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Article

Knowledge of Transmission, Malaria Belief and Health-Seeking Behaviour in Oye-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

1Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abiodun M. Lawal, Shyngle K. Balogun, Bukola V. Bada. Knowledge of Transmission, Malaria Belief and Health-Seeking Behaviour in Oye-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Abiodun  M. Lawal, Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Email: abiodunla2002@gmail.com

Abstract

Malaria fever appears to be one of the leading causes of mortality in Nigeria. Improper health seeking behaviour for effective treatment is still a great concern for health practitioners especially in rural areas. The study examined knowledge of causes of malaria and malaria belief as determinants of health seeking-behaviour in Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti sate, Nigeria. A cross sectional survey research design was used to examine variables of interest in the study. A sample of 187 (86 males, 101 females) community members with mean age of 25.95 years participated in the study. Three hypotheses were tested in the research. Knowledge of causes of malaria has a significant influence on health-seeking behaviour (t = 3.98; df = 185; p < .05). Malaria belief has no significant influence on health-seeking behaviour among respondents (t = -1.36; df = 185; p > 0.05). Gender has no significant influence on health-seeking behaviour (t = 0.51; df = 185; p > .05). It is concluded that knowledge of the transmission of malaria is still vital in seeking for effective treatment measures in rural area like Oye-Ekiti, in Ekiti state. There is a need for a community-based enlightenment on transmission of malaria in this area for effective health seeking-behaviour.

Keywords

References

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[5]  National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] 2006 Census.
 
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[6]  Nuwaha F. People’s perception of malaria in Mbarara, Uganda. Tropical Medicine International Health; 7: (2002), 462-70.
 
[7]  Okonofua F.E., Feyisetan B.J., Davies-Adetugbo A, Sanusi Y.O. Influence of socioeconomic factors on the treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnant and non-pregnant adolescent girls in Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygene. 95 (5): 1992: 309-315.
 
[8]  Ruebush T.K, Weller S.C, Klein R.E. Knowledge and beliefs about malaria on the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. American Journal Tropical Medicine Hyg. 46 (4): (1992), 451-459.
 
[9]  Snow R. W, Craig M., Deichmann U., & Marsh K. Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa’s non-pregnant population. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation; 77 (8): (1999), 624-40.
 
[10]  Yadav S. P, Singh H,. Anand P.K., & Yadav S. Changing scenario of malaria in the Thar Desert, India. Proc. Golden Jubilee on impact of climate change on biodiversity and challeges in Thar Desert. Desert Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India; (2010), 351-361.
 
[11]  Yadav S.P. A study of treatment seeking behaviour for malaria and its management in febrile children in rural part of desert, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 47 (4): (2010).
 
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Article

Achieving Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Nigeria through Local Economic Development Strategies

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(1), 13-19
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iwala Oladapo Sam. Achieving Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Nigeria through Local Economic Development Strategies. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(1):13-19. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Iwala  Oladapo Sam, Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Email: daposoniwala@yahoo.com

Abstract

All around the world, local governments, the private sector and even the civil society are exploring better ways to achieve poverty reduction and rural development through local economic development strategies, the corner stone of sustainable national development. This is sequel to the fact that local governments, particularly in Nigeria face increased challenges of poor qualitative leadership, financial indiscipline, almost absolute reliance on allocation from the federated account / low internally generated revenues, pervasive poverty, income inequality, long-term ethnic conflict and civil unrest, political instability and corruption among others. Meanwhile, massive transformations are taking place in the global economy resulting from trade liberalization, privatization and enhanced telecommunications. The significance of this paradox to Nigeria is that citizens and local governments now face formidable challenges, greater opportunity and growing responsibility to work together to address the dehumanizing socio-economic conditions of their local citizens, most of whom are under employed or out rightly unemployed and living in absolute poverty. This paper postulates local economic development strategies, a participating process in which local people from all sectors work together to help create decent jobs and improve the quality of life for everyone, including the poor and marginalized as the most potent tool for achieving sustainable poverty reduction and rural transformation in Nigeria.

Keywords

References

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Article

Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Cassava Processing Methods among Small Scale Processors in South – West, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehinmowo O O, S O Ojo. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Cassava Processing Methods among Small Scale Processors in South – West, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: S  O Ojo, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Email: davesojo1993@gmail.com

Abstract

This study employed a stochastic frontier model to analyze the productivity and technical efficiency (TE) of cassava processing methods among small scale processors in South – West, Nigeria. The study was carried out in three states of Ogun, Oyo and Ondo, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. The multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function using a farm level survey data collected from 373 small scale cassava processors. Results showed that cassava processing under local and modern methods was in stage one (stage of inefficiency) of the production region and that processors using the local method of processing cassava were more technically efficient than those using the modern method.

Keywords

References

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[4]  Central Bank of Nigeria (2002): Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Report and Statement of Account for the year ended 31st December, 2001.
 
[5]  Coelli, T.J, (1996): Recent Developments in Frontier Modeling and Efficiency Measurement” Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol39 (3) 219-245.
 
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[6]  Ojo S O and Ajibefun, I A (2002): Effect of Training on Labour Productivity in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agric. and the Environment, 2(2): 275-279.
 
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Article

Political Commitments and Aspirations of Grassroots Coastal Communities: a Micro-Level Study in Bangladesh

1Community Development Centre (CODEC) Plot No- 2, Road No-2, Lake Valley R/A Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 24-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed Mamun Rashid. Political Commitments and Aspirations of Grassroots Coastal Communities: a Micro-Level Study in Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):24-33. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  Mamun Rashid, Community Development Centre (CODEC) Plot No- 2, Road No-2, Lake Valley R/A Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: rashidmamuns@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper attempts to find out perception of disadvantaged coastal communities about their lives and livelihoods. A total of 400 respondents were surveyed in 27 sub-districts by two sets of questionnaire. Coastal zone of Bangladesh comprises distinctive problems and prospects but relatively income-poor in comparison with rest of the country. Findings reveal that this zone offers immense potential for economic growth. This study finds that duration of Coastal Development Strategy (CDS) is ended in 2010; coastal people urge to revitalize a long-term comprehensive plan for coastal zone and mainstreaming with national & sub-national planning for escalating their well-beings. In concluding this paper, it is suggested to take special attention for coast by political leaders, policy makers, and other actors that will bring a bright and promising future of Bangladesh.

Keywords

References

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Article

Factors Affecting the Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among Coffee Farmers in Chumphon Province, Thailand

1Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 34-39
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pongthong Pongvinyoo, Masahiro Yamao, Kenji Hosono. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among Coffee Farmers in Chumphon Province, Thailand. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):34-39. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Pongthong  Pongvinyoo, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan. Email: drkokung01@hotmail.com

Abstract

Thai coffee farmers have exerted much effort to develop GAP-based Robusta coffee production since 2008. However, they still lacked knowledge and experience. Their conventional farming activities are often in conflict with GAP system, which might be caused by the limitation of GAP extension procedure. The objectives of this study were to investigate the current perceptions of GAP Coffee Farmers (GCF)’s understanding of GAP, and to identify the factors affecting such perceptions. A series of surveys were conducted in Chumphon province by using structured questionnaires which were administered to fifty-six (56) coffee farmers who applied for GAP certificates in 2013. This study found that farmers’ GAP self-confidence positively affected, while farmers’ GAP experiences had negative impact to the farmers’ understanding of GAP. This showed the lacking of continuity of GAP extension service, although the GAP promotion was an important factor to increase the farmers’ GAP understanding. The very small number of agricultural extension officers was cited as a detrimental factor. The GAP manual should also be simplified to suit the GCFs educational background.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessing the Quality Land Administration System in Pakistan Using Systematic Approach of Case Study Methodology

1Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), Karachi, Pakistan

2Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, AE Enschede, the Netherlands


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 40-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zahir Ali, Jaap Zevenbergen, Arbind Tuladhar. Assessing the Quality Land Administration System in Pakistan Using Systematic Approach of Case Study Methodology. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):40-45. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Zahir  Ali, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), Karachi, Pakistan. Email: drzahirali@hotmail.com

Abstract

Land Information System is a tool for legal, administrative and economic decision making as well as an aid for planning and development. The present land administration system in Pakistan is entirely based on paper land records and maps lacking standards with outdated information stored at different administrative levels. Such practice restricts the usefulness of reliable and quality land information for supporting tenure security to citizens, socio-economic development, and urban/rural development including infrastructure. This situation demands for a methodological framework to assess the quality of the existing system before going to take necessary action for quality improvement. There have been a few efforts to standardize the procedures for assessing the quality of land administration systems at international level but there is no internationally accepted or standardized method to assess the quality of a standalone land administration system within a country’s environment. To be able to assess the quality of a standalone land administration system, this paper develops a methodological framework for assessing the quality of the existing land administration system in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan through systematic use of case study methodology including both exploratory and explanatory case study approaches. The main outcomes of this research leads to a standardized framework that can be used for assessing the quality of a standalone land administration system within a country’s environment.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effectiveness of Modular Training at Farmers’ Training Center: Evidence from Fogera District, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

1Addis Ababa University College of Development Studies Center for Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 46-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wuletaw Mekuria. Effectiveness of Modular Training at Farmers’ Training Center: Evidence from Fogera District, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):46-52. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Wuletaw  Mekuria, Addis Ababa University College of Development Studies Center for Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: wuletaw.m@gmail.com

Abstract

Training helps to enhance human capabilities in improving the level of thinking and ways of life. However, in rural Ethiopia, access to modular training is not well deliberated. This paper is attempted to understand effectiveness of modular training at farmers’ training centre in Fogera district. The aim of the research was identifying the knowledge gap of the farmers, linkages of institutions and positive deviances of training centres. The study was conducted in 2010 from 120 households selected in systematic random sampling. Interview schedule was applied for data collection supplemented with field observation and focused group discussion. Teacher made test, practice test, Likert scale and linkage matrix were employed to examine the effectiveness of modular training. The result revealed that knowledge, skill, attitude and institutional linkage are essential variables which influence effectiveness of modular training significantly. This study has also shown that trained farmers are likely to be positive deviants in beekeeping than untrained farmers. Even though the duration and seasons of training were adequate and convenient, low participation of women and theoretical nature of trainings made the program ineffective. This implies that practical training and integration of actors enable to diversify production potentials. Emphasis should be given for proper functioning of training centres that could be achieved through stability of the program, institutional linkage and knowledge management schemes.

Keywords

References

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[11]  MoE (Ministry of Education), 2008. Review of the Ethiopian Education. Executive summary of training policy and implementation. Addis Ababa Ethiopia.
 
[12]  Tsion Tesfaye, 2008. Effectiveness of training offered by an Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research to farmers. The case of Holeta, Melkasa, and Debre Zeit Agricultural Research centers. An MSc Thesis presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia. 58p.
 
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Article

Psychological Characteristics and Non-farm Livelihood Options of Rural Youth in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh India

1Department of Extension Education and Rural Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University Jabalpur 482004 (MP), India


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 53-58
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Victor Chibuzor Umunnakwe. Psychological Characteristics and Non-farm Livelihood Options of Rural Youth in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh India. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):53-58. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Victor  Chibuzor Umunnakwe, Department of Extension Education and Rural Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University Jabalpur 482004 (MP), India. Email: chivicumunna@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many rural youth are faced with difficulty of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them. The importance of income generating activities to rural livelihood cannot be over-emphasized. The paper examined the involvement of rural youth in non-farm income generating activities and their psychological characteristics as well as the relationship between their psychological characteristics and their involvement in non-farm income generating activities. Multi-stage random sampling was used to collect data from 247 respondents through interview schedule and data was categorized with mean and standard deviation while Pearson Product Moment Correction (PPMC) was used to test relationships. The results revealed that majority of the respondents had medium risk orientation, economic motivation and innovativeness while first degree and business were the aspired educational attainment and occupation by majority respectively. The findings also showed that majority of rural youth were conservative and fatalistic. Petty trading and pottery were the most and least ranked income generating activities participated by the respondents. Achievement motivation (r = 0.455, P < 0.01), risk orientation (r = 0.364, P < 0.01), economic motivation (r = 0.446, P < 0.01) and innovativeness (r = 0.345, P < 0.01) had a significant positive relationships with involvement in non-farm income generating activities whereas educational aspiration (r = -0.222, P < 0.01), occupational aspiration (r = -0.133, P < 0.05), conservatism-liberalism (r = -0.407, P < 0.01) and fatalism-scienticism (r = -0.327, P < 0.01) had significant and negative relationships with involvement in non-farm income generating activities. Governmental and non-governmental organizations should take into consideration all non-farm income generating activities engaged in by rural youth as well as the above psychological variables when initiating and embarking on programmes targeted at improving their livelihoods.

Keywords

References

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Article

Engaging the Extreme Poor People with Private Sector for Livelihood Resilience

1NOHA Mundus Scholar at the Uppsala University, Sweden and Post Graduate Fellow, Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management, Asian Institute of Management, Philippines


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(4), 59-67
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Mizanur Rahman. Engaging the Extreme Poor People with Private Sector for Livelihood Resilience. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(4):59-67. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: M.  Mizanur Rahman, NOHA Mundus Scholar at the Uppsala University, Sweden and Post Graduate Fellow, Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management, Asian Institute of Management, Philippines. Email: mithunmds07@gmail.com

Abstract

Bangladesh made significant improvement in reducing poverty since its independence in 1971 however, diverse developmental challenges remain. The role of public, private and non-governmental actors in poverty reduction has been widely recognized in the literature. Numerous private sector initiatives are proliferating within NGOs’ project portfolios as an opportunity for an innovative approach to poverty reduction. Despite this progress, studies have shown that the degree to which households above the poverty remain highly vulnerable and could slide back into poverty when faced with an economic shock such as loss of working opportunity, food price inflation, illness, natural disasters and other crises. Therefore, beyond attention to poverty alleviation, addressing households’ resilience is crucial to make this progress sustainable. Using a case study approach, this study investigates how a private sector intervention undertaken by NGOs effectively helps the extreme poor households build their livelihood resilience. The case study considered in this research is based on the Social and Economic Transformation of the Ultra-poor (SETU) project of CARE Bangladesh regarding its collaboration with Classical Handmade Products-BD (CHP-BD), an export oriented rug-manufacturing company. Under this collaboration in SETU (phase-1), nearly 270 females from extremely poor households (i.e. SETU project beneficiaries) engaged in rug production of CHP-BD who could create resilient livelihoods and moved them from lower productivity housemaid works to higher productivity rug factory working though they had to face income shock due to a sudden closure of the factories for a couple of months. The study analyses the coping strategies adopted by the workers during the closure. It explores the ways in which workers learnt from this event and changed their behaviour in terms of savings, income diversification and strengthening social connections. The author also analyses how this change in behaviour helps them build livelihood resilience towards potential shocks.

Keywords

References

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Article

Rural Water Supply and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Case Analysis of Akwa Ibom State

1Department of Public Administration, Akwa Ibom State University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(4), 68-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Enefiok E. Ibok, Ekong E. Daniel. Rural Water Supply and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Case Analysis of Akwa Ibom State. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(4):68-73. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Ekong  E. Daniel, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email: ekongdan@yahoo.com

Abstract

Generally, the level of water supply in Akwa Ibom State is poor. The situation is pathetic in the rural areas where water is either scarce or costly when it is available. Many trek several kilometres every morning and evening in search of water while others depend on polluted water from ponds, stream, rainwater and floods for domestic use, thereby increasing health hazard. After eighteen (18) years of the establishment of the Akwa Ibom State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (AKRUWATSAN), coupled with the huge Akwa Ibom State Government expenditure on the provision of water in the rural areas of the State, the situation does not seem to improve. What factors are responsible for the disproportionate water situation in the rural areas? This study attempted to identify the factors. The reports of Akwa Ibom State Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (AK-RUWATSAN) 2012 – 2013 were reviewed to determine the number of rural water projects undertaken in the study area during the period of the report. Structured interviews were conducted with a total of 249 randomly selected respondents in 83 purposively selected communities. The study revealed that Akwa Ibom State Government has developed a total of 83 mini-water projects in the same number of rural communities to boast the supply of clean and safe water in 13 Local Government Areas during the study period. The study has discovered lack of maintenance, lack of community participation, lack of coordination and co-operation among the stakeholders, political factor, inefficient monitoring, and poor attitude towards public property to be the factors responsible for the incommensurate rural water situation in the study area. Rain water harvesting with its various advantages among other strategies has been recommended.

Keywords

References

[1]  Akwa Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (AK-RUWATSAN) Executive Summary, 2000, p. 2.
 
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