ISSN (Print): 2373-678X

ISSN (Online): 2373-6771

You are here

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016

Article

Reproductive and Survival Strategies Utilized by Insect. A Review

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016, 4(1), 1-6
doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Okore Oghale O’woma., Ubiaru Prince Chigozirim., Onyenwe Emmanuel, Ekedo Mathias. Chukwuebuka. Reproductive and Survival Strategies Utilized by Insect. A Review. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016; 4(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ubiaru  Prince Chigozirim., Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. Email: Ubiaru.prince@gmail.com

Abstract

Insects are the most diverse and abundant of all groups of animals despite their small sizes and vulnerability as they employ many specialized strategies during reproduction. They have high reproductive rates and numerous behavioural and physiological adaptations that assure them a fair fight in the struggle for survival. They have different means of attracting mates prior to copulation such as serenades, dances, foreplay, nuptial gifts, aphrodisiac and visual signals. Survival strategies such as bi-parental care, maternal care, paternal care, hygienic behaviour, migration, diapauses, parthenogenesis and polymorphism are exhibited by insects which give them an advantage for surviving in their environment. Humanity and other living organisms will have difficulties in surviving if all insects fail to utilize their reproductive and survival strategies and suddenly disappear.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ridley M, Evolution, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing, 2004; p. 314.
 
[2]  Resh VH, Ring TC. Encyclopedia of Insects 2nd edition. U.S.A. academic Press, 2009.
 
[3]  Meyer JR. Survival Strategies. General Entomology. [Internet] 2014 [Accessed 17 December, 2015]. Available from https://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/tutorials/ecology/survival.html.
 
[4]  Hadley D. Insect Experts. Parthenogenesis. [Internet] 2014 [Accessed 31 December, 2015]. Available https://www.insects.about.com/od/p/g/parthenogenesis.htm/.
 
[5]  Alcock J. Animal Behavior. An Evolutionary Approach 4th edition. Sunderland, Sinauer Associates, Inc. 1989; p. 23.
 
Show More References
[6]  Alcock J. Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach 9th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. 2012.
 
[7]  Gwynee DT. Sexual Conflict over Nuptial Gifts in Insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 2008; 53: 83-101.
 
[8]  Peter WP, Robert FD, Micky DE, et al. The Insect Ecology. The scope of insect ecology. Cambridge University Press, England, 2014; pp 3-24.
 
[9]  Suzuki S. Biparental care in Insects: Paternal Care, Life History, and the function of the Nest. Journal of Insect Science, 2013; 13: 131-138.
 
[10]  Nalepa CA, Bell WJ. Postoviposition parental investment and parental care in cockroaches. In: Choe, J. C. and Crespi, B. J. Editors. The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press, 1997; Pp. 26-51.
 
[11]  Nalepa CA. Colony composition, protozoan transfer and some life history characteristics of the woodroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder. Behavioural Ecology and socio-biology, 1984; 14: 272-279.
 
[12]  Park Y, Choe J. Territorial behavior of the Korean wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus kyebangensis. Journal of ethology, 2003; 21: 79-85.
 
[13]  Park Y, Choe J. Effects of parental care on offspring growth in the Korean wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus kyebangensis, Journal of Insect physiology, 2003; 21: 71-77.
 
[14]  Maekawa K, Matsumoto T, Nalepa, CA. Social biology of the wood-feeding cockroach genus Salganea (Dictyoptera, Blaberida, Panesthiinae): did ovoviviparity prevent the evolution of eusociality in the lineage? Insectes Sociaux, 2008; 55: 107-114.
 
[15]  Shimada K, Maekawa K. Description of the basic features of parent-offspring stomodeal trophallaxis in the subsocial wood-feeding cockroach Salganea esakii (Dictyoptera, Blaberidae, Panesthiinae). Entomological Science, 2011; 14: 9-12.
 
[16]  Rug D, Ross HA. Biology of Macropanesthia rhinoceros (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae). Annuals of the Entomological Society of America, 1991; 84: 575-582.
 
[17]  Parental Care (Insects) (n.d.). In what-when-how.com. Retrieved from what-when-how.com/insects/parental-care-insects/.
 
[18]  Carrick N, Alton K, Bigio G, et al. The hygienic behaviour and varroa control research. [Internet] 2015 [Accessed 22 December, 2015.] Available from https://www.m.sussex.ac.uk/lasi/sussexplan/hygienicbees.
 
[19]  David L, Smith N. Foodplants of the Uraniinae (Uraniidae) and their systematic, Evolutionary and ecological Significance. The journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, 1991; 45(4): 296-347.
 
[20]  Bartel R, Oberhauser K, De Roode J, et al. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America. Ecology 2011; 92 (2): 342-351.
 
[21]  Williams CB. Insect migration. Annual Review of Entomology, 1957; 2: 163-180.
 
[22]  Hadley D. Insects Expert. Courtship Rituals in Insects Mating. [Internet] 2014 [Accessed 21st December, 2015.]Available from https://www.insects.about.com/od/matingreproduction/p/courtship_rituals.htm/.
 
[23]  White MJD. Chromosomal Mechanisms in Animal Reproduction. Bolletino di zoologia, 1984; 51 (1-2): 1-23.
 
[24]  Pearcy M. Conditional Use of Sex and parthenogenesis for Worker and Queen production in Ants. Science, 2004; 306 (5702): 1780-1783.
 
[25]  Fournier D, Estoup A, Orivel J, et al. Clonal reproduction by males and females in the little fire ant. Nature, 2005; 435 (7046): 1230-1234.
 
Show Less References