American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Fluoride Contents of Community Drinking Water: Biological and Public Health Implications

1Department of Integrated Science/Biology Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria

2Medical Director, Sick Bay, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 54-57
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dirisu C.G, Mafiana M. O, Okwodu N.E, Isaac A.U.. Fluoride Contents of Community Drinking Water: Biological and Public Health Implications. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):54-57. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dirisu  C.G, Department of Integrated Science/Biology Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria. Email:


Drinking water supplies in Omoku, Nigeria was analyzed for its fluoride content investigated. For the analysis, twenty-four different water samples were systematically collected from stream, well water, public tap and private borehole in defined locations in Omoku. Level of fluoride was determined using standard method-Ion-Selective Electrode method. The mean values obtained were compared directly with the limit recommended by the World Health organization (WHO) of 1.0mg/L. Private borehole and public tap water had overall mean fluoride levels of 0.94±0.07 mg/L and 0.86±0.30 mg/L respectively, while stream had 0.95±0.09 mg/L and well water had the lowest level of fluoride (0.48±0.03 mg/L). Fluoride content of private borehole, public tap water and stream were approximately within the specified minimum limit of World health organization, while that of well water was below stipulated limit. ANOVA statistics indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean Fluoride levels of the water samples (p>0.05). Low levels of fluoride are associated with dental caries and hence such water should be fluoridated. Biological implications of low and high fluoride levels of water are highlighted in order to create awareness on the need to protect the general public from either dental caries or fluorosis of the teeth and/or skeleton respectively.



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Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography, Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 58-67
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Obeta Michael Chukwuma. Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):58-67. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Obeta  Michael Chukwuma, Department of Geography, Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Email:


The community participation policy has long been associated with rural development. Rural development planners opine that for rural development projects to succeed the host community must take active part in the development and management of such projects. Enugu state government has implemented the community participation policy in her rural water supply sector since the late 1990s. This paper examines the level of community participation in the development and management of rural water supply schemes in the state. It describes the water schemes, the practices of and factors constraining effective community participation in the area. In addition, the paper suggests strategies that can enhance the implementation of the policy in order to improve service delivery in the area. The research is largely qualitative, using data obtained through focus group discussion (FGD), interviews, observations and from records in the states agencies responsible for public water supplies. The research team interacted with 300 individuals, drawn from 15 communities hosting the 15 water schemes used in the study. The data generated were analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferences statistical tools. The results of the study revealed that practices of community participation in the study area vary widely. Genuine participation in critical stages of water projects such as selection of technology is either limited or lacking. Participation of Village Water Committees (VWCs) in the management of rural water supply schemes is mostly ceremonial and contributes little to the sustainable functioning of the schemes. Strategies that may aid the implementation of the policy are suggested.



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Analysis of Groundwater in Puerto Rico

1Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, University of Puerto Rico at Carolina, PO Box 4800, Carolina, PR 00984

2School of Natural Science and Technology, Universidad del Turabo, Gurabo, Puerto Rico, PO Box 3030, Gurabo, PR 00725

3School of Science and Technology, Universidad del Este, Carolina, Puerto Rico Carr. #190 km 1.8 Carolina, PR 00983

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 68-76
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Méndez Tejeda Rafael, Richards Ronald T., Emiliano Anastacio. Analysis of Groundwater in Puerto Rico. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):68-76. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Méndez  Tejeda Rafael, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, University of Puerto Rico at Carolina, PO Box 4800, Carolina, PR 00984. Email:


During rainfall events, the aquifers in Puerto Rico capture a small fraction of the rainfall and sometimes can store it for years. Organic pollutants are degraded over time by microbial and chemical processes. The shorter the travel time between raindrop and aquifer recharge the greater is the risk of contamination. Existing data from non-pumping observation wells have been used to identify three areas at risk from superficial contamination. High-risk areas have a high correlation between depth-to-water and temperature or respond quickly to rainfall events. The high-risk areas are in Florida and in the adjoining municipality of Quebradrillas/Camuy and Manatí/Vega Baja. It is proposed that production wells in the high-risk areas be instrumented to measure the rainfall and the temperature and specific conductance of the pumped water and the rainwater. The hypothesis of this proposed experiment is that in the high-risk areas the water pumped from the production well will show a reduction of temperature and specific conductance within 24 hours of a heavy rainfall event. In this manner the travel time from rain drop to aquifer recharge can be measured. The proposed paper will provide concrete data to improve the management of groundwater resources in Puerto Rico.



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