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American Journal of Rural Development

ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770

Editor-in-Chief: Chi-Ming Lai




Determinants of Inefficiency in Vegetable Farms: Implications for Improving Rural Household Income in Nepal

1Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Singhadurbar, Kathmandu

2National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan

3South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(5), 105-113
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rudra Bahadur Shrestha, Wen-Chi Huang, Pai-Po Lee, Yam Bahadur Thapa. Determinants of Inefficiency in Vegetable Farms: Implications for Improving Rural Household Income in Nepal. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(5):105-113. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Wen-Chi  Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan. Email:


Improving household income is a critical issue for rural sustainable economic development in the world, particularly in developing countries. Enhancing the productive efficiency of vegetable farms help to increase farmers’ income and that contribute to reduce rural poverty. This paper evaluates the productive efficiency and identifies the determinants of inefficiency in vegetable farms adopting stochastic translog production function using survey data. The results reveal that the vegetable farms are inefficient and have substantial potential to improve the efficiency levels with greater access to agricultural markets, higher levels of farmers’ education, and increased number of trainings to the farmers. In addition, women empowerment in vegetable farming with incentive packages consisting of agricultural support services and superior technologies would improve productivity and efficiency in vegetable production that increase household income of the farmers.



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Food Habit and Nutritional Status of Rural Women in Bangladesh

1Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Social Work, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3Department of Anthropology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

4Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(5), 114-119
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mahfuza Khanom Sheema, Md. Redwanur Rahman, Zakia Yasmin, Md. Shahidur Rahman Choudhary, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Fozla Rabbi, Akib Javed. Food Habit and Nutritional Status of Rural Women in Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(5):114-119. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Md.  Redwanur Rahman, Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email:


The study aims to understand the food habit and dietary nutritional status of rural women in Bangladesh. The research is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data collected from a structured questionnaire survey through interview and observation when some secondary data also collected from different sources. 384 respondents have been interviewed form nine villages of Ishwardi, Pabna; a North-Western district of Bangladesh. According to primary survey, 90% of our respondents are literate and 43% households earn less than monthly 16 thousand local currencies equivalent to around 200 USD. Every four out of five women are housewife or work in home and rest of them work outside. Rice is the staple food where 38.06% respondents took rice three times per day and 54.72% women have rice twice. Around 64% respondents took fruits daily but around 80% respondents have chicken on weekly basis. Even, 17.9% people took chicken monthly basis. Less than 2% women drink milk daily and 50.3% women drink on weekly basis. 50.52% respondents have normal body mass index (BMI) condition. The women from Hindu religious background are vegetarian in general. So they don’t consume animal beef, meat or chicken. 63.3% women ate egg once in a week and 3.67% consume it daily. Though the overall dietary condition of women is improving in developing country like Bangladesh, but it is still not sufficient for many.



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Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Rural Maasai pastoralist in Kenya

1Institute for climate change and adaptation, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(6), 120-128
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bobadoye A.O., Ogara W.O., Ouma G.O., Onono J.O.. Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Rural Maasai pastoralist in Kenya. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(6):120-128. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: Bobadoye  A.O., Institute for climate change and adaptation, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya. Email:


The aim of this study is to assess adaptation and coping strategies of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and identify viable adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change among Maasai pastoralist in the arid and semi-arid (ASALS) in Kenya. The study was carried out in Kajiado County and multiple data collection techniques such as in-depth interview with 305 households, focus group discussion, and key informant interview were used to assess adaptation strategies of pastoralist household and identify viable adaptation options for the study area. Rainfall data used for the study was also collected from Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS) and used for standard precipitation index (SPI) analysis. SPI was used to analyze drought severity in the study area between 1970 and 2013. SPI was designed to quantify precipitation deficit for multiple time scale. Results showed that drought is the major climatic challenge affecting pastoralist in the study area. The SPI result showed increase in drought occurrence in Kajiado County in recent years with six years (2000, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011) having negative SPI values between 2000-2011. The year 2000 was also the driest year recorded in the study with an SPI value of -3.09. The study also showed that Maasai pastoralists already have many adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate extremes. However, increase in drought occurrence in the last few years is reducing their resilience. This study observed that most of the adaptation and coping strategies adopted by Maasai pastoralist are autonomous and are unlikely to build resilience of pastoralist livelihoods and ecosystems to cope with the projected magnitude and scale of climate change in the 21st Century. The study identified adaptation strategies such as effective early warning system, water harvesting, rapid infrastructural development, encouraging table banking and cooperative societies, Building and equipping schools, migration, livestock diversification and child education as long term no regret adaptation option that can enhance resilience of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and its extremes in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya.



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