American Journal of Sensor Technology

ISSN (Print): 2373-3454

ISSN (Online): 2373-3462

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJST

Article

Investigation on LaF3-Impregnated Porous Silicon Heterostructur as Potentionmetric Sensor for Fluoride Ion in Aqueous Medium

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Applied Physics & Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science & Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2013, 1(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-1-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Earul Islam, Md. Julkarnain, Jaker Hossain, Abu Bakar Md. Ismail, Md. Hafijur Rahman. Investigation on LaF3-Impregnated Porous Silicon Heterostructur as Potentionmetric Sensor for Fluoride Ion in Aqueous Medium. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2013; 1(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajst-1-1-1.

Correspondence to: Md. Earul Islam, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: islam_mse@ru.ac.bd

Abstract

Impregnation of pores of porous silicon (PS) by Lanthanum Fluoride (LaF3) using a novel one-step chemical bath technique, and application of the LaF3-impregnated porous silicon (PS) structure (LaF3/PS) as a potentiometric fluoride ion sensor have been investigated in this article. The impregnation of LaF3 inside the pores of porous silicon was achieved using a chemical bath technique developed by this group. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDX on the cross-section of LaF3/PS/Si structure confirmed the LaF3 film deposition inside the pores of PS. The heterostructure of LaF3/PS/Si was investigated as fluoride ion (F-) sensor in aqueous medium. The high specific area of PS was taken as the key subject to investigate the high fluoride sensitivity of the LaF3/PS structure in aqueous medium. When experimented with home made fluoride solution having various concentrations the annealed LaF3/PS/Si structure was found to detect the fluoride ion in aqueous solution. Its response was found linear in the fluoride concentration range of 2.28~4.28 pF. As capacitive sensor the overall fluoride sensitivity was found to be over-Nernstian (400 mV/pF). The experimental results indicate that LaF3-impregnated porous silicon structure (LaF3/PS) can be used as a high-sensitive fluoride-ion sensor in aqueous medium.

Keywords

References

[1]  Anglin, E. J., L. Cheng, W. R. Freeman and M. J. Sailor (2008). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol.60, pp. 1266-1277.
 
[2]  Huy, B., P. V. Hoi, P. H. Khoi, D. K. Van, P. T. Binh and T. T. Cham (2009). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol.187, pp. Article number 012033.
 
[3]  Xiong, Z., F. Zhao, J. Yang and X. Hu, Applied Physics Letters, 96, 181903 (2010).
 
[4]  Lehmann, V.; Hönlein, W.; Reisinger, H.; Spitzer, A.; Wendt, H.; Willer, J. A novel capacitor technology based on porous silicon. Thin Solid Films, 276, 138 (1996).
 
[5]  Schöning, M. J.; Kurowski, A.; Thust, M.; Kordos, P.; Schultze, J. W.; Lüth, H. Sens. Act. B 64, 59 (2000).
 
Show More References
[6]  Barret, S.; Gaspard, F.; Herino, R.; Ligeon, M.; Muller, F.; Ronga, I. Porous silicon as a material in microsensor technology. Sens. Act. A, 33, 19 (1992).
 
[7]  Smith, R. L.; Scott, D. C. An integrated sensor for electrochemical measurements. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng, 33, 83 (1986).
 
[8]  Bergveld, P. Development of an ion-sensitive solid-state device for neurophysiological measurements. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng, BME-17, 70 (1970).
 
[9]  M. Diesendorf, J Colquhoun, B J Spittle, D N Everingham and F W Clutterbuc, Fluoride, 30, 179 (1997).
 
[10]  T. Gotjamanos, Aust. Dent. J. 42, 166 (1997).
 
[11]  T. Ichichi, M. Shoichi, M. Ishizuka, Japanese Patent 07, 55, 768, Riken Keiki (1995).
 
[12]  Wei G, Yin J, Ma X, Yu S, Wei D, Du Y, Anal Chim Acta, 703, 219 (2011).
 
[13]  S. Guha and S. Saha, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 132, 17674 (2010).
 
[14]  A. B. M. Ismail, K. Furuichi, T. Yoshinobu and H. Iwasaki, Sens. Actuat. B, 86, 94 (2002).
 
[15]  T. Katsube, M. Hara, I. Serizawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L392 (1990).
 
[16]  J. Lukaszewicz, N. Miura, N. Yamazoe, Sens. Actuat. 1, 195 (1990).
 
[17]  N. Miura, J. Hisamoto, N. Yamazoe, S. Kuwata, J. Salardenne, Sens. Actuat, 16, 301 (1989).
 
[18]  S. Harke, H.D. Wiemhöfer,W. Göpel, Sens. Actuat. B, 1, 188 (1990).
 
[19]  S. Sinharoy, R. A. Hoffman, J. H. Rieger, W. J. Takei, and R. F. C. Farrow, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 3, 722 (1985).
 
[20]  S. Sinharoy, R. A. Hoffman, A. Rohatgi, R. F. C. Farrow, and J. H. Rieger, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 273 (1986).
 
[21]  R. Strumpler, D. Guggi, H. Luth, Thin Sol. Films, 198, 221 (1991).
 
[22]  W. Moritz, I. Meierhofer and L. Muller, Sens. Actut, 15, 211 (1988).
 
[23]  R. Hintsche et al, Anal. Lett, 22, 2175 (1989).
 
[24]  R. Hintsche et al, Biosens. Bioelec, 5, 327 (1990).
 
[25]  R. Hintsche, I. Dransfeld, Anal. Lett, 23, 451 (1990).
 
[26]  Dransfeld et al, Anal. Chem, 333, 23 (1988).
 
[27]  Z. M. Baccar, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, C. Martelet, J. Mater. Sci, 32, 4221 (1997).
 
[28]  T. Gabusjan, L. Bartholomaus, W. Moritz, Sens. Mater, 5, 263 (1998).
 
[29]  A. B. M. Ismail, R. Islam, K. Furuichi, T. Yoshinobu, H. Iwasaki, IIUM Eng. J, 6, 37 (2005).
 
[30]  A. A. Mortuza1, M. H. Rahman, S. S. Mou, M. Julkernain, A. B. M. Ismail, Int. J. Mat. Chem, 111 (2012).
 
[31]  S. Zairi, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, R. M’gaieth, H. Maaref, R. Lamartine, Thin sol. Film, 383, 325 (2001).
 
[32]  R. C. Sikder, S. S. Mou, A. Rahman and A. B. M. Ismail, Sens. Act. B, 135, 488 (2009).
 
[33]  Andrea Edit Pap, http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514277759/
 
[34]  R. Sabet-Dariani, N. S. McAlpine, and D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phy, 75, 8008 (1994).
 
[35]  A. B. M. Ismail, K. Furuichi, T. Yoshinobu, and H. Iwasaki, Sens. Actuat. B, 71, 169 (2000).
 
Show Less References

Article

A Low Energy Time Based Clustering Technique for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

1Associate Professor of Orthopedic and Spine Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2LaRIT lab., Université Ibn tofail, Kénitra, Morocco

3LRIT lab., Faculté des sciences, Rabat, Morocco

4Orthopedic Resident, Orthopedic Research Center, Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ouadoudi Zytoune, Driss Aboutajdine, Seyed Mohammad Ata Sharifi Dalooei. A Low Energy Time Based Clustering Technique for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ouadoudi  Zytoune, LaRIT lab., Université Ibn tofail, Kénitra, Morocco. Email: zytoune@gmail.com

Abstract

A Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of tiny sensor nodes that are deployed to monitor the environment. These sensor nodes have limited capabilities, especially the energy reserve and processing ability. So, the routing protocols design for this kind of networks is a crucial challenge. Because these routing protocols should be simple, energy-efficient, and robust to deal with a very large number of nodes, they should also be self-configurable to node failures and changes of the network topology dynamically. The most proposed routing techniques organize the network in clusters where the sensing area is divided into many sub-areas. This paper presents a new algorithm for clustering in WSN based on the node residual energy compared to the network one and allowing a better partitioning of the network area which enhance the data distortion at the sink by using the best data coding rate at the cluster head. The simulation results show that this algorithm allows network stability extension compared to the most known clustering algorithm.

Keywords

References

[1]  I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “A survey on sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-114, 2002.
 
[2]  Lan Tien Nguyen, Xavier Defago, Razvan Beuran, Yoichi Shinoda, “An Energy Efficient Routing Scheme for Mobile Wireless sensor Networks”, IEEEISWCS 2008, pg. 568-572.
 
[3]  Juhana Yrjola "Summary of Energy Efficiency Communication Protocol for Wireless Micro Sensor Networks", 13th March 2005.
 
[4]  Chandrakasan, et al., “Design considerations for distributed micro-sensor systems,” Proc. IEEE 1999 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC’99), San Diego, CA, USA, May 1999, pp. 279-286.
 
[5]  D. Estrin, L. Girod, G. Pottie, and M. Srivastava, “Instrumenting the world with wireless sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2001), Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, May 2001, vol. 4, pp. 2033-2036.
 
Show More References
[6]  D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, and S. Kumar, “Next century challenges: Scalable coordination in sensor networks,” Proc. 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Seattle Washington, USA, August 1999, pp. 263-270.
 
[7]  Jamil Ibriq and Imad mahgoub,“Cluster-Based Routing inWSN: Issues and Challenges” Spects 2004,ISBN, pp. 759-766.
 
[8]  Yazeed Al-Obaisat and Robin Braun,The Book on “On Wireless Sensor Networks: Architectures, Protocols,Applications and Management”.
 
[9]  Ki Young Jang,kyung Tae Kim,Hee Yong Youn,“An Energy Efficient Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks” ,Computational Science and its Application 2007.ICCSA 2007,International Conference on Volume.Issue,26-29 August 2007.
 
[10]  Quanhong Wang, H. Hassanein, and Takahara, G., “Stochastic Modeling of Distributed, Dynamic, Randomized Clustering Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (ICPPW’04), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 2004, pp. 456-463.
 
[11]  W.R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks”, in IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of the Thirty Third Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '00), Washington, DC, USA, Jan. 2000, vol. 8, pp. 8020.
 
[12]  W.R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks” in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (October 2002), vol. 1(4), pp. 660-670.
 
[13]  S. Lindsey and C.S. Raghavendra, “PEGASIS: Powerefficient Gathering in Sensor Information System”, Proceedings IEEE Aerospace Conference, vol. 3, Big Sky, MT, Mar. 2002, pp. 1125-1130.
 
[14]  A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agrawal, “TEEN: A Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks”, in the Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, San Francisco, CA, April 2001.
 
[15]  W. Lou, “An Efficient N-to-1 Multipath Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE MASS05, Washington DC, Nov. 2005, pp. 1-8.
 
[16]  A. Bestavros G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta. “Sep: A stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks”. In Second International Workshop on Sensor and Actuator Network Protocols and Applications (SANPA 2004), 2004.
 
[17]  M.W. Wang L. Qing, Q.X. Zhu. “Design of a distributed energy- efficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks”. Computer Communication (Elsevier), 29(12): 2230-2237, 2006.
 
[18]  A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agrawal, “APTEEN: A Hybrid Protocol for Efficient Routing and Comprehensive Information Retrieval in Wireless Sensor Networks”, in the Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile computing, San Francisco CA, April 2001, pp. 2009-1015.
 
[19]  I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” Computer Networks Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393-422, March 2002.
 
[20]  I. F. Akyildiz, M. C. Vuran and O. B. Akan, “On Exploiting Spatial and Temporal Correlation in Wireless Sensor Networks”. In Proceedings of WiOpt 2004: Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, 2004, pages 71-80.
 
[21]  H. Chen , H. Mineno and T. Mizuno, “Adaptive data aggregation scheme in clustered wireless sensor networks” Computer Communications (elsevier), 31 (2008) pp. 3579-3585.
 
[22]  O. Zytoune , Y. fakhri and D. Aboutajdine, “Time Based Clustering Technique for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”. International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 7-9 April 2011. Pages: 1-4.
 
[23]  R. Cristescu, B. Beferull-Lozano, M. Vetterli. “On Network Correlated Data Gathering,” Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), 2004, pp. 2571-2582.
 
[24]  G. L. Stuber, “ Principles of Mobile Communications”, Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2001.
 
[25]  C. Hua and T. P. Yum, “Data aggregated maximum lifetime routing for wireless sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks 6 (2008) pp. 380-392.
 
[26]  Ganeriwal, S., Kumar, R., Srivastava, M. (2003). “Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks.”, The First ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 138-149.
 
[27]  Tian, Z., Luo, X., Giannakis, G.B., “Cross-layer sensor network synchronization.”, Signals, Systems and Computers. Conference Record of the Thirty-Eighth Asilomar Conference, Volume 1, 7-10, p. 1276 - 1280.
 
[28]  T. Cover and J. Thomas, “Elements of Information Theory,” Wiley Series in Telecommunications. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991.
 
[29]  S. Bandyopadhyay, E.J. Coyle, An energy efficient hierarchical clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks, in: Proceeding of INFOCOM 2003, April 2003.Vol. 3, pp. 1713-1723.
 
Show Less References

Article

Piston Data Telemetry in Internal Combustion Engines

1School of Engineering, University of Bradford, UK


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(1), 7-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. M. Ebrahimi, A. Lewalski, A. Pezouvanis, B. Mason. Piston Data Telemetry in Internal Combustion Engines. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(1):7-12. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: K.  M. Ebrahimi, School of Engineering, University of Bradford, UK. Email: m.ebrahimi@bradford.ac.uk

Abstract

Measuring piston crown temperature and pressure during engine development cycle is paramount. This paper presents a new development in short distance telemetry system which includes an on board power generation device. A mechatronic data acquisition system is developed whereby signal conditioning is performed by a module inside the piston and the signal passed to a Bluetooth transmitter module for wireless telemetry to a Bluetooth receiver located in very close proximity, connected to an external host PC. The Data Acquisition Bluetooth module integrates a microcontroller that reads the conditioned sensor signal and performs any other required functionality. The microcontroller firmware includes a server that collates the data and transmits them via Bluetooth to the host PC to display via a client interface. An independent power supply consisting of a rotor incorporating NdFeB magnets and a wire wound stator. As the crankshaft rotates the rotor induces an AC voltage into the stator. A rectifying circuit converts the AC voltage into a regulated DC output voltage that drives the signal conditioning and embedded Bluetooth circuits.

Keywords

References

[1]  Yamada Y., Emi M., Ishii H., Suzuki Y., Kimura S., Enomoto Y., “Heat loss to the combustion chamber wall deposit in D.I. diesel engine: variation of instantaneous heat flux on the piston surface with deposit”, 2002.
 
[2]  A. Torregrosa, P. Olmeda, B. Degraeuwe, M. Reyes, A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines”, 2005.
 
[3]  Papadopoulos P., “Piston temperature Measurement”, MSc Dissertation, University of Bradford, 2006.
 
[4]  N Ladommatos, Z Xiao, and H Zhao, 2004 “The effect of piston bowl temperature on diesel exhaust emissions”.
 
[5]  Kajiwara H., Fujioka Y., Susuki T., Negishi H., “An analytical approach for prediction of temperature distribution in diesel engines”, 2002.
 
Show More References
[6]  Burrahm, R. W., Davis, J. K., Perry, W. D., and Santos, A. D.-L., “Development of a piston temperature telemetry system”, SAE paper 920232, 1992.
 
[7]  F.S. Silva, “Fatigue on engine pistons – A compendium of case studies “, 2004.
 
[8]  V. Esfahanian, A. Javaheri, M. Ghaffarpour, “Thermal analysis of an SI engine piston using different combustion boundary condition treatments”, 2005.
 
[9]  Piston Technology, Hepworth & Grandage Ltd., 1969.
 
[10]  Miyamoto, N., Ogawa, H., Iemura, A., and Reksowardojo, I. K., “Cycle-to-cycle transient characteristics of exhaust gas emissions from diesel engine with different increasing and decreasing load patterns”, SAE paper 970750, 1997.
 
[11]  Jeon, Y. J., Kim, S. I., Park, S. I., Kim, J. S., Choi, K. H., and Jin, J. H., “Thermal load in a heavy duty diesel engine with EUI system”, SAE paper 2002-01-0492, 2002.
 
[12]  Assanis, D. N. and Syrimis, M., “Piston heat transfer measurements under varying knock intensity in a spark ignition engine”, SAE paper 971667, 1997.
 
[13]  Assanis, D. N. and Friedmann, F., “A telemetry linkage system for piston temperature measurements in a diesel engine”, SAE paper 910299, 1991.
 
[14]  Takamatsu, H. and Kanazawa, T. “Piston temperature measurement method for high- speed gasoline engines”, Soc. Autom. Engrs Japan, JSAE Rev., 1999, 20(2), 259-279.
 
[15]  Lightfowlers P., Piston Telemetry System (1962), Piston Technology, Hepworth & Grandage Ltd., 1969.
 
[16]  Horler G.D., Picken D.J., “A Digital Electronic Solution to Piston telemetry”, SAE paper 2000-01-2032, 2000.
 
[17]  Russ, S., Kaiser, E. W., and Siegl, W. O., “Effect of cylinder head and engine block temperature on HC emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition engine”, SAE paper 952536, 1995.
 
[18]  Upris, M. C., Jason, R. R., and Anderson, C. L., “Comparison of time-averaged piston temperatures and surface heat flux between a direct-fuel injected and carburetted two-stroke engine”, SAE paper 980763, 1998.
 
[19]  Wiczynski, P. D., Varo, R. G., Archuleta, S. A., Galarno, M. J., “New piston telemetry applied to spherical joint piston development”, SAE paper 960056, 1996.
 
[20]  Kato, N., Moritsugu, M., Shimura, T., and Matsui, J., “Development of a piston temperature measuring technology using electromagnetic induction”, SAE paper 2001-01-2027, 2001.
 
[21]  Lee H-W, C-HO, Kauh S K, and Ha K-P, “Development of a multipiston temperature telemetry system using Bluetooth networks”, 2600.
 
[22]  www.bluetooth.com.
 
[23]  Kumar C.B., Kline P.J., Thompson T.J., “Bluetooth Application Programming with the Java APIs”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
 
[24]  AD595A datasheet, www.analog.com.
 
[25]  MAX6675 datasheet, http://datasheets.maxim-ic.com.
 
[26]  Toothpick 2.1 manual, www.flexipanel.co.uk.
 
[27]  Linkmatik datasheet, www.flexipanel.co.uk.
 
[28]  Ezurio Bluetooth adapter datasheet, http://www.lairdtech.com/Products/Wireless-M2M-and-Telematics-Solutions /Bluetooth-Module/.
 
[29]  flexipanel designer manual, www.flexipanel.co.uk.
 
[30]  Ogawa, H., Kimura, S., Koike, M., and Enomoto, Y., “A study of heat rejection and combustion characteristics of a low-temperature and pre-mixed combustion concept based on measurement of instantaneous heat flux in a direct-injection diesel engine”, SAE paper 2000-01-2792, 2000.
 
[31]  www.microchip.com
 
[32]  www.flexipanel.co.uk
 
Show Less References

Article

Turbine Blade Vibration Measurement Methods for Turbocharges

1School of Engineering, University of Bradford, UK


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(2), 13-19
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
G Janicki, A Pezouvanis, B Mason, M K Ebrahimi. Turbine Blade Vibration Measurement Methods for Turbocharges. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(2):13-19. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: M  K Ebrahimi, School of Engineering, University of Bradford, UK. Email: m.ebrahimi@bradford.ac.uk

Abstract

This paper presents and compares the most important and often used methods to measure turbine blade vibrations: use of strain gauges and telemetry system which is an intrusive method or, on the other site. The Blade Tip Timing (BTT) method known as Non-Intrusive Stress Measurement (System) NSMS. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages which are described below. This paper focused on synchronous vibrations, which are more important in terms of turbine blades fatigue prediction and design optimization.

Keywords

References

[1]  P. D.-I. H.-J. Bauer, D.-I. A. Schulz and D.-I. M. Schwitzke, “Aerodynamic Excitation of Blade Vibrations in Radial Turbines,” MTZ worldwide, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 48-54, 2013.
 
[2]  P. Hönisch, A. Kühhorn and B. Beirow, “Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Radial Turbine Blisks with Regard to Mistuning,” in ASME, 2011.
 
[3]  A. Pezouvanis, G. Janicki, A. Pieronczyk, B. Mason, M. K. Ebrahimi, J. Allport and M. Jupp, “Turbocharger blade vibration: Measurement and validation through laser tip-timing,” in 10th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, London, 2012.
 
[4]  C. Fangman, V. Zastrow and J. Bobeck, “High-speed-turbocharger blade-vibration mesurement,” Experimental Mechanics Volume: 7, Issue: 1, pp. 19A-21A, 1967.
 
[5]  C. P. Lawson and P. C. Ivey, “Turbomachinery blade vibration amplitude measurement through tip timing with capacitance tip clearance probes,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2005), vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 14-24, 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  W. R. Campbell, “A Transistorized AM-FM Radio Link Torque Telemeter for Large Rotating Shafts,” in Proc. Soc. Experimental Stress Analysis, 1956.
 
[7]  E. K. Armstrong, “Recent Blade Vibration Techniques,” Journal for Engineering for Power, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 437-444, 1967.
 
[8]  R. G. DeAnna, “Wireless Telemetry for Gas-Turbine Applications,” U.S.Army Research Laboratory, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 2000.
 
[9]  G. W. Hardigg, “Aparatus for Measuring Rotor Blade Vibration”. USA Patent US2575710, 9 December 1949.
 
[10]  R. Hohenberg, “Detection and study of compressor-blade vibration,” Experimental Mechanics, vol. 7, no. 6, 1967.
 
[11]  I. Y. Zablotskiy and Y. A. Korostelev, “Measurement of Resonance Vibrations of Turbine Blades with the Elura Device,” Defense Technical Information Center, p. 15, 1970.
 
[12]  I. Y. Zablotskiy, Y. A. Korostelev and L. B. Sviblov, “Contactless Measuring of Vibrations in the Rotor Blades of Turbines,” Lopatochnyye Mashiny i Struynyye Apparaty. Sbornik Statey, Nr. 6, pp. 106-121, 1972.
 
[13]  A. Kulkarni and G. LaRue, “Vibratory Responce Characterization of a Radial Turbine Wheel for Automotive Turbocharger Application,” in ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air (GT2008), Berlin, Germany, 2008.
 
[14]  S. Heath, A Study of Tip-timing Measurement Techniques for the Determination of Bladed-disk Vibration Characteristics, London: University of London, 1996.
 
[15]  M. Zielinski and G. Ziller, “Optical blade vibration at MTU,” in Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, Brussels, Belgium, 1997.
 
[16]  P. Beauseroy and R. Lengellé, “Nonintrusive turbomachine blade vibration measurement system,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1717-1738, 2006.
 
[17]  D. Knappett and J. Garcia, “Blade tip timing and strain gauge correlation on compressor blades,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 222 no. 4, 2008.
 
[18]  W. Robinson and R. Washburn, “A real Time Non-Interference Stress Measurement System (NSMS) for Determining Areo Engine Blade Stresses,” in 37th International Instrumentation Symposium, San Diego, California, USA, 1991.
 
[19]  D. J. Ewins, “Vibration Characteristics of Bladed Disc Assemblies,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1973 15: 165, 1973.
 
[20]  W. Campbell, Protection of steam turbine disk wheels from axial vibration, London: General Electri Company, 1924.
 
Show Less References

Article

Screening and Partial Purification of Lectin from Various Bangladeshi Plant Seeds

1Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmacy, Royal Medical Technology Institute, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3Department of Applied Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(2), 20-24
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mst. Jesmin Sultana, Fazle Rabbi Shakil Ahmed, M. Taufiq Alam. Screening and Partial Purification of Lectin from Various Bangladeshi Plant Seeds. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(2):20-24. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Mst.  Jesmin Sultana, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: jssumi8@gmail.com

Abstract

Lectins are group of proteins or glycoprotein of non immunological origins, which can recognize specific carbohydrate structure. In this research work hemaggulutination was used as technique for screening Bangladeshi vegetables for lectin. Five varieties of legume plant seeds Canavalia gladiata(Sword bean),Lens culinaris (Moshordal), Peasum sativam (Motorsuti), Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (Borboti), Cajanus cajan (Arhordal), one Amaranthaceae Amaranthus caudate (katoadata) and one fruit Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) species from Bangladesh were examined for lectins with chicken and human erythrocytes. Crude extracts from all the species showed agglutinating activity against the erythrocytes used. The lowest protein concentration required to produce erythrocytes agglutination varied remarkable ranging from 0.7 µg/ml to 8080 µg/ml. The strongest activities were shown in the agglutination of human blood erythrocytes by partial purification of lectin from Moshordal and chicken blood erythrocyte from Katoadata and Sword bean. Inhibition assays performed with mono and disaccharides showed that agglutinating of erythrocytes by Sword bean, Moshordal, Motorsuti and Arhordal extracts were completely inhibited where others three were not inhibited by the sugars. Amonium sulphate at 90% saturation followed by dialysis. Sword bean, Arhordal, Watermelon, Borboti, Motorsuti, Moshordal and Katoadata respectively which correspond to the 144.21 mg, 202.5 mg, 135 mg, 179.4 mg, 6 mg, 288 mg, and 72.8 mg are the total protein content.

Keywords

References

[1]  Sharon, N. (1986) The lectins: Properties and functions and applications in biology and medicine. New York Academic, p. 297-357.
 
[2]  Barondes, S. H. (1984). Science. 223; 1259-1264.
 
[3]  Ashwell, G. and Hardford, J. (1982). Annu. Rev. Biochem. 51; 531-554.
 
[4]  Lipsick, J, S., Beyer, E. C., Barondes, S. H. and Kaplan, N. O. (1980). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 97; 56-61.
 
[5]  Levi, G., Tarrab- Hazdai, R. and Teichberg, V. I. (1983). Eur. Immunol. 13; 500-507.
 
Show More References
[6]  Teichberg, V, I., Silman, I., Beitsch, D. D. and Resheff, G. (1975). Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 72; 1383-1387.
 
[7]  De Waard, A., Hickman, S. and Kornfeld, S. (1976). J. Bio. Chem. 252; 7581-7587.
 
[8]  Goldstain, I. J., Hughes, R. C., Mongsigny, M., Osawa, T. and Sharon, N. (1980). Nature (London). 285; 66.
 
[9]  Gold, E. R. and Balding, P. (1975). Receptor SpecificProteins. Plant and Animal Lectins.
 
[10]  Yeaton, R. W. (1981). Dev. Comp. Immunol. 5; 391-402.
 
[11]  Gilboa-Garder, N., Susswein, A. J., Mizrahi, L. and Avichezer, D. (1985). FEBS lett. 181; 267-70.
 
[12]  Cohen, E. (1984). Prog. Clini. Biol. Res. 157, New York. Liss pp 207.
 
[13]  Cheng, T. C., Marchlonis, J. J. and Vasta, G. R. (1984). Prog. Clini. Biol. Res. 157, New York. Liss pp. 1-15.
 
[14]  Nicolson, G. L. (1976a). Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 457; 57-108.
 
Show Less References

Article

Nanocomposite ZnNb2O6 Thick Film as Room Temperature Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Sensor

1Nanomaterial sensor Research Lab Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P., India


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(2), 25-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Richa Srivastava. Nanocomposite ZnNb2O6 Thick Film as Room Temperature Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Sensor. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(2):25-28. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Richa  Srivastava, Nanomaterial sensor Research Lab Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P., India. Email: richadolly@rediffmail.com

Abstract

In the present work, thick film of zinc niobium oxide was prepared by screen printing technology and its LPG sensing properties were investigated. The structural and surface morphological characterizations of the material were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minimum crystallite size of ZnNb2O6 calculated from Scherrer’s formula was found to be 25 nm. SEM images exhibit the porous nature of sensing material with a number of active sites. The average size of pores of nanocomposite ZnNb2O6 was found to be 4 µm. The LPG sensing properties of the film were investigated at room temperature 26C for different vol% of LPG. The variations in electrical resistance of the film were measured with the exposure of LPG as a function of time. The maximum value of sensitivity was found 4.8 for 4 vol. % of LPG. These experimental results show that ZnNb2O6 nanocomposite is a capable material for LPG sensor.

Keywords

References

[1]  R Srivastava, B C Yadav, C. D. Dwivedi, R. Kumar, Comparative Study of Moisture Sensing Properties of ZnO nanomaterials through hydroxide route by mixing drop wise and Sudden Sens. Trans. J. 80, 1295, 2007.
 
[2]  D R Patil, L A Patil, Room temperature chlorine gas sensing using surface modified ZnO thick film resistors, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 123, 546, 2007.
 
[3]  A M More, J L Gunjakar, C D Lokhande, Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor properties of interconnected web-like structured sprayed TiO2 films, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 129, 671, 2008.
 
[4]  Richa Srivastava and B.C. Yadav, Nanaostructured ZnO, ZnO-TiO2 and ZnO- Nb2O5 as solid state humidity sensor, Advanced Material Letters, 3, 197, 2012.
 
[5]  V R Shinde, T P Gujar, C D Lokhande, LPG sensing properties of ZnO fims prepared by spray pyrolysis method: Effect of molarity of precursor solution Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 120, 551, 2007.
 
Show More References
[6]  D R Patil, L A Patil, G H Jain, M S Wagh, S A Patil, Surface Activated ZnO Thick Film Resistors for LPG Gas Sensing, Sens. Trans. J. 74, 874, 2006.
 
[7]  B. C. Yadav, R. Srivastava and Anuradha Yadav, Nanostructured Zinc Oxid Synthesized via Hydroxide Route as Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensor, Sensors and Materials 21, 87, 2009.
 
[8]  G N Chaudhari et al Indian Journal of Physics, Sensitivity and selectivity of chemically modified nanosized SnO2 based CO sensors, 79, 1157, 2005.
 
[9]  G T Lamdhade, S S Yawale, S P Yawele, TiO2- MgO Mixed Oxide Humidity Sensors, Indian Journal of Physics 76, 399, 2002.
 
[10]  S C Yeow, W L Ong, A S W Wong, G W Ho, Template-free synthesis and gas sensing properties of well- controlled porous tin oxide nanospheres, Sens. Actuators B, 143 295, 2009.
 
[11]  N Barsan, U Weimar, Understanding the fundamental principles of metal oxide based gas sensors; the example of CO sensing with SnO2 sensors in the presence of humidity J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R813, 2003.
 
[12]  N Yamazoe, K Shimanoe, Receptor Function and Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor J. Sens. Article ID 1 875704, 2009.
 
[13]  N Barsan, U Weimar, Conduction Models in Gas-Sensing SnO2 Layers: Grain-Size Effects and Ambient atmosphere Influence J. Electrocer., 7, 143, 2001.
 
[14]  Y. Xiaojuan, C. Naisheng, S. Shuifa, L. Ersheng and H. Jinling, Preparation, characterization and gas sensitive properties of nano- crystalline Cr2O3- Fe2O3 mixed oxides, Sci. in China 41, 442, 1998.
 
[15]  G. Sberveglieri, L.E. Depero, M. Ferroni, V. Guidi, G. Martinelli, P. Nelli, C. Perego and L. Sangletti, A novel method for the preparation of nanosized TiO2 thin films, Advan. Mater. 8, 334, 1996.
 
[16]  B.C. Yadav, A. Yadav, T. Shukla and S. Singh, Experimental investigations on solid state conductivity of cobaltzincate nanocomposite for liquefied petroleum gas sensing, Sens. Lett. 7, 1, 2009.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Private Theory of Relativity can Explain of Our Dreams and to Help in Creation of a Unique TV Set

1A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690059, Russia


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(3), 29-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Delik. D. Gabaev. The Private Theory of Relativity can Explain of Our Dreams and to Help in Creation of a Unique TV Set. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(3):29-33. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Delik.  D. Gabaev, A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690059, Russia. Email: gabaevdd11@outlook.com

Abstract

According to the private theory of relativity the decrease of move speeds are accelerate time. The dream at a stage of rapid eye movement (REM) can be considered as limit of immovability. in this state the consciousness of the person is in the future and is more easily are receives the information from the future. At the same time in cosmos, where the speeds of movement of astronauts are much higher, than on the Earth, they are more easily are receives the information from past. The information from other time arrives to the person in dream through enclosed eyes and its receiving and the remainder is promoted by superconducting capacity of neurons. The appearance of superconductivity at a neurons are promoted by bones of a skull. They protect the neurons not only from impacts, but also from different type "noise", which is causes the fluctuations of positive ions in axoplasm of neuron and these fluctuations is prevent motion of an electron. The lifeless subjects do not need to dormition in order to receipt the information from other time, but in order to it could be seen by the people, all parts at the TV set should to be superconductors. ardent superconductivity is appears at iron wires after covering their of clean bone glue.

Keywords

References

[1]  Demkin, S., Be sound! 12, 88-95 (2001).
 
[2]  Bem, D., J. Pers. Soc. Psychol, 100, 407-425 (2011).
 
[3]  Lagovski, V. and Kuzina, S., Koms. pravda, 16, 8 (2012).
 
[4]  Radin, D. I., J. Sci. Exp, 11, 163-180 (1997).
 
[5]  Demkin, S., Be sound! 11, 71-77 (2000).
 
Show More References
[6]  Kallender, C., V mire nauki (Sci. Amer.), 8-9, 32-39 (2010).
 
[7]  Mlodinov, L. and Hawking, S., V mire nauki (Sci. Amer.), 11-12, 6-9 (2010).
 
[8]  Masser, J., V mire nauki (Sci Amer), 11-12, 98-107 (2010).
 
[9]  Puricheva, N. S. and Vageevskaja, N. E., physics. Textbook for 8 classes of the general Institutions, Moskow: Drofa (2009).
 
[10]  Hobson, J.A., Nature, 437, 1254-1256 (2005).
 
[11]  Taylor, D, J., Green, N. P.O., and Stout, G.W., Biological Science. Moskow: MIR (2010).
 
[12]  Clarke, K. R., and Green, R. H., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 46, 213-226 (1988).
 
[13]  Vedral. V., V mire nauki (Sci. Amer.), 8, 14-21 (2011).
 
[14]  Thomas, C. A., Springer, P.A., and Loeb, G.E, Exp. Cell. Res., 74, 61-66 (1972).
 
[15]  Eversmann, B., Jenkner, M., and Hofmann, F., IEEE J. Sol.-Stat. Circ., 38, 2306-2317 (2003).
 
[16]  Pancrazio, J.J., Gray, S.A. and Shubin, Y. S., Bios. Bioel., 18, 1339-1347 (2003).
 
[17]  Gerber, C., Anselmetti, D., Bednorz, J. G., J.G., Mannhart, J. and Schlom, D.G., Nature, 350, 279-280 (1991).
 
[18]  Hawley, M., Raistrick, I.D., Beery, J.G., and Schlom, D.G., Science, 251, 49-51 (1991).
 
[19]  Amato, I., Science, 251, 1564-1565 (1991).
 
[20]  Kollinz, G., V mire nauki (Sci. Amer.), 10, 60-67 (2009).
 
[21]  Garwin, L., Nature, 350, 277 (1991).
 
[22]  Scheidt, E-W., Hathwar, V.R., Schmitz, D., Dunbar, A., and Scheree,W., Europ. Phys. J. B, 85, 279-283 (2012).
 
[23]  Eugelmann, J., Müller, K.H., and Nenkov, K., Europ. Phys. J. B, 85, 406-409 (2012).
 
[24]  Gatsunaev, N., Be sound! 9, 96-99 (1999),
 
[25]  Daou, R., Chang, J., LeBoeuf, D., Cyr- Choiniére, O., Laliberté, F., and Doiron-Leyrand, N., Nature, 463, 519-522 (2010).
 
[26]  Moler, K. A., Nature, 468, 643-644 (2010).
 
[27]  Kamihara, Y., Watanabe, T., Hirano, M., and Hosono, H., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 130, 3296-3297 (2008).
 
[28]  Komarov, S. M., Superconductor. Chem. and life, 4, 26-29 (2012).
 
Show Less References

Article

Energy Efficient Secure Firewall and Packet Filtering System in Wireless Sensor Networks

1Research Scholar, Department of ISE, R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, INDIA

2Associate Professor, Department of MCA, R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, INDIA

3Professor, Department of ISE, R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, INDIA


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(3), 34-39
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manjuprasad B, Andhe Dharani, Shantharam Nayak. Energy Efficient Secure Firewall and Packet Filtering System in Wireless Sensor Networks. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(3):34-39. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Manjuprasad  B, Research Scholar, Department of ISE, R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, INDIA. Email: manjuprasad32@gmail.com

Abstract

Sensor networks play a key role in collecting information from the human unattended and surveillance area. The information collected from any types of networks should be secure in all perspective and that too security in sensor networks is crucial because the information is of auto generated type and it is difficult to distinguish between original and replicated information at receiver side. The existing secure mechanism like cryptographic techniques is too complex and it affects the performance of the sensor networks by dissipating more energy for both computational and communicational purpose. This research work aims to propose a low complex simple secure mechanism for sensor networks which can withstand the simple types of attacks to provide a framework for achieving Confidential, Authentication and Integrity. This security is achieved by adopting a firewall rules and packet filtering in the sensor networks with an efficient clustering mechanism for the resource constrained sensor devices.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wendi B, Heinzelman, Anantha P, Chandrakasan, Hari Balakrishnan. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks”. IEEE transactions on Wireless Communications, pp. 660-670, Oct.
 
[2]  Sumit Kumar, Siddhartha Chauhan, A Survey on Scheduling Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Network, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887) Volume 20-No. 5, April 2011.
 
[3]  K.-J. Wong and D. Arvind. Speckmac: “Low-power decentralized mac protocol low data rate transmissions in specknets. In Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Workshop on Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks: from Theory to Reality (REALMAN’06), May, 2006.
 
[4]  D.M. Blough, M. Leoncini, G. Resta, and P. Santi. “The k-neighbors approach to interference bounded and symmetric topology control in ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 5 (9): 1267 {1282, 2006.
 
[5]  Manju Prasad, Andhe Dharani, “A QoI Based Energy Efficient Clustering for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal Of Advanced Smart Sensor Network Systems ( IJASSN), ISSN 2231-4482, Vol 3, No. 2, April 2013.
 
Show More References
[6]  W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan. Energy efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2000.
 
[7]  Mohanaradhya, Sumithra Devi, Andhe Dharani, Distance Based cluster head selection in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal Research in Emerging Technology, IAIEM, 2013.
 
[8]  Meenakshi Diwakar1 and Sushil Kumar2, “An Energy Efficient Level Based Clustering Routing Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal Of Advanced Smart Sensor Network Systems (IJASSN), Vol 2, No. 2, April 2012.
 
[9]  A.K. Daniel, Pooja Rathi, Aakansha Agarwal, and Amaresh Maurya, Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol for Sensor Networks Using Token Based Hotspot Technique, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS), United Kingdom, Vol. 3, No. 2, ISSN: 2079-2557 April 2012.
 
[10]  Min Chen ·Meikang Qiu Linxia Liao Jongan Park · Jianhua Ma, Distributed multi-hop cooperative communication in dense wireless sensor networks”, Springer Science Business Media, LLC 2010.
 
[11]  Serdar Vural and Eylem Ekici, “On Multihop Distances in Wireless Sensor Networks with Random Node Locations”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 9, NO. 4, APRIL 2010.
 
[12]  G. Guimaraes, E. Souto, D. Sadok, J. Kelner, Evaluation of security mechanisms in wireless sensor networks, in: Systems Communications Proceedings 2005, pp. 428-433.
 
[13]  Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Culler, and J. Tygar. Spins: Security protocol for sensor networks,” In proceedings of Seventh Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks, July 2001.
 
[14]  Anitha S Sastry, Shazia Sulthana, Dr. S Vagdevi, Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Networks in Each Layer, Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications, Vol: 04 Issue: 04 Pages: 1657-1661 (2013) ISSN: 0975-0290.
 
[15]  Manjuprasad B, Andhe Dharani, Necessitate for Security in Wireless Sensor Network and its Challenges”, International Journal of Research in Computer Applications & Information Technology, ISSN Online: 2347-5099, Volume 1, Issue 1, July-September, 2013, pp. 21-25.
 
[16]  Anitha S Sastry, Shazia Sulthana, Dr. S Vagdevi, Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Networks in Each Layer”, Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications, Volume: 04 Issue: 04 Pages: 1657-1661 (2013) ISSN: 0975-0290.
 
[17]  Manju Prasad, Andhe Dharani, An Epigrammatic Study of some of the Fundamental Concepts in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012, ISSN 2250-2459.
 
[18]  Xiangqian Chen, Kia Makki, Kang Yen, and Niki Pissinou, Sensor Network Security: A Survey”. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 11, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2009.
 
[19]  A. Perrig, J. Stankovic, and D. Wagner, Security in wireless sensor networks,” Commun. ACM, Special Issue: Wireless sensor networks, vol. 47, pp. 53-57, 2004.
 
[20]  Ouadoudi Zytoune, and Driss Aboutajdine, A Low Energy Time Based Clustering Technique for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.American Journal of Sensor Technology, vol. 2, no. 1 (2014): 1-6.
 
[21]  O. Zytoune, Y. fakhri and D. Aboutajdine, Time Based Clustering Technique for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 7-9 April 2011. Pages: 1-4.
 
[22]  Issa M. Khalil, ELMO: Energy Aware Local Monitoring in Sensor Networks, Ieee Transactions On Dependable And Secure Computing, Vol. 8, No. 4, July/August, pp 523-536, 2011.
 
[23]  Andhe Dharani, Member, IAENG, Vijayalakshmi M. N, Sumithra Devi K. A, Power Optimization in Ad hoc Sensor Networks using Clustering Approach, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol II WCE 2011, July 6-8, 2011, London, U.K.
 
[24]  Haiguang Chen 1,2, Huafeng Wu2, Xi Zhou 2, Chuanshan Gao2, Agent-based Trust Model in Wireless Sensor Networks”, ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, 0-7695-2909-7/07, pp 119-124, 2007 IEEE.
 
[25]  Manjuprasad B, Andhe Dharani, Simple Secure Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, World Congress on Computing and Communication Technologies, WCCCT-2014, Trichy, on 27th Feb-1th Mar, 2014, pp 260-263, ISBN: 978-1-4799-2876-7/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE.
 
[26]  Gaurav Indra, Renu Taneja, “An ECC-Time Stamp based Mutual Authentication and Key Management Scheme for WSNs”, 27th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 978-0-7695-4952-1/13 $26.00 © 2013 IEEE.
 
[27]  Manjuprasad B, Andhe Dharani, Uniform Multihop Clustering for Low Communication Overhead in Sensor Networks, Emerging Trends in Communication, Control, Signal Processing & Computing Applications (C2SPCA), 2013 Bangalore on, 10-11 Oct-2013, pp 1-4, 978-1-4799-1082-©2013 IEEE.
 
Show Less References

Article

Review of Internet Affinity and Efficiency Assessment of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

1Computer Science & Engineering, MIT Mandsaur, Mandsaur, India


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014, 2(3), 40-43
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anwar Mohd. Mansuri. Review of Internet Affinity and Efficiency Assessment of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2014; 2(3):40-43. doi: 10.12691/ajst-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Anwar  Mohd. Mansuri, Computer Science & Engineering, MIT Mandsaur, Mandsaur, India. Email: anwar.iter@gmail.com

Abstract

Ad-hoc networking allows portable equipment to establish link independent of a central infrastructure. This research work shows that there is no middle infrastructure and that the equipment can move randomly gives rise to various thoughtful of problems, such as routing and security. In this work the problem of routing is deal it. In this work pre-owned Ad-hoc routing protocols, such as AODV, DSR that propose solutions for routing within a mobile Ad-hoc network. Since there is an interest in link in the middle not only mobile equipment in an Ad-hoc network, but also among a mobile apparatus star in an Ad-hoc network and a fixed apparatus star in a fixed. The Ad-hoc routing protocols need to be modified. In this research work Ad-hoc routing protocol AODV and DSR is used and modified to examine the interconnection among a mobile ad hoc network and the Internet. The Network Simulator 2 (NS-2) is a popular and powerful simulation environment, and the number of NS-2 users has escalation greatly in recent years. Although it was basically created for wired networks, NS-2 has been continued to work with wireless networks, further wireless LANs, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and sensor networks.

Keywords

References

[1]  Elizabeth M. Royer and Chai-Keong Toh, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks," IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 46-55, April 1999.
 
[2]  C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, “Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing” in Proc. WMCSA, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100, Feb. 1999.
 
[3]  M. K. Marina and S. R. Das “On-Demand Multi Path Distance Vector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks” in Proc. ICNP 2001, pp. 14-23, Nov. 2001.
 
[4]  Kevin Fall and Kannan Varahan, editors. NS Notes and Documentation. The VINT Project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, November 1997.
 
[5]  http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
 
Show More References
[6]  M. Hofmann. Worldwide MBone Experiments using LGMP.Third IRTF RM Meeting, Orlando, FL, USA, February 22-24, 1998.
 
[7]  J. C. Lin and S. Paul. RMTP: A Stable Multicast Transport Protocol. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pages 1414-1424, Mar 1996.
 
[8]  C. Liu, D. Estrin, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang. Local error recovery in srm: Comparison of two approaches. Technical Report 97-648, USC Computer Science Department, January 1997.
 
[9]  P. Sharma, D. Estrin, S. Floyd, and L. Zhang. Scalable Session Messages in SRM. Technical report, USC Computer Science Department, February 1998. UCB/LBNL/VINT. Network Simulator ns-2.
 
[10]  http:// www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/.
 
[11]  M. Yajnik, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley. Packet Loss Correlation in the Mbone Multicast Network. In Proceedings IEEE Global Internet Conference, London, Nov 1996.
 
[12]  R. Yavatkar, J. Griffioen, and M. Suda. A Stable Dissemination Protocol for Interactive Collaborative Application. In Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia ’95 Conference, November, 1995.
 
[13]  Said Khelifa and Zoulikha Mekkakia Maaza. "An Energy Reverse AODV Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Mobile Networks." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 68 (2010): pp. 1508-1512, 2010.
 
[14]  Bruce Tuch, Development of WaveLAN, an ISM Band Wireless LAN. AT&T Technical Journal, 72(4), pages 27-33, July/August 1993.
 
[15]  NitinH.Vaidya,Tutorial,http://www.cs.tamu.edu/faculty/vaidya/seminars/tcptutorial-aug99.ppt.
 
[16]  Bhabani Sankar Gouda, "A Comparative Analysis of Energy Preservation Demeanorance Metric for ERAODV, RAODV, AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in MANET." International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET) vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 516-524, Oct. 2012.
 
[17]  Bruce Tuch, Development of WaveLAN, an ISM Band Wireless LAN. AT&T. Technical Journal, 72(4), pages 27-33, July/August 1993.
 
[18]  M. Handley. Reference Simulations for Stable Multicast Congestion Control Schemes. Draft Notes presented at IRTF RM Group Meeting, London, United Kingdom, July 6-7, 1998.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of Poly Ethylene Glycol on Moisture Sensing of Copper Ferrite Nanocomposite

1Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India


American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajst-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Richa Srivastava. Effect of Poly Ethylene Glycol on Moisture Sensing of Copper Ferrite Nanocomposite. American Journal of Sensor Technology. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajst-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Richa  Srivastava, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India. Email: richadolly@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Present paper reports, synthesis of CuFe2O4 nanocomposite via chemical precipitation route and effect of poly ethylene glycol on their humidity sensing properties. The variations of resistance with and without PEG at different value of %RH of the sensing elements were investigated. The maximum average value of sensitivity was found 13.7 MΩ/%RH respectively over the entire range of relative humidity. Results are found to be reproducible after three months with ±5 % hysteresis. Sensing material synthesized through PEG has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD pattern revealed cubic crystal system. The average crystallite size of material was found to be 85.7 nm. SEM images show porous nature of sensing material with a number of active sites throughout the surface. The average size of pores of material was found to be 2µm.

Keywords

References

[1]  A. Venkataraman, V.A. Hiremath, S. K. Date, S. D. Kulkarni, A new combustion route to γ-Fe2O3 synthesis, Bull. Mater. Sci., 24, 617, 2001.
 
[2]  R. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Fu, H. Zhang, C. Kisielowski, Bicrystalline Hematite Nanowires, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 12245, 2005.
 
[3]  B. R. V. Narasimhan, S. Prabhakar, P. Manohar, F. D. Gnanam, Synthesis of gamma ferric oxide by direct thermal decomposition of ferrous carbonate, Mater. Lett., 52, 295,2002.
 
[4]  P. P. Sarangi, B. Nail, N. N. Ghosh, Synthesis of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanopowders by using a novel low temperature chemical synthesis route, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 91, 4145, 2008.
 
[5]  N. K. Chaudhari, J. S. Yu, Size control synthesis of uniform β-FeOOH to high coercive field porous magnetic α-Fe2O3 nanorods, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112, 19957, 2008.
 
Show More References
[6]  O. Latunde, Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxide thin films for photo catalytic hydrogen production, Nnin Reu Res. Accom., 44, 2008.
 
[7]  X. Gou, G. Wang, J. Park, H. Liu, J. Yang, Monodisperse hematite porous nanospheres: synthesis, characterization, and applications for gas sensors, Nanotech., 19, 125606, 2008.
 
[8]  R. Srivastava and B.C. Yadav, Nanaostructured ZnO, ZnO-TiO2 and ZnO-Nb2O5 as solid state humidity sensor, Advanced Material Letters, 3, 197, 2012.
 
[9]  R. Srivastava and B.C. Yadav, Ferrite materials: Introduction, Synthesis techniques and applications as Sensors, International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry, 4, 141, 2012.
 
[10]  M. Desai, S. Prasad, N. Venkataramani, I. Samajdar,A.K. Nigam, R. Krishnan, Annealing induced structural change in sputter deposited copper ferrite thin films and its impact on magnetic properties, Journal of Applied Physics, 92220, 2002.
 
[11]  P. Kulkarni, M. Desai, N. Venkataramani, S. Prasad, R. Krishnan, Low power RF sputter depositionof oriented copper ferrite films, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 272, e793, 2004.
 
[12]  K. Arshaka, K. Twomey, D. Egan, A ceramic Thick Film humidity sensor based on MnZnFerrite, Sensors, 2, 50, 2002.
 
[13]  X. Q. Liu, S. W. Tao, Y. S. Shen, Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline α-Fe2O3 by sol-gel process, Sens. Actuators B, 40, 161, 1997.
 
[14]  K. Suri, S. Annapoorni, A.K. Sarkar, R.P. Tandon, Gas and humidity sensors based on ironoxide-polypyrrole nanocomposites, Sens. Actuators B, 81, 277, 2002.
 
Show Less References