ISSN (Print): 2333-4762

ISSN (Online): 2333-4770


Editor-in-chief: Chi-Ming Lai

You are here

Currrent Issue: Volume 3, Number 3, 2015


Disaster Risk Identification in Agriculture Sector: Farmer’s Perceptions and Mitigation practices in Faridpur

1Department of Disaster Risk Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

2Faculty of Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

3Department of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

4Department of Resource Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

American Journal of Rural Development. 2015, 3(3), 60-73
doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
AKM Abdul Ahad Biswas, Md. Mohidul Hasan, Md. Saifur Rahman, Md. Abdus Sattar, Md. Afjal Hossain, Md. Faisal. Disaster Risk Identification in Agriculture Sector: Farmer’s Perceptions and Mitigation practices in Faridpur. American Journal of Rural Development. 2015; 3(3):60-73. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: AKM  Abdul Ahad Biswas, Department of Disaster Risk Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. Email:


Study on disaster risk identification in agriculture and farmer’s perceptions and mitigation practices was lack on the perspective of Faridpur district of Bangladesh during this research. The purpose of this study was to have understanding of farmers’ perception and mitigation practices towards disaster risk and climate change impacts adopted by the victim community at Faridpur district of Bangladesh. Primary data was collected through individual household interviews, field observation and secondary data was attained by accessing the relevant information from different media sources. Results showed that the agriculture sector of the study areas are potentially exposed by different risk factors phenomenon e.g. drought, flood, insect/pests attack, lack of quality seed etc. Study has discovered variations in risk perceptions which are influenced by several socio-economic factors like age, gender, livelihood, level of education and socio-economic conditions etc. Recurring phenomenon of hazards and increasing threats to agriculture provided the farmers diversified opportunities to make their livelihood more sustainable. They are more aware about their risks and what they could do to reduce their exposure on the impacts of future disaster risks. Farmers have adopted different mitigation strategies e.g. changing cropping pattern, use of resistant/tolerant variety, good management practice, integrated pest management practices, use of hybrid variety etc. Risks assessment and utilization of such risk assessment results will be helpful to develop the most efficient farmer’s friendly risk management plan. Which will be benefited the country to establish climate smart disaster risk management in agriculture sector.



[1]  Adger, N. W., “Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam.” World Development, 27(2): 249-69. 1999.
[2]  Ahmed, A.U., Lessons to learn from Bangladesh cyclone. DIPECHO network report. Centre for Global Change, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2008.
[3]  Ali, M.Y., Rahman, M. A., Quayyum, M. A., and Islam, M. B., Improved adaptive capacity to climate change for sustainable livelihoods in the agricultural sectors – The case of High Barind Tract: BARI-FAO collaborative program. BARI, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh, 2007.
[4]  Bahauddin, K. M. and Uddin, M. H., Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in Dharam Wetland under Sunamganj District. J. Environ. Sci. & Nat. Res., 5(2): 161-166, 2012.
[5]  Banglapedia, National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2015.
Show More References
[6]  BBS. Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2013.
[7]  Belton, B., Haque, M.M. and Little, D.C., Does size matter? Reassessing the relationship between aquaculture and poverty in Bangladesh. J.l of Deve. Studies, 2012. 48(7):904-22.
[8]  Belton, B. and Little, D.C., Immanent and interventionist inland Asian aquaculture development and its outcomes. Development Policy Review. 2011. 29(4):459-84.
[9]  Biswas, A.K.M.A.A., Sattar, M.A., Zaman, A.K.M.M, Osman, M.S., Jahan, R., Flood Risk and Its Reduction Strategies Practiced by Women. J. Patuakhali Sci. and Tech. Univ. 2014. 5 (2):147-164.
[10]  Blade, S. F. and Slinkard, A. E., “New Crop Development: The Canadian Experience” in J Janick and A Whipkey (eds), Trends in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press. 2002.
[11]  Bloomer, J., Homestead Aquaculture in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Directions. M.Sc. in Aquatic Resource Management Thesis of King’s College London, Department of Geography. University of London. 2012.
[12]  Brink, P. J. and Wood, M. J., Advanced designs in nursing research. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage, p-337. 1998.
[13]  Cresswell, S. 1994. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approach. London: Sage. 1998.
[14]  Fakayode, S. B., Rahji, M. A.Y. and Adeniyi, S. T., Economic Analysis of Riska in Fruit and Vegetable in Osun State, Nigeria. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 37(3): 473-491, September 2012.
[15]  Fakhrul Islam, S. M. and Jabbar, M. A., Smallholder poultry model for poverty alleviation in Bangladesh: a review of evidence on impact. Live. Res. for Rural Deve. 17(112).
[16]  FAO Policy brief, Forests and natural disaster risk reduction in Asia and the Pacific. The Center for People and Forests and Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO and RECOFTC, 2013.
[17]  FAO., Community Forestry: Ten Years in Review. Rome. 1992. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 20, 2015].
[18]  FAO., Resilient Livelihoods – Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme. 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 15, 2015].
[19]  Gulseven, Risk Mitigation Techniques in Agriculture. Aginsurance Project. 2008. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 20, 2015].
[20]  Hollander, A. D. California Augmented Multisource Land cover Map. Information Center for the Environment, Univ. of California, California. 2007. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 20, 2015].
[21]  Hossain, M.S. and Roy. K., Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Wetlands of Bangladesh: A Case Study from Chenchuri Beel, Narail, Bangladesh. Proceedings of Int. Conf. on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh, Japan, Sept. 2010.
[22]  Imtiaz, M. A. and Rana, S., Problems faced by the small scale dairy owners in receiving veterinary services in selected areas of Chittagong. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 2014. 12 (1): 63-65.
[23]  Islam, M. S., Women in the Homestead Agroforestry-Contribution to Sustainable Development, Journal of Natural Sciences Research. Vol.5, No.1, 2015.
[24]  Khalequzzaman, M.D. Flood mitigation through best management practices. The Daily Star, Bangladesh. 26th July, 2004. pp 5. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 26, 2012].
[25]  Marzan. L., Homestead food production practice and its impact on livelihood of rural women under coastal area (Patuakhali) in Bangladesh. MS in Rural Sociology thesis, Dept. of Rural Sociology, BAU, Bangladesh. 2009.
[26]  Magombeyi, M.S. and Taigbenu, A.E., A crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of small-holder farmers at quaternary catchment level- Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin. School of Civil & Environmental Engineering Witwatersrand Univ., Zimbabwe. 2007.
[27]  Mahesh, R., Causes and Consequences of Change in Cropping Pattern: A Location Specific Study, Dis.Paper-11, Kerala Research Program on Local Level Development, CDS, Thiruvananthapuram, India. 1999.
[28]  Maps., Map of Bangladesh, Prime Minister Office Library. Gov. of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 2015.
[29]  Mitin, A., Documentation of Selected Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Rice Cultivation. East Asia Rice Working Group. Philippines. 2009.
[30]  Nasreen, M., Hossain, K.M., Azad, M.A.K. Climate Change and Livelihood in Bangladesh : Experiences of people living in coastal regions. Proce. of Int. Con. of Building Resilience. 2013. Sri Lanka, 2013. [Online]. Available:, pp.1-25.. [Accessed July 28, 2015].
[31]  Omore, A., Mulindo, J.C., Islam, S.M.F., Nurah, G., Khan, M.I., Staal, S.J. and Dugdill, B.T., Employment Generation through Small–scale Dairy Marketing and Processing: Experiences from Kenya, Bangladesh and Ghana. FAO, Rome, Italy. 2002.
[32]  Papademetriou, M.K., Rice production in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues and perspectives. In ‘Bridging the Rice Yield Gap in the Asia-Pacific Region’. FAO, UN, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication 2000/16. 2000.
[33]  Quasem. M.A., Conversion of Agricultural Land to Non-agricultural Uses in Bangladesh: Extent and Determinants. Bangladesh Development Studies. Vol. XXXIV, March 2011, No. 1, 2011.
[34]  Rathore, J.S., “Drought and Household Coping Strategies: A Case of Rajasthan”, Indian J. of Agri. Econ. 2004. 59(4), pp 689-708.
[35]  Razzaque,M. A. and Rafiquzzaman, S., Comparative Analysis of T. Aman Rice Cultivation under Different Management Practice in Coastal Area. J Agric Rural Dev. 2007. 5(1&2): 64-69.
[36]  Saadullah M., Smallholder dairy production and marketing in Bangladesh’, Edited by D. Rangnekar and W. Thorpe, Proceedings of a South-South workshop held at National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) Anand, India, 13-16 March 2001, pp. 7-21, 2002.
[37]  Saleque, M.A., Scaling-up: Critical factors in leadership, management, human resource development and institution building in going from pilot project to large scale implementation. March 22-26, 1999, Tune, Denmark. 2000. Pp.15. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 10, 2015].
[38]  Sarwar, M.G.M., Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh. Master’s in Environmental Science thesis, Lund University, Sweden. 2005. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 10, 2015].
[39]  Shamsuddin, M., Alam, M.M., Hossein, M.S., Goodger,W.J., Bari,F.Y., Ahmed, T.U., Hossain, M.M. and Khan, A.H.M.S.I., Participatory rural appraisal to identify needs and prospects of market-oriented dairy industries in Bangladesh. Trop. Ani. Health Prod. 2007 39:567-581.
[40]  Shamsuddin, M., Goodger, W.J., Hossein, M.S., Azizunnesa, Bennett, T. and Nordlund, K., A survey to identify economic opportunities for smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh. Trop Anim Health Prod (2006) 38: 131-140.
[41]  Shiyani, R. L. and Pandya, H. R., “Diversification of Agriculture in Gujarat: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis”, Indian J.l of Agric. Econ. 1998. 53(4), pp 627-39.
[42]  Shrestha, R. M., Factors Affecting the Cropping Patterns in Hills and Plains of the Central Development Region. Nepal J. Sci. Tech. 2009. 10:199-203.
[43]  Siddiq, E.A., Bridging the rice yield gap in India. FAO, UN Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication 2000/16. 2000.
[44]  Sigvald, R., Risk Assessments for Pests and Diseases of Field Crops, especially forecasting and warning systems. Reducing the Risks Associated with the Use of Plant Protection Products no 25. Sust. Agric. Christine Jakobsson [ed], Uppsala: Baltic University Press, 1500. 2012. 185-201.
[45]  Subasinghe,R.P., Arthur, J.R., Bartley,D.M., De Silva,S.S., Halwart,M., Hishamunda, N., Mohan, C.V. and Sorgeloos, P., eds., Farming the waters for people and food. In Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Thailand, 22-25 September, 2010, 719–83. Rome: FAO; Bangkok: NACA.
[46]  Sultana, Z., Economics of Homestead-Based Food Production System in Some Selected Areas of Gazipur District. M. S. in Agricultural Economics (Production Economics) thesis, BAU, Bangladesh. 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 5, 2015].
[47]  WAVE Foundation., Reports on Climatic Risks Assessment at Community Level in Agriculture, Lalmatia, Dhaka. 2010. [Online]. Website: [Accessed July 5, 2015].
[48]  Mandal. R., Cropping Patterns and Risk Management in the Flood Plains of Assam. Economic and Political Weekly. August, 2010. vol xlv No 33. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 2, 2015].
[49]  Birthal, P.S., Joshi, P.K. and Narayanan, A.V., Agricultural Diversification in India: Trends, contribution to growth and small farmer participation, ICRISAT, mimeo. 2011.
[50]  Iqbql, K., Toufique, K,A., Hossain, M.H., Mis-targeting and Mis-using Microcredit in Livestock Development Projects in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Deve. Stud. XXXIV(3), 2011.
[51]  Halder, S., R. and Barua, P., Dairy production, consumption and marketing in Bangladesh. Research & Evaluation Division, BRAC. September 2003
[52]  Saadullah, M. and Hossain, M.M., Report on the quantification of locally available feed resources and feeding systems of animal in different regions of Bangladesh. BARC, Dhaka and BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. 2000.
[53]  Sen, B., Drivers of Escape and Descent: Changing Household Fortunes in Rural Bangladesh. World Deve. 31:513-534. 2003.
[54]  Quddus, M.A., Roles of Agro-Industry in Bangladesh Economy: an Empirical Analysis of Linkages and Multipliers. Bangladesh J. Agric. Econs. XXXII:31-48. 2009.
[55]  Alauddin, M., Identification of key sectors in the Bangladesh economy: A linkage analysis approach. Applied Economics 18:421-442. 1986.
[56]  BBS, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Dhaka. 2008.
[57]  ADPC, ‘Workshop for South East Asia, Proceedings of the workshop on institutionalizing CBDRM in government policy-making, planning and program implementation, 10-13 May 2003, ADPC, Bangkok. 2003.
[58]  Maskrey, A., Revisiting community-based disaster risk management. Env. Hazards, 10(1):42-52.
[59]  Zhang, X., Yi, L., Zhao, D., Community-based disaster management: a review of progress in China. Natural Hazards 65:2215-2239. 2013.
[60]  Zahari, R.K., Ariffin, R.N.R., Community-Based Disaster Management in Kuala Lumpur. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sci. 85:493-501. 2013.
[61]  Chen, L.-c., Liu, Y.-c., Chan, K.-c., Integrated Community-Based Disaster Management Program in Taiwan: A Case Study of Shang-An Village. Natural Hazards. 37:209-223. 2006.
[62]  NAPA., National Adaptation Programme of Action, MoEF. Final Report November.2005
[63]  Ayanwuyi, E. Kuponiyi, F.A., Ogunlade, and Oyetoro, J., Farmers Perception of Impact of Climate Changes on Food Crop Production in Ogbomosho Agric. Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria, Glob. J. of Human Soc. Sci. 10(7): 33-39.2010
[64]  Madu, I.A., Partial vulnerability of rural households to climate change in Nigeria: Implication for internal security. W. P.-2; May 2012. Univ. of Texas, USA:The Robert S. Strauss Center for Int. Security and Law.
[65]  Zhang, H., Zhuang, T., and Zeng, W., 2012. Impact of Household Endowments on Response Capacity of Farming Households to Natural Disasters. Int. J. Disaster Risk Sci. 2012. 3(4):218–226.
[66]  Lindell, M. K., and Hwang. S. N., Households’ Perceived Personal Risk and Responses in a Multihazard Environment. Risk Analysis 28 (2): 539-56. 2008.
[67]  Xu, F., Household Financial Risk Management. J. of Agrotechnical Econ. 6: 14-18. 2000.
[68]  Chen, C. B. Empirical Study on the Informal Risk-Sharing of Farmers in China. Issues of Agric. Econ.6: 20-26. 2007
[69]  Chen, F. B., Chen, C. B. and Ding. S. J., The Risk and Management Strategies of Drought for Farmers in Southern China. Chinese Rural Economy No. 6: 61-67. 2005
[70]  UNISDR. UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Management. Geneva, Switzerland. 2015. [Online Available at]. [Accessed July 2, 2015].
[71]  Shahidullah, S. M., Talukder, M. S. A., Kabir, M. S., Khan, A. H., and NUR-E-ELAHI., 2006. Cropping Patterns in the South East Coastal Region of Bangladesh. J Agric Rural Dev 4(1&2), 53-60, June 2006.
[72]  Kabir, M.J., and Islam, M. M., Study on Agronomically and Economically Dominant Cropping Patterns in Some Selected Areas of Barisal District. Bangladesh. J. Agril. Res. 37(1): 55-65, March 2012.
[73]  Hoque M.E. Crop diversification in Bangladesh. In: Crop Diversification in Asia-Pacific Region. FAO RAP Publication 2001/03. FAO, Thailand. 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 22, 2015].
[74]  Akanda, A.I., Rethinking crop diversification under changing climate, hydrology and food habit in Bangladesh. J. Ag. and Env. for Int. Dev. 2010, 104 (1-2): 3-23.
[75]  MOA, Handbook of Agricultural Statistics. Ministry of Agriculture, Dhaka. 2007.
[76]  Metzel, J. and Ateng, B. Constraints to diversification in Bangladesh: A survey of farmers' views. The Bangladesh Deve. Stud. XXI(3):39-71. 1993.
[77]  Ashfaq, M., Hassan. S., Naseer, M. Z., Baig, I. A. & Asma, J. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 45(3), 91-94. 2008.
[78]  Rahman, S., Whether crop diversification is a desired strategy for agricultural growth in Bangladesh? Food Policy. 34(4), August 2009.
[79]  Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A., Yang, X.B., Epstein, P.R., Chivian, E., Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture: The Impacts of Warming and Extreme Weather Events on Productivity, Plant Diseases and Pests. Published by: Center for health and global environment. Harvard Medical School. 2000. [Online]. Available: [Accessed July 12, 2015].
[80]  Rahman, M. M., Problems and Suggestions for Farmers’ Adoption of IPM Practices in Rice (Oryza sativa L) Cultivation. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 37(1): 121-128, March 2012.
[81]  Mapiye, C., Mwale, M., Mupangwa, J. F., Chimonyo, M., Foti, R., and Mutenje, M. J., A Research Review of Village Chicken Production Constraints and Opportunities in Zimbabwe. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21(11). 2008.
[82]  Selam, M. and Kelay, B., Causes of village chicken mortality and interventions by farmers in Ada’a District, Ethiopia. Int. J. of Live. Prod. 4(6):88-94, 2013.
[83]  Rota, A., Brett, N, Nahar, J., Rahman, S.M.R., Ali,Y., Sarwar,A., Fattah, K.A., 2009. The experience with mini-hatcheries technology in Bangladesh. IFAD and PKSF, Dhaka, Bangladesh. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed July 15, 2015].
[84]  Kusina, J., Kusina, N.T., Mhlanga, J., A survey on village chicken losses: causes and solutions as perceived by farmers. In: Alders, R.G., Spradbrow, P.B. (Eds.), Australian Centre for International Research (ACIAR) Proceedings No. 113 on SADC Planning Workshop on Newcastle disease control in village chickens. pp. 148-155. 2001.
[85]  Parvez,M.S., Azad,M.S., Rahman, and Jahan, K.M., 2014. Status and Practices of Shrimp Culture in South West Part of Bangladesh. Aquaculture. Engormix. [Online] Available: [Accessed July 1, 2015].
[86]  Akbar,M.A. and Jahiruddin,M., Utilizing indigenous resources in an integrated approach to improving livestock production while conserving the environment. Joint FAO/IAEA programme. IAEA-TECDOC-1640. 2010. [Online] Available: Accessed July 1, 2015].
[87]  Ghosh, A.K. and Maharjan, K. L. Milk Marketing Channels in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Three Villages from Three Districts. J. of In. Deve. and Coop., 8 (2):87-101. 2002.
[88]  Hall,D.C., Alam,M.G.S. and Raha,S.K., 2012. Improving dairy production in Bangladesh: Application of integrated agriculture and ecohealth concepts. Int. J Anim. Pdn.
[89]  Galib,S. M., Mohsin, A.B.M., Chaki, N., Fahad, M.F.H., Haque, S.M.M., An overview of the traditional rice-prawn-fish farming in Kalia of Narail district. Bangladesh. J. of Fish. 1(1): 1-6, 2013.
[90]  Practical Action. How people are adapting to climate change and fighting food insecurity. Floating gardens, Practical Action, Warwickshire, UK. 2014. [Online] Available: [Accessed July 08, 2015].
[91]  Alam, S.N., Insect pest management for quality horticulture crop production in Bangladesh. Hortex Newsletter. 11(2) April - June, 2011.
[92]  Foysal,M.A., Hossain,M.L., Rubaiyat,A., Hasan, M.B., Economics of Homestead Forestry and Their Management Activities at Fatickchari Upazila of Chittagong District, Bangladesh. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2(4). 2013.
[93]  Hasan, M.K., Ahmed, M.M. and Miah, M.G., Agro-Economic Performance of Jackfruit-Pineapple Agroforestry System in Madhupur Tract. J Agric Rural Dev. 6(1&2):147-156. 2008.
Show Less References