American Journal of Water Resources

ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

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Article

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Impact of Climate Change on Lake Ontario Tributary

1Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7, Canada


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(1), 1-15
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sadik Ahmed, Ioannis Tsanis. Hydrologic and Hydraulic Impact of Climate Change on Lake Ontario Tributary. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(1):1-15. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ioannis  Tsanis, Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7, Canada. Email: tsanis@mcmaster.ca

Abstract

Climate model projections indicate that the frequency and magnitude of hydrological extremes will increase in a future climate due to increasing concentration of greenhouse gases. Increase in precipitation depth will lead to higher peak flows, and will bring floods with higher inundation depths and larger extends. This study involves the climate change impact analysis of design storms, peak flows and flooding scenario for the Clearview Creek drainage area located in Southern Ontario, Canada. First, the storm depths for different return periods and durations were calculated from the observed rainfall data and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climate simulations. The storm depths were calculated by using the best fitted distribution among twenty seven distributions. The design storm depths calculated from the observed and climate model simulated data are used as input into an existing Visual OTTHYMO model of the study area for flow simulation. The simulated peak flows for 24hr Storm of different return periods are used as input in the HEC-RAS model for hydraulic analyses. Frequency analysis results show that the storm depths are predicted to increase significantly under future climate. Simulated flow results show an increase of peak flows ranging from about 26 % to 64% for 2yr and 100yr return periods at the outlet of the Creek. Finally, the analyses of flooding scenario revealed an average increase of water surface elevation and extents by 30 cm and 37.1 m, respectively, for a 100 year return period flood. It is also revealed that the variability of flow simulated by hydrologic model and flow area simulated by the hydraulic analyses tool are much higher than the variability of the storm depths under future climate condition.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sustainable Drinking Water Resources in Difficult Topography of Hilly State Uttarakhand, India

1Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(1), 16-21
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhavtosh Sharma. Sustainable Drinking Water Resources in Difficult Topography of Hilly State Uttarakhand, India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh  Sharma, Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Centre (USERC), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Email: bhavtoshchem@gmail.com

Abstract

Uttarakhand state is blessed with major water resources including large reverine system with its tributaries. In spite of the plethora of water resources, the people of the state are facing the problem of safe fresh water due to slope factor, management issues, urban conglomeration, deforestation and other environmental factors as discussed in the article. Besides this, an integrated approach considering the national water policy in state context is urgently required in difficult topographic and changing climatic conditions. The present article highlights the hydrogeology of the state, sustainable water resources including traditional water resources, drinking water supply system in state, Uttaranchal Koop, bank filtration technology. Furthermore, various suggestions are also incorporated for the fortification of water resources of the state.

Keywords

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Article

Investigations into the Residential Water Demand and Supply in Enugu Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(1), 22-29
doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezenwaji E. E., Eduputa B. M., Okoye C. O.. Investigations into the Residential Water Demand and Supply in Enugu Metropolitan Area, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(1):22-29. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ezenwaji  E. E., Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: emmaezenwaji@gmail.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate into the water demand and supply situations in Enugu Metropolitan area, Nigeria. To achieve the aim, data for the study were collected from 2000 randomly selected households in our identified 41 residential wards of the urban area within 6 months between April and September 2015 by the use of questionnaire designed for the purpose. The sampling technique adopted was the stratified random sampling which has the advantage of ensuring that no section of the population was excluded. Trend based method was employed in the estimation of the quantity of water demand and supply, while principal component regression was utilized in the analysis of the factors responsible for the quantities demanded and supplied and produced an equation that was used in the model estimation. Result shows that the quantity of water demanded and supplied in 2014 were estimated at 144,491,774 litres per day (LD) while supply was 67,091,096 LD which satisfied only 44.0% of demand. On the basis of findings, we recommended that institutional reforms, water demand management technique and supply measures as well as professional community based management option be urgent employed to meet the sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target date of 2030 of ensuring access to water and sanitation for all.

Keywords

References

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