American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position




Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach

1Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 1-4
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Makaya Eugine. Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Makaya  Eugine, Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe. Email:


Several methods have been used in estimating leakages. Although the minimum night flow analysis method has been widely used in leakage estimation, the cumulative minimum night flow method is one method that can yield comparatively good leakage estimates. This paper applies the cumulative minimum night flow method to estimate water leakage in a water distribution system. The cumulative minimum night flow method develops a model from empirical night flows which is used to estimate mean minimum night flows and hence estimate leakages. The result was compared with the South Africa minimum night flow analysis methodology. It was found out that the model developed from the cumulative minimum night flow method yielded good result, (R2=0.9998). Thus, the cumulative minimum night flow method could be relied on in predicting leakage estimates in water distribution systems. Furthermore, the model could be used in other locations other than that described in this paper.



[1]  Bhaghdadi, A.H.A. and Mansy, H. A. A mathematical model for leak location in pipes. Applied Mathematical Modelling, Volume 12, Butterworth Publishers, 1988, 25-30.
[2]  CSO. Zimbabwe Population Census Provincial Report Midlands (2012) Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency, Harare, 2012.
[3]  Farley, M., Wyeth, G., Ghazali, Z., Istandar, A., and Singh, S. The Manager's Non-Revenue Water Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Water Losses, Washington DC, USA, 2008.
[4]  Hunaidi, O. Leakage Management for Water Distribution Infrastructure – Report 1: Results of DMA Experiments in Regina, SK. Canada, National Research Council, 2010.
[5]  Lambert, A. Assessing non-revenue water and its components: A practical approach. Water 21, IWA Publishing, London, 2003, 51-52.
Show More References
[6]  Lambert, A., and Lalonde, A. Using practical predictions of Economic Intervention Frequency to calculate Short-run Economic Leakage Level, with or without Pressure Management. Proceedings of IWA Specialised Conference Leakage 2005, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2005.
[7]  Lambert, A., Brown, T.G., Takizawa, M., and Weimer, D. A Review of Performance Indicators for Real Losses from Water Supply Systems. AQUA, Vol. 48 No 6, Dec 1999.
[8]  Lambert, A.O. What do we know about Pressure - Leakage Relationships in Distribution Systems? Proceedings of the IWA Specialised Conference ‘System Approach to Leakage Control and Water Distribution Systems Management’, Brno, Czech Republic, 2001, May 16-18, 89-96.
[9]  Liemberger, R. Real Losses and Apparent Losses and the new W392 Guidelines from Germany. Paper presented at the International Water Association Specialist Workshop, Radisson Resort, Gold Coast, Queensland Australia. 24 February 2005.
[10]  Makaya, E and Hensel, O. The contribution of leakage water to total water loss in Harare, Zimbabwe, International Researcher Volume 3 (3), 2014.
[11]  McKenzie, R. S. Development of a standard approach to evaluate burst and background losses in potable water distribution systems: SANFLOW User Guide, Water Research Commission, South Africa, 1999.
[12]  Rizzo, A., Pearson, D., Stephenson, M., and Harper, N. Apparent water loss control: A practical approach. IWA Water Loss Task Force, Water 21, 2004, Vol. 6 (3).
[13]  Seago, C., Bhagwan, J., and McKenzie, R. Benchmarking leakage from water reticulation systems in South Africa. Water SA, 2004, Vol. 30 (5), 25-32.
[14]  Thornton J., Sturm, R., and Kunkel, G. Water Loss Control, mcGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
[15]  Thornton, J. Best Management Practice 3: System Water Audits and Leak Detection. Review and Recommendations for Change. Technical Report. California, California Urban Water Conservation Council. IWA Publishing, 2005.
[16]  Thornton, J., and Lambert, A.O. Progress in practical prediction of pressure: leakage, pressure: burst frequency and pressure: consumption relationships. Paper to IWA Special Conference “Leakage 2005”, September 12-14, Halifax, Canada, 2005.
Show Less References


Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters

1Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India

2Department of Chemistry, DAV Post Graduate College, Dehradun – 248001, Uttarakhand, India

3Uttarakhand Council for Science & Technology, Vigyan Dham, Jhajhara, – 248 007, Uttarakhand, India

4School of Environment & Natural Resources (SENR), Doon University, Kedarpur, Dehradun- 248 001, Uttarakhand, India

5Department of Chemistry, JMIETI (Kurukshetra University), Radaur– 135133, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 5-12
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhavtosh Sharma, Prashant Singh, Rajendra Dobhal, V.K. Saini, Manju Sundriyal, Shashank Sharma, S.K. Khanna. Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):5-12. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh  Sharma, Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India. Email:


The fluoride is an essential nutrient for human beings which occur in the surface as well as in groundwater. In surface water, it reaches due to both geogenic and anthropogenic sources but in groundwater, it mainly comes from geogenic sources. Authorities like World Health Organization (WHO), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Bureau of India Standard (BIS) have provided guidelines regarding the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. A higher fluoride concentration in drinking water results in fluorosis. Therefore, the understanding of fluoride occurrence, its detection and removal from drinkable water is the urgent requirement. The chemical behavior of fluoride, the reasons for fluoride concentration in groundwater, the fluoride detection methods, and some case studies on the occurrence of fluoride in fresh water bodies of Uttarakhand are summarized. The effectiveness of different techniques for removal of fluoride from water samples has been reviewed.



[1]  Habuda-Stanić, M.,  Ergović Ravančić, M. and  Flanagan, A. “A Review on Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution”, Materials, 7(9). 6317-6366. 2014.
[2]  Fluoride and Fluorides: Environmental Health Criteria 36; World Health Organization (WHO): Geneva, Switzerland, 1984.
[3]  Fluorides-Environmental Health Criteria 227, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
[4]  Ministry of water Resources (MOWR) GOI, New Delhi. 2016.
[5]  Meenakshi and Maheshwari, R.C., “Fluoride in drinking water and its removal”, J. Hazard Materials, B137. 456-463. 2006.
Show More References
[6]  Kass, A., Yechieli Gavrieli, Y., Vengosh, A. and Starinsky, A., “The impact of freshwater and wastewater irrigation on the chemistry of shallow groundwater: a case study from the Israeli Coastal aquifer”, J. Hydrol., 1-4. 314-331. 2005.
[7]  Azbar, N. and Turkman, A., “Defluoridation in drinking waters”, Water Sci. Technol., 42, 403-407. 2000.
[8]  Chernet, T., Trafi, Y. and Valles, V., “Mechanism of degradation of the quality of natural water in the lakes region of the Ethiopian rift valley”, Water Res., 35. 2819-2832. 2002.
[9]  Agarwal, M., Rai, K., Shrivastav, R. and Dass, S., “Defluoridation of water using amended clay”, J. Cleaner Produc., 11, 439-444. 2003.
[10]  Apambire, W. B., Boyle, D. R. and Michel, F. A., “Geochemistry, genesis and health implications of fluoriferous groundwaters in the upper regions of Ghana”, Environ. Geol., 33, 13-24. 1997.
[11]  Moturi, W.K.N., Tole, M.P. and Davies, T.C., “The contribution of drinking water towards dental fluorosis: a case study of Njoro division, Nakuru district, Kenya”, Environ. Geochem. and Health, 24, 123-130. 2002.
[12]  Hem, J.O., “Study and interpretation of chemical characteristics of natural water”, U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper, p. 1473. 1959.
[13]  Bulusu, K.R. and Pathak, B.N.. “Discussion on water defluoridation with activated alumina”, J. Environ. Eng. Div., 106(2). 466-469. 1980.
[14]  Elrashidi, M.A. and Lindsay, W.L., “Solubility of aluminum fluoride, fluorite and fluoriphogopite minerals in soils”, J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., 50, 594-598. 1986.
[15]  Shailaja, K. and Johnson, M.E.C., “Fluorides in groundwater and its impact on health”, J. Environ. Biol., 28, 331-332. 2007.
[16]  Bishnoi, M. and Shalu, A., “Potable groundwater quality in some villages of Haryana, India: focus on fluoride”, J. Environ. Biol., 28. 291-294. 2007.
[17]  Edmunds, W.M. and Smedley, P.L., Groundwater geochemistry and health: an overview, in: Appleton, Fuge, McCall (Eds.), Environmental Geochemistry and Health. Geological Society Special Publication, 113, pp. 91-105. 1996.
[18]  Islam, M. and Patel, R.K., “Thermal activation of basic oxygen furnace slag and evaluation of its fluoride removal efficiency”, Chem. Eng. J., 169. 68-77. 2011.
[19]  Jamodei, A.V., Sapkal, V.S. and Jamode, V.S., “Defluoridation of water using inexpensive adsorbents”, J. Ind. Inst. Sci., 84. 163-171. 2004.
[20]  Gonzales, C., Hotokezaka, H., Karadeniz, E.I., Miyazaki, T., Kobayashi, E. and Darendeliler M.A., “Effects of fluoride intake on orthodontically induced root respiration”, Am. J. Ortho Dentofacial Orthop., 139, 196-205. 2004.
[21]  Nordstrom, D.K. and Jenne, E.A., “Fluorite solubility equilibria in selected geothermal waters”, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 41, 175-188. 1977.
[22]  Handa, B.K., “Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride- containing ground waters in India”, Groundwater, 13. 275-281. 1975.
[23]  Edmunds, W.M. and Smedley, P.L., 2005. Fluoride in natural waters. In: Selinus, O. (Ed.), Essentials of Medical Geology. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp. 301-329.
[24]  Reddy, D.V., Nagabhushanam, P., Sukhija, B.S., Reddy, A.G.S. and Smedley, P.L., Fluoride dynamics in the granitic aquifer of the Wailapally watershed, Nalgonda district, India”, Chemical Geol., 269. 278-289. 2010.
[25]  Deshmukh, A.N., Valadaskar, P.M. and Malpe, D.B., “Fluoride in environment: a review”, Gondwana Geological Magazine, 9, 1-20. 1995.
[26]  Chae, G.T., Yun, S.T., Kwon, M.J., Kim, S.Y. and Mayer, B., “Batch dissolution of granite and biotite in water: implication for fluorine geochemistry in groundwater”, Geochem. Journal, 40, 95-102. 2006.
[27]  Mamatha, P. and Rao, S.M., “Geochemistry of fluoride rich groundwater in Kolar and Tumkur districts of Karnataka”, Environ. Earth Sci., 61, 131-142. 2010.
[28]  Banerjee, A., “Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal”, Geoscience Front.,6(2). 277-284. 2015.
[29]  Brunt, R., Vasak, L. and Griffioen, J., Fluoride in Ground water: Probability of occurrence of excessive concentration on global scale, International Groundwater Resources assessment centre, Report nr. SP 2004-2, 2004, Accessed on web on 17. 11. 2016.
[30]  Bell, M.C. and Ludwig, T.G. The supply of fluoride to man: ingestion from water, in: Fluorides and Human Health, WHO Monograph Series 59, World Health Organization, Geneva. 1970.
[31]  López, V.A., Reyes, B.J.L., Song, S. and Herrera, U.R., “Temperature effect on the zeta potential and fluoride adsorption at the Al2O3/aqueous solution interface”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 298(1). 1-5. 2006.
[32]  Shortt, W.E. Endemic fluorosis in Nellore District, South India. Ind. Med. Gazette, 72-396. 1937.
[33]  Susheela, A.K., “Epidemiology and Control of Fluorosis in India”, Fluoride, 18(2). 120-21. 1985.
[34]  Emission Regulations – Part II. (1998). New Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board (India). Pp. 18.
[35]  Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), Drinking water specification, BIS-10500. 2012.
[36]  Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Edn 4, World Health Organization, 2011, accessed on 15 December, 2016.
[37]  Ferreira, H.S., Ferreira, S.L.C., Cervera, M.L. and de la Guardia, M., “Development of a non-chromatographic method for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in mushroom samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry”, Spectrochim. Acta,Part B, 64. 597–600. 2009.
[38]  Bosch, M.E., Sanchez, A.J.R., Rojas, F.S. and Ojeda, C.B. “Arsenic and antimony speciation analysis in the environment using hyphenated techniques to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a review”, Int. J. Environ Waste Manage., 5. 4-63. 2010.
[39]  Torok, P. and Zˇemberyova, M. “Utilization of W/Mg(NO3)2 modifiers for the direct determination of As and Sb in soils, sewage sludge and sediments by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry”, Spectrochim Acta, Part B 65, 291-296. 2010.
[40]  Sharma, B. and Tyagi, S. “Simplification of Metal Ion Analysis in Fresh Water Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Laboratory Students”, J. Lab. Chem. Education, 1(3). 54-58. 2013.
[41]  Agrahari, S.K., Kumar, S.D. and Srivastava, A.K., “Development of Carbon paste electrode containing benzo-15-crown-5-for trace determination of the uranyl ion by using a voltametric technique”, J. AOAC Int. 92, 241-247. 2009.
[42]  Santos, V.S., Santos, W.J.R., Kubota, L.T., Tarley, C.R.T., “Speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in meglumine antimoniate pharmaceutical formulations by PSA using carbon nanotube electrode”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 50, 151-157. 2009.
[43]  Tanguy, V., Waeles, M., Vandenhecke, J. and Riso, R.D., “Determination of ultra-trace Sb(III) in seawater by stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) with a mercury film electrode in the presence of copper”, Talanta, 81, 614-620. 2010.
[44]  Sanghavi, B.J. and Srivastava, A.K., “Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine using an in situ surfactant-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode”, Electrochim Acta, 55, 8638-8648. 2010.
[45]  Shahrokhian, S. and Ghalkhani, M. (). Glassy carbon electrodes modifed with a flm of nanodiamond–graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine . Electrochim Acta, 55, 3621-3627. 2010.
[46]  Guide Manual: Water & Waste Analysis, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), accessed on 14.12.2016.
[47]  Singh, P., Dobhal, R., Seth, R., Aswal, R.S., Singh, R., Uniyal D.P. and Sharma B. “Spatial and Temporal Variations in Surface Water Quality of Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand (India)”, Anal. Chem. Lett., 5(5). 267-290. 2015.
[48]  Tyagi, S., Singh, P., Dobhal. R. and Uniyal, D.P., Sharma, B., Singh, R., “Spatial and temporal variations in quality of drinking water sources of Dehradun district in India”, Int. J. Environ. Technol. Manage., 18(5/6). 375-399. 2015.
[49]  Tyagi, S., Singh, P., Sharma, B. and Singh, R., “Assessment of Water Quality for Drinking Purpose in District Pauri of Uttarakhand, India”, Appl. Ecol. Environ. Sci., 2(4). 94-99.2014.
[50]  Neal, M., Neal, C., Wickham, H. and Harman, S., “Determination of bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate by ion chromatography: comparison of methodologies for rainfall, cloud water and river waters at the Plynlimon catchments of mid-Wales”, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1). 294-300. 2007.
[51]  Sundriyal, M. and Sharma, B., “Status of Biodiversity in Central Himalaya”, Appl. Ecol. Environ. Sci., 4(2). 37-43. 2016.
[52]  Sharma, B., “Sustainable Drinking Water Resources in Difficult Topography of Hilly State Uttarakhand, India”, Ameri. J. Water Res., 4(1). 16-21. 2016.
[53]  “Water Resources Management & Treatment Technologies”, edited byBhavtosh Sharma, OP Nautiyal, Durgesh Pant, Published by USERC, Deptt. of Science & Technology, Govt. of Uttarakhand. 2016.
[54]  Sharma, B., Savera, K.K., Kausik, S., Saini, P., Bhadula, S., Sharma, V. and Singh, P., “Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Bhagwanpur Industrial Area of Haridwar in Uttarakhand, India”, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4(4). 96-101. 2016.
[55]  Engineering Chemistry by Baskar C., Baskar S. and Dhillon R.S., published by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. 2012.
[56]  Patil, A.R. and Kulkarni, B.M., “Study of ion exchange regime and activated alumina as defluoridation media”, J. Institution of Engineers (India)”, 03.14-16.1989.
[57]  Iyenger, L., Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, People and Partnerships. In: Smet J, van Wijk C (ed). Technologies for fluoride removal. Delft, Netherlands. IRC. Pp. 499-514. 2003.
[58]  Mohapatra, M., Anand, S., Mishra, B.K., Giles, D.E. and Singh, P., “Review of fluoride removal from drinking water”, J. Environ Management. 91. 67-77. 2009.
[59]  Tomar, V. and Kumar, D.A, “Critical study on efficiency of different materials for fluoride removal from aqueous media”, Chem. Cent. J. 7. 1-15. 2013.
[60]  Da˛browski, A., “Adsorption from theory to practice”, Advances Colloid Inter. Sci., 93. 135-224. 2001.
[61]  Qiu, H., Lv, L., Pan, B., Zhang, Q., Zhang, W., Zhang, Q., “Critical review in adsorption kinetic models”, J. Zhejiang Univ Sci A, 10(5).716-724. 2009.
[62]  Kumar, S., Gupta, A. and Yadav, J.P., “Fluoride removal by mixtures of activated carbon prepared from Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves”. Ind. J. Chem. Tech, 14. 355-361. 2007.
[63]  Goswami, A. and Purkait, M.K., “The defluoridation of water by acidic alumina”, Chem Eng Res and Des, 90, 2316-2324. 2012.
[64]  Farrah, H., Slavek, J. and Pickering, W.F., “Fluoride interactions with hydrous aluminum oxides and alumina”, Aust. J. Soil Res., 25, 55-69. 1987.
[65]  Tripathy, S.S., Bersillon, J.J. and Gopal, K. “Removal of fluoride from drinking water by adsorption onto alum-impregnated activated alumina”, Sep. Purif. Technol., 50. 310-317. 2006.
[66]  Ku, Y. and Chiou, H.M., “The adsorption of fluoride ion from aqueous solution by activated alumina”, Water Air Soil Pollut., 133. 349-361. 2002.
[67]  Nawlakhe, W.G., Kulkarni, D.N., Pathak, B.N. and Bulusu, K.R., “Defluoridation of water by Nalgonda technique”, Ind. J. Environ. Health, 17. 26-65. 1975.
[68]  Camacho, L.M., Torres, A., Saha, D. and Deng, S., “Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of fluoride on sol–gel- derived activated alumina adsorbents”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 349. 307-313. 2010.
[69]  Malay, K.D. and Salim, A.J., “Comparative study of batch adsorption of fluoride using commercial and natural adsorbent”, Res. J. Chem. Sci. 1. 68-75. 2011.
[70]  Tang, Y., Guan, X., Su, T., Gao, N. and Wang, J., “Fluoride adsorption onto activated alumina: modeling the effects of pH and some competing ions”, Colloids Surf, 337, 33-38. 2009.
[71]  Shimelis, B., Zewge, F. and Chandravanshi, B.S., “Removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide”, Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia, 20. 17-34. 2006.
[72]  Maliyekkal, S.M., Sharma, A.K. and Philip, L., “Manganese-oxide-coated alumina: a promising sorbent for defluoridation of water”, Water Res., 40. 3497-3506. 2006.
[73]  Gadhari, N.S., Sanghavi, B.J., Karna, S.P., Srivastava, A.K., “Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand [2.2.1] and multiwalled carbon nanotubes”, Electrochim Acta, 56, 627-635. 2010.
[74]  Mobin, S.M., Sanghavi, B.J., Srivastava, A.K., Mathur, P. and Lahiri, G.K. “Biomimetic Sensor for Certain Phenols Employing a Copper(II) Complex”, Anal Chem, 82. 5983-5992. 2010.
[75]  Sivasankar, V., Ramachandramoorthy, T. and Darchenc, A., Manganese dioxide improves the efficiency of earthenware in fluoride removal from drinking water. Desalination, 272. 179-186. 2011.
[76]  Shahrokhian, S., Ghalkhani, M., Adeli, M. and Amini, M. K., Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with immobilised cobalt nanoparticle for modifcation of glassy carbon electrode: Application to sensitive voltammetric determination of thioridazine. Biosens Bioelectron, 24. 3235-3241. 2009.
[77]  Ma, Y., Wang, S.G., Fan, M., Gong, W.X. and Gao, B.Y., “Characteristics and defluoridation performance of granular activated carbon coated with manganese oxides”, J. Hazard. Mater, 168, 1140-1146. 2009.
[78]  Teng, S.X. and Wang, S.G., “Removal of fluoride by hydrous manganese oxidecoated alumina: Performance and mechanism”, J. Hazard. Mater, 168. 1004-1011. 2009.
[79]  Li, Y.H., Wang, S.G., Zhang, X.F., Wei, J.Q., Xu, C.L., Luan, Z.K. and Wu, D. H., “Adsorption of fluoride from water by aligned carbon nanotubes”, Mater. Res. Bull., 38. 469-476. 2003a.
[80]  Li, Y.H., Wang, S., Zhang, X., Wei, J., Xu, C., Luan, Z., Wu, D. and Wei, B. “Removal of fluoride from water by carbon nanotube supported alumina”, Environ Technol., 24, 391-398. 2003b.
[81]  Li, Y.H., Wang, S., Cao, A., Zhao, D., Zhang, X., Xu, C., Luan, Z., Ruan, D., Liang, J., Wu, D. and Wie, B. “Adsorption of fluoride from water by amorphous alumina supported on carbon nanotubes”, Chem. Phys. Lett., 322, 1-5. 2001.
[82]  Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Kondakal, V.V.R., Baker, D.R., “Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry” J. Chromatogr. A., 1217, 4575. 2010.
[83]  Hanumantharao, Y., Kishore, M. and Ravindhranath, K., “Preparation and development of adsorbent carbon from Acacia farnesiana for defluoridation”, Int. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci. 1, 209-223. 2011.
[84]  Karthikeyan, G. and Siva Ilango, S., “Fluoride sorption using Morringa Indica-based activated carbon”, Iran. J. Enviton. Health Sci. Eng. 4. 21-28. 2007.
[85]  Hernández-Montoya, V., Ramírez-Montoya, L.A., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A., Montes-Morán, M.A., “Optimizing the removal of fluoride from water using new carbons obtained by modification of nut shell with a calcium solution from egg shell”, Biochem. Eng. J., 62, 1-7. 2012.
[86]  Sivabalan, R., Rengaraj, S., Arabindoo, B. and Murugesan, V., “Fluoride uptake characteristics of activated carbon from agriculture-waste”, J. Sci. Ind. Res., 61, 1039-1045. 2002.
[87]  Mariappan, P., Yegnaraman, V. and Vasudevan, T., “Defluoridation of water using low cost activated carbons”, Ind. J. Environ. Protect., 22, 154-160. 2002.
[88]  Agarwal, M., Rai, K., Shrivastav, R. and Dass, S. “Defluoridation of water using amended clay”, J. Cleaner Produc., 11, 439-444. 2003.
[89]  Tripathy, S.S. and Raichur, A.M., “Abatement of fluoride from water using manganese dioxide-coated activated alumina”, J. Hazard. Mater., 153, 1043-1051. 2008.
[90]  Waghmare, S.S. and Arfin, T., “Fluoride Removal from Water by Aluminium Based Adsorption: A Review”, J. Biol. Chem. Chron., 2(1), 1-11. 2015.
[91]  Khichar, M. and Kumbhat, S., “Defluoridation-A review of water from aluminium and alumina based compound”, Int. J. Chemical Studies, 2(5), 4-11. 2015.
[92]  Sharma, S.K. and Sharma, M.C., “Application of Biological Adsorbent Materials for Removal of Harmful Inorganic Contaminants from Aqueous Media – An Overview”, Current Trends in Technol Sci, 4. 1. 2015.
[93]  Das, N., Pattanaik, P. and Das, R., “Defluoridation of drinking water using activated titanium rich bauxite”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 292. 1-10. 2005.
[94]  Yang, M., Hashimoto, M.T., Hoshi, N. and Myoga, H., “Fluoride removal in a fixed bed packed with granular calcite”, Water Res., 33, 3395-3402. 1999.
[95]  Jagtap, S., Thakre, D., Wanjari, S., Kamble, S., Labhsetwar, N. and Rayalu, S., “New modified chitosan-based adsorbent for defluoridation of water”, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332. 280-290. 2009.
[96]  Sujana, M.G., Mishra, A. and Acharya, B.C., “Hydrous ferric oxide doped alginate beads for fluoride removal: Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium studies”, Appl. Surf. Sci. 270. 767-776. 2013.
[97]  Davila-Rodriguez, J.L., Escobar-Barrios, V.A. and Rangel-Mendez, J.R., “Removal of fluoride from drinking water by a chitin-based biocomposite in fixed-bed columns”, J. Fluor. Chem. 140, 99-103. 2012.
[98]  Swain, S.K., Patnaik, T., Patnaik, P.C., Jha, U., Dey, R.K., “Development of new alginate entrapped Fe(III)–Zr(IV) binary mixed oxide for removal of fluoride from water bodies. Chem. Eng. J., 215-216, 763-771. 2013.
[99]  Cengeloglu, Y., Kir, E. and Ersoz, M., “Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using red mud”, Sep. Purif. Technol., 28, 81-86. 2002.
[100]  Piekos, R. and Paslawaska, S., “Fluoride uptake characteristic of fly ash”, Fluoride, 32. 14-19. 1999.
[101]  Chaturvedi, A.K., Pathak, K.C. and Singh, V.N., “Fluoride removal from water by adsorption on China clay”, Appl. Clay Sci., 3, 337-346. 1988.
[102]  Kamble, S.P., Jagtap, S., Labhsetwar, N.K., Thakare, D., Godfrey, S., Devotta, S., Rayalu, S.S., “Defluoridation of drinking water using chitin, chitosan and lanthanum-modified chitosan”, Chem. Eng., J. 129. 173-180. 2007.
[103]  Viswanathan, N. and Meenakshi, S., “Development of chitosan supported zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate composite for fluoride removal”, J. Hazard. Mater. 176. 459-465. 2010.
[104]  Mohan, S.V., Ramanaiah, S.V., Rajkumar, B. and Sarma, P.N., “Removal of fluoride from aqueous phase by biosorption onto algal biosorbent Spirogyra Sp.-102: sorption mechanism elucidation”, J. Hazard Mater., 141. 465-474. 2007.
[105]  Miramontes, P., Bautista-Margulis, R.G. and Perez-Hernandeza, A., “Removal of arsenic and fluoride from drinking water with cake alum and a polymeric anionic flocculent”, Fluoride, 36. 122-128. 2003.
[106]  Sujana, M.G., Soma, G., Vasumathi, N. and Anans, S., “Studies on fluoride adsorption capacities of amorphous Fe/Al mixed hydroxides from aqueous solutions”, J. Fluorine Chem., 130. 749-754. 2009.
[107]  Zhang, Yi., Wang, D., Liu, B., Gao, X., Xu, W., Liang, P. and Xu, Y., “Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Bentonite/Chitosan Beads”, AmericanJ. Anal Chem, 4. 48-53. 2013.
[108]  Khatibikamal, V., Torabian, A., Janpoor, F. and Hoshyaripour, G., “Fluoride removal from industrial wastewater using electrocoagulation and its adsorption kinetics”, J. Hazardous Materials, 179 (1-3). 276-280. 2010.
[109]  Waghmare, S.S.and Arfin, T., “Fluoride Removal from Water by various techniques: Review” Int. J. Innovative Sci. Engineering Technol., 2 (9). 560-571. 2015.
[110]  Meenakshi, S. and Viswanathan, N., “Identification of selective ion-exchange resin for fluoride sorption”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 308. 438-450. 2007.
[111]  Abe, I., Iwasaki, S., Tokimoto, T., Kawasaki, N., Nakamura, T. and Tanada, S., “Adsorption of fluoride ions onto carbonaceous materials”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 275. 35-39. 2004.
[112]  Ramos, R.L., Ovalle-Turrubiartes, J. and Sanchez-Castillo, M.A., “Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution on aluminum-impregnated carbon”, Carbon, 37. 609-617. 1999.
[113]  Jagtap, S., Thakre, D., Wanjari, S., Kamble, S., Labhsetwar, N. and Rayalu, S., “New modified chitosan-based adsorbent for defluoridation of water”, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332. 280-290. 2009.
[114]  Potgeiter, J.H., “An experimental assessment of the efficiency of different defluoridation methods”, Chem, SA 317-318. 1990.
[115]  Piddennavar, R., “Review on defloridation techniques of water”, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 2, 86-94. 2013.
[116]  Maheswari, R.C. and Hoelzel, G., “Potential of membrane separation technology for fluoride removal from underground water”, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 17. 620-636. 2002.
[117]  Bhatnagar, A., Kumar, E. and Sillanpää, M., “Fluoride removal from water by adsorption—A review”, Chem. Eng. J., 171. 811-840. 2011.
[118]  Chakrabortty, S., Roy, M. and Pal, P., “Removal of fluoride from contaminated groundwater by cross flow nanofiltration: Transport modeling and economic evaluation”, Desalination, 313, 115-124. 2013.
[119]  Seadar, J.D. and Heneley, J.E., “The Separation Process Principles”, second ed., NJ: Wiley, pp. 521-523. 2005.
[120]  Bosch, M.E., Sanchez, A.J.R., Rojas, F.S. and Ojeda, C.B., “Arsenic and antimony speciation analysis in the environment using hyphenated techniques to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a review”, Int. J. Environ Waste Manage., 5. 4-63. 2010.
[121]  Khani, H., Rofouei, M.K., Arab, P., Gupta, V.K. and Vafaei, Z., “Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion (II)”, J. Hazard. Material, 183. 402-409. 2010.
Show Less References


Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (CEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

3Ministry of Science and Technology, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 13-23
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Edu Inam, Gerald G. Inoh, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Bassey B. Etim. Physicochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in Okoroette Community, Eastern Coast of Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):13-23. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-3.

Correspondence to: Edu  Inam, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. Email:


The coastal region of Nigeria has witnessed intense anthropogenic activities that have overtime necessitated several environmental monitoring campaigns to ascertain impacts and proffer remedial solutions. In the present study, standard analytical protocols were employed to assess the physicochemical parameters, trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels of ground and surface water used for drinking purposes in Okoroette community in Nigeria. The results obtained show that investigated parameters varied widely and were generally higher in the surface water samples collected during the dry season. The levels of most of the physicochemical parameters recorded were acceptable when compared with Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) except for turbidity and dissolved oxygen. In both ground and surface waters, the following trace metals exceeded the NSDWQ permissible limits: Pb, Cd, Fe, and Mn. The total mean level of PAHs (> 1.0 mg/l) in both ground and surface water samples exceeded the acceptable level when compared with the NSDWQ guideline value of 0.007 mg/l. The health risk assessment applied on trace metal levels reveal that there is significant potential toxic risk to exposed individuals as calculated hazard indexes (HI) were greater than one. Results from Water Quality Indices (WQI) modelling reveal that the water sources in the community were generally categorised as poor quality or unfit for drinking purposes. Chemometric characterisation of the water quality indicators revealed that some of the contaminants may be of geogenic, anthropogenic organic in origin. The study reveals that drinking water sources in Okoroette community are not suitable for consumption and domestic use therefore treatment is highly and urgently recommended to safeguard public health.



[1]  Obiefuna, G. I.; Orazulike, D. M. Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater quality from Yola Area, Northeastern Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 2010, 14(1), 5-11.
[2]  Atser, J.; Udoh, P. U. Dimension in rural water coverage and access in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 9 (1), 29-37.
[3]  Kadafa, A. A. Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global J. Sci. Frontier Res. Environ. Earth Sci. 2012, 12(3), 19-28.
[4]  Annual Book of ASTM Standard for Water and Environmental Technology. American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM), Pennsylvania, USA, 2012.
[5]  Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 20th Ed; American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington DC, USA, 2005.
Show More References
[6]  Udosen, E. D. Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Studies; Shalom Ltd: Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria: Shalom, 2015.
[7]  Official methods of analysis, 17th Ed; Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Washington DC, 1985.
[8]  Karyabi, H.; Nasseri, S.; Ahmadkhaniha, R.; Rastkari, N.; Mahvi, A. H.; Nabizadeh, R.; Yunesian, M. Determination and source identification of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons in Karaj River, Iran. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2014, 92, 50-56.
[9]  Inam, E.; Offiong, N.; Essien, J.; Kang, S.; Kang, S.; Antia, B. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons loads and potential risks in freshwater ecosystem of the Ikpa River Basin, Niger Delta –Nigeria. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2016, 188.
[10]  Kavcar, P.; Sofuoglu, A.; Sofuoglu, S.C. A health risk assessment for exposure to trace metals via drinking ingestion pathway. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 2009, 212, 216-227.
[11]  Inam, E.; Etim U.J.; Offiong, N.O. Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of trace metals in groundwater supplies in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Nigeria. World J. Appl. Sci. Technol. 2014, 6(1), 55-65.
[12]  Shah, M.T.; Ara, J.; Muhammad, S.; Khan, S.; Tariq, S. Health risk assessment via surface water and sub-surface water consumption in the mafic and ultramafic terrain, Mohmand agency, northern Pakistan. J. Geochem. Explor. 2012, 118, 60-67.
[13]  Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment; US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Risk Assessment Forum, Washington DC, 2005.
[14]  Iqbal, J.; Shah, M.H.; Akhter, G. Characterization, source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in freshwater Rawal Lake, Pakistan. J. Geochem. Explor. 2013, 125, 94-101.
[15]  Khan, S.; Cao, Q.; Zheng Y.M.; Huang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.G. Health risk of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ. Pollut. 2008, 152, 686-692.
[16]  Muhammad, S.; Sha, M.; Khan, S. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan Region, Northern Pakistan. Microchem. J., 2011, 98, 334-343.
[17]  Lee, S.W.; Lee, B.T.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, K.W.; Lee, J.S. Human risk assessment for heavy metals and As contamination in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2006, 119, 233-244.
[18]  Kolluru, R.V.; Bartell, S.M.; Pitblado, R.M.; Stricoff, R.S. Risk Assessment and Management Handbook. Mc-Graw-Hill: New York, 1996.
[19]  Etim, E. E.; Odoh, R.; Itodo, A. U.; Umoh, S. D.; Lawal, U. Water quality index for the assessment of water quality from different sources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Frontiers Sci. 2013. 3(3), 89-95.
[20]  International Standards for Drinking Water 3rd Ed; World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 2006.
[21]  Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretation and Standards; Irish Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), Wexford, Ireland, 2001.
[22]  Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Standard Organization of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria; 2007.
[23]  National Guideline and Standard for Water Quality in Nigeria; Technical Advisory Committee on Water Quality Criteria; Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV), Abuja, Nigeria, 1992.
[24]  Spiro, T. G.; Stigliani, W. M. Chemistry of the Environment; Prentice Hall: New Jersey, USA, 1996.
[25]  Inam, E.; Kim, K. W.; Ebong, G.; Eduok, U. Trace elements in ground and packaged water in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Geosyst. Eng., 13(2), 57-68.
[26]  Uzoekwe, S. A.; Oghosamire, F. A. The effect of refinery and petrochemical effluent on water quality of Ubeji Creek Warri, Southern Nigeria. Ethiopian J. Environ. Stud. Manag. 2011, 4(2), 107-116.
[27]  Owamah, I. H.; Asiagwu, A. K.; Egboh, S.H. O.; Phil-Usiayo, S. Drinking water quality at Isoko North communities of the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 2013, 95(7), 1116-1128.
[28]  Adekunle, A. A.; Badejo, A. O.; Oyerinde, A. O. Pollution studies on groundwater contamination: water quality of Abeokuta, Ogun State, South West Nigeria. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 2013, 3(5), 161-166.
[29]  Udousoro, I. I; Ikpeme, N. E. Chemometric characterisation of surface water quality in Uruan, Nigeria. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 2013, 1(4), 102-112.
[30]  Udosen, E. D. Variations in oxygen and some related pollution parameters in some streams in Itu Area of Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci. 2000, 12(1), 75-80.
[31]  Itah, A. Y.; Akpan, C. E. Potability of drinking water in an oil impacted community in Southern Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 2005, 9(1), 135-141.
[32]  Florea, A. M.; Büssellberg, D. Occurrence, use and potential toxic effects of metals and metal compounds. BioMetals. 2006, 19, 419-427.
[33]  Huang, F.; Schneider, J. S. Effects of lead exposure on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells derived from different regions of embryonic rat brain. NeuroToxicol. 2005, 25(6), 1001-1012.
[34]  Zakaria, M. P.; Takada, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Ohno, K.; Yamada, J.; Kouno, E.; Kumata, H. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36(9), 1907-1918.
[35]  Eduok, S. I.; Ebong, G. A.; Udoinyang, E. P.; Njoku, J. N.; Eyen, E. A. Bacteriological and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon accumulation in mangrove oyster (Crassostrea tulipa) from Douglas Creek, Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr. 2010, 9(1), 35-42.
[36]  Oruambo, I. F.; Brown, H.; Okeh, C. Correlation between exposure to toxic heavy metals in fish, sediment and drinking water, and high incidence of prostate enlargement in Two States of the Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Biochem. Biotechnol. Res. 2014, 2(1), 1-5.
[37]  Baird, C.; Cann, M. Environmental Chemistry. 4th ed.; WH Freeman & Company: New York, USA, 2008.
[38]  Kouras, A.; Katsoyiannis, I.; Voutsa, D. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece. J. Haz. Mater. 2007, 147, 890-899.
Show Less References