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Article

Effects of Watershed Land Use Data on HSPF Water Quality in the Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA

1Energy and Environmental Engineering, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya

2Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 54-62
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Isaac A. Alukwe, Theo Dillaha. Effects of Watershed Land Use Data on HSPF Water Quality in the Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):54-62. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Isaac  A. Alukwe, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya. Email: isaaca6@vt.edu

Abstract

Land use data source can contribute to errors in watershed modeling. This paper evaluated the effects of using site-specific versus county-level aggregated land use data on Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) simulated contaminant losses. Site-specific land use was derived from the local watershed land use inventory while aggregated land use was derived from county-level data (percentage of county land in various land use categories and sub-categories). County level data are useful when modeling large watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay Watershed when collection and use of site-specific data may be cost prohibitive. The study site was the 14,941 ha predominately rural Upper Opequon Watershed in northern Virginia, USA. Percentage relative errors in model output were calculated and compared using the two land use data sources. Results showed that use of aggregated land use data resulted in 13, 3 and 4 percent higher simulated sediment, and total nitrogen and phosphorus losses, respectively due to overestimated cropland area. The higher contaminant losses would suggest the need for more management measures to meet water quality goals. This study suggests that while the use of county-level aggregated land use data may be appropriate for developing basin scale pollutant reduction goals such as those in total maximum daily load (TMDL) plans, it should be used with extreme caution for watershed planning and implementation activities on smaller watersheds that may mandate site-specific changes in land management and costs for landowners. For smaller watersheds, TMDLs and their watershed implementation plans should utilize local site-specific spatial data that accurately reflects watershed conditions. This will help target resources where they are most needed and maintain credibility with local stakeholders while improving the accuracy of the developed pollution reduction plans.

Keywords

References

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Article

Statistical Analysis of the Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Rangampeta area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

1Department of Geology, S V University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

3Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, IRAN


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 63-70
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. Nagaraju, K. Sunil Kumar, A. Thejaswi, Z. Sharifi. Statistical Analysis of the Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Rangampeta area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):63-70. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: A.  Nagaraju, Department of Geology, S V University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. Email: arveti@yahoo.com

Abstract

Multivariate statistical techniques involving factor analysis (FA) and R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were performed on 30 groundwater samples from Rangampeta, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India to extract principal processes controlling the water chemistry. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Si, HCO3, CO3, Cl, and SO4. It also includes pH, and electrical conductivity (EC). Gibbs diagrams were also constructed to identify the processes that are responsible in controlling the water chemistry. Factor analysis extracted for four factors consisting of F1 (with high loading factor of Cl, EC, Mg and Na), F2 (with high loading factor of K, (HCO3+CO3) and Ca), F3 (with high loading factor of pH and Si) and F4 (with high loading factor of SO4). The varifactors obtained from Factor analysis indicated that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to groundwater-rock interaction (particularly weathering of silicate minerals), agriculture and anthropogenic sources. With HC analysis the water samples have been classified into 4 clusters. Cluster I (13 wells) and cluster II (8 wells) have shown moderate salinity. However, cluster IV (4 wells) had the lowest concentrations of ions and classified as fresh water. Cluster III (5 wells) shows mid salinity between (I and II) and IV clusters. The distribution of these groundwater types and their quality has been found to be an in direct relation with the host rocks of the area. The results showed that the method was comprehensive and efficient in analyzing the dynamics of water quality.

Keywords

References

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Article

The River Management Modelling For Ecology

1Department of Park and Garden Plants, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey

2Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(3), 71-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Havva Ulgen Yenil, Tolga Taner. The River Management Modelling For Ecology. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(3):71-73. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Tolga  Taner, Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey. Email: tolgataner@aksaray.edu.tr

Abstract

In this study, the river management modelling was analysed based on ecology at a critical approach. Our laws and legal arrangements that are one of the significant water resources, affect our river management. This modelling obtains these laws and legal arrangement’s effective and problems. These problems create to ensure ecological sustainability. So, we used SWOT analysis for the existing laws and institutions. Also we discussed the methodological approaches that the protection of nature is important taking a decision and runtime for the place of the institutional structuring. The river management modelling develops for our country from taking the European Water Framework Directive’s knowledge. In addition, to ensure the monitoring of ecological criteria which constitutes important basis for planning of watershed, vegetation, aquatic wildlife and coastal land use systematic recommendations have been created. Development of the river management and application can be settled in our country. The river management is also important for our energy about natural life and transportation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Water Quality of Gurara Water Transfer from Gurara Dam to Lower Usuma Dam for Abuja Water Supply, FCT, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

2Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 74-80
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Okunlola I. A., Amadi A. N., Idris-Nda A., Agbasi K., Kolawole L. L.. Assessment of Water Quality of Gurara Water Transfer from Gurara Dam to Lower Usuma Dam for Abuja Water Supply, FCT, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):74-80. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A. N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Water transfer from area of excess to area of scarcity is now becoming accepted option especially for regional water supply. The Gurara water transfer provides for the transfer of raw water from Gurara dam in Kaduna state to Lower Usuma dam in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja through a 75Km conduit pipeline to augment water supply to FCT as a result of rapid population growth. The purpose of the research is to provide baseline condition in term of quality of raw water at Gurara dam before the transfer and after mixing at Lower Usuma dam. Water Quality Index (WQI) was used to assess the quality of the waters for overall, drinking, aquatic, recreation, irrigation and livestock uses. Twenty (20) water samples from both dams were collected and some at predetermined depths and subjected to physicochemical analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis for both wet and dry seasons. The overall WQI was poor. The WQI was poor for drinking and aquatic, but fair for recreation and livestock, and good for irrigation. These were due to high concentration of COD, BOD, total hardness, turbidity, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cd+, Pb+ and Fe2+. The results of the analysis when compared with the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NIS 544:2007) and World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits showed that the Gurara dam and Lower Usuma dam were polluted and that the water was not safe for drinking. Variations in the constituents’ concentration in terms of water depths and seasons were observed. Regular monitoring of the water quality should be carried out as the watershed is presently rural but faces potential urbanization in the coming decades.

Keywords

References

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Article

Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

1Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 81-98
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S. K. Nag, Shreya Das. Quality Assessment of Groundwater with Special Emphasis on Irrigation and Domestic Suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):81-98. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: S.  K. Nag, Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: nag_sk@yahoo.com

Abstract

The hydrochemical study of groundwater samples was carried out from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (latitudes 23.76° N – 23.99°N and longitudes 87.42°E - 87.64°E) with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes. For this study groundwater samples were collected from 26 (twenty six) locations during the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. From the analyzed data, some parameters like SAR, SSP, RSC, MAR, PI and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability. Accordingly, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. The Piper’s trilinear diagram used to determine water type suitable for consumption indicates groundwater in the study is of bicarbonate type (fresh type) in both and pre monsoon with exception of a couple of sulfate type samples during pre monsoon. Water Quality Index results depict 90% of water samples are suitable for drinking during post monsoon whereas in pre monsoon that tally comes down 60% rendering 40% samples unsuitable for drinking. Gibb’s diagrams prepared for the post monsoon and pre monsoon sessions indicate that the overall hydrogeochemistry of the study area is dominated by rock – water interaction processes.

Keywords

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Article

Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA

1Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA

2California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA, USA


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(4), 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saad Merayyan, Jeremy Hill. Estimating the 100-year Peak Flow for Ungagged Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California, USA. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(4):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Saad  Merayyan, Department of Civil Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA. Email: merayyan@csus.edu

Abstract

This study presents a case study for estimating the 100-year peak flow for Middle Creek Watershed in Northern California. The watershed contains several stream flow gages; however, the precipitation data is only available as daily data, which was not usable form for this study. Thus considering that the watershed to be ungagged. In order to overcome this shortcoming in the hydrologic analysis, other approaches were considered. Therefore, the precipitation point frequency estimates were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) was used to create the hydrologic model to estimate the peak flows at key points in the watershed. The purpose of using the HMS model was to predict eh rainfall-runoff analysis for this watershed, which only has steam gage data. Other parameters needed for the HMS model were obtained from various sources as suggested in the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Central Valley Hydrology Study (CVHS): Technical procedures document. The 100-year flows from the HMS model results were then calibrated/validated by comparing to the 100-year flow frequency curves computed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) program, FEMA USACE, and USGS Regression methods. Sensitivity analysis of several of the model parameters was analyzed to determine the results confidence level. The HMS modeled results were in good agreement with the results obtained from the Flood Frequency method and the USGS regression studies. The procedure described herein for developing and validating hydrologic models for ungagged watersheds can be used for other similar ungagged watersheds.

Keywords

References

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Article

Trends of Permanent Wetland Change in Detailed Area Plan of Dhaka

1Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS), Gulshan 1, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 106-109
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K.H. Razimul Karim. Trends of Permanent Wetland Change in Detailed Area Plan of Dhaka. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):106-109. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: K.H.  Razimul Karim, Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS), Gulshan 1, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: razimulseye@gmail.com

Abstract

Degradation of wetland creates adverse impact on natural environment, ecosystem and on drainage congestion. The situation is more alarming in case of urban areas especially for detailed area plan (DAP) of Dhaka Considering the issues, the study has taken the initiative to rapid asses the Rate of Reduction of Wetland around DAP. Available satellite images from archive have been used to compare the areal extent and statistics of degradation of wetlands. Satellite images of 1967, 1977, 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2010 have been used for preparing permanent wetland maps. For permanent wetlands, images have been selected dated between January to March as permanent wetlands can only be identified in dry season. For finding the trend of changes of permanent wetland, images from Landsat2 MSS, Landsat4 TM, Landsat5 TM (all of 80 m resolution) and Corona Space photo Sensor (12 m resolution) have been acquired. From image, wetland is delineated by unsupervised classification method to get the real situation of DAP. The study shows that due to the unplanned rapid urbanization and increased population, permanent wetland is degrading. Study reveals that Permanent wetland has been reduced from 14% to 4% during 1967 to 2010.

Keywords

References

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[7]  IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) 1996. Climate change 1996-impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific technical analysis. Contribution of working group II to the second assessment report of the IPCe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
[8]  IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) 1998. The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. In: Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds) A special report of IPCC working group II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
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Article

The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 110-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Odafivwotu Ohwo. The Impact of Pipe Distribution Network on the Quality of Tap Water in Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):110-117. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Odafivwotu  Ohwo, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. Email: drohwodafe@gmail.com

Abstract

Public water supply is distributed through water pipe network, which may affect the quality of water that gets to the consumers if the integrity of the pipe distribution network is compromised. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether there is significant variation in the water quality that gets to the consumer after transportation through the pipe distribution network. In order to achieve this aim, twenty-five tap water samples were randomly collected. In addition, a control sample was collected from Iju Water Works, which serve Ojota community. The analyses revealed that the measured values of some of the selected tap water quality parameters varied from Iju Water Works, to the various sampled zones. For example, total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria counts show that 8 (30.72%) and 6 (23.08%) samples have concentrations above the WHO zero thresholds for total and fecal coliform, respectively. In addition, turbidity and color show unsatisfactory concentrations in some of the sampled tap water, as turbidity has 17 (65.38%) of the samples having concentration above the 5 NTU WHO threshold for drinking water; while all the 25 (100%) tap water samples, have color values above the WHO 5 unit threshold. Similarly, the values of residual chlorine vary from 0.5 mg/l at Iju Water Works, to 0 – 0.25 mg/l at the various zones. The T-test analyses revealed that there are significant differences between the quality values at Iju Water Works and the various zones. This is an indication that the integrity of the treated water transported to Ojota has been compromised and not safe for human consumption. It is recommended that the Lagos State Government should undertake a general overhaul and replacement of the dilapidated water pipe distribution network in the state to guarantee safe supply of tap water to the populace.

Keywords

References

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[4]  Lee, E. J and Schwab, K. J, “Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries”, Journal of Water and Health, 3.2, 109-127. 2005
 
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[7]  Awwa Research Foundation, “Advancing the science of water: AwwaRF and distribution system water quality” [Online]Available: http://www.waterrf.org/resources/StateOfTheScienceReports/DistributionSystemWaterQualityResearch.pdf.[ Accessed 5 September, 2013].
 
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Article

Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna

2Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department, FCT Water Board, Garki, Abuja

4Katsina State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 118-125
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amadi A.N., Nwankwoala H.O., Jimoh M. O., Dan-Hassan M. A., Aminu Tukur. Modeling the Groundwater Quality in parts of Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):118-125. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A.N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

Groundwater pollution is one of the environmental problems facing many coastal regions such as Niger Delta as a result of high population, urbanization and industrialization. The quality of groundwater in the Eastern Niger-Delta, Nigeria was investigated in this study using multivariate geostatistical techniques. Hydrogeological investigations show that the aquifers in the area are largely unconfined sands with intercalations of gravels, clay and shale. These findings indicate that the aquifer in the area is porous, permeable and prolific. The observed wide ranges and high standard deviations and mean in the geochemical data are evidence that there are substantial differences in the quality/composition of the groundwater within the study area. Heavy metal enrichment index revealed 12 elements in the decreasing order of: Fe > Ni > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cd > V > Co > Pb > Cr > As > Hg. The study identified salt intrusion, high iron content, acid-rain, hydrocarbon pollution, use of agrochemicals, industrial effluents and poor sanitation as contributors to the soil and water deterioration in the area. Saltwater/freshwater interface occurs between 5 m to 185 m while iron-rich water is found between 20 m to 175 m. The first two factors are natural phenomenon due to the proximity of the aquifer to the ocean and probably downward leaching of marcasite contained in the overlying lithology into the shallow water table while the last four factors are results of various anthropogenic activities domiciled in the area. Owing to the monumental and devastating effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the area, the need to eradicate gas flaring and minimize oil spills in the area was advocated. The geostatistical evaluation approach employed in this study gave rise to the development of groundwater vulnerability map of Eastern Niger Delta. Communities where their boreholes have been contaminated by hydrocarbon should stop using such wells and government should provide them with alternative source of water for drinking and domestic purposes.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Oduduwa University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(5), 126-133
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olushola M. Awoyemi, Albert C. Achudume, Aderonke A. Okoya. The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(5):126-133. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Olushola  M. Awoyemi, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria. Email: doctoroma@yahoo.com

Abstract

The piece of investigation was carried out to study the ground water as well as surface water quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristic of Majidun-Ilaje Area of Ikorodu, Nigeria. The study area is situated between 327E - 328E longitude and 637E latitude and covers about 1.71km2 area of land. The present work has been conducted by monitoring two types of groundwater i.e. hand dug well water and borehole water of the community as well as the surface water i.e. river of the community. Attempts were made to study and analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. Various parameters like Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Alkalinity, True and Apparent Color, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Organic Carbon, Total Organic Matter, Nitrate, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium give a picture of quality parameter in both hand dug well and borehole water as well as river water of the community. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study of the water quality are below the pollution level for only borehole type of ground water which satisfy the requirement for the use of various purposes like domestic, agricultural, industrial etc. The quality of the hand dug wells and a closer borehole to the river is relatively above the permissible limit varying with depth and distance from the river. But in case of surface water, the water quality of the river is above the WHO and Federal EPA permissible limits.

Keywords

References

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