American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position




Devastating Flood of 2010, Effect on Potabile Water Supply in Rural Swat

1Department of Rural Development, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan

2Department of Economics, Karakoram International University Gilgit – Baltistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand (Chakdara) Dir Lower-Pakistan

4Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP- Pakistan

5M.Phil Scholar, Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute, Abbottabad

6Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP-Pakistan

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(4), 118-123
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, M. Sadiq Hashmi, Nafees Ahmad, Gauhar Rahman, Shakeel Ahmad, Shamsher Ali. Devastating Flood of 2010, Effect on Potabile Water Supply in Rural Swat. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(4):118-123. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Israr, Department of Rural Development, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan. Email:


This study was conducted in areas of KuzKunda, Ghat and KwaroTangi, Madyan Union Council of the rural Swat with the aims to assess the potable drinking water quality after the devastating flood of 2010, in the valley. For doing this forty samples of the spring water were collected from different ground water sources, i.e. tube wells, springs, dug wells and hand pumps in the area. These samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters including heavy metals Plumbum (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) and the results were compared with international standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). According to standards of WHO the pH, EC, total dissolves solids and Turbidity of spring water in all villages were in fewer amounts. But the concentration is higher than the standard of WHO in KuzKunda and KwaroTangi. Findings also show that most of the physio-chemical parameters, i.e. total suspended solids, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, chloride, sodium, potassium and zinc were, according to the international standard limits of WHO, while electrical conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, lead, chromium, nickel, calcium and magnesium were above the international standard of WHO. This is due to heavy metal contamination in the study area with mix zone rocks. These above limits of the mentioned ions lead to the unsafe drinking water quality of the Madyan area. The study recommends that the drinking spring water was generally of good quality, but it’s better to be chlorinated and boiled before use.



[1]  Azizullah, A. Muhammad. N. K. K. Peter. R. and Donat-Peter. H.(2011). Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public Health. J. Env. Inte. 37: pp 479-497.
[2]  Benyon, R. and Griffiths, J. (2010). Securing safe, clean drinking water for all; Drinking water Inspectorate Our Strategic Objectives 2010-2015. Published by Drinking Water Inspectorate, Area 4a Ergon House London SW1P 2AL Available at:
[3]  CJSC (2012). Spring water importance - Available online at:
[4]  Kibert,C.J., Thiele, L., Peterson, A. and Monroe, M. (2010). The Ethics of Sustainability, In Theory and In Fact,” In reshaping the built Environment, Charles J. Kibert, Ed., Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
[5]  Manahan, S.E., (1994). Environmental chemistry, Guide Book, Lewis Publisher Pakistan, No. 71, pp. 675-704.
Show More References
[6]  Oxman, A.R., Oxer, A.M.,(2000). The dev. of rural water supply in the province of Fayoum, Egypt, Water Sci. and Tec., pp.1-14.
[7]  Rizwanullah., Malik, R.N., Qadir, A.( 2009). Assessment of ground water contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan. African J. of Env. Sci. andTec., 3 (12), pp 429-46.
[8]  Shafi, M.M., N. Ahmad, S.N. Shaukat and M. Israr. (2009). Availability and utilization of social services (potable water supply and sanitation) by rural community in District Swat. Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 25(4): pp.649-655.
[9]  Shah, M. T., Begum, S., Khan, S.(2010). Pedo and biogeochemical studies of mafic and ultramfic rocks in the Mingora and Kabal areas, Swat, Pakistan. Env. Earth Sci., Vol (60), pp 1091-1102.
[10]  Sotirios, J.W., Viessman, W.J., Hammer, M.J., (2007). Water supply and pollution control. 3rd Edition, New York.Sotirios, K., Aikaterini, S., Nikolaos, M., Manos,
[11]  UN., (2009). Evaluation of the quality of drinking water in regions of Greece. Labo. of Env. Che., Deptt. of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian Uni. of Athens, Panepistimiopolis.
[12]  WHO/UNICEF.(2010). Evaluation of a new water treatment for point-of-use household applications to remove microorganisms and arsenic from drinking water. J. Water and Health. Vol. 1(2): pp.73-84.
Show Less References


Water Balance and Climatic Classification of a Tropical City Delhi - India

1Research and Modeling Division, AIR Worldwide India Private Limited, Hyderabad, India

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(5), 124-146
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-5-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yashvant Das. Water Balance and Climatic Classification of a Tropical City Delhi - India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(5):124-146. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-5-1.

Correspondence to: Yashvant  Das, Research and Modeling Division, AIR Worldwide India Private Limited, Hyderabad, India. Email:


Water balance is a concept used to understand the availability and the overall state of water resources in a hydrological system which forms the basis of the principle of mass conservation applied to exchanges of water and ensures the magnitudes of the various water exchange processes. Urbanization results in tremendous land cover change dynamics along with subsequent changes in the water and energy balance relationship of earth-atmospheric system. In this paper an attempt has been made to illustrate the small-scale spatial and temporal characteristics of the water balance components and to classify the climate of the tropical city Delhi through the application of the water balance model. In the modeling processes, the potential evapotranspiration (PE) was computed using Thornthwaite’s method and compared with the Penmen’s for the representative station. The complete water balance is evaluated by following an elegant book-keeping procedure given by Thornthwaite. Thornthwaite and Mather’s modified moisture index scheme, which is widely used and accepted by scientific community, is adopted to classify the climate of Delhi. According to the moisture indices, the entire city falls under the semiarid category of climate, except at a location, where it shifted to dry sub humid. This could be a freak occurrence.



[1]  Andrieu, H., Chocat, B. (2004): Introduction to the special issue on urban hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, 299 (3–4), 163-165.
[2]  Ashby, W.C., Fritts, H.C. (1972): Tree growth, air pollution, and Climate near La Porte, Ind. Bull. Amer. Metreol., Soc., 53, 246-251.
[3]  Aston, A. (1977): Water resources and consumption in Hong Kong. Urban Ecol., 2, 327-353.
[4]  Atkinson, S. E., Woods, R. A., Sivapalan, M. (2002), Climate and landscape controls on water balance model complexity over changing timescales. Water Resour. Res., 38(12), 1314.
[5]  Baik, J.-J., Kim, J.-J. (1999): A numerical study of flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in urban street canyons. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38, 1576-1589.
Show More References
[6]  Beebe, R.C.,. Morgan, Jr., G. M (1972): Synoptic analysis of summer rainfall periods exhibiting urban effects. Preprints conf. On urban environ. and second conf. Biometeorol. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 173-176.
[7]  Bell, F.C. (1972): The acquisition, consumption and elimination of water by Sydney urban system. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust., 7,160-176.
[8]  Bhaskar, A. S., Welty, C. (2012): Water Balances along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient of Metropolitan Baltimore, 2001-2009. Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, 37-50.
[9]  Budyko, M. I. (1974): Climate and Life, Elsevier, New York.
[10]  Budyko, M.I. (1982): The Earth’s Climate: Past and future. Academic Press Inc. London, 307 pp.
[11]  Campbell, T. (1982): La ciudad de Mexico como ecosistema. Ciencias Urbanas, 1, 28-35.
[12]  Changnon, S.A. Jr. (1968): The Laporte anomaly – fact or fiction? Bull Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 49, 4-11.
[13]  Changnon, S.A. Jr., Huff, F.A., Semolina, R.G. (1971): METROMEX: an investigation on inadvertent weather modification. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 52, 958-967.
[14]  Changnon, S.A. Jr., Semolina, R.G., Lowery, W.P.(1972): Inadvertent modifications of urban environments. Preprints conf. urban environs. and second conf. Biometeorol., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 165-172.
[15]  Changnon, S.A.Jr. (1970): Reply, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 51, 337-343.
[16]  Changnon, S.A.Jr. (1971): Comments on the effect on rainfall of a large steel works. J. Appl. Metreol., 10, 165-168.
[17]  Changnon, S.A.Jr. (1972): Urban effect on thunderstorm and hailstorm frequencies. Conf. on urban environ. and second conf. on Biometeorol., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 177-184.
[18]  Das, Y. (2002): Spatial and temporal distribution of radiation/energy/moisture budgets over Delhi, Ph.D. Thesis, Berhampur University, Berhampur, India, 125.
[19]  Das, Y., Padmanabhamurty, B., Murty, A.S.N. (2009): Energy and water balance studies in the boundary layer over Delhi (India). Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy, 39 (2), 163-185.
[20]  Eagleman, J. R. (1967): Pan evaporation, potential and actual evaporation. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 6 (3), 482-488.
[21]  Farmer, D., Sivapalan, M., Jothityangkoon, C. (2003): Climate, soil, and vegetation controls upon the variability of water balance in temperate and semiarid landscapes: Downward approach to water balance analysis. Water Resour. Res., 39(2), 1035.
[22]  Givoni, B. (1969): Man, Climate and Architecture. Elsevier Pub.Co. Ltd. 364.
[23]  Grimmond, C.S.B., Oke, T. R., Styen, D.G. (1986): Urban water balance I: A model for daily totals. Water Resources Research, 22, 1397-1403.
[24]  Grimmond, C.S.B., Oke, T.R (2002): Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: observations and a Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS). Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41, 792-810.
[25]  Grimmond, C.S.B., Oke, T.R. (1986): Urban water balance-II: Results from a suburb of Vancouver, British Columbia. Water resource research, 22, 10, 1404-1412.
[26]  Grimmond, C.S.B., Oke, T.R. (1999): Evapotranspiration rates in urban areas. Impacts of Urban growth on surface water and groundwater quality (Proceedings of IUGG '99 Symposium HS5, Birmingham, July 1999). IAHS Publ, no. 259.
[27]  Hidore, J.F. (1971): The effects of accidental weather on the flow of the Kankakee River. Bull Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 52, 99-103.
[28]  Holzman, B.G. (1971b): More on the La Porte fallacy (with reply by Hidore). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 52, 572-574.
[29]  Holzman, B.G., Thom, H.C.S. (1970): The La Porte precipitation anomaly. Bull. Amer. Metreol. Soc., 51, 335-337.
[30]  Huff, F.A., Changnon Jr. S.A. (1972a): Inadvertent precipitation modification by major urban area. Proc. Third conf. Weath. Modf., Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 73-78.
[31]  Kyuma, K. (1971): 'Climate of South and Southeast Asia According to Thornthwaite's Classification Scheme. Southeast Asian Studies (Kyoto), .9 (1): 1 36 1 58.
[32]  Kyuma, K. (1972): Numerical Classification of the Climate of South and Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Studies (Kyoto), 9 (4): 502-521.
[33]  Landsberg, H.E. (1972): Inadvertent atmospheric modifications through urbanization. Tech. Note No. BN 741, Instit. Fluid Dyn. Appl. Math., Univ. Maryland, 73.
[34]  Leao, S. (2014): Mapping 100 Years of Thornthwaite Moisture Index: Impact of Climate Change in Victoria, Australia. Geographical Research, 52 (3), 309-327.
[35]  Legates, D.R., McCabe, G.J. (2005): A re-evaluation of the average annual global water balance: Physical Geography, v. 26, 467-479.
[36]  Leopold, L. B. (1968): Hydrology for Urban Land Planning—A Guidebook on the Hydrologic Effects of Urban Land Use: U.S. Geological Survey, Circular, 554, 18.
[37]  Lindh, G. (1978): Urban hydrological modeling and catchment research in Swede. [In Research on Urban Hydrology], Edited by B. McPherson, 2 229-265. UNESCO, Paris.
[38]  Lull, H.W., Sopper, W.E. (1969): Hydrologic effects from urbanization of forested watersheds in the Northeast, USDA, Forest Service Research Paper, NE-146, 31.
[39]  L'vovich, M.I., Chernogayeva, G.M. (1977): Transformation of the water balance within the city of Moscow. Sov. Geogr., 18, 302-312.
[40]  Maruyama, E. (1978): Fluctuation of Paddy Yield and Water Resources in Southeast Asia. In: Climatic Change and Food Production (Eds.K. Takahashi and M. M. Yoshin), 155-166. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
[41]  Mather, J.R. (1974): Climatology: Fundamental and Application. McGraw-Hill Book Company. USA.
[42]  McCabe, G.J., Markstrom, S.L. (2007): A monthly water-balance model driven by a graphical user interface: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File report -1088, 6.
[43]  Moore, W.L. Morgan, C.W (1969): Effects of watershed changes on Stream flow, Univ. of Texas Press, Austin.
[44]  Muller, R.D. (1968): Some effects of urbanization on runoff as evaluated by Thornthwaite water balance models. Proc. 3rd. Ann. Conf. Amer. Water Resources Asso. 245.
[45]  Novotny, V. (1995): Non-point pollution and Urban Stormwater Management. Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA.
[46]  Ogden, T.L. (1969): The effect of rainfall on a large steel works. J. Appl. Meteorol, 8, 585-591.
[47]  Padmanabhamurty, B. (1981): Inadvertent modification of water balance- A problem of urban hydrology. Vayu Mandal, 36-39.
[48]  Padmanabhamurty, B. (1994): 'Urban-rural energy and moisture balance studies': Final Report on DST Project. Ref. No. ES/63/018/86., (Govt. of India).
[49]  Padmanabhamurty, B. (1999): ' Spatial and temporal variations of radiation, energy and moisture budgets in the boundary layer at Delhi': Final Report on DST Project. Ref. No. ES/48/319/95, (Govt. of India).
[50]  Padmanabhamurty, B., Satyanarayana, C.V.V. Rao., Dakshinamurti, J. (1970): On the water balances of some Indian stations. Journal of Hydrology, 11, 169-184.
[51]  Penman, H.L. (1948): Natural evaporation from open waters, bare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A 193, 120.
[52]  Pushpam, (2004): Ecosystem Services of Floodplains: An Exploration of Water Recharge Potential of the Yamuna Floodplain for Delhi. Paper Presented at the conference on Market Development of Water & Waste Technologies through Environmental Economics, 28th-29th May 2004, Paris.
[53]  Rahimi, S., Sefidkouhi, M.A.G, Raeini-Sarjaz, M. Valipour, M. (2015f): Estimation of actual evapotranspiration by using MODIS images (a case study: Tajan catchment. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 61(5), 695-709.
[54]  Rao, K.N., George, C. J., Ramasastri, K.S. (1976): The climatic water balance of India. Vol. XXXII, Part II, (IMD, Publication).
[55]  Sankarasubramanian, A., Vogel, R.M.(2002): Annual hydroclimatology of the United States. Water Resour. Res., 38(6), 1083.
[56]  Schaakel, J.C. Jr. (1972): Water and the city; in urbanization and Environment, Detwyler, T.R. and M.G. Marcus (eds.), Duxbury Press, 97-134.
[57]  Shepherd, J. M. (2005): A review of current investigations of urban-induced rainfall and recommendations for the future: Earth Interactions, 9, 1-27.
[58]  Subrahmanyam, V.P. (1982): Water balance and its application. (With special reference to India). Monograph, Andhra University Press, Waltair, Visakhapatnam, India, 102.
[59]  Thornthwaite, C.W. (1948): An Approach toward a Rational Classification of Climate. Geog. Rev., 38: 55-94.
[60]  Thornthwaite, C.W. Mather, J.R (1955): Water balance publication in climatology. Drexel Ins. of Tech., 8(1).
[61]  Trauth, R., Xanthopoulos, C. (1997): Non-point pollution of groundwater in urban areas. Water Research, 31, 2711-2718.
[62]  Valipour, M. (2014a): Analysis of potential evapotranspiration using limited weather data. Appl. Water Sci..
[63]  Valipour, M. (2014b): Application of new mass transfer formulae for computation of evapotranspiration. Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research,2(1), 33-46.
[64]  Valipour, M. (2014c): Importance of solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed for calculation of reference evapotranspiration. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 61(2).
[65]  Valipour, M. (2014d): Investigation of Valiantzas’ evapotranspiration equation in Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 121(1-2), 267-278.
[66]  Valipour, M. (2015a): Study of different climatic conditions to assess the role of solar radiation in reference crop evapotranspiration equations. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 61(5), 679-694.
[67]  Valipour, M. (2015b): Calibration of mass transfer-based models to predict reference crop evapotranspiration. Appl Water Sci.
[68]  Valipour, M. (2015c): Comparative Evaluation of Radiation-Based Methods for Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20(5):04014068.
[69]  Valipour, M. (2015d): Evaluation of radiation methods to study potential evapotranspiration of 31 provinces. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 127(3), 289-303.
[70]  Valipour, M. (2015e): Temperature analysis of reference evapotranspiration models. Meteorological Applications, 22(3), 385-394.
[71]  Valipour, M. Eslamian, S. (2014e): Analysis of potential evapotranspiration using 11 modified temperature-based models. Int. J. of Hydrology Science and Technology, 4(3)192-207.
[72]  Watkins (1963): Research on surface –water drainage. Proc. Instit. Civil Engin., 24, 305-330.
[73]  Wolock, D. M., McCabe, G. J. (1999): Explaining spatial variability in mean annual runoff in the conterminous United States. Clim. Res., 11, 149-159.
[74]  Woods, R. (2003): The relative roles of climate, soil, vegetation and topography in determining seasonal and long-term catchment dynamics. Adv. Water Resour., 26, 295-309.
Show Less References


Using of Hec-ras Model for Hydraulic Analysis of a River with Agricultural Vocation: A Case Study of the Kayanga River Basin, Senegal

1Department of Physics ,Faculty of Science and Technology, Hydraulics Laboratory and Fluid Mechanics (LHMF),University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar, Senegal

2Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Applications (LMFA), University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Faculty of Science and Technology, Dakar, Senegal

3Laboratory of physics solid and sciences of materials, University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Faculty of Science and Technology ,Dakar, Senegal

4Institute of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar, Senegal

5Teaching Laboratory and Research in Geomatics (LERG), Faculty of letters and Social Sciences, Department of Geography, University Campus of Polytechnic High School, Dakar, Senegal

6Office Lake Guiers Company for the Development and Operation of Lands Senegal River Delta and the Valleys of the Senegal River and Faleme (SAED), Saint Louis, Senegal

7Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Applications (LMFA), University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Faculty of Science and Technology, Dakar, Senegal;Laboratory of physics solid and sciences of materials, University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Faculty of Science and Technology ,Dakar, Senegal

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(5), 147-154
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-5-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vieux Boukhaly Traore, Mamadou Bop, Moustapha Faye, Giovani Malomar, El Hadj Oumar Gueye, Hyacinthe Sambou, Abdoulaye Ndiaye Dione, Sidy Fall, Amadou Tahirou Diaw, Joseph Sarr, Aboubaker Chedikh Beye. Using of Hec-ras Model for Hydraulic Analysis of a River with Agricultural Vocation: A Case Study of the Kayanga River Basin, Senegal. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(5):147-154. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-5-2.

Correspondence to: Vieux  Boukhaly Traore, Department of Physics ,Faculty of Science and Technology, Hydraulics Laboratory and Fluid Mechanics (LHMF),University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar, Senegal. Email:


In West Africa, there is serious asymmetry on food safety between consumers and food producers. This made that the management system of food safety in many developing countries became a top priority for authorities and decision makers. In Senegal, the government has selected the flood plain of Kayanga River to develop irrigated agriculture through rice cultivation to promote the food safety. For this, two dams (Niandouba and Confluent) have been built to reinforce water availability .The management of this hydraulic system required the better knowledge of its water resources through the dynamic of the flow. In this paper, we used Hec-ras model to compute the flow characteristics to analyze the hydraulic behavior of this system. The river reach selected, is located between the Niandouba dam and Kounkane threshold. From the DEM of this area, we have divided the river reach into 78 cross sections perpendicular to flow direction and numbered from 1 to 78. Arcgis software is used to extract the bathymetry for each cross section and the distance between two adjacent cross sections. This step allows creating the river geometry with Hec-ras. Four stream flows have successively fixed at Niandouba dam outlet as upstream boundaries. For each stream flow, Hec-ras calculate flow characteristics including: water surface profiles, energy grade line, water surface elevation, flow velocity, flow area, total surface area, volume, wetted perimeter, Froude number, top width, specif force, shear total, power total ,friction loss, head loss, conveyance total, and slope. The high, low and constant flow characteristics areas have been located. The large and narrow section sectors have also been identified allowing estimating floodplain. Certain of these flow characteristics such as the volume, total surface area…decrease from upstream to downstream. Flow velocities are substantially higher in the main channel than in the floodway. This study provides an opportunity for stakeholders to identify important elements of irrigated agriculture for investment plans in this area.



[1]  Abdel, H.F., Hassan, R.., Abdelhadi, K. and Younes, K.,. Comparison of two hydrological models on a pilot watershed area Bouregreg. Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on G.I.S. & Land Management, Casablanca, Morocco. Work of the Scientific Institute, Folds back, Géologie series & physical geography, (23).33-38. 2009.
[2]  Ali,F., Rachid, C., Fouzi, A., Comparative approaches for calculating backwater curves in a low slope trapezoidal channel .Science Lib Editions Mersenne, 3(110304). 2111-4706. 2011.
[3]  Amir, H. H. and Ehsan, Z., Evaluation of HEC-RAS Ability in Erosion and Sediment Transport Forecasting. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17 (11). 1490-1497. 2012 .
[4]  Brych, K., Dittrt, F. and Elias, V., Development of flood boundary maps of urban areas using HEC-RAS software .Proceedings of the Fourth international FRIEND Conference held at Cape Town. South Africa. IAHS, (274). 237-242. 2002.
[5]  Coly, A., Soumare, P.O., and Dacosta, H., Deficit, adequacy of the water offer and demand and dynamics of the basin of Anambe. Proceedings of the Fourth International FRIEND Conference held ill Cape Town. South Africa. IAHS , (274). 345-353. 2002.
Show More References
[6]  Dacosta, H., and Gomez, R., Wetland Inventory basins Casamance and Kayanga. Report Wetlands National Network of Senegal (RNZHS). International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 1998.
[7]  Dacosta, H., Coly, A. and Soumare, P. O., Adequacy of the water offer and demand. Hydrological dynamics of Anambe (senegal).Integrated management of tropical floodplains, 396-410. 2002.
[8]  Domeneghetti, A., Castellarin, A. and Brath, A., Assessing rating-curve uncertainty and its effects on hydraulic model calibration. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, (16).1191-1202. 2012
[9]  Dragan, V. K., Ivana, B. I. ,Dejan, M. C. and Gordana, O. M. ,The initial analysis of the river Ibar temperature downstream of the lake gazivode. Thermal science, 18(1).73- 80. 2014.
[10]  Harman, C., Stewardson, M., and DeRose, R., Variablity and uncertainty in reach bankfull hydraulic geometry. Journal of hydrology, (351). 13-25. 2008.
[11]  Hasani, H., Determination of flood plain zoning in zarigol river using the hydraulic model of hec-ras. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5 (3). 399-403. 2013.
[12]  Henry, H. H. and Walton, R., Advanced Guidance on Use of Steady HEC-RAS. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, 40976(316).1-10. 2008.
[13]  Karim, S., Flood forecasting based on geographical information system. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4 (10). 950-956.2009.
[14]  Karney, B.W. , Malekpour, A. and Salehi H. ,An exploratory approach to teaching gradually varied flow. Journal of Hydro-environment Research, (4 ).175-180. 2010.
[15]  Mahdizadeh Khasraghi, M., Gholami Sefidkouhi, M.A., Valipour, M., 2015. Simulation of open- and closed-end border irrigation systems using SIRMOD. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 61 (7), 929-941. (Impact Factor: 0.549).
[16]  Maghsoud, A., Alireza, P. and Majid, R.,. Study and simulation of hydraulic and structural changes result of changing of section from soil to concrete. International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER), 2(4). 231-234. 2012.
[17]  Mahfuzur, R. K., Clifford,I. V., Winston, Y .and Holly ,A., .Water Resources Management in the Ganges Basin: A Comparison of Three Strategies for Conjunctive Use of Groundwater and Surface Water. Water Resources Management 28(5). 1235-1250. 2014.
[18]  Nemati , K. M., Shahnazari, A., Fazoula R., Aghajanee M. G., and Perraton, E., Effects of Caspian Sea water level fluctuations on existing drains. Caspian J. Env. Sci. 2011, 9(2). 169-180 , 2011.
[19]  OMVG., Project integrated management of water resources in the watershed of the river Kayanga-geba. Assessment Report, African Water Facility, 2008, 1-16.
[20]  Pappenberger, F., Beven, K.J., Horritt, M. and Blazkova, S., Uncertainty in the calibration of effective roughness parameters in HEC-RAS using inundation and downstream level observations. Journal of Hydrology, 302(1). 46-69. 2005.
[21]  Robert, W.C.J., Karen, F. and William, J., Auto-Integrating Multiple HEC-RAS Flood-line Models into Catchment-wide SWMM Flood Forecasting Models. AWRA Hydrology & Watershed Management Technical Committee, 10 (1 ).1-15.2012.
[22]  Salah, H. A. and Tiku, T. T., 2014. Optimal Design of Water Distribution Systems Based on Entropy and Topology .Water Resources Management, (28). 3555-3575. 2014.
[23]  Sanjay, A. B., Nayan, S., Ahmad Z. and Ishwer, D. G., Numerical Simulation-Optimization for Channelization of River Kosi. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, 3 (9). 1149-1155. 2014.
[24]  Sayed, M. N.K., Assessment of the current food safety regulatory system in afghanistan and its future with a new independent regulatory structure, International Journal of Development Research, 5(2). 3389-3395, February, 2015.
[25]  Sunil, K., Sayali, K., Vrushali, B. and Akshada, W., 2014. Flood modeling of river godavari using hec-ras. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3 (9).2319-1163. 2014.
[26]  Tayefi ,V., Lane, S.N., Hardy, R.J. and Yu ,D. A., Comparison of one- and two-dimensional approaches to modeling flood inundation over complex upland floodplains. Hydrologic Processes, (21). 3190-3202. 2007.
[27]  Traore, V. B. , Sambou, S., Cisse, M. T., Tamba, S., Fall,S., Diaw, A. T. and Sambou, Y., Trends and Shifts in Time Series of Rainfall and Runoff in the Gambia River Watershed. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, 2 (4). 138-146. 201.
[28]  Traore, V. B. , Sambou, S., Sambou, Y. and Diaw, A. T. , steady flow simulation in Anambe river basin using Hec-ras. International Journal of Development Research, 5(7). 4968-4979, July 2015.
[29]  Valipour, M., 2012. Determining possible optimal values of required flow, nozzle diameter, and wetted area for linear traveling laterals. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES). 1 (1), 37-43.
[30]  Valipour, M., 2012. Scrutiny of Pressure Loss, Friction Slope, Inflow Velocity, Velocity Head, and Reynolds Number in Center Pivot. International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research. 2 (5), 703-711.
[31]  Valipour, M., 2012. Sprinkle and Trickle Irrigation System Design Using Tapered Pipes for Pressure Loss Adjusting. Journal of Agricultural Science. 4 (12), 125-133.
[32]  Valipour, M., 2014. Future of agricultural water management in Europe based on socioeconomic indices. Acta Advances in Agricultural Sciences. 2 (7), 1-18.
[33]  Valipour, M., 2015. Handbook of Environmental Engineering Problems. Foster City, CA: OMICS Press. USA.
[34]  Valipour, M., 2014. Handbook of Hydraulic Engineering Problems. Foster City, CA: OMICS Press. USA.
[35]  Valipour, M., 2014. Handbook of Hydrologic Engineering Problems. Foster City, CA: OMICS Press. USA.
[36]  Valipour, M., 2014. Handbook of Irrigation Engineering Problems. Foster City, CA: OMICS Press. USA.
[37]  Valipour, M., 2014. Handbook of Water Engineering Problems. Foster City, CA: OMICS Press. USA.
[38]  Valipour, M., 2014. Irrigation status of Americas. Advances in Applied Agricultural Science. 2 (12), 56-72.
[39]  Valipour, M., 2014. Prediction of irrigated agriculture in Asia Pacific using FAO indices. Acta Advances in Agricultural Sciences. 2 (9), 40-53.
[40]  Valipour, M., 2014. Pressure on renewable water resources by irrigation to 2060. Acta Advances in Agricultural Sciences. 2 (8), 32-42.
[41]  Valipour, M., 2014. Variations of irrigated agriculture indicators in different continents from 1962 to 2011. Advances in Water Science and Technology. 1 (1), 1-14.
[42]  Valipour, M., 2015. Assessment of Important Factors for Water Resources Management in European Agriculture. Journal of Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering. 4 (2), 169-178.
[43]  Valipour, M., 2015. What is the tendency to cultivate plants for designing cropping intensity in irrigated area?. Advances in Water Science and Technology. 2 (1), 1-12.
[44]  Valipour, M., Gholami Sefidkouhi, M.A., Eslamian, S., 2015. Surface irrigation simulation models: a review. International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology. 5 (1), 51-70.
[45]  Xavier, L ., Jean, B. P. and Vincent ,G., Simplified nonlinear modeling of river flow routing. Advance Water resources, (33). 1015-1023. 2010.
[46]  Yannopoulos, S. I., Lyberatos, G., Theodossiou, N., Li, W., Valipour, M., Tamburrino, A., Angelakis, A. N., 2015. Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide. Water. 7 (9), 5031-5060. (Impact Factor: 1.428).
Show Less References