Welcome to American Journal of Water Resources

American Journal of Water Resources is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of water resources. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of water resources.

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

   

Article

Evaluation of the Factors Influencing Compliance for Payment of Improved Household Water Supply Service in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria

1National Horticulture Research Institute, P. M. B. 5432, Jericho Reservation Area, Idi Ishin Ibadan, Nigeria

2ADEM Department, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, Ilorin, P. M. B. 1343, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(2), 55-60
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. M. Bamimore, C. O. Farayola, I. O. Amao. Evaluation of the Factors Influencing Compliance for Payment of Improved Household Water Supply Service in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(2):55-60. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: C.  O. Farayola, ADEM Department, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, Ilorin, P. M. B. 1343, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Email: walecharless@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study examined the factors influencing the willingness to pay for improved household water supply service in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State. Data were collected from 107 households randomly sampled from the Local Government Area. A dichotomous choice contingent valuation technique was used to elicit households’ willingness to pay for an improved water supply service. The data were analyzed using logit regression technique. The results show that the mean willingness to pay of households for improved water supply service is 0.696. The positive mean willingness to pay implies that the households demand improved water supply service in which the improvement in the water supply service will directly improve their welfare. The results further reveal that the significant factors determining households’ willingness to pay for improved water supply service are number of households’ adults, minutes taken to fetch water, and the amount willing to pay by the households for the proposed improvement in the water supply service. The willingness to pay for water is useful in informing water policy makers for future water supply and services improvement in the Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords

References

[1]  World Bank Research Observers (1993): The Demand for Water in Rural Areas; Determinants and Implications and Policy, Vol. 8, no 1 pg 47-70.
 
[2]  Arbué, F., Barberan R., Villanua I (2002). Water price impact on residential water demand in the city of Zaragoza; A dynamic panel data approach. Conference paper at The 40th European Congress of the European Regional Studies Association (ERSA), Barcelona, Spain.
 
[3]  Brown, M.W., (2003) “Clean Water”. An Agent of Change Choices, Vol. 12, no 1 pg 3-4
 
[4]  Swaminathan, M.S. (2001) Ecology and Equity: Key Determinants of Sustainable Water Security, Water Science and Technology, 43 (4), pp. 35-44. Water Security for the 21st Century-Innovative Approaches, the 10th Stockholm Water Symposium, August 14-17, 2000.
 
[5]  Rosegrant M., (2002); Water Resources in the Twenty –First Century Challenges and Implications for Action.
 
Show More References
[6]  Nigeria Water Sector (2000). Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria Water Sector Strategy.
 
[7]  Alayande A.W., (2005) Water Demand Management. Delivered at the Urban Water Supply Facilities Maintenance Courses Held at National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, November 7th -18th 2005.
 
[8]  Ifabiyi, I.P., (2011) “Willingness to Pay for Water at Household Level in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria”. Global Journal of Human Social Science (USA) ISSN; 0975-587X.
 
[9]  Whittington, D., Donald, L., Daniel, O., and Xinming, M.U., (1990). “Water Vending and Development: Lessons From Two Countries (WASH Technical Report no. 45)” Allington, USA. Water and Sanitation for Health Project.
 
[10]  Kessler, P., (1997) “Economic Instrument in Water Management and Demand” E and F.N Spun, Suffolk, U.K
 
[11]  Rogerson, C., (1996) “Water Pricing Experience; An International Perspective”. A World Bank Technical Paper No 386. The International Bank for Infrastuctural Development. The World Bank, Washington D.C. U.S.A.
 
[12]  Brookshire, D., Whittington, D (1993). “Water Resources Issues in the Developing Countries”. Water Resources Research, Vol. 29, no 1 pp. 1882-1888.
 
[13]  Howe and Dixon, (1993) “Inefficiencies in Water Project Design and Operation in the Third World, an Economic Perspective”. Water Resource Research, Vol. 29, no 7 pg 1989-1994.
 
[14]  Roger, P., C. Hurst and N. Harshadeep, (1993) “Water Resources Planning on a Strategic Context; Looking the Water Sector to the National Economy”. Water Resources Research, Vol. 29, no 7 pg 1895-1906.
 
[15]  Atlaf, M.A., Whittington, D., Jarnal, H., Kerry, V (1993) “Rethinking Ground Water Supply in Pujab, Parkistan”. Water Resource Research Vol. 29, no 7 pp. 1943-1954.
 
[16]  Atlaf, M.A., (1994) “The Economics of Household Response to Inadequate Water Supplies”. Third Planning Review, Vol. 16, no 1 pg 41-53.
 
[17]  Briscoe, J., Furtado de Catro, p., Ginfin, J. N., Olser O. (1990). “Toward equitable and Sustainable Rural Water Supplies” ; A Contigent Valuation Study in Brazil. The World Bank Economics Review.
 
[18]  National Population Commission, (2006). Nigeria Census Report 2006
 
[19]  Yusuf, S.A., Salimonu, K.K. and Ojo, O. T. (2007). Determinants of willingness to Pay For Improved Household Solid Waste Management in Oyo State, Nigeria, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, no3 pp. 233-239.
 
Show Less References

Article

Rainwater Harvesting in Ibadan City, Nigeria: Socio-economic Survey and Common Water Supply Practices

1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(3), 61-72
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Omolara Lade, David Oloke. Rainwater Harvesting in Ibadan City, Nigeria: Socio-economic Survey and Common Water Supply Practices. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(3):61-72. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: David  Oloke, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. Email: omolaralade@yahoo.com, D.A.Oloke@wlv.ac.uk

Abstract

The largest environmental challenge that Nigeria is facing today is water scarcity. Current water use already exceeds renewable supply. Many methods have been suggested to increase the sources of water supply; and one of these alternative sources is rainwater harvesting (RWH). Rainfall harvesting from rural/urban catchments has received little attention in Nigeria. To better understand common practises in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater a socio-demographic survey was conducted in the 11 local government areas of Ibadan city in Nigeria to determine the rate of water consumption and supply from current water sources. The methodology adopted was the mixed method approach, involving a detailed literature review, followed by a questionnaire survey of 1067 household respondents. The data collected through the survey were analysed using SPSS and selected statistical methods such as Chi-square test. The survey was carried out from July-September 2012 and a response rate of 89% (950 households) was recorded. The survey questions focused on the socio-economic characteristics of households and the sources of water supply, catchment materials, rainwater harvesting technology, purpose of RWH, demand and usage of water, effectiveness of management strategy and environmental health. The most commonly reported source of water supply is groundwater with>83.8% of respondents depend on it as their main source of supply, which are vulnerable to drought and pollution while only 6.6% harvest rainwater. 69% of the respondents have corrugated iron sheet while <14% of the respondent’s roof are made of roofing tiles and cement concrete respectively. 54% of those with roofing tiles use the harvested water for drinking, while 43% of those with cement roofs use it for cooking and drinking respectively. A larger proportion (61.2%) of respondents chose prevalence of typhoid fever in the study area; some have a prevalence of diarrhoea (19.4%), while few of respondents’ water sources is free from water-borne diseases (2.3%). This indicates that there is a prevalence of 97.8% of water-borne diseases. Over 77.1% of respondents did not receive water at all from Water Corporation of Oyo State, while few of respondents did receive water supply. This survey provides critical data about current potable and non-potable RWH practices in Nigeria and can serve as guidance for future RWH research. In particular, the inadequacy of water supply in the City should be investigated further as the demand for sustainable RWH system in Nigeria continues to grow.

Keywords

References

[1]  UN, Water for People, Water for Life: UN World Water Development Report (WWDR), UNESCO and Berghahn Books, UN 2003.
 
[2]  T. Oweis and A. Hachum.Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa.Water Management 80, 57-73. 2006.
 
[3]  E. Frot, B. van Wesemael, A.S. Benet, M.A. House, Water harvesting potential as a function of hill slope characteristics: A case study from the Sierra de Gator (Almeria Province, South-East Spain). Journal of Arid Environment 72, 1213-1231. 2008.
 
[4]  Orebiyi, E.O, Awomeso, J.A, Idowu, O.A, Martins, O., Oguntoke, O., Taiwo, A.M. Assessment of pollution hazards of shallow well water in Abeokuta and environs, South Western Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Science 6, 50-56.2010.
 
[5]  Appan, A. Economics and water quality aspects of rainwater catchment system. Proceedings of International Symposium on Efficient Water Use in Urban Areas, UNEP International Environmental and Technological Center, Osaka, Japan, 1999.
 
Show More References
[6]  Prinz, D. Water harvesting in Mediterranean environment- Its past role and future prospect, in: N. Tsiourtis, ed., Water resources management in the Mediterranean under drought of water shortage conditions, International Symposium, Nicosia, Cyprus, 1995, 135-144.
 
[7]  Zhu, K., Zhang, L., Hart, W., Liu, M. and Chen, H. Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semi-arid Loess Plateau of northern China. Journal of Arid Environments, 57, 487-507.2004.
 
[8]  MwengKahinda, J., Rockstrom, J., Taigbenu, A.E., Dimes, J. Rainwater harvesting to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture in semi-arid Zimbabwe, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 32, 1068-1073. 2007a.
 
[9]  Rockstrom, J., Barron, J. Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs. Irrigation Science 25(3), 299-311. 2007.
 
[10]  MwengeKahinda, J., Taighenu, A.E., Boroto, R.J. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 32, 1050-1057. 2007b.
 
[11]  Mati, B., De Bock, T., Malesu, M., Khaka, E., Oduor, A., Meshack, M., Odour, V. Mapping the potential of Rainwater Harvesting Technologies in Africa. A GIS Overview on Development Domains for the Continent and Ten Selected Countries. Technical Manual No. 6. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006. 126.
 
[12]  Herrmann, T. andSchmida, U. Rainwater utilisation in Germany: efficiency, dimensioning, hydraulics and environmental aspects, Urban Water, 1, 307-316. 2000.
 
[13]  Fewkes, A. The use of rainwater for WC flushing: the field-testing of a collection system. Building and Environment, 34 (6), 765-772. 1999.
 
[14]  Appan, A. A dual-mode system for harnessing roof water for non-potable uses.Urban Water, 1(4), 317-321. 2000.
 
[15]  Handia, L., Tembo, JM, Mwiindwa, C. Potential of rainwater harvesting in urban Zambia. Physics and Chemical Earth, 28(20-27), 893-896. 2003.
 
[16]  Peter, A. A. and Mberede, L.O. Improvement on the harvested rainwater quality in rural areas of Southern Nigeria. Poster Presented at 10th IRCSA Conference, Mannheim, Germany. 2001.
 
[17]  Coker, A.O. Potentials of Rainwater in a Southwestern Nigeria Community. Poster Presented at 10th IRCSA Conference, Mannheim, Germany. 2001.
 
[18]  Sridhar, M.K.C., Coker, A.O. and Adegbuyi, S.A. Rainwater harvesting in Nigeria: Prospects and problems. Proceedings at the 10th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference, September 10-14, Mannheim, Germany, 122. 2001.
 
[19]  Efe, S.I. Quality of rainwater harvesting for rural Communities of Delta State, Nigeria, The Environmentalist, 26(3), 175-181. 2006.
 
[20]  Rim-Rukeh A., Ikhifa G.O., Okokoyo A.P. and Awatefe J.K. Treatment of harvested rainwater in a pilot scale fixed-bed filledwith bone char. Journal of Applied Science Research, 3(8), 690-694. 2007.
 
[21]  Oni, S.I., Ege, E., Asenime, C. and Oke, S.A. Rainwater harvesting potential for domestic water supply in Edo State. IndustrialJournal of Management and Social Sciences 2 (2), 87-98. 2008.
 
[22]  Onoja S.B., Ocheja I.E., and Isikwe M.O. Rainwater harvesting practices and design of rainwater harvesting system forOtukpa Community, Benue State, Nigeria. CTA Seminar.Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Universityof Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. 2010.
 
[23]  Olaoye, R.A. and Olaniyan, O.S. Quality of rainwater from different roof material. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 2(8), pp. 1413-1420. 2012.
 
[24]  Lade, O.O., Coker, A.O., Scridhar, M.K.C. Sustainable water supply for domestic use: application of roof-harvested water for groundwater recharge. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, 1(5), 2012.581-588.
 
[25]  Lekwot, V.E., Samuel, I.O., Ifeanyi., E. and Olisaemeka, O. Evaluating the potential of rainwater harvesting as a supplementary source of water supply in the Kanai (Mali) and the district of Zangon-Kataf local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal Environmental Science and Toxicology 1 (3), 38-45. 2012.
 
[26]  Shittu, O.I., Okareh, O.T. and Coker, A.O. Design and construction of rainwater harvesting system for domestic water supply in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology 1(6), 153-160. 2012.
 
[27]  DMS,Weather observation station. Department of Meteorological Services, Samonda, Ibadan, 2010.
 
[28]  SSN,Socio-economic survey of Nigeria.Social statistics in Nigeria.Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, 2007.
 
[29]  SSN,Socio-economic survey of Nigeria.Social statistics in Nigeria.Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, 2008.
 
[30]  UN, Water for Cities: UN World Water Development Report (WWDR), UNESCO and Berghahn Books, UN 2011.available from: http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/12/17/eco.about.water/ [Accessed 14/06/2015].
 
[31]  Map of Ibadan. Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, 2012.
 
[32]  Research Information Determine Sample Size. Salt Lake City 2008. Online: http://stat.ubc.ca/~rollin/stats/ssize/[Accessed 14/06/2015].
 
[33]  Munn, P. and Drever, E. Using questionnaires in small-scale research: A teachers’ guide, SCRE Publication, Edinburgh 1990.
 
[34]  Mirabella, J. Hypothesis testing with SPSS: A non-statistician guide and tutorial. 2006. Online:http://www.drjimmirabella.com/ebook/excerpt%20from%20Hypothesis%20Testing%20with%20SPSS %20ebook%20(Jim%20Mirabella).pdf [Accessed 14/06/2015].
 
[35]  Kerr, A.W., Hall, H.K. and Kozub, S.A. Doing Statistics with SPSS. Sage Publications, London, 238.2002.
 
[36]  De Vaus, D. A. Surveys in Social Research, 5th Edition,Routeledge, London, 379. 2002.
 
[37]  Cox, D., Fafchamps, M., Schultz, T.P., John, A.S. Chapter 58 Extended Family and Kinship. Networks: Economic Insights and Evolutionary Directions. In: Handbook of Development Economics. Elsevier. 3711-3784. 2007.
 
Show Less References

Article

Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments at the Northern Red Sea Coast

1Marine Pollution Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(3), 73-85
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed S. Abouhend, Khalid M. El-Moselhy. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments at the Northern Red Sea Coast. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(3):73-85. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  S. Abouhend, Marine Pollution Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt. Email: aabouhend@umass.edu, ahmed_salah7257@yahoo.com

Abstract

The spatial and seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, Mn, Fe) in water and sediments of different sites at the Northern Red Sea coast during the year 2012 were investigated. The results revealed a small range of variation and regional irregularities. Site III (Hurgaha Harbor) recorded the highest metal concentrations in water and sediments except Co during the different seasons. The annual means of metal concentrations in water were 0.14 ± 0.04 - 0.42 ± 0.03, 0.39 ± 0.11 - 4.71 ± 0.87, 0.16 ± 0.04 - 2.15 ± 0.10, 0.94 ± 0.07 - 12.07 ± 2.78, 0.73 ± 0.43 - 5.84 ± 0.74, 0.10 ± 0.02 - 0.42 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.04 - 0.39 ± 0.07 and 8.68 ± 0.80 - 36.53 ± 2.76 µg l-1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, Mn and Fe, respectively, while in sediments were 1.73 ± 0.36 - 4.40 ± 1.99, 8.5 ± 0.37 - 111.3 ± 23.89, 16.20 ± 1.39 - 39.00 ± 1.95, 19.23 ± 3.01 - 190.33 ± 13.02, 16.00 ± 0.82 - 80.33 ± 4.19, 10.10 ± 1.68 - 19.23 ± 2.47, 106.00 ± 10.20 - 323.33 ± 46.35 and 4172.00 ± 430.37 - 14222.33 ± 691.02 µg g-1, respectively. According to different standard marine water and sediments quality guidelines, heavy metals concentrations at the most of studied sites appeared within the normal range.

Keywords

References

[1]  Morcos, S. A. (1970): Physical and chemical oceanography of the Red Sea. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., 8: 73-202.
 
[2]  Murty, T. S. and El-Sabh, M. T. (1984): Weather system storm surges and sea state in the red sea and the Gulf of Aden. Proc. Symp. Coral Reef Envi. Red sea. Jeddah, pp 8-38.
 
[3]  Ormond, R. F. G. and Edwards, A. (1987): Red Sea Fishes, in: Edwards, A.J. and Head S.M. (eds), Red Sea. Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. pp 252-287.
 
[4]  El-Shenawy, M. A. and Farag, A. M. (2005): Spatial and temporal variability of saprophytic and water quality bacteria along the coast of Aqaba, Suez Gulfs and Red Sea, Egypt. Egy. J. Aqua. Res., 31(1): 157-169.
 
[5]  Turner, A. (1996): Trace metals portioning in estuaries importance of salinity and particulate concentration. Mar. Chem., 54: 27-39.
 
Show More References
[6]  Arcadi, F. A.; De Luca, R.; Trimarchi, G. R.; Costa, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Williamson, R. B.; Van Dam, L. F.; Bell, R. G.; Green, M. O.; Kim, J. P. (1996): Heavy metal and suspended sediments fluxes from a contaminated intertidal inlet (Manukau Harbour, New Zealand). Mar. Poll. Bull., 32(11): 812-822.
 
[7]  Rainbow, P. S. (2002): Trace metal concentrations in aquatic invertebrates: why and so what?. Envi. Poll., 120: 497-507.
 
[8]  Adham, K. G.; Hassan, I. F.; Taha, N. and Amin, T. H. (1999): Impact of hazardous exposure to metals in the Nile and Delta lakes on the catfish, Clarias lazera. Envi. Monit. Assess., 54: 107-124.
 
[9]  Ozertic, B. and Krajnovic-Ozretic, M. (1993): Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase glutamate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase as potential indicators of liver intoxication in grey mullet (Mugil auratus Risso). Bull. Envi. Contam. Toxicol., 50: 586-592.
 
[10]  Bervoets, L.; Panis, L. and Verheyen, R. (1994): Trace metal levels in water, sediment and Chironomus grthumni, from different water courses in Flanders (Belgium). Chemosphere, 29: 1591-1601.
 
[11]  Bruder, H. V.; Lagarde, F.; Leroy, M. J. F.; Conghanowr, C. and Engelhard, F. (2002): Application of a Sequential extraction proc-edure to study the release of elements from municipal solid waste Incineration bottom ash. Anal. Chim. Acta., 451(2): 285-295.
 
[12]  Forstner, U. and Salamons, W. (1980): Trace metal analysis on polluted sediments, I: assessment of sources and intensities. Envi. Tech. Letters, 1: 494-505.
 
[13]  Forstner, U. and Wittmann, G. T. W. (1981): Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Pp. 486.
 
[14]  Madkour, H. A. and Dar, M. A. (2007): The anthropogenic effluents of the human activities on the Red Sea coast at Hurghada harbour (case study). Egy. J. Aqua. Res., 33: 43-58.
 
[15]  Brown B. E. and Holley M. C. (1982): Metal levels associated with tin dredging and smelting, and their effect upon intertidal reef flats at Ko Phuket, Thailand. Coral Reefs, 1: 131-137.
 
[16]  Amini, G. H. R. (1998): Heavy metal concentration in surficial sediments from Anzali Wetland, Iran. Water, Air and Soil Poll., 104: 305-312.
 
[17]  Boniforti, R.; Ferraroli, I. R.; Frigileri, P.; Heltai, D. and Queirazza, G. (1984): Intercomparison of five methods for the determination of trace metals in sea water, Anal. Chim. Acta. 16: 233-46
 
[18]  Fukai, L. and Ngoc, H. (1976): Zinc and cadmium in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean. Mar. Poll. Bull., 7(1): 9-13.
 
[19]  Oregioni, B. and Aston, S.R. (1984): The determination of selected trace metals in marine sediments by flameless/flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. IAEA Manaco laboratory, Internal Report. Cited from Reference Method in pollution studies N. 38, UNEP. 1986.
 
[20]  ANZECC (1992): Australian water quality guidelines for fresh and marine waters. National Water Quality Management Strategy Paper No 4, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Canberra.
 
[21]  ANZECC (2000): Aquatic Ecosystems - Rationale and Background Information: Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Vol. 2.
 
[22]  Bennet, J. B.; and Cubbage, J. (1991): Summary of Criteria and Guidelines for Contaminated Freshwater Sediments. Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA.
 
[23]  Persaud, D.; Jaagumagi, R. and Hayton, A. (1990): The provincial sediment quality guidelines. Ontario Ministry of the Environment
 
[24]  MacDonald, D. D.; Carr, R. S.; Calder, F. D.; Long, E. R. and Ingersoll, C. G. (1996): Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters. Ecotoxicology, 5: 253-278.
 
[25]  Fallon, S. J.; White, J. C. and McCulloch, M. T. (2002): Porites corals as recorders of mining and environmental impacts: Misima Island, Papua New Guinea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 66(1): 45-62.
 
[26]  Al-Rousan, S. A.; Al-Shloul, R. N.; Al-Horani, F. A. and Abu-Hilal, A. H. (2007): Heavy metal contents in growth bands of Porites corals: record of anthropogenic and human developments from the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. Mar. Poll. Bull., 24(12): 1912-1922.
 
[27]  Jayaraju, N.; Raja, S.; Reddy, B. C. and Reddy, K. R. (2009): Heavy metal pollution in reef corals of Tuticorin Coast, Southeast Coast of India. Soil Sedi. Contam., 18(4): 445-454.
 
[28]  Guzman, H. M. and Jimenez, C. E. (1992): Contamination of coral reefs by heavy metals along the Caribbean coast of Central America (Costa Rica and Panama). Mar. Poll. Bull., 24(11): 554-561.
 
[29]  Metwally, M. E. S.; Al-Muzaini, S.; Jacob, P. G.; Bahloul, M.; Urushigawa, Y.; Sato, S. and Matsmura, A. (1997): Petroleum hydrocarbons and related heavy metals in the near-shore marine sediments of Kuwait. Envi. Int., 23(1):115-121.
 
[30]  Mansour, A. M.; Nawar, A. H. and Madkour, H. A. (2005): Metals concentration of recent invertebrates along the Red Sea Coast of Egypt: A Tool for monitoring environmental hazards. Sedimentology of Egypt, 13: 171-185.
 
[31]  Reeder, S. W.; Demayo, A. and Taylor, M. C. (1979): Cadmium. In Guidelines for surface water quality. Vol. 1: Inorganic chemical substances, Water Quality Branch, Inland Waters Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa.
 
[32]  De Carlo, E. H. and Spencer, K. J. (1995): Records of lead and other heavy metal inputs to sediments of the Ala Wai Canal, O’ahu, Hawaii, Pacific Sci., Uni. of Hawaii Press, 49(4): 471-491.
 
[33]  Sadiq, M. (1992): Toxic metal chemistry in marine environments. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 390.
 
[34]  Chester, R. (1990): Marine geochemistry. Allen and Unwin, Australia, p 698.
 
[35]  Schiff, K.; Diehl, D. and Valkirs, A. (2004): Copper emission from antifouling paint on recreational vessels. Mar. Poll. Bull., 48: 371-377.
 
[36]  Al-Abdali, F.; Massoud, A. and Al-Ghadban, A. N. (1996): Bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf. Trace metal contents as indicators of pollution and implications for the effect and fate of the Kuwait oil slick. Envi. Poll., 93(3): 285-301.
 
[37]  Hart, B. T. (1982): A water quality criteria for heavy metals. Australian Governmental Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia.
 
[38]  Riley, J. P. and Chester, R. (1989): Introduction to marine chemistry. St. Edmundsbury Press, Great Britain, p 465.
 
[39]  CCREM (1987): Canadian water quality guidelines. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers, Ontario.
 
[40]  Patterson, C. C.; Settle, D. and Glover, B. (1976): Analysis of lead in polluted coastal seawater. Mar. Chem., 4: 305-319.
 
[41]  USEPA (1976): Quality criteria for water. Office of Planning and Water, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. EPA-440-9-76-023.
 
[42]  Jaques, A. P. (1985): National inventory of sources and releases of lead 1982. Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa.
 
[43]  Clark, R. B. (1992): Marine pollution. Claredon Press ; New York : Oxford University, pp. 220.
 
[44]  NSW Health (2000): Grey Water Reuse in Sewered Single Domestic Premises, NSW Department of Health, Sydney.
 
[45]  EPA (2000): NSW State of the Environment Report (2000), NSW Environment Protection Authority, Sydney.
 
[46]  Stubblefield, W. A.; Brinkman, S. E.; Davies, P. H.; Garrison, T. D.; Hockett, J. R. and McIntyre, M. W (1997): Effects of water hardness on the toxicity of manganese to developing brown trout (Salmo trutta). Envi. Toxi. Chem., 16: 2082-2089.
 
[47]  USEPA (1986): Quality criteria for water. US Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, US Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, Virginia. PB87-226759, EPA 440/5 86-001.
 
[48]  Wong, C. K. C.; Cheung, R. Y. H. and Wong, M. H. (2000): Heavy metal concentrations in green-lipped mussels collected from Tolo Harbour and markets in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Envi. Poll., 109: 165-171.
 
[49]  Lalah, J. O.; Ochieng, E. Z. and Wandiga, S. O. (2008): Sources of heavy metal input intoWinam Gulf, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 8: 277-284.
 
[50]  Coulibaly, S.; Atse, B. C.; Koffi, K. M.; Sylla, S.; Konan, K. J. and Kouassi, N. J.(2012): Seasonal accumulations of some heavy metal in water, sediment and tissues of black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron from Biétri Bay in Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast. Bull. Envi. Contam. Toxi., 88: 571-576.
 
[51]  Pan, K. and Wang, W. X. (2011): Trace metal contamination in estuarine and coastal environments in China. Sci. Total Envi., 421(422): 3-16.
 
[52]  Duman, F. and Kar, M. (2012): Temporal variation of metals in water, sediment and tissues of the European Chup (Squalius cephalus). Bull. Envi. Contam. Toxi., 89: 428-433.
 
[53]  Joksimovic, D.; Tomic, I.; Stankovic, R. A.; Jovic, M. and Stankovic, S. (2011): Trace metal concentrations in Mediterranean blue mussel and surface sediments and evaluation of the mussels quality and possible risks of high human consumption. Food Chem., 127: 632-637.
 
[54]  Karadede, H. and Unlu, E. (2000): Concentrations of some heavy metals in water, sediment, fish and some benthic organisms from Tigris River, Turkey. Envi. Monit. Assess., 131: 323-333.
 
[55]  Cevik, U.; Damla, N.; Kobya, A. I.; Bulut, V. N.; Duran, C.; Dalgic, G. and Bozacı, R. (2008): Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey. J. Haz. Mater., 160: 396-401.
 
[56]  Hamed, A. M. and Emara, M. A. (2006): Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. J. Mar. Sys., 60: 220-234.
 
[57]  Zhao, L.; Yang, F.; Wang, Y.; Huo, Z. and Yan, X. (2013): Seasonal Variation of Metals in Seawater, Sediment, and Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum from China. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 152: 358-366.
 
[58]  ObuidAllah, A. M.; Abdallah, A. T.; Abu-Eldahab, H. M.; Abdul-Rahman, M. N. and Mahdy, A. D. A. (2005): Impact of heavy metal contamination on seasonal abundance of planktonic copepods inhabiting mangrove area in Safaga, Red Sea, Egypt. Egy. J. Exp. Biol. (Zool.), 1: 123-130.
 
[59]  Ali, A. A. M.; Hamed, M. A. and Abd El-Azim, H. (2011): Heavy metals distribution in the coral reef ecosystems of the Northern Red Sea. Helgol. Mar. Res., 65: 67-80.
 
[60]  Shriadah, M. A.; Okbah, M. A. and El-Deek, M. S. (2004): Trace metals in the water column of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt. Water, Air and Soil Poll., 153: 115-124.
 
[61]  Dar, M. A. (2002): Geological basis to study the environmental defect in the marine ecosystem as a result of tourist activities in Hurghada area and surroundings, Red Sea, Egypt. Suez (Doctoral Thesis Suez Canal University), p 218.
 
[62]  El-Moselhy, Kh. M. and Abd El-Azim, H. (2005): Heavy metals content and grain size of sediments from Suez Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Egy. J. Aqua. Res., 31(2): 224-238.
 
[63]  Madkour, H. A.; Nawar, A. A. and Mohamed, A. W. (2006): Coastal sediments and their polluting metals of El- Hamrawein Harbour, Egyptian Red Sea coast: Clues for monit. Envi. haz. Sedi of Egypt, 14: 155-131.
 
[64]  Mansour, A. M.; Nawar, A. H. and Madkour, H. A. (2011): Metal pollution in marine sediments of selected harbours and industrial areas along the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Ann. Naturhist. Mus., 113: 225-244.
 
[65]  Dar, M. A. (2012): Distribution patterns of some heavy metals in the surface sediment fractions at northern Safaga Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Arab. J. Geosci..
 
[66]  Mansour, A. M.; Nawar, A. H. and Mohamed, A.W. (2000): Geochemistry of coastal marine sediments and their contaminant metals, Red Sea, Egypt: A legacy for the future and a tracer to modern sediment dynamics. Sedimentology of Egypt, 8: 231-242.
 
[67]  Madkour, H. A. (2005): Distribution and relationships of heavy metals in the gaint clam (Tridacna Maxima) and associated sediments from different sites in the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Egy. J. Aqua. Res., 31(2): 45-59.
 
[68]  Madkour, H. A. (2011): Impacts of human activities and natural inputs on heavy metal contents of many coral reef environments along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Arab. J. Geosci., on line: doi: 10.1007/s12517-011-0482-5.
 
[69]  El-Sayed, G. F. and Youssef, D. H. (2013): Ecotoxicological impact assessment of some heavy metals and their distribution in some fractions of mangrove sediments from Red Sea, Egypt. Envi. Monit. Assess., 185(1): 393-404.
 
Show Less References