You are here:

American Journal of Rural Development

ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)


Military Tactics as Cross-Cultural Public Relations Gesture: Chinese Military Tactics in Tibet as Possible Indicator of Paralleled Chinese Actions Outside of China

1Ohio Dominican University

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(1), 5-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jim Schnell. Military Tactics as Cross-Cultural Public Relations Gesture: Chinese Military Tactics in Tibet as Possible Indicator of Paralleled Chinese Actions Outside of China. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(1):5-9. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Jim  Schnell, Ohio Dominican University. Email:


This report addresses how the military actions of China exemplify public relations gestures of intention within the realm of armed conflict. In doing so Chinese military tactics used in Tibet are interpreted as gestures of intent that can serve as foundation for speculating on possible paralleled Chinese actions outside of China. The study of cross-cultural relations encompasses a wide range of perspectives and contexts. Cross-cultural relations can occur on multiple levels, from subtle nonverbal expressions within interpersonal encounters to bold military attacks that play out in the international arena. The findings conveyed are presented in a developmental progression whereby the preceding section(s) serve as context and foundation for what is conveyed.



[1]  Laird, Thomas. The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. New York: Grove Press, 2006, pp. 301-307.
[2]  “Peoples Liberation Army Invasion of Tibet,” January 17, 2006.
[3]  Pommaret, Fracoise. Tibet: A Wounded Civilization. London: Harry N. Abrams, 2008, p. 105.
[4]  Hanrahan, Claire. Tibet: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Green haven Press, 2009, p. 26.
[5]  Heinrichs, Ann. Tibet: Enchantment of the World. Hong Kong: Grolier Press, 2006, p. 116.
Show More References
6]  Levy, Patricia & Don Bosco. Cultures of the World: Tibet. New York: Benchmark, 2007, p. 40-41.
7]  Knaus, Robert. Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. New York: Public Affairs, 2009, p. 134.
8]  “Why Tibet?” Tibet Online, 2008.
9]  Tibet: The Facts, A Report Prepared by the Scientific Buddhist Association for the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 297, Dharamsala: Tibetan Young Buddhist Association, 2010.
10]  Tao, Shelan, “Military Expert: Improving the Strategic Ability to Safeguard National Interests Is a Pressing Task for China’s Military at Present,” Beijing Zhongguo Xinwen She, May 9, 2006. Reported in FBIS, May 18, 2006.
11]  Ten Dead in Violent Protests in Tibet Capital” USA Today. 2008-03-28.
12]  “As Tibet Erupted, China Security Forces Wavered,” March 25, 2008.
13]  Sullivan, Lawrence. China Since Tiananmen: Political, Economic and Social Conflicts. London: East Gate Book, 2005, p. 253.
14]  “Crush Tibet Independence Forces’ Conspiracy, People’s Daily Urges,” People’s Daily Online. 2008-3-22.
15]  “HK Journalists Thrown Out of Tibet” The Standard. 18 March 2008.
16]  “Did China Stage Tibetan ‘Attack’ On Wheelchair-Bound Woman?” Information Liberation (April 15, 2008).
17]  Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles Versus the People’s Republic of China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. viii.
18]  Rowley, John. “Tibet in the Twentieth Century,” Gandhi Way, Issue Nos. 65-66, 2000.
19]  Lixiong, Wang. “Reflections on Tibet,” New Left Review, Vol. 14 (March-April 2012).
20]  Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, December 2006, Beijing. The full text of China’s National Defense in 2006 is available at, December 29, 2006.
21]  Wang, Peiyu & Juwei Fan, “When Watching the All-Army Exhibition on New Type Logistic Armaments, Liao Xilong Calls for Efforts to Upgrade the Technological Level and Construction Quality of Logistics Armaments,” Beijing Jiefangjun Bao, May 9, 2006, p. 1.
22]  Zheng, Zhidong, “Thoughts on Improving Preparations for People’s War Under Informationized Conditions,” Beijing Guofang, April 2009, p. 24.
23]  Ibid., p. 19.
24]  “The People’s Liberation Army,” Government White Paper, October, 2007
25]  Ibid.
26]  Za Khan. “Weapons and Tactics,” Defense Journal (July, 2011).
27]  Ibid.
28]  Ibid.
29]  Ibid.
30]  Kamphausen, Roy and Andrew Scobell. Right-Sizing the People’s Liberation Army: Exploring the Contours of China’s Military. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: Army War College, 2007, p. 271.
Show Less References


The Priorities of the Government’s Role in Rural Tourism Development in Tehran Province (from Local People, Tourists and the Authorities’ Point of View)

1Department of Extension & Education, Jehad-e-Agriculture Organization, Tehran, Iran

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Farideh Azimi. The Priorities of the Government’s Role in Rural Tourism Development in Tehran Province (from Local People, Tourists and the Authorities’ Point of View). American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Farideh  Azimi, Department of Extension & Education, Jehad-e-Agriculture Organization, Tehran, Iran. Email:


Because of various and important effects of tourism on different parts of society, governments are obliged to intervene or to participate in its activities in a wide-ranging level. In local, national, regional, and international levels, there are important relationships between government and tourism. Many governments are already actively engaged in supporting tourism. With regard to suitable situation for rural tourism development in Tehran province, rural tourism can play an important role for rural regions development. Government can play a crucial role in this field and pave the ways for attaining to rural development. In this research we tried to find the important roles of government in rural tourism development in Tehran province from local people, tourists and the authorities' point of view. Based on results found the important roles of government are in the field of preparing infrastructures, educating the people, tourists and nongovernmental organizations, providing the security and hygiene in touristy regions, doing rural tourism supervision, investment on rural tourism and etc. Based on the researcher’s opinion, the Government’s all - embracing support from tourism and rural tourism development, doing the education of local people & nongovernmental organizations and making the human resources developmental programs are the most important roles of government in rural tourism development.



[1]  Butler, R.W., and Hall, C.M. (1998), Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas. John Wiley and son, chichester.
[2]  CNN (2009), The Role of Government in Tourism, Created for CNN's TASK Group by Anita Mendiratta.
[3]  Cooper, J. (2003), Toutisrm is seriousbusiness.Redland Times, Cleveland.
[4]  CTSA. Community Tourism in Southern Africa Guidelines for Practitioners No.2,
[5]  DOT, 1995b, Cultivating Rural Tourism, Department of Tourism, AGPS, Canberra.
Show More References
6]  Douglas N, Derrett R., (2001), “Special Interest Tourism”. Wiley, London.
7]  Dredge. D, Airey. D, Gross. M. J. (2014), The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and Hospitality Education, 570 p.
8]  Frederick, Martha. (1992), Tourism as a Rural Economic Development Tool: An Exploration of the Literature. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture, No.122, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
9]  Gannon A. (1994), Rural tourism as a factor in rural community economic development for economies in transition. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, pp. 51-60.
10]  G.S.A.D. The Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa. Government of South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, May 1996.
11]  Petrevska B. (2012), The role of Government in Planning Tourism Development in Macedonia. journal of Innovation Issues and Approaches in Social Sience, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 118-133.
12]  Sarjit S.G. (2009), Rural Tourism Development through Rural Cooperatives. Nature and Science. 7 (10), pp. 68-72.
13]  Sharpley, R. and Southgate, C. (2002), Tourism, development and environment, in R. Sharpley andD. Telfer (eds); Tourism and development: Concept and Issues, Channel view publication, Clevedon, pp. 62-100.
14]  Show G., Williams A. (1994), Critical issue in tourism: A Geographical Perspective. Oxford: Blackwe, pp. 557-559.
15]  UNEP&WTO. Making Tourism More Sustainable.
Show Less References