Welcome to American Journal of Rural Development

American Journal of Rural Development is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of rural development. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of rural development.

ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770

Editor-in-Chief: Chi-Ming Lai

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJRD



Analysis of Positive Deviance Farmer Training Centers in Northern Ethiopia

1Tigray Agricultural Research Institution, Mekelle Agricultural Research Center

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(1), 10-14
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Luchia Tekle. Analysis of Positive Deviance Farmer Training Centers in Northern Ethiopia. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(1):10-14. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Luchia  Tekle, Tigray Agricultural Research Institution, Mekelle Agricultural Research Center. Email: tek2luch@gmail.com, luchiatek@yahoo.com


FTC-based farmer training is an emerging extension strategy geared towards human capital development through need-based, hands-on practical training in order to facilitate agricultural transformation and rural livelihood improvement. Although, FTCs were established and made functional in the Tigray National Regional State and Alamata Woredabut, no systematic assessment of the positively deviated farmers training center. Hence, to alleviate this problem, educating this research was initiated to fill the gap. Specifically the research attempted to address this important question: Are there FTCs with successful experience for scale-out\up 14 DAs and 20 woreda experts by means of semi-structure interview schedule. Qualitative methods that were used at community, organizational and individual levels include: document review, focused/group discussion, personal interviews and direct observation. The quantitative data were also analyzed using descriptive statistics. Based on the indicators of positive deviance like, departure from the norms, intentional behavior and honorable outcomes such as technology dissemination, exemplary demonstration field management, diversified and substantial training outreaches of the four sampled FTCs, Selambkalsi FTC is found to be positively deviating. In this research context, positively deviant FTC is the one that performed better than the other FTCs regardless of similar problems and resource base.Therefore, it is recommended that policy aimed at FTC based training in the area could be the result of this study are taken in to consideration and there should be experience sharing mechanisms among FTCs so as to cross fertilize the successful results throughout the study area and lesson are developed and institutionalized.



[1]  BirhanuGebramedhin, Hoekstra.D and AzageTegegne 2006. Commercialization of Ethiopian agriculture: Extension Service from input supplier to knowledge broker and facilitator. IPMS of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working paper ILRI, Nairobi. 33pp.
[2]  FDRE (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), 2001. Rural Development Policy, Strategy and Techniques. Ministry of press and information. Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. 43p, 61p.
[3]  Habtemariam Abate, 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp.10-19; 54-55. Review of Extension System Applied in Ethiopia with Special emphasis to the participatory Demonstration and Training Extension System, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
[4]  IFPRI. 2010. In-depth assessment of the public agricultural extension system of Ethiopia and recommendations for improvement. IFPRI discussion paper 01041, December 2010, eastern and southern Africa regional office. International Food Policy Research Institute.
[5]  MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development), 2008. Guideline on scale up andscale out of agricultural technologies. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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[6]  NEPAD. 2013. Review of Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training (ATVET) in Africa - Best Practices from Benin, Ethiopia, Namibia and Sierra Leone.
[7]  Spreitzer, G.M., and Sonenshein, S., 2004. ‘‘Toward the construct definition of positive deviance’’, American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6): 828-47.
[8]  UNDP Ethiopia .2012.Promoting ICT based agricultural knowledge management to increase production and productivity of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. Development brief 3/2013.
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Cost Efficiency of Thai National GAP (QGAP) and Mangosteen Farmers’ Understanding in Chanthaburi Province

1Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(2), 15-23
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pongthong Pongvinyoo, Masahiro Yamao, Kenji Hosono. Cost Efficiency of Thai National GAP (QGAP) and Mangosteen Farmers’ Understanding in Chanthaburi Province. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(2):15-23. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Pongthong  Pongvinyoo, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan. Email: drkokung01@hotmail.com


GAP has been implemented in mangosteen commodity, which is the important export commodity in Thailand since 2003. The direct market for GAP –based mangosteen has not yet developed. Therefore, the farmers could not get a direct benefit from GAP adoption, and they believed that GAP could not give them any visible benefits. The present study seeks to expose the GAP realistic economic incentives from farmers’ GAP experiences in mangosteen commodity. One-hundred and twelve (112) respondents were randomly selected from 1,968 GAP mangosteen-certified farmers in Chanthaburi province which is the biggest mangosteen cultivation area in Thailand. This study reviewed that GAP certified farmers were satisfied with income from their investment more than the ordinary farmers (cost efficiency = 1.74 and 1.27, respectively). However, the production cost per rai was 11,554.7 THB/rai, higher than the ordinary farmers’ cost (7,007.9 THB/rai). The GAP standard itself provides direct incentive through its knowledge and appropriate farming techniques which are classified as non-economic incentives. The proportion of high-quality mangosteen can be increased if the farmers effectively practice GAP on their farms.



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[4]  Amekawa Y., “Can a public GAP approach ensure safety and fairness? A comparative study of Q-GAP in Thailand,” J. Peasant Stud., vol. 40, no. February, pp. 189-217, 2013.
[5]  Department of Agriculture. 2009. Thai Fruit Strategy 2010 - 2014 (in Thai). Bangkok: Department of Agriculture.
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[7]  Hosono, K. 2007. Change of environment that surrounds tropical fruit and tendency of tropical fruit producing area in Thailand - A case study of tropical fruit producing area in Chanthaburi province. Journal of Kyushu Kyoritsu University, Faculty of Economics, 11-25.
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[9]  Pongvinyoo P., Yamao M., and Hosono K., “Factors Affecting the Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among Coffee Farmers in Chumphon Province, Thailand,” Am. J. Rural Dev., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 34-39, 2014.
[10]  Rejesus R.M., “Good Agricultural Practices GAP Certification: Is It Worth It?,” 2009.
[11]  Salakpetch S., “Quality management system: good agricultural practice (gap) for on-farm production in Thailand,” Control, pp. 91-98, 2004.
[12]  Wannamolee W., “Development of GAP for Fruit and Vegetables in Thailand” in Training of Trainers in Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Benchmarking: Global GAP for Fruit and Vegetable, 2008.
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Adaptation Strategies after Cyclone in Southwest Coastal Bangladesh – Pro Poor Policy Choices

1Environmental Science Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh

2Institute of Regional Science (IfR), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany

3Foreign Research Fellow at Political Science Department of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(2), 24-33
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zakia Sultana, Bishawjit Mallick. Adaptation Strategies after Cyclone in Southwest Coastal Bangladesh – Pro Poor Policy Choices. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(2):24-33. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Bishawjit  Mallick, Institute of Regional Science (IfR), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. Email: bishawjit_mallick@biari.brown.edu, bishawjit.mallick@kit.edu


People live under the constant threats of natural hazards in the coastal areas all over the world. Thus raise the questions: how do they react to the risk of those natural calamities and how do they adapt with the adverse situations that are derived by those calamities. Taking these into considerations, this research explores the ‘atlas of the locally adopted strategies’ to cope with adverse effects of cyclone Aila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Particularly, this research has explored the community level practices in agriculture, housing, water resources, communication and employment generations. An empirical survey was undertaken with 145 respondents by using semi-structured interviews with selected social groups and their households’ assistants. Besides face-to-face interviews, this survey applied group level qualitative assessment methods i.e. FGD (focus group discussion), Social Domain Analyses, and In-depth Interviews to collect the data. Results show that people have started to cultivate saline tolerant rice and vegetables on raised homesteads. They are using dripping irrigation methods. Rain water harvesting and artificial aquifer tube-well have been introduced for water management. The houses’ mud walls have been replaced by or even newly rebuilt with Goran wood or bamboo sticks to save lives. They have formed groups to save money for the next disaster and taken out loans for small entrepreneurship projects. Due to the crises of fodder, pastureland and freshwater, people have started to rear small animals and birds like sheep, goat and pigeon instead of cow and buffalo. New technology based shrimp farming is another new innovation. Discussions were held on the pros and cons of all of the above strategies that help to design the long-term risk reduction planning at the local level and addresses the ‘not the need-based planning but the acceptance-based strategies’ mantra of development in context of community based disaster management planning. This paper adds values to the climate change adaptation field by addressing the acceptance of modern disaster risk reduction technologies into a traditionally modified approach based on the empirical evidence of coastal livelihood analysis in Bangladesh.



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