American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJWR

Article

The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Oduduwa University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 126-133
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olushola M. Awoyemi, Albert C. Achudume, Aderonke A. Okoya. The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):126-133. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Olushola  M. Awoyemi, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria. Email: doctoroma@yahoo.com

Abstract

The piece of investigation was carried out to study the ground water as well as surface water quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristic of Majidun-Ilaje Area of Ikorodu, Nigeria. The study area is situated between 327E - 328E longitude and 637E latitude and covers about 1.71km2 area of land. The present work has been conducted by monitoring two types of groundwater i.e. hand dug well water and borehole water of the community as well as the surface water i.e. river of the community. Attempts were made to study and analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. Various parameters like Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Alkalinity, True and Apparent Color, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Organic Carbon, Total Organic Matter, Nitrate, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium give a picture of quality parameter in both hand dug well and borehole water as well as river water of the community. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study of the water quality are below the pollution level for only borehole type of ground water which satisfy the requirement for the use of various purposes like domestic, agricultural, industrial etc. The quality of the hand dug wells and a closer borehole to the river is relatively above the permissible limit varying with depth and distance from the river. But in case of surface water, the water quality of the river is above the WHO and Federal EPA permissible limits.

Keywords

References

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Article

Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh

1Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEED) North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Professor, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden

4Senior Lecturer, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 141-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kamal Ziaul Islam, Md Sirajul Islam, Jean O. Lacoursière, Lisa Dessborn. Low Cost Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternate Solution to Salinity Affected Coastal Region of Bangladesh. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):141-148. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Kamal  Ziaul Islam, Assistant General Manager, Jessore Palli Bidyut Samity-2, Jessore, Bangladesh. Email: kamalziaulislam@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study investigated the prospect of rainwater harvesting as a low cost alternative potable water supply option along the coastal region of Bangladesh, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to climate change and resulting sea level rise. Because of increasing salinity intrusion, potable water scarcity become severe at the south-western coastal region of the country. The study area for this investigation was Patkelghata in Satkhira district of Bangladesh located in the same zone. The Satkhira district averages nearly 1,710 mm rainfall per year. Based on rural housing pattern of the region, a rainwater harvesting system is proposed, which consists of roof catchment, gutters, down pipes, first flush devices, filter chamber and storage tank. The minimum catchment area was assumed to be 6 m2 and storage tank of 2000 liter capacity. Data was collected on the present state of freshwater supply, sources and quality, average rainfall in the region, dry spell period, family size, water use nature, rain water quality and material to be used for storage, etc. Rainwater quality was also tested and the parameters were found to be within Bangladesh’s standard limit. After a detail calculation, an approximate cost was assumed to be $171 for building and operation of the whole system. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on views and opinion of local people to understand the problems, prospects and the popularity of rainwater harvesting in Bangladesh.

Keywords

References

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Article

Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(6), 149-158
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M P. Shah. Optimization of Retention Time of Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(6):149-158. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: M  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria community composition was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the identified populations were enumerated by quantitative FISH. Potential nitrification rates were determined in batch tests and the in situ rates were calculated from mass balances of nitrogen in the plants. Increased SRT did not reduce the nitrification activity, but the number per mixed liquor suspended solids nor was community composition of AOB affected. Two dominant AOB populations related to Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were identified by FISH, whereas only the latter could be detected by DGGE. The effect of a longer SRT on the activity was probably because of physiological changes in the AOB community rather than a change in community composition.

Keywords

References

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Article

Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment

1University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oyewo Ayobami Solomon. Qualitative Effects of Sand Filter Media in Water Treatment. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Oyewo  Ayobami Solomon, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Email: ayobamioyewo@gmail.com

Abstract

Water samples were taken from three different shallow wells in Abeokuta, Ogun state Nigeria (West Africa). These wells are represented by as raw water A, B and C and were filtered using sand as filter media, sand grains of different sizes was used. The raw water was filtered with fine sand (column 1), coarse sand (Column 2) and very coarse sand (column 3), these loadings are homogenous and the fourth column contains there three sand layers. The filtered water was subjected to laboratory analysis which includes the following: pH value, TDS (Total dissolved solids), EC (Electrical conductivity), TS (Total Suspended Solid), Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Hardness and Sodium. The obtained laboratory test results were compared with W.H.O standard for highest desirable and maximum permissible. One way ANOVA and bar Chart are the statistical tools employed in analyzing the data. The fine sand homogenous filter gives the best output, and then followed by the coarse sand, and then the mixture of the sand also gives preferable outputs. The homogenous fine sand media flow rate was slower but give the best output. In situation where sand particles is very small, bed depth is very high, minimal or no chemical treatment will be required after filtration.

Keywords

References

[1]  Taiwo, A.M., Olujimi, O.O., Bamgbose, O. and Arowolo, T.A. Surface Water Quality Monitoring in Nigeria: Situational Analysis and Future Management Strategy, Water quality monitoring and assessment, Dr. Voudouris (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0486-5, In Tech, Available from: http://www.interchopen.com/book/water-quality-monitoring-and-assessement/surface-water-quality-monitoring-in-Nigeria-situational-analysis-and-future-management-strategy
 
[2]  Aina, E. O. A. and Adedipe, N. O. (Eds.) (1996). Water Quality Monitoring and Environmental Status in Nigeria. FEPA Monograph 6, FEPA, Abuja, Nigeria, pp. 239.
 
[3]  Chovwen,A., Orebiyi, O., Savadogo, A.,Afere,T. and Afolayan,E. (2009), Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: An Assessment of Water and Sanitation Intervention of the Ikaram Millennium Village, Nigeria. Researcher. 2009; 1 (2), pp. 6-13,
 
[4]  Muta’aHellandendu, J, (2012). Health Implications of Water Scarcity in Nigeria, European Scientific Journal, Vol. 8 No. 18, pp. 111-117.
 
[5]  World Health Organization, 2007 Report.
 

Article

Some Aspects of a Historic Flooding in Nigeria and Its Effects on some Niger-Delta Communities

1Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 7-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Prekeyi Tawari-Fufeyin, Megbuwe Paul, Adams Omokhagbor Godleads. Some Aspects of a Historic Flooding in Nigeria and Its Effects on some Niger-Delta Communities. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):7-16. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Adams  Omokhagbor Godleads, Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Email: adams.godleads@gmail.com

Abstract

In recent times, flooding has been a recurrent problem in most parts of the world. In Nigeria, there exist reports of flooding in some towns and cities during heavy downpours but none compares with the flood under review. Flood waters from Cameroun entered Nigeria through the Benue River, into the River Niger on its way to the sea. Lots of physical damages were recorded, including destruction of farmlands and houses. Economic life was halted, people displaced and some lost their lives. Although Cameroun released water from the Ladja dam between July 2nd and September 17th 2012, the waters remained in the Niger delta communities up till November 2012. In this study, towns were chosen from Bayelsa and Delta states for evaluation of the effects of the flood waters. Some physical and chemical parameters were determined, using standard methods. The results revealed that in all the communities, the flood waters were slightly acidic (5.4 – 6.9) and dissolved oxygen was high (3.9 – 6.9mg/l). The heavy metal Chromium was also high. Most of the physical and chemical parameters analyzed were higher in flood water than in Borehole and River Water but generally within allowable limits. Other challenges faced by the people included loss of houses, ponds, farmlands, traditional grounds and means of livelihood, destruction of herbs and vegetation, exposure to wild animals. Wild animals were not spared as their natural habitats were destroyed. Consequently some died, most migrated while some took shelter in abandoned houses. There was an imbalance in the ecosystem and general pollution of the affected communities. The inhabitants of the communities possibly benefitted from some positive aspects of the flood as skill acquisition centres, drugs and food were provided. There was evidence of cooperation and togetherness within the temporary camps erected for victims.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Bariweni, P.A., Tawari, C.C., Abowei, J.F.N. (2012). Some Environmental Effects of Flooding in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Intl. Journal of Fish. and Aqua. Sci. 1 (1):35-46.
 
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[7]  Mmom, P. C., & Aifesehi, P. E. E. (2013). Vulnerability of Niger Delta Coastal Communities to Flooding. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 10(6), 27-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/0837-1062733.
 
[8]  O'Connor, J.E. and E.E. John, (2004). The World's Largest Floods, Past and Present: Their Causes and Magnitudes/ [Circular1254]. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
 
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[11]  Rosenberg, D.M. and N.B. Snor, (1975). Ecological Studies of Aquatic Organisms in the Mackenze and Procupine, River Drainages in Relation to Sedimentation, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Marine Serv. Tech. Report No., 547, pp: 86.
 
[12]  Saeed, T. U., & Attaullah, H. (2013). Impacts of Floods on Water Quality. British Journal of Environment and Climate Change.
 
[13]  Sikwaunezwe Community in Kazungula District of Zambia. Unpublished Seminar Paper, The University of the Free State.
 
[14]  Thompson, M.T., (1964). Historical Floods in New England. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1779-M, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
 
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Article

Ground Water Quality Index of Patna, the Capital City of Bihar, India

1Central Pollution Control Board, Southend Conclave, Kolkata


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 17-21
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dipu Sukumaran, Rita Saha, Rakesh Chandra Saxena. Ground Water Quality Index of Patna, the Capital City of Bihar, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):17-21. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Dipu  Sukumaran, Central Pollution Control Board, Southend Conclave, Kolkata. Email: dipudr@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Groundwater is the most preferred source of water in various user sectors in India on account of its near universal availability, dependability and low capital cost. The present study mainly focus on the drinking water quality index of one of the fast growing city of India, Patna. The city has a population of 58.3lakhs of people which mainly relay ground water for drinking. The ground water from fourteen stations was analysed. Even though the Water Quality Index (WQI) put the water into ‘good water’ category, none of the samples were found suitable because all the samples were found high concentration of total and faecal coliform. Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Nitrate concentrations in some stations were found above the drinking water standards.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Attoui, B., Kherci, N. and Bousnoubra, H., 2012. “State of vulnerability to pollution of the big reservoirs of groundwater in the region of Annaba-Bouteldja (NE Algeria)”. Geographia Technica. 2:1-13
 
[3]  Schijven, J.F., Hassnizadeh S.M. and Husman, A.M., 2010. “Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination”. Water Res., 44(4):1170-1181.
 
[4]  Suvarna T., Mohammad J. S. and Rushikesh S., 2012. “Spatial Distribution of Ground Water Quality In Some Selected Parts of Pune City, Maharashtra, India Using GIS”. Current World Environment, 7(2), 281-286.
 
[5]  Shivasharanappa, Padaki S. and Mallikarjun S. H., 2011. “Assessment of ground water quality characteristics and Water Quality Index (WQI) of Bidar city and its industrial area, Karnataka State, India”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 965-976.
 
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[7]  Diodato, N., Esposito, L., Bellocchi, G., Vernacchia, L., Fiorillo, F. and Guadagno, F.M., 2013. “Assessment of the Spatial Uncertainty of Nitrates in the Aquifers of the Campania Plain (Italy)”. Am. J. Clim. Chang. 2, 128-137.
 
[8]  Jain, S. K. and Sharma, V., 2011. Report on Contamination of Ground Water by Sewage, Central Ground Water Board, Government of India.
 
[9]  Vijay Shankar, P.S., Kulkarni, H. and Krishnan, S., 2011. “India’s groundwater challenge and the way forward”. Economic and Political Weekly, 56 (2), 37-45.
 
[10]  Velagaleti, R. and Burns, P. K., 2006. “The Industrial ecology of pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products with emphasis on supply chain management activities”, http://www.epa.gov/esd/chemistry/ppcp/images/ecology.pdf
 
[11]  Report of the Working Group, 2011. Sustainable Groundwater Management as input to 12th Plan, Government of India, New Delhi.
 
[12]  APHA, 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st Edn, American Public Health Association, Washington.
 
[13]  WHO, 2006. Guidelines of drinking water quality Recommendation: the 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2nd ed.
 
[14]  Bureau of Indian Standards, 2012. Drinking Water-Specification, IS 10500:2012, Second Revision, Government of India, New Delhi.
 
[15]  Ramakrishniah, C.R., Sadashivam, C. and Ranganna, G., 2009. “Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in Tumkur, Karnataka State”, India. E. Journal of Chemistry, 6(2), 523 530.
 
[16]  Kavita, P. and Vineeta, P., 2010. “Evaluation Water quality Index for drinking purpose of river Subenarekha in Singhbhum District”, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(1), 77-81.
 
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[18]  Salemi E., Mastrocicco M., Colombani N. and Aschonitis V.G., 2012. “Comparison of Three Different Methods for Groundwater Intrinsic vulnerability Mapping in the Ferrara Province”, Italy. BALWOIS 2012-Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia.
 
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Article

Rain-gauge Network as the Basis of a Model to Predict the Beginning of the Planting Season in Facing Climate Change Effects. Case Study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency

1Rain-gauge network as the basis of a model to predict the beginning of the planting season in facing climate change effects. Case study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(1), 22-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Djoko Harmantyo, Eko Kusratmoko, Sobirin. Rain-gauge Network as the Basis of a Model to Predict the Beginning of the Planting Season in Facing Climate Change Effects. Case Study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(1):22-26. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Djoko  Harmantyo, Rain-gauge network as the basis of a model to predict the beginning of the planting season in facing climate change effects. Case study in the Kranggan Village, Sub-district of Pekuncen, Banyumas Regency. Email: djoko.harmantyo@ui.ac.id

Abstract

Climate change is expected to affect agriculture in Southeast Asia, including in Indonesia in several ways. Temporal and spatial changes of rainfall which resulted in a shift in the early of the season indicate one of the climate change phenomenon. Early rainy season turned erratic causing no certainty the time of planting. Farmers suffer losses because the plant can produce not well. Daily rainfall data in a full year observation can be used to show when the beginning planting season. The purpose of this study firstly is to find the difference between the amounts of rainfall in different density of rain gauge. Secondly is to find variations in the spatial pattern of rainfall in different density of rain gauge. Total amount of rainfall observed data in tens day, namely dasarian rainfall, from July until December 2014 to be tested using Mann-Kendall method and by ANOVA. Rainfall data is processed by Arc-GIS software presented in a map to show variation of the rainfall spatial pattern. The research results showed that average of amount of the rainfall over the same areas is significantly difference between high rain-gauge density and low rain-gauge density. Shifting the early of the rainy season occurs about two weeks up from the general pattern of rainfall on the last of October.

Keywords

References

[1]  Awadallah, A.G.”Selecting Optimum Location of Rainfall Stations Using Kriging and Entropy”. International Journal of Civil and Environmrntal Engineering. IJCEE-IJENS vpl. 12. No.01.
 
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[5]  Box, G.E.P and G.M Jenkins. (1970). Time series Analisys, Forcasting and Control. Holden Day, Inc. San Fransisco.
 
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[8]  Chang, C.P. and Krishnamurti, T.N. 1987. Moonson Meteorology. The Oxford Monographic on Geology and Geophysic No. 7, Oxford University Press, New York.
 
[9]  Harmantyo, D. (2009) “A Preliminary Investigation on Climate Change in Indonesia”. International Workshop on Vulnerabilty to Climate Change: Adaptation, Conservation and Livelihoods in Indonesia. Conservation International Indonesia –UI. Depok.
 
[10]  Harmantyo, D. (2009) “Climate Role in Changing the Face of the Earths”. International Workshop on Climate Information Services in Supporting Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change. BMKG. Jakarta.
 
[11]  Harmantyo, D. (2011). A Preliminary Investigation on Changing Temperature Maxima-Minima Deviation (Tmin-max) In Indonesia. Vol. 43 No. 1. Indonesia Journal of Geography. Fac.of Geography. Gadjah Mada University. Yogyakarta
 
[12]  IPCC (Intergovenrmental Panel on Climate Change), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policy Makers, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovenrmental Panel on Climate Change. Paris, February 2007. http://www.ipcc.ch/, 2007.
 
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[14]  Linacre. E, Bart Geerts. (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. Routledge Publ. London.
 
[15]  Radziejewski, M., Bardossy, A., Kundzewicz, Z. W., 2000, Phase randomization for change detection in hydrological data. In: Detecting trend and other changes in hydrological data (Robson, A. & Kundzewicz, Z. W., Eds.), chap. 12, World Climate Programme – Applications and Services, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
 
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[17]  Sandy. I.M. (1987). Iklim Regional Indonesia. Jurusan Geografi FMIPA UI Jakarta.
 
[18]  Strahler. A. and Arthur Strahler. (2003). Introducing Physical Geography. Third Edition. John Wiley and Son Inc. NY.
 
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Article

A Quick Reference on the Water Quality at Adventist University of the Philippines

1Ferdinand Esplana and Harris Catolico


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(2), 27-31
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Carl Jim Nogra, Csir Rhenrick Lila, Keziah Arle Reyes, Lorcelie B. Taclan, Orlex Yllano, Johnny Guyo. A Quick Reference on the Water Quality at Adventist University of the Philippines. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(2):27-31. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Lorcelie  B. Taclan, Ferdinand Esplana and Harris Catolico. Email: lbtaclan@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the water quality for domestic purposes at the Adventist University of the Philippines (AUP) dormitories. Specifically, itidentified the level of heavy metals such as lead(Pb), copper(Cu),chromium(Cr),total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH. The results of water quality analyses were compared with the standards set by the Philippine National Quality Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW); (0.01 mg/L for Pb, 1.0mg/L for Cu; 0.05 mg/L for Cr;500.0 mg/L for TDS and 0-14 for pH).Water quality analyses were done using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for Pb and Cu, respectively, photometric for Cr, gravimetric SMEWW 2540C for TDS and laboratory in situ for pH. The results of the analyses revealed that all water samples collected from the dormitories were far below the water quality than standards with reference to the parameters considered. Therefore, the water being used for domestic purposes such as for drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and dishes and brushing teeth is potable and safe.

Keywords

References

[1]  American Water Works Association, 2013. Chromium in Drinking Water: A Technical Information Primer.
 
[2]  Fazil, M.I., Iqbal M.A., & Abdullah, S. (2012). A study on heavy metalI on contamination of groundwater reserves in Beed City, Maharashtra, India.Bulletin on Environment Pharmacology and Life Sciences; Volume 1 [8] July 2012: 18-21.
 
[3]  Galarpea, V. R. K. & Parilla, R. B. (2012) Influence of seasonal variation on the biophysicochemical properties of leachate and groundwater in Cebu City Sanitary Landfill, Philippines. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Volume 3, No.3.
 
[4]  Guidelines for Drinking Water quality, 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1996.
 
[5]  Kinder, C. (2014).Lead contamination in our environment.Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
 
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[6]  Laniyan, T. A; Kehinde P, O. & Elesha, L. (2011). Hazards of heavy metal contamination on the groundwater around a municipal dump site in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 05.
 
[7]  NRC (2000). Drinking water treatment chemicals — Health effects. NRC international standard for drinking water additives. Ann Arbor, MI, NRC International, p. 28 (ANSI/NSF 60-2000).
 
[8]  Office of Drinking Water. Health advisory—chromium. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2002.
 
[9]  Oyeku O.T. & Eludoyin, A.O. (2010). Heavy metal contamination of groundwater resources in a Nigerian urban settlement. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Vol 4 (4).
 
[10]  Tangahu, B.V., Abdullah, S.R., Basri, S.H., Idris M., Anuar N., & Mukhlisin, M.(2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 2011.
 
[11]  US NRC (2000) Copper in drinking water. Washington, DC, National Research Council, National Academy Press.
 
[12]  Vermal, R.& Dwivedi, P. (2013). Heavy metal water pollution- A case study. Research in Science and Technology 2013, 5(5): 98-99.
 
[13]  World Health Organization. (2006). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, first addendum to third edition, (Vol) recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland.
 
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Article

Assessing of the Suitability for Irrigation Water and Their Repercussions on Land Degradation Process in Delta and Lower Senegal River Valley

1Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, B.P: 5005, Dakar-Fann, Sénégal

2Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, B.P: 5005, Dakar-Fann, Sénégal


American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(2), 32-43
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
DIAW Moctar, MALL Ibrahima, SANE Seyni, MADIOUNE H.Diakher, FAYE Serigne. Assessing of the Suitability for Irrigation Water and Their Repercussions on Land Degradation Process in Delta and Lower Senegal River Valley. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(2):32-43. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: DIAW  Moctar, Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, B.P: 5005, Dakar-Fann, Sénégal. Email: mkdiaw@yahoo.fr

Abstract

In arid and semi arid zone, irrigation constitutes one of determinants of agricultural production expansion. However, the irrigated agriculture development can be a threat to the environment in these areas due to multiple soils degradation that can result (salinization, sodisation and alkalinization). Most of problems come from of the irrigation water typology, land use characteristics, water resources management and farming systems or irrigation schemes. In Delta and Lower Senegal River valley, irrigated agriculture produces currently many problems related to the degradation of soils and waters quality. Indeed, the use consequences for agricultural of different water qualities, impose the need to classify them according to their suitability for irrigation. The assessment and monitoring of water quality and soil are essential to ensure a profitable and sustainable irrigated agriculture in the delta alluvial plain. Thus, in this study water sampling was carried out during two campaigns (in July 2005 and December 2013). RICHARDS and WILCOX diagrams and statistical analysis through Ascending Hierarchical Classification (AHC) were used to classify and evaluate the impact of water on soils physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing suitability maps of water for irrigation from these different approaches, made it possible to highlight the different quality of water classes (Excellent, Good, Acceptable and Bad) and their repercussions on intrinsic characteristics of the natural environment especially potential risks to degradation by salinization and alkalinization in irrigated soils.

Keywords

References

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