American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

Article

Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

1Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 81-98
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S. K. Nag, Shreya Das. Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):81-98. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: S.  K. Nag, Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: nag_sk@yahoo.com

Abstract

The hydrochemical study of groundwater samples was carried out from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (latitudes 23.76° N – 23.99°N and longitudes 87.42°E - 87.64°E) with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes. For this study groundwater samples were collected from 26 (twenty six) locations during the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. From the analyzed data, some parameters like SAR, SSP, RSC, MAR, PI and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability. Accordingly, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. The Piper’s trilinear diagram used to determine water type suitable for consumption indicates groundwater in the study is of bicarbonate type (fresh type) in both and pre monsoon with exception of a couple of sulfate type samples during pre monsoon. Water Quality Index results depict 90% of water samples are suitable for drinking during post monsoon whereas in pre monsoon that tally comes down 60% rendering 40% samples unsuitable for drinking. Gibb’s diagrams prepared for the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions indicate that the overall hydrogeochemistry of the study area is dominated by rock – water interaction processes.

Keywords

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Article

Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA

1Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA

2California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA, USA


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saad Merayyan, Jeremy Hill. Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Saad  Merayyan, Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA. Email: merayyan@csus.edu

Abstract

This study presents a case study for estimating the 100-year peak flow for Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California. The watershed contains several stream flow gages; however, the precipitation data is only available as daily data, which was not usable form for this study. Thus considering that the watershed to be ungagged. In order to overcome this shortcoming in the hydrologic analysis, other approaches were considered. Therefore, the precipitation point frequency estimates were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) was used to create the hydrologic model to estimate the peak flows at key points in the watershed. The purpose of using the HMS model was to predict eh rainfall-runoff analysis for this watershed, which only has steam gage data. Other parameters needed for the HMS model were obtained from various sources as suggested in the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Central Valley Hydrology Study (CVHS): Technical procedures document. The 100-year flows from the HMS model results were then calibrated/validated by comparing to the 100-year flow frequency curves computed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) program, FEMA USACE, and USGS Regression methods. Sensitivity analysis of several of the model parameters was analyzed to determine the results confidence level. The HMS modeled results were in good agreement with the results obtained from the Flood Frequency method and the USGS regression studies. The procedure described herein for developing and validating hydrologic models for ungagged watersheds can be used for other similar ungagged watersheds.

Keywords

References

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Article

Trends of Permanent Wetland Change in Detailed Area Plan of Dhaka

1Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS), Gulshan 1, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 106-109
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K.H. Razimul Karim. Trends of Permanent Wetland Change in Detailed Area Plan of Dhaka. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):106-109. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: K.H.  Razimul Karim, Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS), Gulshan 1, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: razimulseye@gmail.com

Abstract

Degradation of wetland creates adverse impact on natural environment, ecosystem and on drainage congestion. The situation is more alarming in case of urban areas especially for detailed area plan (DAP) of Dhaka Considering the issues, the study has taken the initiative to rapid asses the Rate of Reduction of Wetland around DAP. Available satellite images from archive have been used to compare the areal extent and statistics of degradation of wetlands. Satellite images of 1967, 1977, 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2010 have been used for preparing permanent wetland maps. For permanent wetlands, images have been selected dated between January to March as permanent wetlands can only be identified in dry season. For finding the trend of changes of permanent wetland, images from Landsat2 MSS, Landsat4 TM, Landsat5 TM (all of 80 m resolution) and Corona Space photo Sensor (12 m resolution) have been acquired. From image, wetland is delineated by unsupervised classification method to get the real situation of DAP. The study shows that due to the unplanned rapid urbanization and increased population, permanent wetland is degrading. Study reveals that Permanent wetland has been reduced from 14% to 4% during 1967 to 2010.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 110-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Odafivwotu Ohwo. The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):110-117. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Odafivwotu  Ohwo, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. Email: drohwodafe@gmail.com

Abstract

Public water supply is distributed through water pipe network, which may affect the quality of water that gets to the consumers if the integrity of the pipe distribution network is compromised. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether there is significant variation in the water quality that gets to the consumer after transportation through the pipe distribution network. In order to achieve this aim, twenty-five tap water samples were randomly collected. In addition, a control sample was collected from Iju Water Works, which serve Ojota community. The analyses revealed that the measured values of some of the selected tap water quality parameters varied from Iju Water Works, to the various sampled zones. For example, total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria counts show that 8 (30.72%) and 6 (23.08%) samples have concentrations above the WHO zero thresholds for total and fecal coliform, respectively. In addition, turbidity and color show unsatisfactory concentrations in some of the sampled tap water, as turbidity has 17 (65.38%) of the samples having concentration above the 5 NTU WHO threshold for drinking water; while all the 25 (100%) tap water samples, have color values above the WHO 5 unit threshold. Similarly, the values of residual chlorine vary from 0.5 mg/l at Iju Water Works, to 0 – 0.25 mg/l at the various zones. The T-test analyses revealed that there are significant differences between the quality values at Iju Water Works and the various zones. This is an indication that the integrity of the treated water transported to Ojota has been compromised and not safe for human consumption. It is recommended that the Lagos State Government should undertake a general overhaul and replacement of the dilapidated water pipe distribution network in the state to guarantee safe supply of tap water to the populace.

Keywords

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Article

Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna

2Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department, FCT Water Board, Garki, Abuja

4Katsina State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 118-125
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amadi A.N., Nwankwoala H.O., Jimoh M. O., Dan-Hassan M. A., Aminu Tukur. Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):118-125. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A.N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Groundwater pollution is one of the environmental problems facing many coastal regions such as Niger Delta as a result of high population, urbanization and industrialization. The quality of groundwater in the Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria was investigated in this study using multivariate geostatistical techniques. Hydrogeological investigations show that the aquifers in the area are largely unconfined sands with intercalations of gravels, clay and shale. These findings indicate that the aquifer in the area is porous, permeable and prolific. The observed wide ranges and high standard deviations and mean in the geochemical data are evidence that there are substantial differences in the quality/composition of the groundwater within the study area. Heavy metal enrichment index revealed 12 elements in the decreasing order of: Fe > Ni > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cd > V > Co > Pb > Cr > As > Hg. The study identified salt intrusion, high iron content, acid-rain, hydrocarbon pollution, use of agrochemicals, industrial effluents and poor sanitation as contributors to the soil and water deterioration in the area. Saltwater/freshwater interface occurs between 5 m to 185 m while iron-rich water is found between 20 m to 175 m. The first two factors are natural phenomenon due to the proximity of the aquifer to the ocean and probably downward leaching of marcasite contained in the overlying lithology into the shallow water table while the last four factors are results of various anthropogenic activities domiciled in the area. Owing to the monumental and devastating effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the area, the need to eradicate gas flaring and minimize oil spills in the area was advocated. The geostatistical evaluation approach employed in this study gave rise to the development of groundwater vulnerability map of Eastern Niger Delta. Communities where their boreholes have been contaminated by hydrocarbon should stop using such wells and government should provide them with alternative source of water for drinking and domestic purposes.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Oduduwa University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 126-133
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olushola M. Awoyemi, Albert C. Achudume, Aderonke A. Okoya. The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):126-133. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Olushola  M. Awoyemi, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria. Email: doctoroma@yahoo.com

Abstract

The piece of investigation was carried out to study the ground water as well as surface water quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristic of Majidun-Ilaje Area of Ikorodu, Nigeria. The study area is situated between 327E - 328E longitude and 637E latitude and covers about 1.71km2 area of land. The present work has been conducted by monitoring two types of groundwater i.e. hand dug well water and borehole water of the community as well as the surface water i.e. river of the community. Attempts were made to study and analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. Various parameters like Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Alkalinity, True and Apparent Color, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Organic Carbon, Total Organic Matter, Nitrate, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium give a picture of quality parameter in both hand dug well and borehole water as well as river water of the community. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study of the water quality are below the pollution level for only borehole type of ground water which satisfy the requirement for the use of various purposes like domestic, agricultural, industrial etc. The quality of the hand dug wells and a closer borehole to the river is relatively above the permissible limit varying with depth and distance from the river. But in case of surface water, the water quality of the river is above the WHO and Federal EPA permissible limits.

Keywords

References

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Article

Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh

1Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEED) North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Professor, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden

4Senior Lecturer, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 141-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kamal Ziaul Islam, Md Sirajul Islam, Jean O. Lacoursière, Lisa Dessborn. Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):141-148. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Kamal  Ziaul Islam, Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh. Email: kamalziaulislam@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated the prospect of rainwater harvesting as a low cost alternative potable water supply option along the coastal region of Bangladesh, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to climate change and resulting sea level rise. Because of increasing salinity intrusion, potable water scarcity become severe at the south-western coastal region of the country. The study area for this investigation was Patkelghata in Satkhira district of Bangladesh located in the same zone. The Satkhira district averages nearly 1,710 mm rainfall per year. Based on rural housing pattern of the region, a rainwater harvesting system is proposed, which consists of roof catchment, gutters, down pipes, first flush devices, filter chamber and storage tank. The minimum catchment area was assumed to be 6 m2 and storage tank of 2000 liter capacity. Data was collected on the present state of freshwater supply, sources and quality, average rainfall in the region, dry spell period, family size, water use nature, rain water quality and material to be used for storage, etc. Rainwater quality was also tested and the parameters were found to be within Bangladesh’s standard limit. After a detail calculation, an approximate cost was assumed to be $171 for building and operation of the whole system. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on views and opinion of local people to understand the problems, prospects and the popularity of rainwater harvesting in Bangladesh.

Keywords

References

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Article

Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 149-158
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M P. Shah. Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):149-158. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: M  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria community composition was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the identified populations were enumerated by quantitative FISH. Potential nitrification rates were determined in batch tests and the in situ rates were calculated from mass balances of nitrogen in the plants. Increased SRT did not reduce the nitrification activity, but the number per mixed liquor suspended solids nor was community composition of AOB affected. Two dominant AOB populations related to Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were identified by FISH, whereas only the latter could be detected by DGGE. The effect of a longer SRT on the activity was probably because of physiological changes in the AOB community rather than a change in community composition.

Keywords

References

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[29]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM, Shaktisinh Maharaul. Optimization of Environmental Parameters on Decolorization of Remazol Black B Using Mixed Culture. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 3, 53-56.
 
[30]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM, Shaktisinh Maharaul. Microbial Degradation of Azo Dye by Pseudomonas spp. MPS-2 by an Application of Sequential Microaerophilic and Aerobic Process. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 43, 105-112.
 
[31]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Decolorization of Methyl Orange Dye by Pseudomonas spp. ETL-M. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 54-59.
 
[32]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Reactive Orange Dye by Strain of Pseudomonas Spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 1, 1-5.
 
[33]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. An Innovative Approach to Biodegradation of Textile Dye (Remazol Black) by Bacillus spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 43-48.
 
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Article

Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment

1University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oyewo Ayobami Solomon. Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Oyewo  Ayobami Solomon, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Email: ayobamioyewo@gmail.com

Abstract

Water samples were taken from three different shallow wells in Abeokuta, Ogun state Nigeria (West Africa). These wells are represented by as raw water A, B and C and were filtered using sand as filter media, sand grains of different sizes was used. The raw water was filtered with fine sand (column 1), coarse sand (Column 2) and very coarse sand (column 3), these loadings are homogenous and the fourth column contains there three sand layers. The filtered water was subjected to laboratory analysis which includes the following: pH value, TDS (Total dissolved solids), EC (Electrical conductivity), TS (Total Suspended Solid), Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Hardness and Sodium. The obtained laboratory test results were compared with W.H.O standard for highest desirable and maximum permissible. One way ANOVA and bar Chart are the statistical tools employed in analyzing the data. The fine sand homogenous filter gives the best output, and then followed by the coarse sand, and then the mixture of the sand also gives preferable outputs. The homogenous fine sand media flow rate was slower but give the best output. In situation where sand particles is very small, bed depth is very high, minimal or no chemical treatment will be required after filtration.

Keywords

References

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