American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (CEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

3Ministry of Science and Technology, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 13-23
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Edu Inam, Gerald G. Inoh, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Bassey B. Etim. Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):13-23. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3.

Correspondence to: Edu  Inam, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. Email:


The coastal region of Nigeria has witnessed intense anthropogenic activities that have overtime necessitated several environmental monitoring campaigns to ascertain impacts and proffer remedial solutions. In the present study, standard analytical protocols were employed to assess the physicochemical parameters, trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels of ground and surface water used for drinking purposes in Okoroette community in Nigeria. The results obtained show that investigated parameters varied widely and were generally higher in the surface water samples collected during the dry season. The levels of most of the physicochemical parameters recorded were acceptable when compared with Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) except for turbidity and dissolved oxygen. In both ground and surface waters, the following trace metals exceeded the NSDWQ permissible limits: Pb, Cd, Fe, and Mn. The total mean level of PAHs (> 1.0 mg/l) in both ground and surface water samples exceeded the acceptable level when compared with the NSDWQ guideline value of 0.007 mg/l. The health risk assessment applied on trace metal levels reveal that there is significant potential toxic risk to exposed individuals as calculated hazard indexes (HI) were greater than one. Results from Water Quality Indices (WQI) modelling reveal that the water sources in the community were generally categorised as poor quality or unfit for drinking purposes. Chemometric characterisation of the water quality indicators revealed that some of the contaminants may be of geogenic, anthropogenic organic in origin. The study reveals that drinking water sources in Okoroette community are not suitable for consumption and domestic use therefore treatment is highly and urgently recommended to safeguard public health.



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Raise the Compulsion Theory of Sustainability in Rural Drinking Water Supply System

1Ratna Rajya Laxmi Campus, Exihibution Road, Kathmandu, Nepal

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(2), 24-28
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-2-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lila Prasad Limbu. Raise the Compulsion Theory of Sustainability in Rural Drinking Water Supply System. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(2):24-28. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-2-1.

Correspondence to: Lila  Prasad Limbu, Ratna Rajya Laxmi Campus, Exihibution Road, Kathmandu, Nepal. Email:


This study was conducted with objective of comparing the basic standard of sustainability between British Gurkha pipeline rural drinking water supply system and the Nepalese government pipeline rural drinking water supply system for reconstructing the sustainable rural drinking water supply system for rural area. So, the research article the compulsion theory of sustainability in rural drinking water project explores the causes of sustainability of rural Gurkha Welfare pipeline drinking water supply system and Weakness of Nepalese government rural pipeline drinking water supply system in Basantatar Village Development Committee in Dhankuta district. The study is mainly based on primary and secondary data which were collected by using field survey, discussion, focus group discussion, and observation methods with help of structured questionnaires and check-list. Finally, it concludes that compulsion is major element for sustainability for the rural pipeline drinking water project.



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Hydrochemical Assessment of Spring Waters from the Iron Quadrangle Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

1Pos Graduation in Science and Radiation Technology, Minerals and Materials, (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

2Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(2), 29-40
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-2-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Cláudia A. Ferreira, Helena E. L. Palmieri, Maria Ângela de B. C. Menezes, Lúcia M. L. A. Auler. Hydrochemical Assessment of Spring Waters from the Iron Quadrangle Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(2):29-40. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-2-2.

Correspondence to: Cláudia  A. Ferreira, Pos Graduation in Science and Radiation Technology, Minerals and Materials, (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Email:


This study deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs spread throughout the Iron Quadrangle (IQ) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the past these spring waters played an essential and strategic role in supplying towns with potable water. Up to this day water is used by both the local population and tourists who thrust in its quality. A total of forty-four spring water and four artesian well water samples were collected at 26 points in different municipalities of the IQ in two different surveys, March and August 2015, wet and dry seasons, respectively. These water samples were studied for 38 physico-chemical parameters: turbidity (TB), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, F-, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, PO4-, SiO2, Fe, Li, V, Cr, Cr (VI), Co, Ni, Cu, As, Ba, Al, Mn, Zn, Sb, Cd, Mo, Se, Tl, Hg and U, as well as thermotolerant coliforms (TC). The pH value of groundwater in the study area ranges from 3.8 to 7.0, indicating the acid nature of most of the spring water samples. In these samples, Ca2+ and Na+ are the major cations and HCO3- and NO3- the dominant anions. As expected, the trace metals presented the following decreasing concentrations: Fe> Ba> Al> Mn> Zn> Ni, since the IQ region is abundant in iron, aluminum and manganese minerals. The chemical relationships in Piper diagram identified mixed-bicarbonate, magnesium-bicarbonate and sodium-bicarbonate as the most prevalent water types. The Gibbs plots of data from the study area indicated that the chemical composition of most spring water samples was controlled primarily by rainfall dominance. Except for some springs, groundwater in the study area are inappropriate for drinking and domestic purposes but good for animal consumption, irrigation and recreation.



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