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Article

Groundwater Potential Evaluation of College of Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

1Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti

2Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(1), 25-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ogundana A.K, Talabi A. O. Groundwater Potential Evaluation of College of Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(1):25-30. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Ogundana  A.K, Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Email: dejiogundana@gmail.com

Abstract

Availability of water for daily activities has constituted serious challenge at the College of Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Hence, geophysical study of the College was conducted to investigate its groundwater potential with a view to proffer solution to water availability in the study area. Profiling and Vertical electrical sounding methods were employed using Dipole - Dipole and Schlumberger configuration respectively. Eight points were sounded along three traverses and one profile was occupied. Five different subsurface lithologic units were established namely; lateritic topsoil, sandy-clay, weathered basement, fractured basement and, fresh basement. The curve types range between simple K, H to complex HA, HK and KH. The topsoil, sandy-clay and weathered basement materials are characterised with relatively low resistivity values while the fresh basement materials are characterized with high resistivity values. The average resistivity and thickness values for the topsoil are 178Ωm and 1.0m respectively. Sandy-clay was encountered in six locations with average resistivity and thickness values of 23Ωm and 7.0m respectively. Weathered basement was encountered in six locations with average resistivity and thickness values of 231Ωm and 8.0m respectively. Fractured basement was encountered in four locations with average resistivity and depth to the top of fracture values of 294Ωm and 18.0m respectively. Basement is relatively shallow in the study area, it was encountered in three locations and the average resistivity and depth values to the top of basement are 1000Ωm, and 11.0m respectively. Overburden thickness was established in six locations with an average value of 11.0m. The combination of overburden materials with the fractured basement constitutes aquiferous units within the study area. The groundwater potential of the area is rated as medium with VES 2 and 5 more promising.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ademiluwa OL and Eluwole AB (2013) Hydrogeophysical Evaluation of the Groundwater Potential of Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, South-western Nigeria. Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 4 Issue 1 p 77
 
[2]  Bala AE, Ike EC (2001). The aquifer of the crystalline basement rocks In Gusau area, Northwestern Nigeria. J. Min. Geol. 37 (2): 177-184.
 
[3]  Clerk L (1985). Groundwater Abstraction from Basement Complex Areas of Africa. J. Eng. Geol., London 18: 25-34.
 
[4]  Dutcher, L.C. and Garrett. A.A., 1963, Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, Califonia: U.S. Geological survey Water-Supply Paper 1419, 114 p.
 
[5]  Ojo, J.S., Olorunfemi, M.O. and Falebita, D.E, An Appraisal of the Geologic Structure beneath the Ikogosi Warm Spring in South- Western Nigeria Using Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods. Earth Sciences Research Journal. 2011, 15 (1): 27-34.
 
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[6]  Oladipo, A. A., Oluyemi, E. A., Tubosun, I. A., Fasisi, M. K. and Ibitoye, F. I, Chemical Examination of Ikogosi Warm Spring in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 2005, 5 (1): 75-79
 
[7]  Olayinka A. I. and Weller A. 1997. The inversion of geoelectrical data for hydrogeological applications in crystalline basement areas of Nigeria. Journ. Of Applied Geosciences, Vol. 37, Issue 2, June 1997, pp 103-105.
 
[8]  Olayinka AI, Olorunfemi MO (1992). Determination of geoelectrical Characteristic in Okene Area and implication for boreholes setting. J. Min. Geol., 28: 403-412.
 
[9]  Olorunfemi M. D. & Olayinka A. I. (1992): Alteration of Geoelectric in Okene are and Implication for Borehole Sitting. Journal of Mining and Geology, pp. 403-411.
 
[10]  Olorunfemi M. O. & Oloruniwo M. A. (1985): Geoelectric Parameters and Aquifer Characteristics of Some Part of South Western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology.
 
[11]  Olorunfemi M. O. (1990): The Hydrogeological Implication of Topographic Variation with Overburden Thickness in Basement Complex. Area of South Western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. Vol. 26, No. 1.
 
[12]  Olorunfemi MO, Fasuyi SA (1993). Aqufier types and geoelectric/hydrogeologic characteristics of part of central basement terrain of Nigeria (Niger State). J. Africa Earth Sci., 16 (3): 309-317.
 
[13]  Olorunfemi MO, Olorunniwo MA (1985). Parameters and aquifer characteristics of some parts of SW. Nigeria Geologic Applica E. Hydrogeological, XX Part 1, pp. 99-109.
 
[14]  Rehrl, C. and Birk, S. 2010, Hydrogeological Characterisation and Modelling of Spring Catchments in a Changing Environment. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences Volume 103 Issue 2, p 106-117 Vienna.
 
[15]  Talabi, A. O., 2013, Hydrogeochemistry and Stable Isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) Assessment of Ikogosi Spring Waters. American Journal of Water Resources, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 25-33.
 
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Article

Access to Potable Water Supply in Nigerian Cities Evidence from Yenagoa Metropolis

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria

2Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Odafivwotu Ohwo, Abel Abotutu. Access to Potable Water Supply in Nigerian Cities Evidence from Yenagoa Metropolis. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Odafivwotu  Ohwo, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. Email: drohwodafe@gmail.com

Abstract

The importance of safe water supply to human health cannot be over emphasized. However, potable water supply to most Nigerian cities is still inadequate. This study was designed to determine households’ access to potable water supply in Yenagoa, in terms of quality and quantity. To achieve this aim, 15 borehole water samples were collected from 15 neighbourhoods, which the metropolis was structured. 375 questionnaires were randomly distributed in these neighbourhoods using the systematic sampling technique. The analyses revealed that both the quality and quantity of water supply in Yenagoa were inadequate. For instance, turbidity values (20.70-41.20 NTU) in all the sampled water were above the WHO 5 NTU threshold; while 7 (46.67%) samples have pH values below the WHO minimum value of 6.5, indicating acidity. Similarly, iron and lead also have 4 (26.67%) and 3 (20%) samples above the WHO thresholds of 0.3mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. The analyses of the quantity of water supply in Yenagoa also show that in spite of the proliferations of wells and boreholes, and the short distances to sources of major water supply, 29.28% of sampled respondents used below 20 litres of water per capita per day. This is mainly attributed to the high cost of water supply (average of N4, 500 per month) in relation to the monthly minimum national wage of N18, 000. It is therefore recommended that the State Government should as a matter of urgency revive and increase the capacity of the state water corporation to deliver potable water supply to the people at reasonable cost.

Keywords

References

[1]  World Water Council, “Water supply and sanitation,” 2005 [Online]. Available: http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id [Accessed Nov.13, 2007].
 
[2]  World Bank,” World water challenge,” The Punch, Friday, March 23, 2007.
 
[3]  World Health Organization, “Cost and benefits of water and sanitation improvements,” 2004 [Online], Available:http://www.who.int/watersanitationhealth/wsh0404summary/en/index.html [Accessed Nov.13, 2007].
 
[4]  World Health Organization and United Nations Children Fund, “Water and Sanitation Report,” The Guardian, Monday, December 4, 2006.
 
[5]  Ohwo, O, “Quality of Water Supply from Hand-Dug Wells in Warri-Effurun Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria, “Nigerian Geographical Journal, 8(2). 73-86. Sept. 2012.
 
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[6]  Muta’a Hellandendu, J,” Health Implications of Water Scarcity in Nigeria,” European Scientific Journal, Vol.8 No.18., 111-117. Aug. 2012.
 
[7]  World Bank and Federal Ministry of Water Resources, “Water supply and sanitation interim strategy note on Nigeria,” 2000 [Online]. Available: http://siter resources world bank. Org/NIGERIA EXTN/Resources/wss 1100, [Accessed Nov.13, 2007].
 
[8]  Stimson Global Health Security,” Lagos: Growth without infrastructure,” The Stimson Centre, 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.stimson.org, Accessed Jul. 24, 2013.
 
[9]  Ohwo, O,” Spatial Analysis of the Quality of Borehole Water Supply in Warri-Effurun Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria,” Ikogho: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 9(2 &3). 91-103. April-September. 2011.
 
[10]  Abaje, I.B; Ati, O.F and Ishaya, S, “Nature of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria,” Research Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 1(1). 16-21. 2009.
 
[11]  Ifenna, I and Chinedu, O,” Heavy Metal Levels and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Potable Water in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria,” Archives of Applied Science Research, 4 (5). 2094-2097. 2012.
 
[12]  Adeniji-Oloukoi, G,” Assessment of the Quality of Spring Water in Ibadan, Nigeria,” Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 7 (4). 263-268. 2012.
 
[13]  Standards Organization of Nigeria, Nigeria standard for drinking water quality, ICS 13.060.20: Nigeria Industrial Standard Manual, NIS 554: 2007.
 
[14]  Seeling, B; Derickson, R and Bergsrud, F (1992) Treatment systems for household water supplies: Iron and manganese removal,” 1992 [Online].Available: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/h2oqual/watSystem/ae1030w.htm [Accessed January 1, 2004].
 
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Article

Geoelectric Characterization of Aquiferous Units and its Implication on Groundwater Potential of Owo, Southwestern Nigeria

1Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti.

2Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(2), 37-40
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ogundana A. K, Talabi A. O.. Geoelectric Characterization of Aquiferous Units and its Implication on Groundwater Potential of Owo, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(2):37-40. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Ogundana  A. K, Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti.. Email: dejiogundana@gmail.com

Abstract

Geophysical study of the North-eastern part of Owo was conducted to investigate the geoelectric characteristics of its aquiferous units and its implication on groundwater potential of the area. Vertical electrical sounding method was employed and Schlumberger configuration was adopted. Thirty-two points were sounded along three different sections of the town namely; Idasen, Okedogbon and Express (Figure 1). Six different subsurface lithologic units were established namely; lateritic topsoil, clay, sand, quartzite, weathered/fractured basement and, basement. The curve types range between simple H, K, HA, HK, KH to complex, HKH, KHA and KHK. The topsoil, clay, sand and weathered basement materials are characterised with relatively low resistivity values while the quartzite ridge materials are characterized with high resistivity values. The average resistivity and thickness values for the topsoil are 220 Ωm and 2.0 m respectively. Clay was encountered across Okedogbon and Express area of the town and the average resistivity and thickness values of 34 Ωm and 6.0 m respectively. Sand was encountered across the entire study area with average resistivity and thickness values of 115 Ωm and 11.0 m respectively. Quartzite was encountered in all the locations with average resistivity and thickness values of 611 Ωm and 11.0 m respectively. Weathered/fractured basement was encountered across the three sections with average resistivity and thickness values of 86 Ωm and 12.0 m respectively. Basement is relatively deep in the study area and the average resistivity and depth values to the top of basement are 878 Ωm, and 24 m respectively. Overburden thickness was established across the area with an average value of 20 m. The overburden materials with the fractured basement constitutes aquiferous units within the study area though the sand and weathered basement units are largely responsible for the groundwater potential. The groundwater potential of the area is moderate with Express area having the highest potential.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bala AE, Ike EC (2001). The aquifer of the crystalline basement rocks In Gusau area, NW Nigeria. J. Min. Geol. 37 (2): 177-184.
 
[2]  Clerk L (1985). Groundwater Abstraction from Basement Complex Areas of Africa. J. Eng. Geol., London 18: 25-34.
 
[3]  Idornigie AI, Olorunfemi MO (1992). A Geoelectric mapping of the Basement Structures in the central part of the Bida Basin and its Hydrogeological Implication. J. Min. Geol., 28 (1): 93-103.
 
[4]  Olayinka AI, Olorunfemi MO (1992). Determination of geoelectrical Characteristic in Okene Area and implication for boreholes setting. J. Min. Geol., 28: 403-412.
 
[5]  Olorunfemi MO, Fasuyi SA (1993). Aqufier types and geoelectric/hydrogeologic characteristics of part of central basement terrain of Nigeria (Niger State). J. Africa Earth Sci., 16 (3): 309-317.
 
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[6]  Olorunfemi MO, Olorunniwo MA (1985). Parameters and aquifer characteristics of some parts of SW. Nigeria Geologic Applica E. Hydrogeological, XX Part 1, pp. 99-109.
 
[7]  Rahaman MA (1989). Review of the basement geology of SW Nigeria: In Geology of Nigeria (Kogbe CA Ed.). Elizabeth Publishing. Co. Nigeria. pp. 41-58.
 
[8]  Anhaeusser, C. R, 1969. A Resappraisal of some aspects of Precambrian shield geology bull, Geo. Soc, Amer., Vol. 80, pp 2175-2200.
 
[9]  Grant, F. S., West, G. F, 1965. Interpretation theory in Applied Geophysics. New York, McGraw-Hill
 
[10]  Olorunfemi M. D. & Olayinka A. I. (1992): Alteration of Geoelectric in Okene are and Implication for Borehole Sitting. Journal of Mining and Geology, pp. 403-411.
 
[11]  Olorunfemi M. O. (1990): The Hydrogeological Implication of Topographic Variation with Overburden Thickness in Basement Complex. Area of SW Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. Vol. 26, No. 1.
 
[12]  Olorunfemi M. O. & Oloruniwo M. A. (1985): Geoelectric Parameters and Aquifer Characteristics of Some Part of SW Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology.
 
[13]  Rahaman M. A. (1976): Review of the Basement Geology of SW Nigeria in Geology of Nigeria. Elizabithan Publishing Company, Nigeria. pp. 41-58.
 
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Article

Six Years Major Historical Urban Floods in West Bengal State in India: Comparative Analysis Using Neuro-Genetic Model

1CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Ave., New York, NY, USA

2Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur, West Bengal, India

3School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(2), 41-53
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nihar R. Samal, Pankaj K. Roy, Mrinmoy Majumadar, S. Bhattacharya, Malabika Biswasroy. Six Years Major Historical Urban Floods in West Bengal State in India: Comparative Analysis Using Neuro-Genetic Model. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(2):41-53. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Nihar  R. Samal, CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Ave., New York, NY, USA. Email: samalnr@gmail.com

Abstract

An estimated 96 percent of deaths related to natural disasters in the past decade occurred in developing countries. Flooding is one of the greatest water-related environmental disasters and is the major concern in West Bengal state in India. The number of people vulnerable to devastating floods is expected to rise due to large-scale urbanization, population growth in flood-prone areas, land use changes, climate change and rising sea levels apart from its contributions to the biodiversity and sustainability of ecosystems and to many human activities. New disaster risk reduction approaches are needed to build the necessary capacity to address these challenges. Based on this context, an investigation is made in the state of West Bengal in India over six years of extreme rainfall event highlighting the flooding situation interlinked with the structural and non-structural measures and its management strategy. West Bengal State experience heavy precipitation particularly in the months of September and October consequently upon low pressure/depressions developed in the Bay of Bengal during the years 1956, 1959, 1978, 1995, 1999 and 2000, which faced such worst type of rainfall and the year 2000 may be designated as the year of the worst precipitation in terms of quantum, intensity and duration. Lack of control structures coupled with very high discharge in the rivers during the year 2000 resulted in prolonged agony for a large number of people within the state. It is also attempted to develop a neuro-genetic models to identify the relationship between return period and extreme rainfall event.

Keywords

References

[1]  Central Water Commission (CWC). “Manual on Flood Forecasting”, River Management Wing, New Delhi, 1989.
 
[2]  Biswasroy M., Roy P.K, Samal N.R., Mazumdar, A. “Socio-economic Valuations of Wetland Based Occupations of Lower Gangetic Basin through Participatory Approach”, Environment and Natural Resources Research, 2(4): 30-44, 2012.
 
[3]  Sharma V. K. “Natural disaster management in national development- Indian perspective”, New united process publisher, 26: 32, 1997.
 
[4]  Dhar O.N., Nandargi S. “A study of floods in the Bramaputra basin in India”, Int. J. of Climatology, 20 ( 7-9):771-782, 2000.
 
[5]  Samal N.R., Roy D., Mazumdar A., Bose B. “Influence of thermal stratification on dissolved oxygen in Subhas Sarobar”, Kolkata. J. Curr. Sci., 7 (1): 259-266, 2004.
 
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[6]  Samal N.R., Roy, P.K., Biswasroy, M. and Mazumdar, A. 2014. Limnological Comparisons of Threats to Aquatic Life Owing to Thermal Stratification in two Morphometrically Different Urban Shallow Lakes, Sustainability, Agri, Food and Environmental Research, 2(1): 13-30.
 
[7]  Pal, M., Samal N.R., Roy, P.K. and Biswasroy, M. 2014. Temperature and dissolved oxygen stratification in the lake Rudrasagar: Preliminary investigations, Sustainability, Agri, Food and Environmental Research, 2(1): 1-12.
 
[8]  Samal, N.R., Roy, D., Mazumdar, A. and Bose, B. 2004. Seasonal Response of Water Temperature of Rabindra Sarobar, the National Lake, in relation to pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand., Journal Public Health Enggs., Vol. 2004, No. 2, pp. 39-42.
 
[9]  Mazumdar, A., Samal, N.R., Roy, D. and Gangopadhyay, A. 2007. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Water in a shallow lake Rabindra Sarobar in Metropolis Kolkata, Journal of Inst. of Enggs. (IE-CH), India, vol. 88, pp. 32-40.
 
[10]  Samal N.R., Mazumdar A. “Management of Lake Ecosystem”. J. of The Ekologia (The Ekol.), 3(2), 123-130, 2005.
 
[11]  Samal N.R., Roy P.K., Biswas M., Mazumdar A. “Summer thermal stratification: an indicator of water pollution in shallow lake”, J. Chem. Eng., Instit. Eng. (India), 90: 37-43, 2010.
 
[12]  Pielke R.A. (Jr), Downton M.W. “Precipitations and damaging floods; trend in the U.S. - 1932-1997”. J. of climate, 15th Oct, 3625-3637, 2000.
 
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[16]  NMIWD, News Magazine of Irrigation & Waterways Dept., “Sechpatra”, Govt. of West Bengal, June, Vol.1, No.1, 2001.
 
[17]  Samal N.R., Matonse A.H. Mukundan R., Zion M.S., Pierson D.C., Gelda R.K., Schneiderman E.M. “Modeling potential effects of climate change on winter turbidity loading in the Ashokan Reservoir, NY”, Hydrological Processes.
 
[18]  Samal N.R., Mazumdar A., Jöhnk K.D., Peeters F. “Assessment of ecosystem health of tropical shallow waterbodies in eastern India using turbulence model. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 12: 215-225, 2009.
 
[19]  Samal, N.R., Jöhnk, K.D., Peeters, F., Bäuerle, E., Mazumdar, A., 2008. Mixing and internal waves in a small stratified Indian Lake: Subhas Sarobar. In: Mohanty, P.K. (ed.) Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and Coastal Environments. Springer, Berlin, pp. 91-100.
 
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[34]  Biswasroy M., Roy P.K., Mazumdar A., Majumder M., Samal, N.R. Impact of Land Use and Aquatic Plants on the Water Quality of the Sub-Tropical Alpine Wetlands in India: A Case Study Using Neuro-Genetic Models, J. of Water Resource and Protection, 4:576-589, 2012.
 
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Article

Effects of Watershed Land Use Data on HSPF Water Quality in the Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA

1Energy and Environmental Engineering, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya

2Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 54-62
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Isaac A. Alukwe, Theo Dillaha. Effects of Watershed Land Use Data on HSPF Water Quality in the Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):54-62. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Isaac  A. Alukwe, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya. Email: isaaca6@vt.edu

Abstract

Land use data source can contribute to errors in watershed modeling. This paper evaluated the effects of using site-specific versus county-level aggregated land use data on Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) simulated contaminant losses. Site-specific land use was derived from the local watershed land use inventory while aggregated land use was derived from county-level data (percentage of county land in various land use categories and sub-categories). County level data are useful when modeling large watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay Watershed when collection and use of site-specific data may be cost prohibitive. The study site was the 14,941 ha predominately rural Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA. Percentage relative errors in model output were calculated and compared using the two land use data sources. Results showed that use of aggregated land use data resulted in 13, 3 and 4 percent higher simulated sediment, and total nitrogen and phosphorus losses, respectively due to overestimated cropland area. The higher contaminant losses would suggest the need for more management measures to meet water quality goals. This study suggests that while the use of county-level aggregated land use data may be appropriate for developing basin scale pollutant reduction goals such as those in total maximum daily load (TMDL) plans, it should be used with extreme caution for watershed planning and implementation activities on smaller watersheds that may mandate site-specific changes in land management and costs for landowners. For smaller watersheds, TMDLs and their watershed implementation plans should utilize local site-specific spatial data that accurately reflects watershed conditions. This will help target resources where they are most needed and maintain credibility with local stakeholders while improving the accuracy of the developed pollution reduction plans.

Keywords

References

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[5]  VADCR. Virginia Bay Total Maximum Daily Load, 2012. Available: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/vabaytmdl/index.shtml.
 
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Article

Statistical Analysis of the Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Rangampeta area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

1Department of Geology, S V University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

3Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, IRAN


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 63-70
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. Nagaraju, K. Sunil Kumar, A. Thejaswi, Z. Sharifi. Statistical Analysis of the Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Rangampeta area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):63-70. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: A.  Nagaraju, Department of Geology, S V University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. Email: arveti@yahoo.com

Abstract

Multivariate statistical techniques involving factor analysis (FA) and R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were performed on 30 groundwater samples from Rangampeta, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India to extract principal processes controlling the water chemistry. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Si, HCO3, CO3, Cl, and SO4. It also includes pH, and electrical conductivity (EC). Gibbs diagrams were also constructed to identify the processes that are responsible in controlling the water chemistry. Factor analysis extracted for four factors consisting of F1 (with high loading factor of Cl, EC, Mg and Na), F2 (with high loading factor of K, (HCO3+CO3) and Ca), F3 (with high loading factor of pH and Si) and F4 (with high loading factor of SO4). The varifactors obtained from Factor analysis indicated that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to groundwater-rock interaction (particularly weathering of silicate minerals), agriculture and anthropogenic sources. With HC analysis the water samples have been classified into 4 clusters. Cluster I (13 wells) and cluster II (8 wells) have shown moderate salinity. However, cluster IV (4 wells) had the lowest concentrations of ions and classified as fresh water. Cluster III (5 wells) shows mid salinity between (I and II) and IV clusters. The distribution of these groundwater types and their quality has been found to be an in direct relation with the host rocks of the area. The results showed that the method was comprehensive and efficient in analyzing the dynamics of water quality.

Keywords

References

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Article

The River Management Modelling For Ecology

1Department of Park and Garden Plants, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey

2Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 71-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Havva Ulgen Yenil, Tolga Taner. The River Management Modelling For Ecology. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):71-73. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Tolga  Taner, Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey. Email: tolgataner@aksaray.edu.tr

Abstract

In this study, the river management modelling was analysed based on ecology at a critical approach. Our laws and legal arrangements that are one of the significant water resources, affect our river management. This modelling obtains these laws and legal arrangement’s effective and problems. These problems create to ensure ecological sustainability. So, we used SWOT analysis for the existing laws and institutions. Also we discussed the methodological approaches that the protection of nature is important taking a decision and runtime for the place of the institutional structuring. The river management modelling develops for our country from taking the European Water Framework Directive’s knowledge. In addition, to ensure the monitoring of ecological criteria which constitutes important basis for planning of watershed, vegetation, aquatic wildlife and coastal land use systematic recommendations have been created. Development of the river management and application can be settled in our country. The river management is also important for our energy about natural life and transportation.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wijk, F. J., Haye, M. A. A., Hehenkamps, M. J., Velde, I. A., Bruin, E. F. L. M., Schelleman, F. J. M., Su çerçeve direktifinin Türkiye’de uygulanması, Uygulama El Kitabı, Istanbul, Turkey, 2003.
 
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[4]  Pekin, U., Kentsel akarsu koridorlarının geliştirilmesi ve Ankara Çayı kavramsal yeşil yol planı, Doktora Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey, 2007.
 
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Article

Assessment of Water Quality of Gurara Water Transfer from Gurara Dam to Lower Usuma Dam for Abuja Water Supply, FCT, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

2Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 74-80
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Okunlola I. A., Amadi A. N., Idris-Nda A., Agbasi K., Kolawole L. L.. Assessment of Water Quality of Gurara Water Transfer from Gurara Dam to Lower Usuma Dam for Abuja Water Supply, FCT, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):74-80. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A. N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Water transfer from area of excess to area of scarcity is now becoming accepted option especially for regional water supply. The Gurara water transfer provides for the transfer of raw water from Gurara dam in Kaduna state to Lower Usuma dam in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja through a 75Km conduit pipeline to augment water supply to FCT as a result of rapid population growth. The purpose of the research is to provide baseline condition in term of quality of raw water at Gurara dam before the transfer and after mixing at Lower Usuma dam. Water Quality Index (WQI) was used to assess the quality of the waters for overall, drinking, aquatic, recreation, irrigation and livestock uses. Twenty (20) water samples from both dams were collected and some at predetermined depths and subjected to physicochemical analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis for both wet and dry seasons. The overall WQI was poor. The WQI was poor for drinking and aquatic, but fair for recreation and livestock, and good for irrigation. These were due to high concentration of COD, BOD, total hardness, turbidity, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cd+, Pb+ and Fe2+. The results of the analysis when compared with the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NIS 544:2007) and World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits showed that the Gurara dam and Lower Usuma dam were polluted and that the water was not safe for drinking. Variations in the constituents’ concentration in terms of water depths and seasons were observed. Regular monitoring of the water quality should be carried out as the watershed is presently rural but faces potential urbanization in the coming decades.

Keywords

References

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Article

Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

1Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 81-98
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S. K. Nag, Shreya Das. Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):81-98. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: S.  K. Nag, Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: nag_sk@yahoo.com

Abstract

The hydrochemical study of groundwater samples was carried out from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (latitudes 23.76° N – 23.99°N and longitudes 87.42°E - 87.64°E) with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes. For this study groundwater samples were collected from 26 (twenty six) locations during the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. From the analyzed data, some parameters like SAR, SSP, RSC, MAR, PI and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability. Accordingly, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. The Piper’s trilinear diagram used to determine water type suitable for consumption indicates groundwater in the study is of bicarbonate type (fresh type) in both and pre monsoon with exception of a couple of sulfate type samples during pre monsoon. Water Quality Index results depict 90% of water samples are suitable for drinking during post monsoon whereas in pre monsoon that tally comes down 60% rendering 40% samples unsuitable for drinking. Gibb’s diagrams prepared for the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions indicate that the overall hydrogeochemistry of the study area is dominated by rock – water interaction processes.

Keywords

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Article

Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA

1Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA

2California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA, USA


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saad Merayyan, Jeremy Hill. Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Saad  Merayyan, Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA. Email: merayyan@csus.edu

Abstract

This study presents a case study for estimating the 100-year peak flow for Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California. The watershed contains several stream flow gages; however, the precipitation data is only available as daily data, which was not usable form for this study. Thus considering that the watershed to be ungagged. In order to overcome this shortcoming in the hydrologic analysis, other approaches were considered. Therefore, the precipitation point frequency estimates were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) was used to create the hydrologic model to estimate the peak flows at key points in the watershed. The purpose of using the HMS model was to predict eh rainfall-runoff analysis for this watershed, which only has steam gage data. Other parameters needed for the HMS model were obtained from various sources as suggested in the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Central Valley Hydrology Study (CVHS): Technical procedures document. The 100-year flows from the HMS model results were then calibrated/validated by comparing to the 100-year flow frequency curves computed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) program, FEMA USACE, and USGS Regression methods. Sensitivity analysis of several of the model parameters was analyzed to determine the results confidence level. The HMS modeled results were in good agreement with the results obtained from the Flood Frequency method and the USGS regression studies. The procedure described herein for developing and validating hydrologic models for ungagged watersheds can be used for other similar ungagged watersheds.

Keywords

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