ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770


Editor-in-chief: Chi-Ming Lai

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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 4, 2016


Towards Community Resilience, Focus on a Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Project in Swaziland

1Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for Africa, Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(4), 85-92
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Daniel. H. Mlenga. Towards Community Resilience, Focus on a Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Project in Swaziland. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(4):85-92. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: Daniel.  H. Mlenga, Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for Africa, Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. Email:


The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of different approaches of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in reducing and mitigating against potential risk of disaster and promoting community resilience. Lack of access to safe water supply, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices are among the leading causes of illness, death and malnutrition in developing countries. Using a resilience conceptual framework in the design of research, pre and post Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) surveys were administered to 450 randomly selected beneficiaries of a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) supported WASH program in six constituencies that are prone to drought and water borne diseases. Guided direct observation was used to assess the status WASH infrastructure at project inception and completion. Results of the study indicated increases in the percentage of target population with access to safe water, water usage in litres per person and improvement in sanitation and hygiene practices. They were improvements in the community participation, learning and capacity in use and management of WASH infrastructure meaning that effective promotion of WASH during relief, recovery and development programming to build infrastructure and human capacity prepares communities to face future WASH related hazards.



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An Empirical Study of Inter-Sectoral Linkages and Economic Growth in India

1Lecturer in Economics, Goverment College Jaitaran (Raj)

American Journal of Rural Development. 2016, 4(4), 78-84
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. R. Singariya, S. C. Naval. An Empirical Study of Inter-Sectoral Linkages and Economic Growth in India. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016; 4(4):78-84. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: M.  R. Singariya, Lecturer in Economics, Goverment College Jaitaran (Raj). Email:


The objective of the present paper is to examine casual relationship between GDP, agricultural, industrial and service sector output in India using time series data from 1950-51 to 2011-12.The study conducts an econometric investigation by applying methodologies, viz., Stationary tests, and Johansen’s Cointegration test, Johansen’s Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) in VAR and Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition Analysis. With all the variables in log terms being I(1), Johansen’s co-integration test confirms two long run relationships among the variables at 5% significance level. It reveals that there exists bidirectional causality among the agriculture, industry, service sector and GDP and agriculture and industrial sector with services sector, while there is a unidirectional causality between agriculture and industry sector. However, results based on vector error correction model indicate a weak association between the sectors in the short run. Dynamic causality results show that contribution GDP forecast error by the services sector is the highest, followed by agriculture and industry sectors, while the contribution to the agriculture sector forecast error by GDP is the highest, followed by the service sector and industry. In the case of the industry sector, the explanatory power of one standard deviation innovation in the agriculture sector and the services sector to forecast error variance is quite high (33.38% and 5.38%). Further, results of decomposition variance analysis and impulse response suggest that the agriculture sector plays the main role in determining the overall growth rate of the economy through its linkages to other sector. The analysis of inter – sectoral linkages identify agriculture as the main economic activity that controls most economic activities in India.



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