American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

   

Article

Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach

1Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe


American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 1-4
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Makaya Eugine. Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Makaya  Eugine, Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe. Email: eugine.makaya@nust.ac.zw

Abstract

Several methods have been used in estimating leakages. Although the minimum night flow analysis method has been widely used in leakage estimation, the cumulative minimum night flow method is one method that can yield comparatively good leakage estimates. This paper applies the cumulative minimum night flow method to estimate water leakage in a water distribution system. The cumulative minimum night flow method develops a model from empirical night flows which is used to estimate mean minimum night flows and hence estimate leakages. The result was compared with the South Africa minimum night flow analysis methodology. It was found out that the model developed from the cumulative minimum night flow method yielded good result, (R2=0.9998). Thus, the cumulative minimum night flow method could be relied on in predicting leakage estimates in water distribution systems. Furthermore, the model could be used in other locations other than that described in this paper.

Keywords

References

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Article

Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters

1Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India

2Department of Chemistry, DAV Post Graduate College, Dehradun – 248001, Uttarakhand, India

3Uttarakhand Council for Science & Technology, Vigyan Dham, Jhajhara, – 248 007, Uttarakhand, India

4School of Environment & Natural Resources (SENR), Doon University, Kedarpur, Dehradun- 248 001, Uttarakhand, India

5Department of Chemistry, JMIETI (Kurukshetra University), Radaur– 135133, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 5-12
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhavtosh Sharma, Prashant Singh, Rajendra Dobhal, V.K. Saini, Manju Sundriyal, Shashank Sharma, S.K. Khanna. Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):5-12. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh  Sharma, Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India. Email: bhavtoshchem@gmail.com

Abstract

The fluoride is an essential nutrient for human beings which occur in the surface as well as in groundwater. In surface water, it reaches due to both geogenic and anthropogenic sources but in groundwater, it mainly comes from geogenic sources. Authorities like World Health Organization (WHO), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Bureau of India Standard (BIS) have provided guidelines regarding the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. A higher fluoride concentration in drinking water results in fluorosis. Therefore, the understanding of fluoride occurrence, its detection and removal from drinkable water is the urgent requirement. The chemical behavior of fluoride, the reasons for fluoride concentration in groundwater, the fluoride detection methods, and some case studies on the occurrence of fluoride in fresh water bodies of Uttarakhand are summarized. The effectiveness of different techniques for removal of fluoride from water samples has been reviewed.

Keywords

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Article

Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (CEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

3Ministry of Science and Technology, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 13-23
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Edu Inam, Gerald G. Inoh, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Bassey B. Etim. Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):13-23. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3.

Correspondence to: Edu  Inam, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. Email: eduinam@uniuyo.edu.ng

Abstract

The coastal region of Nigeria has witnessed intense anthropogenic activities that have overtime necessitated several environmental monitoring campaigns to ascertain impacts and proffer remedial solutions. In the present study, standard analytical protocols were employed to assess the physicochemical parameters, trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels of ground and surface water used for drinking purposes in Okoroette community in Nigeria. The results obtained show that investigated parameters varied widely and were generally higher in the surface water samples collected during the dry season. The levels of most of the physicochemical parameters recorded were acceptable when compared with Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) except for turbidity and dissolved oxygen. In both ground and surface waters, the following trace metals exceeded the NSDWQ permissible limits: Pb, Cd, Fe, and Mn. The total mean level of PAHs (> 1.0 mg/l) in both ground and surface water samples exceeded the acceptable level when compared with the NSDWQ guideline value of 0.007 mg/l. The health risk assessment applied on trace metal levels reveal that there is significant potential toxic risk to exposed individuals as calculated hazard indexes (HI) were greater than one. Results from Water Quality Indices (WQI) modelling reveal that the water sources in the community were generally categorised as poor quality or unfit for drinking purposes. Chemometric characterisation of the water quality indicators revealed that some of the contaminants may be of geogenic, anthropogenic organic in origin. The study reveals that drinking water sources in Okoroette community are not suitable for consumption and domestic use therefore treatment is highly and urgently recommended to safeguard public health.

Keywords

References

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