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Article

Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain

1Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan


Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 35-40
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yasutomo Nomura. Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):35-40. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Yasutomo  Nomura, Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan. Email: ynomura@maebashi-it.ac.jp

Abstract

Near infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique to evaluate hemodynamics in cerebral tissue where the light used is subject to the low scattering effect. In this wavelength range, hemoglobin has the characteristic absorption spectra. Because of the noninvasive method, this gives valuable information containing venous blood to the clinical field such as cardiac surgery, neurosurgery and pediatrics. Although the technique originates from classical biochemistry with clear solution, researchers have proposed creative ideas to be suitable for measuring hemodynamics in living tissue optically. In this mini-review, theoretical basis from Lambert-Beer law to multiwavelength method and derivation of the linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigments from the time-resolved method are described. Furthermore the recent advances are also outlined.

Keywords

References

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Article

AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil

1Bandeirante University, Sao Paulo, Brazil

2Ponta Grossa StateUniversity, Ponta Grossa Brazil

3Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 41-45
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vanessa Pepeliascov, Kleber de Magalhães Galvão, Dones Cláudio Janz Jr, Helen Dutra Leite, Felipe de Lara Janz. AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):41-45. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Felipe  de Lara Janz, Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Email: fljanz@usp.br

Abstract

High blood pressure (HBP) is a multifactorial disease that affects millions of people around the world and contributes to a large number of deaths due to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and chronic kidney disease. Its etiology remains inconclusive, but it is known that it arises of central and peripheral catecholaminergic dysfunction. Thus, cellular mechanisms are still under investigation. Its pathophysiology is characterized by an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The national and international guidelines for hypertension indicate that effective pharmacotherapy provides a control in blood pressure values and mortality⁄ morbidityreduction. Classes of antihypertensive drugs available for clinical use are diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, sympatholytic, calcium channel antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists of angiotensin II (ARBs). ARBs (i.e.: candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan and valsartan)represent current and often used drug class in Brazil.They have different molecular configurations with independent action mechanismsin angiotensin II AT1 receptor. The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of hypertension, emphasizing the antagonists of angiotensin II used in Brazil, since they constitute a class of antihypertensive drugs that has fewer side effects and greater therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords

References

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Article

Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India


Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(3), 46-64
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bablu Lal Rajak, Meena Gupta, Dinesh Bhatia. Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(3):46-64. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dinesh  Bhatia, Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Email: bhatiadinesh@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Centuries of study has unfolded our understanding regarding different bodily movement routinely performed. It has been observed that all these movements require intricate communication between the brain and associated muscles. Our sensory systems help in guiding this communication by providing information about the external environment and surroundings, thereby helping the motor system plan the different movements leading to controlled action by the muscles. Billions of neuron with quadrillion connections between them and muscles are responsible for coordinated movements that humans perform routinely. Though our knowledge and understanding about motor neuron diseases and neuro-degeneration disorders are limited, yet efforts have been made to overcome or improve the present state of these disorders either by drugs, artificial prosthetic devices, robotics, stimulation or stem cell therapy. These treatments are attempts to help relieve symptoms, improve functionality, provide support and effectively slow down the disease's progression. Furthermore, disabled individuals were aided with walking stick, wheelchair or stroller till recently; however, significant technological advancements in the past few decades have brought in more of man-machine interactive devices such as deployment of artificial prosthetics, improved brain-computer interactions and advanced neuroprosthetics for supporting activities of daily living in these patients. Additionally, new tools like computer simulations, medical imaging and computational models are being used to simulate simple movement tasks and compare the outcomes with real limb control and neural elements, thereby testing how brain signals are processed to achieve sophisticated motor control. Researchers are regularly improving existing devices for ease of use and efficiency, and new ones are being developed such that it can mimic the maneuverability of the natural limb.

Keywords

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