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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016


Density of Different Dipteran Larvae Inhabiting Phytotelmata from Some Locations of West Sumatera, Indonesia

1Department of Biology Lampung University, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia

2Departement of Biology, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016, 4(1), 13-16
doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Emantis Rosa, Dahelmi, Siti Salmah, Syamsuardi. Density of Different Dipteran Larvae Inhabiting Phytotelmata from Some Locations of West Sumatera, Indonesia. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016; 4(1):13-16. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Emantis  Rosa, Department of Biology Lampung University, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. Email:


Diptera is kinds of insect’s ordo which has so many members and live in different breeding place, such as Phytotelmata’s plants. Research about Phytotelmata is still rare. That is why this phenomenon is worth to be researched. The aim of this paper is to reveal the density of diptera of Dipteran in some locations of West Sumatera, Indonesia. The result shows that averages of density of dipteran larvae is based locations and kinds of Phytotelmata. The highest density is happened in Bukittinggi (0,60 individu/ml) which based on locations and the lowest is in Payakumbuh with (0,49 individu /ml) both for Ae. Albopictus larvae. Based on kinds of Phytotelmata, Ae. Albopictus larvae mostly lives in Pandanus (0,60 individu /ml) and the lowest is live in Bamboo (0,36 individu /ml).



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Reproductive Biology and Feeding Habit of Gold Spot Mullet, Liza parsia

1Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh

2Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Shrimp Research Station, Bagerhat-9300, Bangladesh

3Former MS student, Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Ghent University, Belgium

4Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Biosceince, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016, 4(1), 7-12
doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joyanta Bir, B.M. Shahinur Rahman, Md. Sarower-E-Mahfuj, M. Aminur Rahman, M.S. Shah. Reproductive Biology and Feeding Habit of Gold Spot Mullet, Liza parsia. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016; 4(1):7-12. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Md.  Sarower-E-Mahfuj, Former MS student, Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Ghent University, Belgium. Email:


The gold spot mullet, Liza parsia (Hamilton, 1822), locally referred to as “Parsie”, is a marine teleost fish suitable for culture in brackish water ecosystem. To date, very few reports on artificial propagation of gold spot mullet has ever been recorded and still seed stocking relies on wild recruitment. In order to determine the fecundity, reproductive biology and feeding habit of L. parsia, 75 gravid females were collected at the Pasur River and different shrimp farms in Khulna district, Bangladesh, from November 2010 to January 2011. The condition factor was ranged from 10.12 to 15.05 with a mean value of 12.35±1.08 . Fecundity of L. parsia ranged from 56541 to 188860 and the mean fecundity was calculated as 122,999±30,035. Total weight of the gonad was varied from 5.41 to 18.41 g, wherein the left lobe of the ovary varied from 2.78 to 9.57 g and the right lobe from 2.63 to 9.25 g. The mean weight of the right lobe gonad was g where as that for left lobe was 5.59±1.38 g and the mean weight of gonad was 11.53±2.77g. The regression equation for fecundity with total length, standard length, body weight and gonad weight was estimated as F=-176359+16034.5TL(r2=0.60), F=-132956+16059.9SL(r2=0.57), F=-5595.3+1588.79BW(r2=0.63), F=9048.16+9881.27GW(r2=0.83), respectively. The regression equation for total length, standard length and body weight with the gonad weight was estimated as GW=-19.154+1.64TL(r2=0.74), GW=-15.41+1.69SL(r2=0.74), and GW=-1.78+0.16BW(r2=0.80), respectively. The GSI values obtained in the present study were varied between 7.90 to 17.61 with a mean value of 14.20±1.65. The stomach contents were composed of a wide variety of algae, diatoms, desmids, plant materials, annelids, crustacean, bivalves, fishes, detritus and sand grains, indicating that the fish is omnivorous in its feeding habits. The findings obtained from this preliminary study would be helpful towards the understanding of the feeding habits, breeding season, gamete maturation and spawning activities, which will ultimately facilitate the mass seed production, aquaculture development and biodiversity conservation of this important fishery.



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Reproductive and Survival Strategies Utilized by Insect. A Review

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016, 4(1), 1-6
doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Okore Oghale O’woma., Ubiaru Prince Chigozirim., Onyenwe Emmanuel, Ekedo Mathias. Chukwuebuka. Reproductive and Survival Strategies Utilized by Insect. A Review. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2016; 4(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ubiaru  Prince Chigozirim., Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. Email:


Insects are the most diverse and abundant of all groups of animals despite their small sizes and vulnerability as they employ many specialized strategies during reproduction. They have high reproductive rates and numerous behavioural and physiological adaptations that assure them a fair fight in the struggle for survival. They have different means of attracting mates prior to copulation such as serenades, dances, foreplay, nuptial gifts, aphrodisiac and visual signals. Survival strategies such as bi-parental care, maternal care, paternal care, hygienic behaviour, migration, diapauses, parthenogenesis and polymorphism are exhibited by insects which give them an advantage for surviving in their environment. Humanity and other living organisms will have difficulties in surviving if all insects fail to utilize their reproductive and survival strategies and suddenly disappear.



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