American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

   

Article

Hydrodynamic and Hydro-geochemical Processes in the Catchment Area of Lake Retba and Their Implications in Relationship between Groundwater, Lake and Ocean

1Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques/Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(4), 91-101
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mansour GUEYE, Abdoul Aziz GNING, Fatou NGOM DIOP, Raymond MALOU. Hydrodynamic and Hydro-geochemical Processes in the Catchment Area of Lake Retba and Their Implications in Relationship between Groundwater, Lake and Ocean. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(4):91-101. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Mansour  GUEYE, Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques/Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal. Email: sauramalick@gmail.com

Abstract

The drought that began in the Sahel in the late 70s has led to a drying up of most surface water bodies and a decrease of ground water level. In the north coast of Cap-Verde, the Retba lake is one of the few depressions that have preserved its water and experienced all the same, a very important salinization. This saline ecosystem plays an important role in the economy of the area due to the exploitation of salt deposits. However, it is now threatened by a significant reduction of the water surface. Its backup requires a good knowledge of the environment and the interactions between the different reservoirs, namely the lake, groundwater and ponds. To study the relationship between different parts of the hydro system, a network, monitoring the groundwater table including 41 village wells across the watershed, has been established. All observation points and the level of the lake were leveled with the reference 0 IGN. Water samples were taken at the wells, lake and ponds and source for chemical analysis. The results of the altimetric study indicated that the lake is below sea level, at odds of -5.26 m and a good part of the watershed is under the level of the sea. Hence its vulnerability of being invaded by the ocean water due to the difference in altitude. Water table monitoring shows different movements from one point to another due to the interference of several factors in the process of charging and discharging of the water table. Thus, some wells are only under the influence of climate parameters (rain and evaporation), while others are fed or drained by lateral flow. Water chemistry is dominated by two chemical facies: calcic and chloride facies (Ca-cl) and sodium chloride-facies (Na-Cl). Na and Cl ions control mainly the mineralization water and cationic exchange is the main factor controlling water chemistry even if other processes such as anthropic pollution could occur. These cationic exchanges reflect the intrusion of seawater into the sand aquifers. These results also show that in the late dry season, water ponds have a chemical signature very close to seawater. This shows that the ponds that are in the north of the lake is an outcrop of the Sea that feeds the lake permanently. The lake water is a mixture of seawater and groundwater whose evaporation causes sedimentation of salt exploited by local people. Monitoring of the groundwater level, the lake level and the chemical analysis shows a connection between the lake, the groundwater, the ocean and ponds.

Keywords

References

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Article

Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Quality in Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia: A Case Study of Mulenga Informal Settlement

1Copperbelt University, P O Box 21692, Kitwe, Zambia


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(5), 102-110
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kenny Nyirenda, Daniel Kaputula, Ronald Ngulube. Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Quality in Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia: A Case Study of Mulenga Informal Settlement. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(5):102-110. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Kenny  Nyirenda, Copperbelt University, P O Box 21692, Kitwe, Zambia. Email: nyirendakenny@gmail.com

Abstract

In most informal settlements in Zambia, access to piped water and proper sanitation system still remains a challenge. This has led to people in these settlements to rely on groundwater from shallow wells which are either protected or unprotected. In terms of human waste disposal, the majority of the people depend on traditional pit latrines. In order to help protect and sustainably manage the groundwater resources, a study was undertaken to investigate groundwater quality and its spatial distribution in Mulenga informal settlement in Kitwe district, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. A total of twenty eight (28) groundwater samples were collected from twenty eighty (28) wells in the aforementioned settlement. The samples were analysed for total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, sulphates, nitrate, total and faecal coliforms using standard techniques. Results were compared with the Zambian Bureau of Standards (ZABS) guideline values for drinking water and in some cases, with WHO guideline values. In terms of microbiological parameters, all water samples in Mulenga informal settlement tested positive for total and faecal coliforms. Parameters such as TDS, TSS and sulphate complied with ZABS drinking water guideline values. Other parameters which include turbidity ranged from 0 to 52NTU, pH from 5.1 to 6.8 and nitrates from 1.6 to 35.6mg/L did not comply with ZABS drinking water guideline values at the majority of the wells. Spatial distribution maps revealed that larger parts of Mulenga informal settlement display pH values less than ZABS and WHO minimum permissible value of 6.5 while sulphate and nitrate levels ranged from 1 to 20mg/L and 10 to 20mg/L respectively. In terms of turbidity and TDS, their spatial distribution maps display significantly high turbidity levels (>20NTU) in the south-eastern and some north-western parts of Mulenga informal settlement while slightly high TDS values (>500m/L) were displayed in south-eastern and north-western parts of the settlement. The highest numbers of total and faecal coliforms were concentrated in the north-eastern and central parts of Mulenga informal settlements.

Keywords

References

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Article

Physico-Chemical Analysis of Water Quality of Springs in Bafia-Muyuka, North-Eastern Flank of Mount Cameroon (South West Region, Cameroon Volcanic Line)

1Department of Geology, University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon

2Department of Biology, University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon

3Department of Earth Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

4Laboratory of Geology, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(5), 111-120
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wotchoko P, Tita M.A, Kouankap N.G.D, Alice M, Nkemnji J.Z, Guedjeo C.S, Kamgang K.V. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Water Quality of Springs in Bafia-Muyuka, North-Eastern Flank of Mount Cameroon (South West Region, Cameroon Volcanic Line). American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(5):111-120. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Wotchoko  P, Department of Geology, University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon. Email: pierrewotchoko@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Bafia-Muyuka is situated at the foot of the North Eastern flank of Mount Cameroon. The rock types of this area are mainly basaltic with minerals such as; pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and opaque minerals. Samples collected from five (5) different springs during the rainy and dry seasons were analysed. The Physico-chemical analysis for both seasons were compared with WHO (2004) standard and were found to fall within the acceptable limit but for the exception of high temperature values in all the spring waters and NH4+ during the rainy season. All the spring waters yielded pH values above 6.5 and were classified as barely acidic to neutral water. Electrical conductivity ranged between 180-302µs/cm. The relative abundance of major ions (mg/l) were as follows; Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+> NH4+ for cations and HCO3‾ > Cl‾ > NO3‾ > SO42‾> HPO42‾ for anions. These results suggested an influence of natural processes mainly from rock weathering. The Piper’s plot showed that, these springs are characterized by the Calcium-Magnesium Bicarbonate facie (Ca-Mg-HCO3 water type). The results indicate that the springs are non-polluted chemically and are fairly portable and suitable for domestic purposes.

Keywords

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