American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

Article

The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 110-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Odafivwotu Ohwo. The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):110-117. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Odafivwotu  Ohwo, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Email: drohwodafe@gmail.com

Abstract

Public water supply is distributed through water pipe network, which may affect the quality of water that gets to the consumers if the integrity of the pipe distribution network is compromised. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether there is significant variation in the water quality that gets to the consumer after transportation through the pipe distribution network. In order to achieve this aim, twenty-five tap water samples were randomly collected. In addition, a control sample was collected from Iju Water Works, which serve Ojota community. The analyses revealed that the measured values of some of the selected tap water quality parameters varied from Iju Water Works, to the various sampled zones. For example, total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria counts show that 8 (30.72%) and 6 (23.08%) samples have concentrations above the WHO zero thresholds for total and fecal coliform, respectively. In addition, turbidity and color show unsatisfactory concentrations in some of the sampled tap water, as turbidity has 17 (65.38%) of the samples having concentration above the 5 NTU WHO threshold for drinking water; while all the 25 (100%) tap water samples, have color values above the WHO 5 unit threshold. Similarly, the values of residual chlorine vary from 0.5 mg/l at Iju Water Works, to 0 – 0.25 mg/l at the various zones. The T-test analyses revealed that there are significant differences between the quality values at Iju Water Works and the various zones. This is an indication that the integrity of the treated water transported to Ojota has been compromised and not safe for human consumption. It is recommended that the Lagos State Government should undertake a general overhaul and replacement of the dilapidated water pipe distribution network in the state to guarantee safe supply of tap water to the populace.

Keywords

References

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Article

Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna

2Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department, FCT Water Board, Garki, Abuja

4Katsina State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 118-125
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amadi A.N., Nwankwoala H.O., Jimoh M. O., Dan-Hassan M. A., Aminu Tukur. Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):118-125. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A.N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Groundwater pollution is one of the environmental problems facing many coastal regions such as Niger Delta as a result of high population, urbanization and industrialization. The quality of groundwater in the Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria was investigated in this study using multivariate geostatistical techniques. Hydrogeological investigations show that the aquifers in the area are largely unconfined sands with intercalations of gravels, clay and shale. These findings indicate that the aquifer in the area is porous, permeable and prolific. The observed wide ranges and high standard deviations and mean in the geochemical data are evidence that there are substantial differences in the quality/composition of the groundwater within the study area. Heavy metal enrichment index revealed 12 elements in the decreasing order of: Fe > Ni > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cd > V > Co > Pb > Cr > As > Hg. The study identified salt intrusion, high iron content, acid-rain, hydrocarbon pollution, use of agrochemicals, industrial effluents and poor sanitation as contributors to the soil and water deterioration in the area. Saltwater/freshwater interface occurs between 5 m to 185 m while iron-rich water is found between 20 m to 175 m. The first two factors are natural phenomenon due to the proximity of the aquifer to the ocean and probably downward leaching of marcasite contained in the overlying lithology into the shallow water table while the last four factors are results of various anthropogenic activities domiciled in the area. Owing to the monumental and devastating effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the area, the need to eradicate gas flaring and minimize oil spills in the area was advocated. The geostatistical evaluation approach employed in this study gave rise to the development of groundwater vulnerability map of Eastern Niger Delta. Communities where their boreholes have been contaminated by hydrocarbon should stop using such wells and government should provide them with alternative source of water for drinking and domestic purposes.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Oduduwa University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 126-133
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olushola M. Awoyemi, Albert C. Achudume, Aderonke A. Okoya. The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):126-133. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Olushola  M. Awoyemi, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria. Email: doctoroma@yahoo.com

Abstract

The piece of investigation was carried out to study the ground water as well as surface water quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristic of Majidun-Ilaje Area of Ikorodu, Nigeria. The study area is situated between 327E - 328E longitude and 637E latitude and covers about 1.71km2 area of land. The present work has been conducted by monitoring two types of groundwater i.e. hand dug well water and borehole water of the community as well as the surface water i.e. river of the community. Attempts were made to study and analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. Various parameters like Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Alkalinity, True and Apparent Color, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Organic Carbon, Total Organic Matter, Nitrate, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium give a picture of quality parameter in both hand dug well and borehole water as well as river water of the community. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study of the water quality are below the pollution level for only borehole type of ground water which satisfy the requirement for the use of various purposes like domestic, agricultural, industrial etc. The quality of the hand dug wells and a closer borehole to the river is relatively above the permissible limit varying with depth and distance from the river. But in case of surface water, the water quality of the river is above the WHO and Federal EPA permissible limits.

Keywords

References

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Article

Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh

1Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEED) North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Professor, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden

4Senior Lecturer, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 141-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kamal Ziaul Islam, Md Sirajul Islam, Jean O. Lacoursière, Lisa Dessborn. Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):141-148. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Kamal  Ziaul Islam, Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh. Email: kamalziaulislam@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated the prospect of rainwater harvesting as a low cost alternative potable water supply option along the coastal region of Bangladesh, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to climate change and resulting sea level rise. Because of increasing salinity intrusion, potable water scarcity become severe at the south-western coastal region of the country. The study area for this investigation was Patkelghata in Satkhira district of Bangladesh located in the same zone. The Satkhira district averages nearly 1,710 mm rainfall per year. Based on rural housing pattern of the region, a rainwater harvesting system is proposed, which consists of roof catchment, gutters, down pipes, first flush devices, filter chamber and storage tank. The minimum catchment area was assumed to be 6 m2 and storage tank of 2000 liter capacity. Data was collected on the present state of freshwater supply, sources and quality, average rainfall in the region, dry spell period, family size, water use nature, rain water quality and material to be used for storage, etc. Rainwater quality was also tested and the parameters were found to be within Bangladesh’s standard limit. After a detail calculation, an approximate cost was assumed to be $171 for building and operation of the whole system. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on views and opinion of local people to understand the problems, prospects and the popularity of rainwater harvesting in Bangladesh.

Keywords

References

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Article

Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 149-158
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M P. Shah. Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):149-158. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: M  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria community composition was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the identified populations were enumerated by quantitative FISH. Potential nitrification rates were determined in batch tests and the in situ rates were calculated from mass balances of nitrogen in the plants. Increased SRT did not reduce the nitrification activity, but the number per mixed liquor suspended solids nor was community composition of AOB affected. Two dominant AOB populations related to Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were identified by FISH, whereas only the latter could be detected by DGGE. The effect of a longer SRT on the activity was probably because of physiological changes in the AOB community rather than a change in community composition.

Keywords

References

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Article

Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment

1University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oyewo Ayobami Solomon. Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Oyewo  Ayobami Solomon, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Email: ayobamioyewo@gmail.com

Abstract

Water samples were taken from three different shallow wells in Abeokuta, Ogun state Nigeria (West Africa). These wells are represented by as raw water A, B and C and were filtered using sand as filter media, sand grains of different sizes was used. The raw water was filtered with fine sand (column 1), coarse sand (Column 2) and very coarse sand (column 3), these loadings are homogenous and the fourth column contains there three sand layers. The filtered water was subjected to laboratory analysis which includes the following: pH value, TDS (Total dissolved solids), EC (Electrical conductivity), TS (Total Suspended Solid), Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Hardness and Sodium. The obtained laboratory test results were compared with W.H.O standard for highest desirable and maximum permissible. One way ANOVA and bar Chart are the statistical tools employed in analyzing the data. The fine sand homogenous filter gives the best output, and then followed by the coarse sand, and then the mixture of the sand also gives preferable outputs. The homogenous fine sand media flow rate was slower but give the best output. In situation where sand particles is very small, bed depth is very high, minimal or no chemical treatment will be required after filtration.

Keywords

References

[1]  Taiwo, A.M., Olujimi, O.O., Bamgbose, O. and Arowolo, T.A. Surface Water Quality Monitoring in Nigeria: Situational Analysis and Future Management Strategy, Water quality monitoring and assessment, Dr. Voudouris (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0486-5, In Tech, Available from: http://www.interchopen.com/book/water-quality-monitoring-and-assessement/surface-water-quality-monitoring-in-Nigeria-situational-analysis-and-future-management-strategy
 
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Article

Some Aspects of a Historic Flooding in Nigeria and Its Effects on some Niger-Delta Communities

1Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 7-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Prekeyi Tawari-Fufeyin, Megbuwe Paul, Adams Omokhagbor Godleads. Some Aspects of a Historic Flooding in Nigeria and Its Effects on some Niger-Delta Communities. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):7-16. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Adams  Omokhagbor Godleads, Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Email: adams.godleads@gmail.com

Abstract

In recent times, flooding has been a recurrent problem in most parts of the world. In Nigeria, there exist reports of flooding in some towns and cities during heavy downpours but none compares with the flood under review. Flood waters from Cameroun entered Nigeria through the Benue River, into the River Niger on its way to the sea. Lots of physical damages were recorded, including destruction of farmlands and houses. Economic life was halted, people displaced and some lost their lives. Although Cameroun released water from the Ladja dam between July 2nd and September 17th 2012, the waters remained in the Niger delta communities up till November 2012. In this study, towns were chosen from Bayelsa and Delta states for evaluation of the effects of the flood waters. Some physical and chemical parameters were determined, using standard methods. The results revealed that in all the communities, the flood waters were slightly acidic (5.4 – 6.9) and dissolved oxygen was high (3.9 – 6.9mg/l). The heavy metal Chromium was also high. Most of the physical and chemical parameters analyzed were higher in flood water than in Borehole and River Water but generally within allowable limits. Other challenges faced by the people included loss of houses, ponds, farmlands, traditional grounds and means of livelihood, destruction of herbs and vegetation, exposure to wild animals. Wild animals were not spared as their natural habitats were destroyed. Consequently some died, most migrated while some took shelter in abandoned houses. There was an imbalance in the ecosystem and general pollution of the affected communities. The inhabitants of the communities possibly benefitted from some positive aspects of the flood as skill acquisition centres, drugs and food were provided. There was evidence of cooperation and togetherness within the temporary camps erected for victims.

Keywords

References

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Article

Ground Water Quality Index of Patna, the Capital City of Bihar, India

1Central Pollution Control Board, Southend Conclave, Kolkata


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 17-21
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dipu Sukumaran, Rita Saha, Rakesh Chandra Saxena. Ground Water Quality Index of Patna, the Capital City of Bihar, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):17-21. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Dipu  Sukumaran, Central Pollution Control Board, Southend Conclave, Kolkata. Email: dipudr@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Groundwater is the most preferred source of water in various user sectors in India on account of its near universal availability, dependability and low capital cost. The present study mainly focus on the drinking water quality index of one of the fast growing city of India, Patna. The city has a population of 58.3lakhs of people which mainly relay ground water for drinking. The ground water from fourteen stations was analysed. Even though the Water Quality Index (WQI) put the water into ‘good water’ category, none of the samples were found suitable because all the samples were found high concentration of total and faecal coliform. Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Nitrate concentrations in some stations were found above the drinking water standards.

Keywords

References

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Article

Rain-gauge Network as the Basis of a Model to Predict the Beginning of the Planting Season in Facing Climate Change Effects. Case Study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency

1Rain-gauge network as the basis of a model to predict the beginning of the planting season in facing climate change effects. Case study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 22-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Djoko Harmantyo, Eko Kusratmoko, Sobirin. Rain-gauge Network as the Basis of a Model to Predict the Beginning of the Planting Season in Facing Climate Change Effects. Case Study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):22-26. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Djoko  Harmantyo, Rain-gauge network as the basis of a model to predict the beginning of the planting season in facing climate change effects. Case study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency. Email: djoko.harmantyo@ui.ac.id

Abstract

Climate change is expected to affect agriculture in Southeast Asia, including in Indonesia in several ways. Temporal and spatial changes of rainfall which resulted in a shift in the early of the season indicate one of the climate change phenomenon. Early rainy season turned erratic causing no certainty the time of planting. Farmers suffer losses because the plant can produce not well. Daily rainfall data in a full year observation can be used to show when the beginning planting season. The purpose of this study firstly is to find the difference between the amounts of rainfall in different density of rain gauge. Secondly is to find variations in the spatial pattern of rainfall in different density of rain gauge. Total amount of rainfall observed data in tens day, namely dasarian rainfall, from July until December 2014 to be tested using Mann-Kendall method and by ANOVA. Rainfall data is processed by Arc-GIS software presented in a map to show variation of the rainfall spatial pattern. The research results showed that average of amount of the rainfall over the same areas is significantly difference between high rain-gauge density and low rain-gauge density. Shifting the early of the rainy season occurs about two weeks up from the general pattern of rainfall on the last of October.

Keywords

References

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