American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Potential and Aquifer Protective Capacity around Osun State University (UNIOSUN) College of Health Sciences

1Department of Physics, Solid Earth Physics Research Laboratory, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria

2Department of Geological Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria

American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(6), 137-143
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olusegun O. Alabi, Adeolu Olabanji Ojo, Dolapo F. Akinpelu. Geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Potential and Aquifer Protective Capacity around Osun State University (UNIOSUN) College of Health Sciences. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(6):137-143. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Adeolu  Olabanji Ojo, Department of Geological Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria. Email:


Geophysical investigation was carried out around the University Health Sciences of the Osun State University, Osogbo using the Schlumberger technique of the electrical resistivity method. The aim of the study was to evaluate the groundwater potential and to access how protected the aquifer in the area could be to surface pollutants. Four (4) vertical electric sounding (VES) data were acquired within the study area. The VES data acquired were interpreted using the WinResist iterative software. The result revealed KHA-type curve in VES 2, VES 3 and VES 4 with aquifer resistivity values of 97.6 Ωm, 20.7 Ωm and 142.2 Ωm respectively and HA-type in VES 1 with aquifer resistivity of 27.5 Ωm. The area under investigation consists of a lateritic topsoil of varying thicknesses which is underlain by a weathered layer and finally the fresh basement. VES 4 is would yield considerable amount of groundwater if developed to a depth of between 15 m to 20 m to take advantage of the basement fractures due to its thick aquiferous zone and the very low resistivity exhibited by the aquifer layer. The result also shows that the aquifers in VES 1 and VES 4 shows evidence of weak aquifer protective capacity having longitudinal conductance of 0.149 and 0.129 respectively with corresponding transverse resistance of 112.75 and 780.80. This suggests that the study area might show good potential for groundwater but the groundwater is not safe. For groundwater development, adequate measure should be made to establish water treatment facility.



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Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach

1Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 1-4
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Makaya Eugine. Predictive Leakage Estimation using the Cumulative Minimum Night Flow Approach. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Makaya  Eugine, Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe. Email:


Several methods have been used in estimating leakages. Although the minimum night flow analysis method has been widely used in leakage estimation, the cumulative minimum night flow method is one method that can yield comparatively good leakage estimates. This paper applies the cumulative minimum night flow method to estimate water leakage in a water distribution system. The cumulative minimum night flow method develops a model from empirical night flows which is used to estimate mean minimum night flows and hence estimate leakages. The result was compared with the South Africa minimum night flow analysis methodology. It was found out that the model developed from the cumulative minimum night flow method yielded good result, (R2=0.9998). Thus, the cumulative minimum night flow method could be relied on in predicting leakage estimates in water distribution systems. Furthermore, the model could be used in other locations other than that described in this paper.



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Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters

1Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India

2Department of Chemistry, DAV Post Graduate College, Dehradun – 248001, Uttarakhand, India

3Uttarakhand Council for Science & Technology, Vigyan Dham, Jhajhara, – 248 007, Uttarakhand, India

4School of Environment & Natural Resources (SENR), Doon University, Kedarpur, Dehradun- 248 001, Uttarakhand, India

5Department of Chemistry, JMIETI (Kurukshetra University), Radaur– 135133, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(1), 5-12
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhavtosh Sharma, Prashant Singh, Rajendra Dobhal, V.K. Saini, Manju Sundriyal, Shashank Sharma, S.K. Khanna. Occurrence, Detection and Defluoridation of Fresh Waters. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(1):5-12. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh  Sharma, Uttarakahnd Science Education & Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun – 248006, Uttarakhand, India. Email:


The fluoride is an essential nutrient for human beings which occur in the surface as well as in groundwater. In surface water, it reaches due to both geogenic and anthropogenic sources but in groundwater, it mainly comes from geogenic sources. Authorities like World Health Organization (WHO), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Bureau of India Standard (BIS) have provided guidelines regarding the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. A higher fluoride concentration in drinking water results in fluorosis. Therefore, the understanding of fluoride occurrence, its detection and removal from drinkable water is the urgent requirement. The chemical behavior of fluoride, the reasons for fluoride concentration in groundwater, the fluoride detection methods, and some case studies on the occurrence of fluoride in fresh water bodies of Uttarakhand are summarized. The effectiveness of different techniques for removal of fluoride from water samples has been reviewed.



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