488-96, 1996.
[72]  Yasui T., Akatsuka M., Tobetto K., Umemoto J., Ando T., Yamashita K., Hayakawa T. “Effects of hyaluronan on the production of stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in bovine articular chondrocytes”. Biomed Res 13, 343- 8, 1992.
[73]  Nonaka T., Kikuchi H., Shimada W., Itagene H., Ikeda T., Hamanishi C., Tanaka S. “Effects of hyaluronic acid on fibrinolytic factors in the synovial fluid (in vivo). Pathophysiology 6:41-4, 1999(a).
[74]  Tobetto K., Yasui T., Ando T., Hayaishi M., Motohashi N., Shinogi M., Mori I. “Inhibitory effects of hyaluronan on [14C] arachidonic acid release from labeled human synovial fibroblasts”. Jpn J Pharmacol 60, 79-84, 1992.
[75]  Yasui T., Akatsuka M., Tobetto K., Hayaishi M, Ando T. “The effect of hyaluronan on interleukin-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin nE2 production in human osteoarthritic synovial cells”. Agents Actions 37, 155-6, 1999.
Show Less References

SciEP events

To list your link on our website, please click here or contact us
Doing on SciEP