American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Salandi at Hadagada Dam and Its Down Stream upto Akhandalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

1Department of Chemistry, A.B College, Basudevpur, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

2Department of Chemistry, VSSUT, Burla, Odisha, India

3Department of Chemistry, Bhadrak Autonomous College, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(2), 44-53
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pratap Kumar Panda, Rahas Bihari Panda, Prasant Kumar Dash. Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Salandi at Hadagada Dam and Its Down Stream upto Akhandalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(2):44-53. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Pratap  Kumar Panda, Department of Chemistry, A.B College, Basudevpur, Bhadrak, Odisha, India. Email:


The river Salandi, originated from well-known bio-sphere of Similipal forest and joints with the river Baitarani near Akhandalmani, the Tinitar Ghat after passing through Hadagada dam, Agarpada and Bhadrak town. During the course of journey, it receives forest run off, untreated and semi treated mining wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes of Ferro Alloys Corporation (FACOR) and urban wastes. In the present study, physico-chemical & bacteriological parameters of water were analyzed by collecting water samples from nine different stations in summer (April and May), rainy (August), post rainy (October) and in winter (December) during the year 2015 by applying standard procedures. The mean values of twelve important parameters were calculated for the entire year and were computed to water quality index (WQI) of river Salandi by using the weighted arithmetic index method. The water quality index (WQI) reveals that the quality of water is different at different monitoring stations i.e. quality is good at Hadagada dam, Satabhauni and Dhusuri, poor at Akhandalmani & very poor at Bidyadharapur, very poor and unfit for drinking purpose at Agarpada, Randia (FACOR) and Baudpur and belongs to class ‘C’ river water at Rajghat.



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Fluoride Contents of Community Drinking Water: Biological and Public Health Implications

1Department of Integrated Science/Biology Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria

2Medical Director, Sick Bay, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 54-57
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dirisu C.G, Mafiana M. O, Okwodu N.E, Isaac A.U.. Fluoride Contents of Community Drinking Water: Biological and Public Health Implications. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):54-57. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dirisu  C.G, Department of Integrated Science/Biology Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Nigeria. Email:


Drinking water supplies in Omoku, Nigeria was analyzed for its fluoride content investigated. For the analysis, twenty-four different water samples were systematically collected from stream, well water, public tap and private borehole in defined locations in Omoku. Level of fluoride was determined using standard method-Ion-Selective Electrode method. The mean values obtained were compared directly with the limit recommended by the World Health organization (WHO) of 1.0mg/L. Private borehole and public tap water had overall mean fluoride levels of 0.94±0.07 mg/L and 0.86±0.30 mg/L respectively, while stream had 0.95±0.09 mg/L and well water had the lowest level of fluoride (0.48±0.03 mg/L). Fluoride content of private borehole, public tap water and stream were approximately within the specified minimum limit of World health organization, while that of well water was below stipulated limit. ANOVA statistics indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean Fluoride levels of the water samples (p>0.05). Low levels of fluoride are associated with dental caries and hence such water should be fluoridated. Biological implications of low and high fluoride levels of water are highlighted in order to create awareness on the need to protect the general public from either dental caries or fluorosis of the teeth and/or skeleton respectively.



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Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography, Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 58-67
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Obeta Michael Chukwuma. Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):58-67. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Obeta  Michael Chukwuma, Department of Geography, Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Email:


The community participation policy has long been associated with rural development. Rural development planners opine that for rural development projects to succeed the host community must take active part in the development and management of such projects. Enugu state government has implemented the community participation policy in her rural water supply sector since the late 1990s. This paper examines the level of community participation in the development and management of rural water supply schemes in the state. It describes the water schemes, the practices of and factors constraining effective community participation in the area. In addition, the paper suggests strategies that can enhance the implementation of the policy in order to improve service delivery in the area. The research is largely qualitative, using data obtained through focus group discussion (FGD), interviews, observations and from records in the states agencies responsible for public water supplies. The research team interacted with 300 individuals, drawn from 15 communities hosting the 15 water schemes used in the study. The data generated were analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferences statistical tools. The results of the study revealed that practices of community participation in the study area vary widely. Genuine participation in critical stages of water projects such as selection of technology is either limited or lacking. Participation of Village Water Committees (VWCs) in the management of rural water supply schemes is mostly ceremonial and contributes little to the sustainable functioning of the schemes. Strategies that may aid the implementation of the policy are suggested.



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