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American Journal of Rural Development

ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770

Editor-in-Chief: Chi-Ming Lai




Corruption-Related Factors Limiting the Success of Community and Social Development Projects (CSDP) in Imo State, Nigeria

1Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Studies, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(3), 59-64
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Okereke-Ejiogu E.N., Asiabaka C.C., Umunakwe P.C.. Corruption-Related Factors Limiting the Success of Community and Social Development Projects (CSDP) in Imo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(3):59-64. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Umunakwe  P.C., Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Email:


The study analyzed corruption-related factors limiting the effectiveness of Community and Social Development Projects (CSDP) in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it determined the people’s participation in the projects, assessed their perceived effectiveness of the projects, and identified corruption-related constraints to the success of the projects in the study area. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 216 respondents. A set of structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. Data were analyzed using percentages and mean. Results show that effective projects were water borehole (88.4%), drainage systems (88.4%), solid waste management (86.6%) and construction of health centres (86.6%). The result further revealed that theft (90.0%), untimely release of counterpart fund (80.8%), embezzlement of funds by government officials (79.9%), diversion of project equipment (78.0%) and bloating of project cost (78.2%) were the major constraints to CSDP in the study area. The use of participatory approaches in the running of the projects, proper need assessment and strict monitoring and evaluation of projects were recommended for the effectiveness of the project in the study area.



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Value Chain Analysis of Processed Poultry Products (Egg and Meat) in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh

1Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(3), 65-70
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Razia Khatun, Shamim Ahmed, Md. Amirul Hasan, Md. Saiful Islam, A. S. M. Ashab Uddin, Mohammad Showkat Mahmud. Value Chain Analysis of Processed Poultry Products (Egg and Meat) in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(3):65-70. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Md.  Amirul Hasan, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka. Email:


Knowing the existing nature of processed poultry and poultry products marketing system, from producer to consumer via value chain were considered among two mega Districts Dhaka and Chittagong as a respondent. A total of 123 respondent from each districts in 8 different categories of stakeholders those were directly related to this business namely 10 broiler,10 layer farmers; 10 Chain shop; 20 Fast food shops; 15 Chinese restaurants; 20 normal Hotel; 15 wet market Buyer; 20 Consumer and 3 Poultry product processing industries. All actors were randomly selected towards collection of relevant information following pretested questionnaire. Simple statistical tools were applied for analysis of collected data. Surveyed data analysis clearly revealed that for achieving margin of profit, average value addition for farmers cases 13% and 16.5% respectively for meat/kg and eggs/no; for whole seller/Aratdar added extra value 5.09% and 0.28%; and for retailer 7% and 8% level and for whole seller to consumer’s added extra value near about 7% and 5.5% and for meat and egg finally processed poultry meat 30% and further processed meat 125% respectively. During value addition consideration each and every stake holder all production cost factor along with other management activities costing were considered before marketed to one stakeholder or to others. For item-wise of value added poultry meat and eggs were found in different number and names. Average 5-6 no. meat type and 3-4 no egg type for hotel for Chinese restaurant 17-18 no meat products and 8-9 no. egg products, for fast food shop cases 28-30 no. meat products and 6-8 egg products; for chain super market 40-45 no. meat products and 7-8 no. egg products;. The total value added was found higher in Hotel especially for meat cases. Production cost for open market was found only 6.5% whereas for structured or processed market tends to estimate 40.5% because of manages mental, transportation and publicity cost incurs involvement. To flourish or gear-up of processed or further processed poultry & poultry products business in our country profitably need to be set up a well-structured marketing system in replace of wet market. Ensuring available safe and quality poultry and poultry derived food products to meet consumers demand, value chain actors especially entrepreneur public private partnership initiative need to come forward to run processed or further processed business to a great extend.



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Economic Analysis for Construction of Bridge for a Poverty Driven Rural Area in Kurigram District of Bangladesh

1Development Planner, SPGP, JICA, NILG, Agargaon, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

2Department of Economics, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(3), 71-77
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohirul Islam Mohir, Kazi Mostafa Arif. Economic Analysis for Construction of Bridge for a Poverty Driven Rural Area in Kurigram District of Bangladesh. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(3):71-77. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mohirul  Islam Mohir, Development Planner, SPGP, JICA, NILG, Agargaon, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Email:


The aim of this study is to find out the suitability of bridge for a poverty driven rural area in Bangladesh in the context of social and economic aspects. The study employed Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach to capture social benefit and also applied Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) assessing economic aspect. From PRA appaisal it is known that people of the Bridge areas strongly supported construction of Bridge as they perceived that the Bridge has a positive impact on socio-economic condition by changing existing communication system through construction of the proposed bridge. From the Economic Analysis, it is found that the BCR is 1.91, NPV is Tk. 17,645 Lakh and IRR is 31% which thus indicate positive returns of this proposed project. In addition, by construction of the proposed 1490m long bridge over the Teesta river, the travel distance from Chilmari Upazila of Kurigram District to Dhaka would be reduced by about 160 km. The Bridge has a social acceptance and hence it would enhance better communication that would result better economy of study area as well as the nation.



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