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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR

Article

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: some Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects

1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

2San Fernando General Hospital, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 46-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Angel Justiz-Vaillant, Patrick E. Akpaka, Peter Poonking. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: some Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):46-50. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Angel  Justiz-Vaillant, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Email: Angel.Vaillant@sta.uwi.edu

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder with a wide array of clinical manifestations including rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, arthritis, serositis, glomerulonephritis among others clinical findings. In this paper we globally summarized the most important epidemiological and clinical aspects to bear in mind, when the time comes to make the diagnosis of this rheumatic disorder and its management. Factor that are involved in the SLE pathogenesis and novel treatment options are mentioned.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sexual History, Behaviour and Practice of HIV/AIDS Prevention among Recruits of Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria-Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

3Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 51-55
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ChineduJohn-Camillus IGBOANUSI, IstifanusAnekoson JOSHUA, Tukur DAHIRU. Sexual History, Behaviour and Practice of HIV/AIDS Prevention among Recruits of Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria-Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):51-55. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: ChineduJohn-Camillus  IGBOANUSI, Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Email: chinedujc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Among Nigerian Military Personnel (NMP), HIV prevalence has been reported to be higher than in the general population due to several factors. Data on HIV among the military are difficult to obtain and comprehensive program for the military in Sub-Saharan Africa were not well coordinated. This study assessed sexual history, behavior and practice of HIV/AIDS prevention among military recruits at Depot Nigeria Army in Zaria Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out on February, 2011 with a sample of 300 army recruits selected by a stratified random sampling technique. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual history, behavior and practice of HIV/AIDS prevention were collected using structured, self–administered questionnaire, and blood samples collected were screened using Determine® and and Uni-gold® test kits for HIV antibodies. Stat pak® test kit was used as a tie-breaker. The data collected were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 15.0 and results presented in tables and statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: The age range of the respondents was 17 – 29 years, with mean age of 29 ±1.9 years and male: female ratio of 2.8:1. Majority (93.0%) were single with mean age at sexual debut of 15 years and 40.0% had coitus a month prior to the time of the study. About 21.0% satisfied their sexual urge by having sex with their partners. Two-thirds had used male condom before out of which 29.7% had problems such as reduced sexual urge (16.7%), burst condom (11.3%) among others. The results of the HIV screening for all the respondents were negative for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Conclusion: The sexual history, behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention among the military recruits showed mixed picture and the HIV screening results were negative for HIV 1 and HIV 2. There is need to have a well-coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention program that is multi-disciplinary and innovative among others to ensure the recruits remain negative for HIV.

Keywords

References

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Article

Maxillofacial Fractures in Makka City in Saudi Arabia; an 8-year Review of Practice

1Umm Alqura University, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Saudi Arabia / Consultant at Alnoor Specialist Hospital

2Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Alnoor Specialist Hospital


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 56-59
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mazen Almasri, Dina Amin, Anas F AboOla, Jamil Shargawi. Maxillofacial Fractures in Makka City in Saudi Arabia; an 8-year Review of Practice. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):56-59. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Mazen  Almasri, Umm Alqura University, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Saudi Arabia / Consultant at Alnoor Specialist Hospital. Email: mazen_ajm@yahoo.com

Abstract

Objective: to review the practice of maxillofacial trauma surgery in Makka city, Saudi Arabia, as road traffic accidents is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the kingdom. Materials and methods: a chart review of all the maxillofacial trauma cases that visited the major hospital in the city, Alnoor specialist hospital (NSH), from October 2005 to October 2013 was collected. A total of 1132 patients’ records were retrieved. Amongst, 965 maxillofacial injuries were included in the study as completed information was found. Charts of incomplete records, soft tissue injuries only, or solitary dental injury were excluded. Then, pertinent information such as age, gender, residence status, and fracture pattern were extracted, tabulated, and correlated. Results: it was presented that males were affected four times more than females (ratio of 4.4:1), of an age ranged from 3 years old to 97 with a mean of 51 years old, and patients of 1 to 16 years old counting 135 cases (11.9%), while the age between 17 – 45 years counting 856 (75.7%), and the age 46 – 97 counting 139 (12.3%). The majority of injuries was involving the lower facial third (mandible) by 523 cases (54.19%), then the middle third that include Zygomatic maxillary complex (ZMC) by 399 cases (41.3%; p=0.006), orbital floor by 25 cases (2.5%), and upper third (nasal, ethmoid, orbital, and frontal bar) fractures of 18 cases (1.8%). The ratio of Saudi patients to non Saudi was found to be 1.89:1. Conclusion: The maxillofacial injuries in Makka city are mainly affecting male patients aged between 17-45 years old with the mandible and middle face fractures being most commonly injured respectively.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Factors Affecting Art Adherence among People Living with Human Immune Virus in Bale Robe Hospital, South East Ethiopia

1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 60-67
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed Yasin Mohammed, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Tomas Benti Tefera. Assessment of Factors Affecting Art Adherence among People Living with Human Immune Virus in Bale Robe Hospital, South East Ethiopia. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):60-67. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  Yasin Mohammed, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia. Email: ahmedyassinmoha@yahoo.com

Abstract

Human Immune Virus now a day is one of the devastating illnesses witnessed worldwide. It becomes a prevalent disease and presents a global public health concern without a cure. Among East Africa countries, Ethiopia is one of which Human Immune Virus becomes major public health emergency. Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) services are important and effective in prevention and palliative treatment of the virus. Non adherence is the risk for the development of drug resistance and failurity of therapy. The objective of this study is to assess factors affecting ART adherence among People Living With Human immune virus. A facility based cross sectional study was conducted on 245 subjects on ART follow up at Bale Robe Hospital selected using systematic random sampling from March 18 to April 13/2013. A structured and pre- tested interviewer administered questionnaires were used for data collection. The item consists of socio demographic variables, psychosocial, Clinical, Behavioral factors and items measure level of ART adherence. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequency and percentages were calculated. The x2 (chi – square) test and P values determined and associations were assessed. P < 0.05 considered statistically significant association with ART adherence status. The rate ART dose adherence of the study subjects were 83.1%. The finding emphasize that important multiple psychosocial factors: patients disclosure status, types of social support, stigma, depression, social isolation and active substance use were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with adherence level. Additionally other barriers like being too busy and attitude towards the drug has been significantly associated (P < 0.05) with adherence. The adherence rate found in this study seems to be encouraging. However, focusing on strengthening psychosocial aspects affecting ART adherence behavior and appropriate monitoring of patients could potentially help them to maintain adherence and therefore improve the outcome.

Keywords

References

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Article

Child Healthcare in Nepal: Progress and Direction

1New York Medical College, Valhalla, U.S.A


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 74-80
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radeeb Akhtar. Child Healthcare in Nepal: Progress and Direction. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):74-80. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Radeeb  Akhtar, New York Medical College, Valhalla, U.S.A. Email: radeeb.akhtar@gmail.com

Abstract

Health policy changes in Nepal displayed struggles against a poor political, geographical, and economic setting; Millennium Development Goal #4 demanded improved infant and child mortality, as well as adequate measles vaccine coverage by the year 2015. Research in this report presents progress and direction of child health care policy across more than a decade of time in attempts of attaining MDG #4 and general child health care advancements. Subsequent observations and suggestions were delineated and offered. Progress since the 1990’s up to 2012 was analyzed by review of serial national survey and report data. Trends and variations between regions were mostly analyzed amongst various child health care determinants. Results indicated many improved factors; Nepal will likely achieve MDG regarding child under-5 mortality, but may not achieve measles vaccine coverage or infant mortality goals. Furthermore, severe regional disparities were evident within Nepal, particularly in the Mid and Far-Western regions. A call for integrated community-based primary health care (CB-PHC) for infants and children became an ultimate ideal. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and community based primary care delivery service would address many of the deficits identified as well as reach rural and remote areas that still suffered. Risk and data-based resource allocation promise improved utilization, but also demands more frequent and better data reporting. Coordinated, multi-sector health policy initiatives have been underway; this demonstrated a strong direction in improving child health care from urban to every village.

Keywords

References

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Article

University Students' Attitudes towards Genetic Testing: A Comparative Study

1Science and Technology Education Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva8410501, Israel


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(3), 81-90
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Merav Siani, Orit Ben-Zvi Assaraf. University Students' Attitudes towards Genetic Testing: A Comparative Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(3):81-90. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Merav  Siani, Science and Technology Education Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva8410501, Israel. Email: sianim@post.bgu.ac.il

Abstract

Background: Genetic counseling has become a tool for preventing genetic diseases in western society. It deals with the risk of genetic diseases in families and finds ways to prevent future problems. The public’s decision making regarding genetic counseling is influenced by cognitive, cultural and religious variables. Aim and objectives: To examine the attitudes of undergraduate Israeli students toward genetic issues and learn how these are affected by the field they study, their religious affiliation and their gender. Methods: We gave 490 students a Likert type quantitative questionnaire consisting of several genetic cases, and asked the students to express their attitudes towards each one. Results and conclusion: Of the three factors we assessed, the most influential is the students’ religious affiliation. Religious students, especially those who do not study life sciences (LS), place less trust in genetic tests than secular students (p=0.0001). Students of LS show more critical thinking towards genetic testing than others (p=0.0128). Gender was least influential, showing a mixed trend of influence. The results of this research can serve as a basis for developing culturally sensitive educational programs in genetics.

Keywords

References

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Article

An Examination of Thinness and Overweight in Children Using W.H.O. BMI Categories before and after Intestinal Parasite Intervention

1University of Texas at Tyler, Department of Health and Kinesiology

2Victoria, Texas Office of Emergency Management


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(3), 91-94
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Claris Smith, Renee Owusu-Ansah, William Sorensen. An Examination of Thinness and Overweight in Children Using W.H.O. BMI Categories before and after Intestinal Parasite Intervention. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(3):91-94. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Claris  Smith, University of Texas at Tyler, Department of Health and Kinesiology. Email: claris.smith@gmail.com

Abstract

This study is a secondary analysis to identify the effects of as oil transmitted helminth treatment campaign on growth in Guatemalan children, and to identify other factors associated with change in BMI. One thousand children were recruited through schools, pre and post BMI was calculated from height and weight measures with a helminth treatment campaign as the timeframe. BMI was categorized into WHO standard categories, and collapsed into binary risk variables (extreme thin vs. all others, and extreme overweight vs. all others). From this, predictors of BMI change were identified. Older age predicted thinness. Younger age and rural residence predicted overweight. Helminth treatment had no effect on BMI growth. East Guatemalan children progress toward thinness naturally. Caution is urged in using BMI as the sole tool for measuring growth in children.

Keywords

References

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Article

Аllergies in Families of Moscow (Russia) Newborns: Suspected Cases within Three Generations Framework

1Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Research and Clinical Institute for Pediatrics at the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

22Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(3), 95-99
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Мarina Treneva, Alexander Pampura, Daniel Munblit. Аllergies in Families of Moscow (Russia) Newborns: Suspected Cases within Three Generations Framework. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(3):95-99. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Мarina  Treneva, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Research and Clinical Institute for Pediatrics at the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia. Email: trenevamarina@mail.ru

Abstract

Background: Allergy prevalence in parents of newborns is an indicator of allergic diseases in children, which is split upon parent’s gender and allergic conditions. Objective: to find out gender patterns within a larger framework of allergies in grandparents, aunts, uncles of newborns in maternal and paternal families. Methods: In 2011 13 visits to the Postnatal Department of Moscow No.1 Maternity Hospital were carried out. All women delivered within the preceding 48 hours were interviewed. Mothers provided us with information on relatives of a newborn in regards to clinical manifestations of food allergies, atopic dermatitis, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, asthma and episodes of drug allergy. Information on 3534 relatives from 393 newborns was collected. Results: The rate of suspected allergic conditions in grandfathers is the same in both maternal and paternal families (4,35% 95%CI 1,99-6,70 and 4,62% 95%CI 2,12-7,12 respectively), but in grandmothers and aunts the rate of suspected allergic incidence is increased in maternal family (11,54% 95%CI 8,58-14,50) over paternal (6,80% 95%CI 4,46-9,14). The cumulative rate of suspected allergies in grandfathers+fathers+uncles (i.e. in male relatives of two preceding the newborns generations) is significantly lower (8,57% 95%CI 7,03-10,11) than in grandmothers+mothers+aunts (i.e. in female relatives of two preceding the newborns generations) (13,28% 95%CI 11,44-15,13) (p < .05). Conclusion: There are clear gender differences with increased prevalence of suspected allergic conditions in female relatives of two preceding the newborn generations compared with male relatives. There is a tendency to increased suspected allergic manifestations among women of maternal relatives in comparison to paternal relatives.

Keywords

References

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Article

Does Maternal Health Targets is an Obstacle to Millennium Development Goals in Rural Pakistan

1Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

2Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Dir Lower), KP-Pakistan


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(3), 100-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Dawood Jan, Nafees Ahmad, Muneeb-Ur- Rehman. Does Maternal Health Targets is an Obstacle to Millennium Development Goals in Rural Pakistan. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(3):100-105. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Israr, Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Email: misrar@aup.edu.pk

Abstract

Different Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) indicators were studied in Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at the grass root level. In Tehsail Mardan three union councils were purposively selected, i.e. Khazana Dheri, Chamtar and Manga as a stratum having a complete rural background. A total of 60 respondents (20 from each village) was selected randomly, due to the time and money limitations. Primary data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and non parametric tests for obtaining the desired results. Findings revealed that mother’s age significantly not varies while there is a significant association in the numbers of deliveries. The majority having live birth and were not attended by any technical personnel. Children were not immunized against EPI and knowledge of malaria and DM were high and for prevention antimalarial medicines and other materils, healthy diet with less sugar and oil, walk/exercise on a regular basis were used. Prevention of early marriages, providing after marriage, birth consultancy services and immunization of children against different contagious diseases is important.

Keywords

References

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