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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun




Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among Prisoners in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-sectional Study

1Public Health Department, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, PO.Box, 260, Mizan -Aman, Ethiopia

2Hadiya Zone, Health Department, Hossana, Ethiopia

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(4), 142-148
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bayu Begashaw, Abera Beyamo Mekiso, Tegene Legesse. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among Prisoners in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-sectional Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(4):142-148. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-4.

Correspondence to: Bayu  Begashaw, Public Health Department, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, PO.Box, 260, Mizan -Aman, Ethiopia. Email:


Background: prisoners are at a disproportionately high risk and neglected reservoirs and susceptible population for TB. Objective: To determine prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors among prisoners in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was performed on 302 study participants to assess the prevalence and risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia, from March01/2015 to April 01/2015. Prisoners with a history of cough of ⩾2 weeks were screened for PTB using direct smear microscopy. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. Bivariate and multivariable binary Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis. Result: A total of 302 prisoners were included in the study. Among those, 15 (4.97%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 966 per 100,000 populations of pulmonary TB among the study participants. Pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (AOR=5.42, 95%CI= (1.21, 24.25), having history of contact with known TB patients at home (AOR=7.01, 95%CI= (1.54, 31.90), Sharing a cell with a known TB patient (AOR=7.09, 95%CI= (1.59, 31.64), stay greater than 24 months in current prison (AOR=0.09, 95%CI= (0.02,0.47). and BMI<18.5kg/m2 ((AOR=5.35,95%CI=(1.01,28.22). Conclusions and recommendation: There is high prevalence of TB among Prisoners in Wolaita Zone with possible active transmission of TB within the prison than general community. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmers is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.



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The Impact of Inpatient Electronic Sign-out on Quality and Patient Safety

1Internal Medicine Conemaugh Health System, Johnstown, PA

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(4), 149-153
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammad U. Malik, Amibahen Gandhi, Hassan Tahir, Jhanavi Sagi, Sandhya Narukonda, Thomas Simunich, Saba Waseem, Medha Joshi. The Impact of Inpatient Electronic Sign-out on Quality and Patient Safety. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(4):149-153. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  U. Malik, Internal Medicine Conemaugh Health System, Johnstown, PA. Email:


Introduction: The transition of patient care to the resident on call during the sign-out/hand off is an integral part of residency training and is a time vulnerable to medical errors. Methods: Authors conducted the study from July 28th to December 14th 2014. Residents (n=26) were required to sign-out via the electronically via the SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation) based electronic template. The quality of sign-out was assessed by night float questionnaire. The quality of the sign-out (scale 1 to 5), preventable morbidities, LOS, mortalities and readmissions were compared pre and post intervention for the admitted patients (pre= 184, post=172). Results: Improvement in the mean quality (Likert scale 1-5) of both the written sign-out, 3.0 to 3.8 (p<0.001), and verbal sign-out, 3.0 to 3.6 (p=0.002) (n=22 pre and post), was found. The preventable morbidities decreased from 10% to 5% (p=0.047). No statistically significant difference was noted for lethal morbidities, length of stay or readmissions. Conclusion: Implementation of electronic sign-out in addition to verbal sign-out improved the quality of sign-out with trend towards reduction in morbidities. The electronic sign-out may provide key information and help the on call team to make better decisions regarding the patient care.



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Early Mobilization and Physical Activity Improve Stroke Recovery: A Cohort Study of Stroke Inpatients in Kisumu County Referral Hospitals, Kenya

1Faculty of Health Sciences, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

2Department of Physiotherapy, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya

3Faculty of Health Science, Kibabii University, Bungoma, Kenya

4School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(4), 154-158
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maurice Mike Ogolla, Damian Otieno Opemo, Collins Otieno Asweto. Early Mobilization and Physical Activity Improve Stroke Recovery: A Cohort Study of Stroke Inpatients in Kisumu County Referral Hospitals, Kenya. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(4):154-158. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-4-6.

Correspondence to: Collins  Otieno Asweto, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China. Email:


Early mobilization in acute stroke care is highly recommended in a range of developed countries policy; however, in developing countries like Kenya, lack of evidence seems to hinder formulation and implementation of policy guideline on early mobilization in acute stroke care. Therefore, to estimate the safe optimal time for early mobilization of stroke patients in Kenya, we conducted a prospective cohort study in two purposively selected health facilities in Kisumu County, Kenya. About 100 stroke patients admitted in medical wards (mean age 59.1±2.3 years, females 61%) were recruited. Barthel Index’ tool was used to assess recovery and physical activity levels. It comprised of scoring scale ranging from 0-100. The participants were categorized as follows: Patients who score between 0 – 30 were considered as mildly recovered, 31 - 60 as moderately recovered and patients who score from 61 – 100 were regarded as fully recovered. Multiple logistic regression model was used to compute adjusted ORs (AOR) of early mobilization and Barthel Index variable, adjusting for age, gender and type of stroke. Early mobilization improves patient recovery. Participants in early mobilization group were more like to independently feed, groom, dress, use toilet, use wheel chair and climb stairs with help compared to late mobilization (p <0.05). Most (76%) participants who were exposed to high physical activity had full recovery than the (5%) bones in low physical activity (p< 0.001). This study provides evidence that early mobilization and high physical activity improves stroke patient recovery.



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