American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Social Stratification in the Drinking Water Scarcity Context: Empirical Evidence of Coastal Bangladesh

1Institute of Regional Science (IfR), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany

2Foreign Research Fellow at Political Science Department of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(3), 92-99
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bishawjit Mallick, Luisa Fernanda Roldan-Rojas. Social Stratification in the Drinking Water Scarcity Context: Empirical Evidence of Coastal Bangladesh. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(3):92-99. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: Bishawjit  Mallick, Institute of Regional Science (IfR), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. Email:,


Water is life, but getting safe water is a question of scarcity. In addition, water sources are being affected by extreme weather and climatic events creating pressure on quality of and access to fresh water. Therefore, it is urgent to know what are the easiest and well-managed ways of ensuring drinking water for everyone, how does the social structure influence the water management at community level. This study explores the importance and influence of societal structure in drinking water management. Results show that cconflict arises during the collection of water between the households and within the household and it has impact on the social connectedness and responsibilities of the community people. Initiatives should also be taken, so that the community management process ensure the equality and equity of access to drinking water as a basic human right.



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Impact of Gully Erosion Stream Sedimentation in Demepke Drainage Basin

1Geography Department, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Taraba State

2Geography Department, Benue State University, Makurdi

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(4), 100-108
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Songu G. A., Oyatayo K. T., Iorkua S.A.. Impact of Gully Erosion Stream Sedimentation in Demepke Drainage Basin. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(4):100-108. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Songu  G. A., Geography Department, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Taraba State. Email:


This study examined gully development in Demekpe drainage basin, Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State of Nigeria; with a view to determine the volume and amount of sediment loss from a 3rd order gully system. The systematic sampling technique was used to segment the gully which measured 220m long at intervals of 20m. Parameters measured include among others gully length, gully depth, gully shoulder and bed widths, slope gradient, cross sectional area, stream density, stream frequency and stream intensity. Cartesian coordinates, spot heights and core soil values were also determined. Digital Elevation Model was used to model gully form, direction of runoff and sediment delivery ratio in the gully system. The result showed that the volume of sediment loss from the gully system with a cross sectional area of 91.7m2 is 931.5m3 using the End Area method of soil loss determination. The amount or weight of sediment loss from the gully system is estimated to be 12,575.28 tonnes. The Digital Elevation Model of the gully system indicates a trapezoidal form and slopes with summital convexity. The convexity of the slope shape implies that runoff is generated from all sides of the slopes, influencing a considerate amount of sediment loss at the gully sides and floor. It is therefore recommended that planting of cover crops should be intensified to enhance infiltration and concreted surfaces should be minimised to reduce surface runoff and sediment loss along slopes.



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Impact of Urban Livestock Production on Groundwater Quality in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(4), 109-117
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Terrumun Kenneth Kwadzah, Oliver Terna Iorhemen, Charles Amen Okuofu. Impact of Urban Livestock Production on Groundwater Quality in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(4):109-117. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Oliver  Terna Iorhemen, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Email:


Groundwater is the main source of water for most city dwellers in Nigeria. In this study, the impacts of urban livestock production on groundwater quality in Kaduna metropolis were assessed through water quality monitoring. Groundwater samples were collected from wells located around 2 abattoirs (Tudunwada and Kawo abattoirs) and in 8 livestock-keeping households for a 6-month period (July- December). Physico-chemical analyses were conducted on the samples using standard methods. Results indicate that groundwater is negatively impacted in terms of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus and cadmium; and this impact is of great concern as the values for these parameters are well in excess of established limits. There is negative impact in terms of pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and zinc but this impact is not a concern as most of the values are within limits. However, no impact was observed on groundwater quality in terms of calcium as it showed no definite pattern of variation. Similarly, iron exhibited very low concentrations in the samples with a few exceptions in the months of July and August for the two abattoir sites. Lead was not detected in any of the samples throughout the study period. This study indicates that livestock keeping and processing activities have negative impact on groundwater quality in Kaduna metropolis. The groundwater pollution due to urban livestock production emanates from point sources and control measures can be easily applied.



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