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Article

Determinants of Poverty Incidence among Rural Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Joseph Ayo Babalola University (JABU), Ikeji Arakeji, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria

3Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2013, 1(5), 131-137
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-1-5-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O. Igbalajobi, A.I. Fatuase, I. Ajibefun. Determinants of Poverty Incidence among Rural Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2013; 1(5):131-137. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-1-5-5.

Correspondence to: A.I.  Fatuase, Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Email: firstwalefat@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study empirically analyzed the determinants of poverty among rural farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and a sample of 285 farm households through a multistage sampling technique was drawn from the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measure, Gini coefficient and probit regression analysis. The findings revealed that 81.8%, 81.1% and 34.1% of the respondents were male, married and no formal education respectively. The average household’s age was over 50 years’ old which implies that the respondents were fairly old and experienced. 59.3% of the respondents were actually poor while 27.6% of the poverty line (580.42 USD) was needed to get out of poverty. The result of Gini coefficient (0.492) implies average level of income inequality among the respondents. The result of logit regression model indicated that age, gender, marital status, household size, access to credit, farm income and educational level of the respondents were the major determinants of poverty among rural farm households. It was further shown that reducing the frequency of eating per day, engaged in non-farming activities, praying and fasting, and seeking help from friends/relatives were the major strategies for coping with poverty syndrome in the study area. Therefore, government should design holistic policies that will focus on the factors highlighted above in order to alleviate poverty and improve the welfare of the rural farmers in the study area.

Keywords

References

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Article

Structural Performance of Artisanal Fish Marketing in Ondo State, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lawrence Olusola Oparinde, Sylvester Oluwadare Ojo. Structural Performance of Artisanal Fish Marketing in Ondo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Lawrence  Olusola Oparinde, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Email: looparinde@futa.edu.ng

Abstract

Fish is an important source of protein which is highly needed for human beings to experience necessary growth and development. This is the reason for the phenomenal rise in the consumption of fish in order to meet up with the body nutritional requirements. Therefore, marketing of this source of protein is inevitable as its distribution depends largely on the structure of the marketing system. This study examined the structural performance of artisanal fish marketing in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data collected from 250 artisanal fish sellers selected using multistage sampling technique were analysed using descriptive statistics, marketing and gross margin, Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve analyses. The results showed that artisanal fish marketing was profitable with a mean net return of N137.10/kg ($0.85/kg). The estimated value of the Gini coefficient determined was 0.64, indicating the presence of inequality in the share of the artisanal fish market in the study area. It was realized that all the respondents in the study area, mentioned poor transport network, high transport cost, inadequate fund and inadequate storage facilities as major problems confronting artisanal fish market in the study area. Therefore, programmes that will improve fish marketing should be organized for fish marketers by the relevant government parastatals, extension workers, Non Governmental Organizations and the artisanal fish marketers should be sensitized on the formation of better organized fish marketing cooperative societies where they can solve some of their problems themselves.

Keywords

References

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Article

Knowledge of Transmission, Malaria Belief and Health-Seeking Behaviour in Oye-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

1Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abiodun M. Lawal, Shyngle K. Balogun, Bukola V. Bada. Knowledge of Transmission, Malaria Belief and Health-Seeking Behaviour in Oye-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Abiodun  M. Lawal, Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Email: abiodunla2002@gmail.com

Abstract

Malaria fever appears to be one of the leading causes of mortality in Nigeria. Improper health seeking behaviour for effective treatment is still a great concern for health practitioners especially in rural areas. The study examined knowledge of causes of malaria and malaria belief as determinants of health seeking-behaviour in Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti sate, Nigeria. A cross sectional survey research design was used to examine variables of interest in the study. A sample of 187 (86 males, 101 females) community members with mean age of 25.95 years participated in the study. Three hypotheses were tested in the research. Knowledge of causes of malaria has a significant influence on health-seeking behaviour (t = 3.98; df = 185; p < .05). Malaria belief has no significant influence on health-seeking behaviour among respondents (t = -1.36; df = 185; p > 0.05). Gender has no significant influence on health-seeking behaviour (t = 0.51; df = 185; p > .05). It is concluded that knowledge of the transmission of malaria is still vital in seeking for effective treatment measures in rural area like Oye-Ekiti, in Ekiti state. There is a need for a community-based enlightenment on transmission of malaria in this area for effective health seeking-behaviour.

Keywords

References

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Article

Achieving Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Nigeria through Local Economic Development Strategies

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(1), 13-19
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iwala Oladapo Sam. Achieving Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Nigeria through Local Economic Development Strategies. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(1):13-19. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Iwala  Oladapo Sam, Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Email: daposoniwala@yahoo.com

Abstract

All around the world, local governments, the private sector and even the civil society are exploring better ways to achieve poverty reduction and rural development through local economic development strategies, the corner stone of sustainable national development. This is sequel to the fact that local governments, particularly in Nigeria face increased challenges of poor qualitative leadership, financial indiscipline, almost absolute reliance on allocation from the federated account / low internally generated revenues, pervasive poverty, income inequality, long-term ethnic conflict and civil unrest, political instability and corruption among others. Meanwhile, massive transformations are taking place in the global economy resulting from trade liberalization, privatization and enhanced telecommunications. The significance of this paradox to Nigeria is that citizens and local governments now face formidable challenges, greater opportunity and growing responsibility to work together to address the dehumanizing socio-economic conditions of their local citizens, most of whom are under employed or out rightly unemployed and living in absolute poverty. This paper postulates local economic development strategies, a participating process in which local people from all sectors work together to help create decent jobs and improve the quality of life for everyone, including the poor and marginalized as the most potent tool for achieving sustainable poverty reduction and rural transformation in Nigeria.

Keywords

References

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Article

Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Cassava Processing Methods among Small Scale Processors in South – West, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehinmowo O O, S O Ojo. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Cassava Processing Methods among Small Scale Processors in South – West, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: S  O Ojo, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Email: davesojo1993@gmail.com

Abstract

This study employed a stochastic frontier model to analyze the productivity and technical efficiency (TE) of cassava processing methods among small scale processors in South – West, Nigeria. The study was carried out in three states of Ogun, Oyo and Ondo, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. The multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function using a farm level survey data collected from 373 small scale cassava processors. Results showed that cassava processing under local and modern methods was in stage one (stage of inefficiency) of the production region and that processors using the local method of processing cassava were more technically efficient than those using the modern method.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Coelli, T.J, (1996): Recent Developments in Frontier Modeling and Efficiency Measurement” Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol39 (3) 219-245.
 
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[6]  Ojo S O and Ajibefun, I A (2002): Effect of Training on Labour Productivity in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agric. and the Environment, 2(2): 275-279.
 
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Article

Political Commitments and Aspirations of Grassroots Coastal Communities: a Micro-Level Study in Bangladesh

1Community Development Centre (CODEC) Plot No- 2, Road No-2, Lake Valley R/A Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 24-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed Mamun Rashid. Political Commitments and Aspirations of Grassroots Coastal Communities: a Micro-Level Study in Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):24-33. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  Mamun Rashid, Community Development Centre (CODEC) Plot No- 2, Road No-2, Lake Valley R/A Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: rashidmamuns@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper attempts to find out perception of disadvantaged coastal communities about their lives and livelihoods. A total of 400 respondents were surveyed in 27 sub-districts by two sets of questionnaire. Coastal zone of Bangladesh comprises distinctive problems and prospects but relatively income-poor in comparison with rest of the country. Findings reveal that this zone offers immense potential for economic growth. This study finds that duration of Coastal Development Strategy (CDS) is ended in 2010; coastal people urge to revitalize a long-term comprehensive plan for coastal zone and mainstreaming with national & sub-national planning for escalating their well-beings. In concluding this paper, it is suggested to take special attention for coast by political leaders, policy makers, and other actors that will bring a bright and promising future of Bangladesh.

Keywords

References

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Article

Factors Affecting the Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among Coffee Farmers in Chumphon Province, Thailand

1Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(2), 34-39
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pongthong Pongvinyoo, Masahiro Yamao, Kenji Hosono. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among Coffee Farmers in Chumphon Province, Thailand. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(2):34-39. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Pongthong  Pongvinyoo, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan. Email: drkokung01@hotmail.com

Abstract

Thai coffee farmers have exerted much effort to develop GAP-based Robusta coffee production since 2008. However, they still lacked knowledge and experience. Their conventional farming activities are often in conflict with GAP system, which might be caused by the limitation of GAP extension procedure. The objectives of this study were to investigate the current perceptions of GAP Coffee Farmers (GCF)’s understanding of GAP, and to identify the factors affecting such perceptions. A series of surveys were conducted in Chumphon province by using structured questionnaires which were administered to fifty-six (56) coffee farmers who applied for GAP certificates in 2013. This study found that farmers’ GAP self-confidence positively affected, while farmers’ GAP experiences had negative impact to the farmers’ understanding of GAP. This showed the lacking of continuity of GAP extension service, although the GAP promotion was an important factor to increase the farmers’ GAP understanding. The very small number of agricultural extension officers was cited as a detrimental factor. The GAP manual should also be simplified to suit the GCFs educational background.

Keywords

References

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[9]  Hobb, J. E., Incentive for the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices, Background paper for the FAO expert Consultation on a Good Agricultural Practices approach. Rome, Italy, 10-12 November, 2003.
 
[10]  Kersting, S., Wollni, M., “New institutional arrangements and standard adoption: Evidence from small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand”. Food Policy 37, 352-362. 2012.
 
[11]  Mausch, K., Milthofer, D., Asfaw, S., & Waibel, H., “Impact of EurepGAP Standard in Kenya: Comparing Smallholders to Large-scale Vegetable Producers”, International Agricultural Research for Development. 2006
 
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[14]  Salakpetch, S., “Quality Management System: Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for on-farm production in Thailand”. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center. 2007
 
[15]  Van Der Meer, C. L.,“Exclusion of small-scale farmers from coordinated supply chain: Market failure, policy failure or just economies of scale?” In: R. Ruben, M. Slingerland, and H. Nijhoff, eds. Agro-food chains and networks for development, Netherlands: Springer, 2006, 209-217.
 
[16]  Wannamolee, W., Development of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for fruit and vegetables in Thailand, paper present for Training of Trainers in Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Benchmarking: Global GAP for Fruit and Vegetable, Sheraton Subang Hotel and Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14-23 July 2008.
 
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Article

Assessing the Quality Land Administration System in Pakistan Using Systematic Approach of Case Study Methodology

1Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), Karachi, Pakistan

2Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, AE Enschede, the Netherlands


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 40-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zahir Ali, Jaap Zevenbergen, Arbind Tuladhar. Assessing the Quality Land Administration System in Pakistan Using Systematic Approach of Case Study Methodology. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):40-45. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Zahir  Ali, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), Karachi, Pakistan. Email: drzahirali@hotmail.com

Abstract

Land Information System is a tool for legal, administrative and economic decision making as well as an aid for planning and development. The present land administration system in Pakistan is entirely based on paper land records and maps lacking standards with outdated information stored at different administrative levels. Such practice restricts the usefulness of reliable and quality land information for supporting tenure security to citizens, socio-economic development, and urban/rural development including infrastructure. This situation demands for a methodological framework to assess the quality of the existing system before going to take necessary action for quality improvement. There have been a few efforts to standardize the procedures for assessing the quality of land administration systems at international level but there is no internationally accepted or standardized method to assess the quality of a standalone land administration system within a country’s environment. To be able to assess the quality of a standalone land administration system, this paper develops a methodological framework for assessing the quality of the existing land administration system in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan through systematic use of case study methodology including both exploratory and explanatory case study approaches. The main outcomes of this research leads to a standardized framework that can be used for assessing the quality of a standalone land administration system within a country’s environment.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effectiveness of Modular Training at Farmers’ Training Center: Evidence from Fogera District, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

1Addis Ababa University College of Development Studies Center for Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 46-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Wuletaw Mekuria. Effectiveness of Modular Training at Farmers’ Training Center: Evidence from Fogera District, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):46-52. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Wuletaw  Mekuria, Addis Ababa University College of Development Studies Center for Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: wuletaw.m@gmail.com

Abstract

Training helps to enhance human capabilities in improving the level of thinking and ways of life. However, in rural Ethiopia, access to modular training is not well deliberated. This paper is attempted to understand effectiveness of modular training at farmers’ training centre in Fogera district. The aim of the research was identifying the knowledge gap of the farmers, linkages of institutions and positive deviances of training centres. The study was conducted in 2010 from 120 households selected in systematic random sampling. Interview schedule was applied for data collection supplemented with field observation and focused group discussion. Teacher made test, practice test, Likert scale and linkage matrix were employed to examine the effectiveness of modular training. The result revealed that knowledge, skill, attitude and institutional linkage are essential variables which influence effectiveness of modular training significantly. This study has also shown that trained farmers are likely to be positive deviants in beekeeping than untrained farmers. Even though the duration and seasons of training were adequate and convenient, low participation of women and theoretical nature of trainings made the program ineffective. This implies that practical training and integration of actors enable to diversify production potentials. Emphasis should be given for proper functioning of training centres that could be achieved through stability of the program, institutional linkage and knowledge management schemes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Psychological Characteristics and Non-farm Livelihood Options of Rural Youth in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh India

1Department of Extension Education and Rural Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University Jabalpur 482004 (MP), India


American Journal of Rural Development. 2014, 2(3), 53-58
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Victor Chibuzor Umunnakwe. Psychological Characteristics and Non-farm Livelihood Options of Rural Youth in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh India. American Journal of Rural Development. 2014; 2(3):53-58. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Victor  Chibuzor Umunnakwe, Department of Extension Education and Rural Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University Jabalpur 482004 (MP), India. Email: chivicumunna@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many rural youth are faced with difficulty of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them. The importance of income generating activities to rural livelihood cannot be over-emphasized. The paper examined the involvement of rural youth in non-farm income generating activities and their psychological characteristics as well as the relationship between their psychological characteristics and their involvement in non-farm income generating activities. Multi-stage random sampling was used to collect data from 247 respondents through interview schedule and data was categorized with mean and standard deviation while Pearson Product Moment Correction (PPMC) was used to test relationships. The results revealed that majority of the respondents had medium risk orientation, economic motivation and innovativeness while first degree and business were the aspired educational attainment and occupation by majority respectively. The findings also showed that majority of rural youth were conservative and fatalistic. Petty trading and pottery were the most and least ranked income generating activities participated by the respondents. Achievement motivation (r = 0.455, P < 0.01), risk orientation (r = 0.364, P < 0.01), economic motivation (r = 0.446, P < 0.01) and innovativeness (r = 0.345, P < 0.01) had a significant positive relationships with involvement in non-farm income generating activities whereas educational aspiration (r = -0.222, P < 0.01), occupational aspiration (r = -0.133, P < 0.05), conservatism-liberalism (r = -0.407, P < 0.01) and fatalism-scienticism (r = -0.327, P < 0.01) had significant and negative relationships with involvement in non-farm income generating activities. Governmental and non-governmental organizations should take into consideration all non-farm income generating activities engaged in by rural youth as well as the above psychological variables when initiating and embarking on programmes targeted at improving their livelihoods.

Keywords

References

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