American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

   

Article

Sustainable Drinking Water Resources in Difficult Topography of Hilly State Uttarakhand, India

1Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(1), 16-21
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhavtosh Sharma. Sustainable Drinking Water Resources in Difficult Topography of Hilly State Uttarakhand, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh  Sharma, Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Email: bhavtoshchem@gmail.com

Abstract

Uttarakhand state is blessed with major water resources including large reverine system with its tributaries. In spite of the plethora of water resources, the people of the state are facing the problem of safe fresh water due to slope factor, management issues, urban conglomeration, deforestation and other environmental factors as discussed in the article. Besides this, an integrated approach considering the national water policy in state context is urgently required in difficult topographic and changing climatic conditions. The present article highlights the hydrogeology of the state, sustainable water resources including traditional water resources, drinking water supply system in state, Uttaranchal Koop, bank filtration technology. Furthermore, various suggestions are also incorporated for the fortification of water resources of the state.

Keywords

References

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[6]  Urban Area Development. 2009. “Uttarakhand Development Report.” Planning Commission, Government of India.
 
[7]  Tyagi, S., Singh, P., Sharma, B., Singh, R., Dobhal, R. and Uniyal, D.P., “Bacteriological assessment of drinking water sources of Uttarakhand, India”, Nat. Acad. Sci. Lett., 38(1). 37-44. 2015.
 
[8]  Gupta, V.K., Dobhal, R., Nayak, A., Agarwal, S., Uniyal, D.P., Singh, P., Sharma, B., Tyagi, S. and Singh, R., “Advanced and hyphenated techniques for nano-level analysis of iron in water”, Crit. Review. Anal. Chem., 42. 245-256. 2012.
 
[9]  Gupta, V.K., Dobhal, R., Nayak, A., Agarwal, S., Uniyal, D.P., Singh, P., Sharma, B., Tyagi, S. and Singh, R., “Toxic metal ions in water and their prevalence in Uttarakhand, India,” Water Sci. Tech.: Water Supply, 12(6). 773-782. 2012.
 
[10]  Gupta, V.K., Nayak, A., Agarwal, S., Dobhal, R., Uniyal, D.P., Singh, P., Sharma, B., Tyagi, S. and Singh, R., “Arsenic speciation analysis and remediation techniques in drinking water”, Desal. Water Treat., 40(1-3). 231-243. 2012.
 
[11]  Rawat, A.S. and Sah, R., “Traditional knowledge of water management in Kumaun Himalaya”, Ind. J. Tradition. Knowledge, 8(2). 249-254. 2009.
 
[12]  Sharma, B., Singh, R., Singh, P., Uniyal, D.P. and Dobhal, R., “Water resource management through isotope technology in changing climate,” Ameri. J. Water Res., 3(3). 86-91. 2015.
 
[13]  Sharma, B., Tyagi, S., Singh, R. and Singh, P., Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in fresh water samples by gas chromatography and bioremediation approaches, Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett., 35(5). 401-413. 2012.
 
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Article

Investigations into the Residential Water Demand and Supply in Enugu Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(1), 22-29
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezenwaji E. E., Eduputa B. M., Okoye C. O.. Investigations into the Residential Water Demand and Supply in Enugu Metropolitan Area, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(1):22-29. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ezenwaji  E. E., Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: emmaezenwaji@gmail.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate into the water demand and supply situations in Enugu Metropolitan area, Nigeria. To achieve the aim, data for the study were collected from 2000 randomly selected households in our identified 41 residential wards of the urban area within 6 months between April and September 2015 by the use of questionnaire designed for the purpose. The sampling technique adopted was the stratified random sampling which has the advantage of ensuring that no section of the population was excluded. Trend based method was employed in the estimation of the quantity of water demand and supply, while principal component regression was utilized in the analysis of the factors responsible for the quantities demanded and supplied and produced an equation that was used in the model estimation. Result shows that the quantity of water demanded and supplied in 2014 were estimated at 144,491,774 litres per day (LD) while supply was 67,091,096 LD which satisfied only 44.0% of demand. On the basis of findings, we recommended that institutional reforms, water demand management technique and supply measures as well as professional community based management option be urgent employed to meet the sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target date of 2030 of ensuring access to water and sanitation for all.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Anyadike, R.N.C. & Ibeziakor, M. N. (1987). “The Spatial Structure of Residential Water Demand in Enugu, Nigeria”. The Nigerian Journal of Social Studies, Vol. 14, pp 1-8.
 
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[6]  Ezenwaji, E.E. (2009). “Municipal and Industrial Water Demand and Suppply in Enugu Urban Area, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
 
[7]  Udeze, A.O. (1988). River Water Pollution in Enugu Urban Area. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
 
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[9]  Enugu State Ministry of Lands and Survey (2010). “Enugu Urban Land & Management”. Mimeographed.
 
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Article

Assessment of Microbial Quality of Some Selected Shallow Wells in Ogbomoso, South Western Nigeria

1Department of Civil Engineering, Lautech, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(2), 30-34
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O.S. Olaniyan, D.A. Akeredolu, O.S. Showale, A.S. Akolade. Assessment of Microbial Quality of Some Selected Shallow Wells in Ogbomoso, South Western Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(2):30-34. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: O.S.  Olaniyan, Department of Civil Engineering, Lautech, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Email: osolaniyan@lautech.edu.ng

Abstract

The importance of good quality water to the environment has long been realized, hence, the development policy of integrated community. In this research work, the analysis of physical and bacteriological quality of well water was carried out. Thirty (30) samples of the well water were collected and their pH and temperature were determined on the field to avoid interference by changes of environment. The bacteriological analyses were carried out within 24 hours of collection to avoid killing of bacteria present in the water sample. On the average, result shows that six (6) of the wells indicate multiple bacteria, three (3) of the wells indicate single bacteria while no occurrence of bacteria in one of the wells. Shallow well water in ogbomoso is highly contaminated with Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, E.coli spp and it requires disinfection. The entire water sample from the well tested positive to the presence of bacteria which are harmful to human health.

Keywords

References

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