You are here

American Journal of Rural Development

ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770

Editor-in-Chief: Chi-Ming Lai

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJRD

   

Article

Determinants of Inefficiency in Vegetable Farms: Implications for Improving Rural Household Income in Nepal

1Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Singhadurbar, Kathmandu

2National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan

3South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal


American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(5), 105-113
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rudra Bahadur Shrestha, Wen-Chi Huang, Pai-Po Lee, Yam Bahadur Thapa. Determinants of Inefficiency in Vegetable Farms: Implications for Improving Rural Household Income in Nepal. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(5):105-113. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Wen-Chi  Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan. Email: wenchi@mail.npust.edu.tw

Abstract

Improving household income is a critical issue for rural sustainable economic development in the world, particularly in developing countries. Enhancing the productive efficiency of vegetable farms help to increase farmers’ income and that contribute to reduce rural poverty. This paper evaluates the productive efficiency and identifies the determinants of inefficiency in vegetable farms adopting stochastic translog production function using survey data. The results reveal that the vegetable farms are inefficient and have substantial potential to improve the efficiency levels with greater access to agricultural markets, higher levels of farmers’ education, and increased number of trainings to the farmers. In addition, women empowerment in vegetable farming with incentive packages consisting of agricultural support services and superior technologies would improve productivity and efficiency in vegetable production that increase household income of the farmers.

Keywords

References

[1]  Adhikari, C. B. and Bjørndal, T. 2009. Measuring the Extent of Technical Inefficiency in Nepalese Agriculture Using SDF and DEA Models. Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen, Norway.
 
[2]  Abdulai, A. and Eberlin, R.. 2001. Technical Efficiency during Economic Reform in Nicaragua: Evidence from Farm Household Survey Data. Economic Systems 25: 113-125.
 
[3]  Aigner, D., Lovell, C.A. K. and Schmidt, P. 1977. Formulation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models. Journal of Econometrics 6:21-37.
 
[4]  Akobundu, E., Alwang, J., Essel A., Norton, G. W. and Tegene, A. 2004. Does Extension Work? Impacts of a Program to Assist Limited-Resource Farmers in Virginia. Review of Agricultural Economics 26 (3):361-372.
 
[5]  Atreya, K. 2007. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Community Integrated Pest Management Training in Nepal. Agriculture and Human Values 24 (3):399-409.
 
Show More References
[6]  AVRDC. 2010. Prosperity for the Poor & Health for All: Strategic Plan 2011-2025. AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center, Thainan, Taiwan.
 
[7]  Battese, G. E. and Coelli, T. J. 1995. A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data. Empirical Economics 20:325-332.
 
[8]  Battese, G. E. and Corra, G. S. 1977. Estimation of a Production Frontier Model: With Application to the Pastoral Zone of Eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 21 (3):169-179.
 
[9]  Bernard, T., and D. J. Spielman. 2009. Reaching the Rural Poor through Rural Producer Organizations? A Study of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Ethiopia. Food Policy 34:60-69.
 
[10]  Bhatta, K. P., Ishida, A., Taniguchi, K. and Sharma, R. 2008. Whose Extension Matters? Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Agricultural Extension on the Technical Efficiency of Rural Nepalese Farms. Journal of South Asian Development 3(2): 269-295.
 
[11]  Bozoğlu, M., and Ceyhan, V. 2007. Measuring the Technical Efficiency and Exploring the Inefficiency Determinants of Vegetable Farms in Samsun Province, Turkey. Agriculture Systems 94 (3): 649-656.
 
[12]  CBS. 2013. Statistical Year Book of Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning commission Secretariat, The Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[13]  Coelli, T. J. 1995. Recent Development in Frontier Modeling and Efficiency Measurement. Australian Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics 39 (3): 219-245.
 
[14]  Coelli, T. J. 1996. A Guide to Frontier Version 4.1: A Computer Program for Stochastic Frontier Production and Cost Function Estimation. Department of Econometrics, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
 
[15]  Coelli, T. J., and Battese, G. 1996. Identification of Factors Which Influence the Technical Inefficiency of Indian Farmers. Austalian Journmal of Agriculture and Resource Economics 40(2): 103-128.
 
[16]  Dhungana, B. R., Nuthall, P. L. and Nartea, G. V. 2004. Measuring the Economic Inefficiency of Nepalese Rice Farms Using Data Envelopment Analysis. Austalian Journmal of Agriculture and Resource Economics 48(2):347-369.
 
[17]  Enwerem, V. A. and Ohajianya, D.O. 2013. Farm Size and Technical Efficiency of Rice Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Science 3 (2):128-136.
 
[18]  FAO. 2000. Gender and IPM in Nepal. The FAO Program for Community IPM in Asia, Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 
[19]  FAO. 2011. The Role of Women in Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 
[20]  Ferrari, A., Jaffrin, G. and Shrestha, S. R. 2007. Access to Financial Services in Nepal. Finance and Private Sector Development Unit, South Asia Region, the World Bank.
 
[21]  Hussain, A., Saboor, A., Khan, M. A., Mohsin, Q. A. and Hassan, F. 2012. Technical Efficiency of Wheat Production in Rain-Fed Areas: A Case Study of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(4):593-596.
 
[22]  Jia, X., Huang, J. and Xu, Z. 2012. Marketing of Farmer Professional Cooperatives in the Wave of Transformed Agrofood Market in China. China Economic Review 23(3):665-674.
 
[23]  Joshi, N. N. and Karki, R. 2010. Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Production to Promote Livelihood and Food Security in The Rural Hills of Nepal. Rural Reconstruction Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[24]  Kim, Man-Keun, Curtis, K. R. and Yeager, I. 2014. An Assessment of Market Strategies for Small-Scale Produce Growers. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 17(3).
 
[25]  Kumar, C. S., Turvey, C. G. and Kropp, J. D. 2013. The Impact of Credit Constraints on Farm Households: Survey Results from India and China. Applied Economic Perspective and Policy 35(3):508-527.
 
[26]  Lemeilleur, S. and Codron, Jean-Marie. 2011. Marketing Cooperative Vs. Commission Agent: The Turkish Dilemma on the Modern Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Market. Food Policy 36(2):272-279.
 
[27]  Mehta, A. K. and Shah, A. 2003. Chronic Poverty in India: Incidence, Causes and Policies. World Development 31: 491-511.
 
[28]  Minten, B., Vandeplas, A., Ghorpade, Y. and Swinnen, J. F. M. 2010. Horticulture Wholesale Trade and Governance in India: Evidence from Uttarakhand. Journal of South Asian Development 5: 113-136.
 
[29]  MOAD. 2004. National Agricilture Policy. Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[30]  MOAD. 2013. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture. Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[31]  MOAD. 2014. Agriculture Development Strategy. Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[32]  NARC. 2010. NARC’s Strategic Vision for Agricultural Research 2011-2030. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[33]  Nisrane, F., Berhane, G., Asrat, S., Getachew, G., Taffesse, A. S. and Hoddinott, J. 2011. Sources of Inefficiency and Growth in Agricultural Output in Subsistence Agriculture: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis. International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America.
 
[34]  NPC. 1995. Nepal Agriculture Perspective Plan 1995. National Planning Commision, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[35]  NPC.2014. Thirteenth Interim Development Plan 2014-2016. National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
 
[36]  Ojo, M. A., Mohammed, U. S., Ojo, A. O. and Olaleye, R. S. 2009. Return to Scale and Determinants of Farm Level Technical Inefficiency among Small Scale Yam Based Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria: Implications for Food Security. International Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development 2(1).
 
[37]  Oladeebo, J. O. and Fajuyigbe, A. A. 2007. Technical Efficiency of Men and Women Upland Rice Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 22(2):93-100.
 
[38]  Olagunju, F. I., Fakayode, S. B. R., Babatunde, O. and Ogunwole-Olapade, F.. 2013. Gender Analysis of Sweet Potato Production in Osun State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology 2(1).
 
[39]  Paudel, P. and Matsuoka, A. 2009. Cost efficiency Estimates of Maize Production in Nepal: A Case Study of the Chitwan district. Agricultural Economics-Czech 55(3):139-148.
 
[40]  Poulton, C., Dorward, A. and Kydd, J. 2010. The Future of Small Farms: New Directions for Services, Institutions, and Intermediation. World Development 38(10):1413-1428.
 
[41]  Pudasaini, S. P. 1984. Production and Price Response of Crops in Nepal. Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 
[42]  Rahman, S. 2010. Women’s Labor Contribution to Productivity and Efficiency in Agriculture: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Agricultural Economics 61(2):318-342.
 
[43]  Sapkota, K. 2004. Gender Perspectives on Peri-Urban Agriculture in Nepal. Tribhuwan University, Nepal.
 
[44]  SAARC. 2014: Best Practices in Poverty Alleviation and SDGs in South Asia: A Compendoum SAARC 2014. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 
[45]  Shrestha, R. B., Huang, Wen-Chi, Gautam, S. and Johnson, T. G. 2015. Efficiency of Small Scale Vegetable Farms: Policy Implications for Rural Poverty Reduction in Nepal. Agricultural Economics –Czech 62:181-195.
 
[46]  Shrestha, R. B., Huang, Wen-Chi and Pradhan, U. 2015. Women’s Labor Contribution on the Efficiency of Smallholder Vegetable Farms: Evidence from Mountain Region of Nepal. International Journal of Research 2(5):167-179.
 
[47]  Spieldoch, A. 2011. Key Role of Rural Women in Achieving Food Security. European Forum on Rural Development, Palencia, Spain.
 
[48]  Thapa, G. and Gaiha, R. 2011. Smallholder Farming in Asia and the Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities. International Fund for Agriculture Development, Rome.
 
[49]  Wiggins, S., Kirsten, J. and Llambi, L. 2010. The Future of Small Farms. World Development 38 (10):1341-1348.
 
[50]  World Bank. 2003. Reaching the Rural Poor: A Renewed Strategy for Rural Development. World Bank, Wasington D. C., United States of America.
 
Show Less References

Article

Food Habit and Nutritional Status of Rural Women in Bangladesh

1Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Social Work, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3Department of Anthropology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

4Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(5), 114-119
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mahfuza Khanom Sheema, Md. Redwanur Rahman, Zakia Yasmin, Md. Shahidur Rahman Choudhary, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Fozla Rabbi, Akib Javed. Food Habit and Nutritional Status of Rural Women in Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(5):114-119. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Md.  Redwanur Rahman, Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: redwan_rahman@lycos.com

Abstract

The study aims to understand the food habit and dietary nutritional status of rural women in Bangladesh. The research is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data collected from a structured questionnaire survey through interview and observation when some secondary data also collected from different sources. 384 respondents have been interviewed form nine villages of Ishwardi, Pabna; a North-Western district of Bangladesh. According to primary survey, 90% of our respondents are literate and 43% households earn less than monthly 16 thousand local currencies equivalent to around 200 USD. Every four out of five women are housewife or work in home and rest of them work outside. Rice is the staple food where 38.06% respondents took rice three times per day and 54.72% women have rice twice. Around 64% respondents took fruits daily but around 80% respondents have chicken on weekly basis. Even, 17.9% people took chicken monthly basis. Less than 2% women drink milk daily and 50.3% women drink on weekly basis. 50.52% respondents have normal body mass index (BMI) condition. The women from Hindu religious background are vegetarian in general. So they don’t consume animal beef, meat or chicken. 63.3% women ate egg once in a week and 3.67% consume it daily. Though the overall dietary condition of women is improving in developing country like Bangladesh, but it is still not sufficient for many.

Keywords

References

[1]  Buttriss, J. L., “Food and nutrition: Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge in the United Kingdom,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(Suppl.). 1985-1995. 1997.
 
[2]  Crawford, D. and Baghurst, K. I., “Diet and health - a national survey of beliefs, behaviours and barriers to change in the community,” Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 47. 97-104. 1990.
 
[3]  Weiler, H. A., Leslie, W. D., Krahn, J., Steiman, P. W., & Metge, C. J., “Canadian Aboriginal women have a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than non-Aboriginal women despite similar dietary vitamin D intakes,” The Journal of nutrition, 137(2). 461-465. 2007.
 
[4]  Heartbreak, M., Some Good News at Last for Bangladesh, Time Megazine, 2010.
 
[5]  Parveen, S. and Rahman,C. M. S., Micro-credit Intervention and its Effects on empowerment of Rural Women, BRAC, 2009.
 
Show More References
[6]  WHO/FAO, Preparation and use of Food-based Dietary Guidelines. Nutrition Programme, Geneva: WHO, 1996.
 
[7]  Kaplan, G. A. and Keil, J., “Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review,” Circulation, 88. 1973-1998, 1993.
 
[8]  Sutherns, R., McPhedran, M. and Haworth-Brockman, M., “Rural, remote and northern women’s health: Policy and research directions—Final summary report,” Winnipeg, CA: Centres of Excellent for Women’s Health, 2004, Retrieved January 20, 2006, from http://www.pwhce.ca.
 
[9]  Lester, I., Australia's food and nutrition. Canberra: GPS, 1994.
 
[10]  Allen, L. H, Black, A. K, Backstrand, J. R, Pelto, G. H, Ely, R. D, Molina, E and Chavez, A., “An analytical approach for exploring the importance of dietary quality versus quantity in the growth of mexican children,” Food Nutr. Bull. 13. 95-104, 1991.
 
[11]  Onyango, A., Koski, K. G.and Tucker, K. L.,” Food diversity versus breastfeeding choice in determining anthropometric status in rural Kenyan toddlers,” Int. J. Epidemiol. 27. 484-489, 1998.
 
[12]  Davey, S. G. and Brunner, E., “Socioeconomic differentials in health: the role of nutrition,” Proceedings of Nutrition and Society, 56. 75-90, 1997.
 
[13]  Nestle, M., Wing, R., Birch, L., DiSogra, L., Drewnowski, A., Middleton, S., “Behavioral and social influences on food choice,” Nutrition Reviews, 56(5). 50-74, 1998.
 
[14]  Steele, P., Dobson, A., Alexander, H. and Russell, A., “Who eats what? A comparison of dietary patterns among men and women in different occupational groups,” Australian Journal of Public Health, 15(4). 286-294, 1991.
 
[15]  Shamim AA, Mashreky SR, Ferdous T, Tegenfeldt K, Roy S, Rahman AF, Rashid I, Haque R, Rahman Z, Hossen K, Siddiquee SR., “Pregnant Women Diet Quality and Its Sociodemographic Determinants in Southwestern Bangladesh”, Food and nutrition bulletin, 37(1):14-26, 2016.
 
[16]  Ahmed F, Mahmuda I, Sattar A, Akhtaruzzaman M., “Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh”, Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 12(4), 460-466, 2003.
 
[17]  Charles, N.and Kerr, M., “Women food and families”, Mancester, Manchester University Press, 1988.
 
[18]  Martens L., “Gender and consumption: Domestic cultures and the commercialisation of everyday life”, Routledge, 40-44, 2016.
 
[19]  Drewnowski, A. and Specter, S., “Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs,” American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 79. 6-16, 2004.
 
[20]  Inglis V, Ball K, Crawford D., “Why do women of low socioeconomic status have poorer dietary behaviours than women of higher socioeconomic status? A qualitative exploration.” Appetite, 45(3). 334-343, 2005.
 
[21]  Konttinen H, Sarlio-Lähteenkorva S, Silventoinen K, Männistö S, Haukkala A., “Socio-economic disparities in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and energy-dense foods: the role of motive priorities”, Public health nutrition, 16(05). 873-82, 2013.
 
[22]  Dowler, E., “Inequalities in diet and physical activity in Europe,” Public Health and Nutrition, 4(2B). 701-709, 2001.
 
Show Less References

Article

Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Rural Maasai pastoralist in Kenya

1Institute for climate change and adaptation, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya


American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(6), 120-128
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bobadoye A.O., Ogara W.O., Ouma G.O., Onono J.O.. Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Rural Maasai pastoralist in Kenya. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(6):120-128. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: Bobadoye  A.O., Institute for climate change and adaptation, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya. Email: bobadoyed@gmail.com

Abstract

The aim of this study is to assess adaptation and coping strategies of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and identify viable adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change among Maasai pastoralist in the arid and semi-arid (ASALS) in Kenya. The study was carried out in Kajiado County and multiple data collection techniques such as in-depth interview with 305 households, focus group discussion, and key informant interview were used to assess adaptation strategies of pastoralist household and identify viable adaptation options for the study area. Rainfall data used for the study was also collected from Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS) and used for standard precipitation index (SPI) analysis. SPI was used to analyze drought severity in the study area between 1970 and 2013. SPI was designed to quantify precipitation deficit for multiple time scale. Results showed that drought is the major climatic challenge affecting pastoralist in the study area. The SPI result showed increase in drought occurrence in Kajiado County in recent years with six years (2000, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011) having negative SPI values between 2000-2011. The year 2000 was also the driest year recorded in the study with an SPI value of -3.09. The study also showed that Maasai pastoralists already have many adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate extremes. However, increase in drought occurrence in the last few years is reducing their resilience. This study observed that most of the adaptation and coping strategies adopted by Maasai pastoralist are autonomous and are unlikely to build resilience of pastoralist livelihoods and ecosystems to cope with the projected magnitude and scale of climate change in the 21st Century. The study identified adaptation strategies such as effective early warning system, water harvesting, rapid infrastructural development, encouraging table banking and cooperative societies, Building and equipping schools, migration, livestock diversification and child education as long term no regret adaptation option that can enhance resilience of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and its extremes in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya.

Keywords

References

[1]  Amwata, D.A. (2013). The influence of climate variability and change on Land–use and Livelihoods in Kenya’s Southern rangelands. A PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi.
 
[2]  Bryan, E., Deressa, T.T., Gbetibuo, G.A., and Ringler, C. (2009). Adaptation to climate change In Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints. Environmental Science Policy 12(4): 413-426.
 
[3]  Camberlin, P. and Philippon, N. (2002). The East African March–May Rainy Season: Associated Atmospheric Dynamics and Predictability over the 1968-97 Period. Journal of Climate 15 (9): 1002-1019.
 
[4]  CBS (1981).The 1979 population census. Ministry of Finance and Planning, Nairobi, Kenya.
 
[5]  Ellis, J.E. and Swift. D.M. (1988). Stability of African pastoral ecosystems: alternate paradigms and implications for development. Journal of Range Management 41: 450-459.
 
Show More References
[6]  Galaty, J.G. & Johnson, D. (eds). (1990). The world of pastoralism: herding systems in comparative perspective. New York, Guilford Press; London, Belhaven Press.
 
[7]  GOK (2013), Government of Kenya. County Government of Kajiado, County Integrated Development Plan 2013-2017.
 
[8]  GOK (2005), Government of Kenya. Millenium Development Goals - Status Report for Kenya at: <http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Kenya/Kenya_Second_MDG_Report.pdf>. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
 
[9]  GOK (2009), Government of Kenya. National policy for sustainable development of Northern Kenya and other arid lands; Sessional Paper No.8 of 2012, Republic of Kenya.
 
[10]  Huho, J.M. and Kosonei, R.C. (2014). Understanding Extreme Climatic Events for Economic Development in Kenya. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 8 (2): 14-25.
 
[11]  Howden, D. (2009). The great drought in East Africa; No rainfall for three years.
 
[12]  IPCC (2007). Parry M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., Van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. ED. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of the working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental panel on Climate change, Cambridge University Press.
 
[13]  IPCC. (2001). Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptations and Vulnerability. Report of working group II. Synthesis report. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
 
[14]  Kagunyu, A.W. (2014). Effect of climate variability on the livelihood and coping strategies of the Borona community in Isiolo County, Northern Kenya. A PhD thesis submitted to the Institute of Arthropology, Gender and African studies, University of Nairobi.
 
[15]  Little, M.A., and P.W. Leslie. (eds). (1999). Turkana herders of the dry Savanna: Ecology and biobehavioral response of nomads to an uncertain environment, Oxford University Press, New York.
 
[16]  McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J. and Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society pp. 179-184.
 
[17]  McCabe, J.T. (2006). Cattle bring us to our enemies. Turkana ecology, politics, and raiding in a disequilibrium system. Human Ecology 34(1): 147-149.
 
[18]  Ogallo, L.A. (2004). Traditional indicators used for climate monitoring and prediction by some rural communities in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi, Kenya.
 
[19]  Omolo, N. A (2010). “Gender and climate change induced conflict in pastoral communities: Case study of Turkana in Northwestern Kenya”. In: African Journal of Conflict Resolution, 102:81-102.
 
[20]  Ongoro, E. B. and Ogara W. O. (2011). The Niche of Sociology in the Climate Change Debate. The Professional Journal Vol.3, 21-26.
 
[21]  Opiyo, E. O. (2014). Climate variability and change on vulnerability and adaptation among turukana pastoralist in north-western Kenya. A PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Rangeland management, University of Nairobi.
 
[22]  Osano, P. M., Mohammed Y. S., de Leeuw, J., Stephen S. M., Ole Kaelo, D., Schomers, S., Birner, R. and. Ogutu, J. O. (2013). Pastoralism and ecosystem-based adaptation in Kenyan Masailand. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 5(2): 198-21.
 
[23]  Prewitt, K. (1975). Introductory research methodology East African applications. Institute of Development Studies, Occasion Paper 10, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
 
[24]  Rao, K.P.C., W.G. Ndegwa, K. Kizito, and Oyoo, A. (2011). Climate variability and change: farmer perceptions and understanding of intra-seasonal variability in rainfall and associated risk in semi-arid Kenya. Experimental Agriculture 47, 267-291.
 
[25]  Silvestri, S., Bryan, E., Ringler, C., Herrero, M. and Okoba, B. (2012). Climate change perception and adaptation of agro-pastoral communities in Kenya. Regional Environmental Change 12 (4): 791-802.
 
[26]  Serigne, T. and L. Verchot (2006). .Impacts of Adaptation to Climate Variability and Climate Change in the East African Community: A Focus on the Agricultural Sector. Nairobi: World Agro-forestry Centre (ICRAF).
 
[27]  Tasokwa, V.M.K. (2011). The impact of climate variability and extreme weather events on gender and household vulnerability to food insecurity. PhD thesis, University of Nairobi.
 
[28]  Thornton, P. K., Jones, P. G., Owiyo, T., Kruska, R. L., Herrero, M., Kristjanson, P., Notenbaert, A., Bekele, N., Omolo, A., Orindi, V., Otiende, B., Ochieng, A., Bhadwal, S., Anantram, K., Nair, S., Kumar, V. and Kulkar, U. (2006). Mapping Climate Vulnerability and Poverty in Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, International livestock research institute, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 171.
 
[29]  UNDP/BCPR (2004). Reducing disaster risk. A challenge for development. New York. UNDP/Bureau For Crisis Prevention and Recovery. Available at: http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/rdr.htm.
 
[30]  UNEP, (2002). Global environment Outloook 3. Past, present and future perspectives. London: Earthscan.
 
[31]  Wasonga, V.O. (2009). Linkage between land use, land degradation and poverty in semi arid rangeland of Kenya. The case of Baringu District. PhD thesis, University of Nairobi Kenya.
 
[32]  Wasonga, V.O., Van de steeg, J, Ouma, R and Mude, A. (2010). Risk management and adaptation options for pastoral and agro pastoral systems in east and central Africa: A review paper on certainty in current seasonal rainfall and future climate variability and change, ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya.
 
[33]  Winnie, L., J. Mcpeak, C. Barret, P. Little and G. Getchew (2002). Assessing the Value of Climate Forecast Information for Pastoralists: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
 
Show Less References