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Article

Economics of Obesity, Energy Intakes, and Physical Activity among Adults in Appalachia, USA

1Tillman School of Business, University of Mount Olive, Mt Olive, USA

2Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 176-181
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Janaranjana Herath, Cheryl Brown, David Hill. Economics of Obesity, Energy Intakes, and Physical Activity among Adults in Appalachia, USA. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):176-181. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-8.

Correspondence to: Janaranjana  Herath, Tillman School of Business, University of Mount Olive, Mt Olive, USA. Email: samanjanaranjana@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many research outcomes highlight the use of behavioral changes to combat obesity. This study attempts to examine and discuss the potential use of physical activity and less energy intakes in mitigating obesity among the adults in Appalachia, USA. Within the context of utility theory and behavioral aspect of energy balances of an individual, a system of simultaneous equations with three endogenous variables; decision to reduce energy intakes, time engaged in physical activity and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used for the analysis. The results highlight the potentials of weight control by reducing energy intakes and engaging in more physical activity. Importantly, the results emphasize that elderly individuals are less likely to engage in physical activity and reduce energy intakes to control BMI at the same time. The individuals with high BMI values are more likely to reduce energy intakes than engage in physical activity. The male are more likely to engage in physical activity to control obesity than reducing energy intakes while the female are more likely to reduce energy intakes than engaging in physical activity. Higher income generation, job opportunities, service of health professionals, and availability of recreational facilities play a key role in changing behaviors for controlling obesity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Maternal Mortality among Women Seeking Health Care Services in Kisii Level 5 Hospital

1Kisii Medical Training College, P.O. Box 1165-40200, Kisii

2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases

3Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Zoology

4Kenya Medical Research Foundation (KEMRI), Nairobi


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 182-187
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Osoro AA, Ng’ang’a Z, Mutugi M, Wanzala P. Maternal Mortality among Women Seeking Health Care Services in Kisii Level 5 Hospital. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):182-187. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Osoro  AA, Kisii Medical Training College, P.O. Box 1165-40200, Kisii. Email: alfredosoro2013@gmail.com

Abstract

Background. Maternal mortality has continued to escalate in Kenya inspite of all the efforts being made by the government, non-governmental organization and the community. The purpose of the study was to establish the antecedent factors predisposing women to maternal death using the three delays model. Methodology: Retrospective 72 maternal death cases which occurred between January 01, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were reviewed by an independent gynecologist/obstetrician. Interviews were conducted with kins of the deceased women using a confidential questionnaire for female death based on distal as well as proximal factors that may have had a bearing on maternal death. Health care workers were likewise interviewed using a formulated questionnaire to assess the ability and readiness of the hospital to offer emergency obstetric care. Results: A record of 72 maternal deaths occurred during the study period thus between January 1, 2009 and June 30. 2010. Out of 72, 42 maternal deaths were as a result of direct obstetric complications which include hemorrhage, post-partum sepsis, pre-eclampsia and abortion. Post partum hemorrhage was the most common complication which contributed to maternal deaths. Again out of 72 maternal deaths, 33 were as a result of indirect causes with peritonitis, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, anemia, and convulsive disorder respectively. Delayed access to transport, lack of money for user fees, and hospital distance were challenges that led to delay in accessing care. Hospital experiences included; delay in service provision by staff, delayed quality emergency obstetric care and delayed care while at the hospital, unavailability of blood for transfusion, and lack of money for drugs, were reported as major challenges which attributed to maternal death. Conclusion: The study suggests maternal mortality occurs as a result of lack of access to quality healthcare facility poor health seeking behavior and poor socio-economic factors.

Keywords

References

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Article

Foreword for Special Issue


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5A), 0-0
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-0
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ningning Zhao. Foreword for Special Issue. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5A):0-0. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-0.

Abstract

Article

Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka

1Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5A), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jinadasa B.K.K.K., Samanthi R.I., Wicramsinghe I.. Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5A):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1.

Correspondence to: Jinadasa  B.K.K.K., Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka. Email: jinadasa76@gmail.com

Abstract

The presence of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) has been studied in ten sea cucumber (Holothurians) species in the Northwestern sea of Kalpitiya and Dutch Bay area (Sri Lanka) during October- November 2008 and 2009. The concentration of in holothurians body wall have been found to range from 1.84-9.18 mg/kg (Cu), 5.03-56.68 mg/kg (Fe), 3.68-24.38 mg/kg (Zn), <0.04-4.70 mg/kg (Cr), 0.04-2.29 mg/kg (Pb), 41.62-128.93 μg/kg (Cd), 0.07-0.25mg/kg (Co) and 24.63-445.69 μg/kg (Hg) in dry weight basis. The results show that, according to European legislation, the body wall of holothurians is generally “safe”, although the high levels of iron in all holothurians are noticeable.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City

1Department of Family planning and child care, Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia

2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 188-197
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yeshareg Walle, Zelalem Alamrew. The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):188-197. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Zelalem  Alamrew, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Email: kzolam@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Men often play dominant role on decisions crucial to reproductive health but still they are at the back seat. In the past family planning programs have focused primarily on women because to free them from excessive child bearing. The aim of the study was to assess the involvement of men in family planning practices among male factory workers in Bahir Dar city. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in July 2013 among 306 male factory workers using simple random sampling technique. A pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS version 16 soft ware package. Results: The study revealed that 25.5% of male factory workers were involved in family planning practices. The study declared that educational status was a significantly predicts involvement on family planning (AOR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-11.14, 1.8= 95% CI: 1.31- 9.220, and 2.01= 95% CI: 1.51-7.76). Besides, respondents who stayed in marriage from 4 to 13 years were about 18 times more likely to be involved on family planning compared to respondents stayed more than 22 years (AOR= 18.06, 95% CI: 1.79-58.68). Moreover, number of living children in a family was associated with an outcome of interest (AOR= 11.01, 95% CI: 1.13- 106.9 and AOR= 7.40, 95% CI: 1.49- 36.64) respectively. Conclusion: Only one out of four respondents involved in family planning. Besides, educational status, number of years in marriage, number of living children, and joint decision on the number of children were statistically significant predictors of male involvement on family planning. Therefore, ministry of health and all sectors concerned on reproductive health issues need to work on male involvement on family planning to regulate fertility and rapid population growth.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers

1Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey

2Departmant of Nursing, Kirklareli Mouth and Dental Health Center, Turkey


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 198-204
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aygul Yanik, Hulya Cetin. The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):198-204. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Aygul  Yanik, Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey. Email: aygulyanik@klu.edu.tr

Abstract

In our study, we aimed to determine the levels of patient safety and reporting adverse events in the healthcare employees of oral and dental health centers and to evaluate the effects socio-demographic characteristics on patient safety. The study performed in November and December, 2012 and included the medical staff of oral and dental health centers in the Thracian Region of Turkey. Data was collected using the survey. Using the random sampling method, the sample has been chosen from the population of 200 healthcare personnel and 150 completely answered surveys have been evaluated. The SPSS for Windows 15.0 software was used for analyzing data. Hospital safety, team work, security gap, system quality and the management assistance of healthcare employees was high but their adverse events assessment was determined to be on a moderate level. It was identified that sociodemographic characteristics of healthcare employees have an influence on patient safety.

Keywords

References

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Article

Dyspnea in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Quality of Life in Northern Greece

1Assistant Professor Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece

2Associate Professor, Physical Therapy Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece

3Associate Professor, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, Department of Nursing, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, Greece


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 205-210
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maria Lavdaniti, Maria Tsiligiri, Sofia Zyga. Dyspnea in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Quality of Life in Northern Greece. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):205-210. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Maria  Lavdaniti, Assistant Professor Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece. Email: maria_lavdaniti@yahoo.gr

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess dyspnea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and to determine whether dyspnea affects patients’ quality of life. Method: This study was descriptive and non-experimental. Two scales were used for the selection of the sample. Subjects were assessed for their dyspnea based on the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) and for quality of life using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Data collection was carried out during the third cycle of chemotherapy. Results: The mean age of patients was 58.95 ± 9.95 years. The majority of patients were male and married. 30% of patients belonging to the sample examined suffered from dyspnea. A percentage of 33.3% frequently experienced shortness of breath. With respect to severity, 31.7% replied that the symptom was severe; it was quite distressing for 21.7% of the sample and somewhat distressing for 18.5% of all patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that the statistically significant factors influencing dyspnea are age (p = 0.004) and gender (p = 0.030). Conclusions: Dyspnea is a symptom appearing in cancer patients during chemotherapy and it affects patients’ quality of life. This finding is very significant for Greek nurses seeking to recognize and assess this symptom in clinical settings. The recognition and evaluation of the symptom by nurses can lead to increased continuity in nursing care and to planned interventions to alleviate it.

Keywords

References

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Article

Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Most-at-Risk Young People in Cambodia

1Research Department, KHANA, Cambodia

2Public Health Program, College of Education and Health Sciences, Touro University, California, USA

3Department of School Health, Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports, Cambodia

4School of Public Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cambodia

5The University of Health Sciences, Cambodia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 211-220
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Kunthearith Yung, Sanh Kim, Chhorvann Chhea, Vonthanak Saphonn. Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Most-at-Risk Young People in Cambodia. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):211-220. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: Siyan  Yi, Research Department, KHANA, Cambodia. Email: siyan@doctor.com

Abstract

Background: Recent surveys suggest that adolescents and young adults in Southeast Asian nations are at great risks of sexual reproductive health issues. This study explored factors associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among unmarried most-at-risk young people in Cambodia. Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,204 boys and 1,166 girls aged 10-24 from 252 hotspots in the capital city and seven provinces. A five-item scale was constructed to measure RSB. All variables were entered simultaneously in multivariate logistic regression models if they were significantly associated with RSB in bivariate analyses. Results: Of total, 37.7% of boys and 18.5% of girls had sexual intercourse in the past three months; of them, 69.6% of boys and 52.5% of girls were involved in commercial sex. Only 43.3% of boys and 6.5% of girls reported always using condom with unpaid regular partners in the past three months. Among sexually active girls, 43.5% reported having been pregnant and of them, 42.4% reported having induced abortion as a result of their most recent pregnancy. After adjustment, boys with higher levels of RSB were significantly more likely to live in an urban area, to have completed ≥ 9 years of formal education, and to be not currently living with parents. In contrast, girls with higher levels of RSB were significantly less likely to have completed ≥ 9 years of formal education and to have both parents alive. Both boys and girls with higher levels of RSB were significantly more likely to be in the age group of 20-24, to be not currently in school, to be employed, to becurrent alcohol drinkers, to becurrent heavy alcohol drinkers, to be current illicit drug users, and to have been tested for HIV. Conclusions: Unmarried young people in this study are exposed to several sexual reproductive health problems such as HIV and sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. These findings suggest the need for research and prevention programs for these key populations taking into account risk factors identified in this study.

Keywords

References

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Article

Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India

1Department of Prosthodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science, kadapa, India

2Department of Endodontics, Narayana Dental Colleg, PSR Nellore, India

3Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 221-225
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. Sesha Reddy, A. Swaroop Kumar Reddy, Ashish. R. Jain, R. Pradeep. Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):221-225. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Ashish.  R. Jain, Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India. Email: dr.ashishjain_r@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Loss of teeth is mainly attributed to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Factors relating to tooth extractions are not, however, always dental in origin. Edentulousness and small number of remaining teeth are associated with low educational level, low family income and rural domicile. Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for tooth loss and to establish base line data about missing teeth, among patients attending OPD of Govt. Dental College and, Hospital, RIMS, Kadapa. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 patients, age group of 18 years and above with non- disease as factors for tooth loss, are considered. The subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire regarding age, sex, marital status, demographics, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, dental visiting patterns, and oral hygiene practices, and then clinically examined by a single examiner for number of missing teeth. Univariant analysis is carried out and those variables which show statistical significance Association between loss of teeth and selected variables are studied using Chi square test. Results: Of the 150 patients, 55 (36.7%) were males and 95 (63.4%) were females and mean age was 35.5 years with an average of 10.7% of teeth missing per person. Subjects with no schooling had more than 2 missing teeth, current smokeless tobacco users and non regular dental visiting pattern had more than 2 missing teeth. Smoking had no association with the missing teeth. Women than men, Education and the family income were also significantly associated with the number of missing teeth. Conclusion: Though most of the individual risk factors do lead to periodontal disease and loss of teeth, the present study has a drawback where smoking and tooth loss did not show any association. On the basis of the evidence presented it would seem that the loss of one’s natural teeth is a complex social and environmental phenomenon and is not merely a result of dental disease. This study demonstrates that modifications in the non-disease factors (education, income, smoking) could reduce the number of missing teeth and improve oral health status and function.

Keywords

References

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Article

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women

1Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics

2İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 226-231
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
İsmail Özkaya, Işıl Bavunoglu, Aydın Tunçkale. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):226-231. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: İsmail  Özkaya, Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics. Email: dytismail@hotmail.com

Abstract

Study Design: Obesity prevalence is incresing in Turkish population whose lipoprotein profile is characterised by low levels of HDL cholesterol. Our study aims to determine how obesity changes lipid profiles in Turkish women. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2501 overweight and obese adult women. After systemic physical examination and some antropometric studies, blood samples have been analysed for lipid parameters. Results: Body mass index (BMI), trigliserides (TG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), nonhigh density lipoprotein-cholesterol (NHDL- C), TG/HDL-C ratio, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are significantly increased (p<0,05), but HDL-C levels are significantly decreased (p<0,05) in study population. There was a negative correlation between HDL-C and BMI, waist circumference, TG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p<0,05). On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between HDL-C with age, TC (p<0,05) and between abdominal circumference with TG, NHDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). Similarly, there was also a positive correlation between BMI with some lipid parameters (TG, VLDL-C, NHDL- C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). The patients are separated into two groups as metabolic syndrome positive (MS+) and negative (MS-) and then compared. HDL-C in MS+ group was significantly lower than MS- group (p<0,05). Other all parameters in MS+ group were significantly higher than MS- group (p<0,05). Conclusion: Increase of abdominal circumference and HOMA-IR has a negative effect on lipid parameters. Additionally, BMI has similarly negative effect on some lipid parameters in Turkish women.

Keywords

References

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