American Journal of Public Health Research: Latest Articles  More >>

Article

Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka

1Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5A), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jinadasa B.K.K.K., Samanthi R.I., Wicramsinghe I.. Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5A):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1.

Correspondence to: Jinadasa  B.K.K.K., Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka. Email: jinadasa76@gmail.com

Abstract

The presence of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) has been studied in ten sea cucumber (Holothurians) species in the Northwestern sea of Kalpitiya and Dutch Bay area (Sri Lanka) during October- November 2008 and 2009. The concentration of in holothurians body wall have been found to range from 1.84-9.18 mg/kg (Cu), 5.03-56.68 mg/kg (Fe), 3.68-24.38 mg/kg (Zn), <0.04-4.70 mg/kg (Cr), 0.04-2.29 mg/kg (Pb), 41.62-128.93 μg/kg (Cd), 0.07-0.25mg/kg (Co) and 24.63-445.69 μg/kg (Hg) in dry weight basis. The results show that, according to European legislation, the body wall of holothurians is generally “safe”, although the high levels of iron in all holothurians are noticeable.

Keywords

References

[1]  Anonymous, (2007).The gazette of the democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Extraordinary), No. 1528/7, December 17, 2007.
 
[2]  AOAC international, (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of the Official Analysis Chemists, 17th edition.
 
[3]  Beeby, A., (1991).Toxic metal uptake and essential metal regulation in terrestrial invertebrates: A review. In: Newman MC, McIntosh AW, editors. Metal Ecotoxicology: Concepts and Applications. (Chelsea, USA: Lewis Publ, MI, USA). pp. 65-89.
 
[4]  Bertini, I.,Gray, H.B., Stephen, J.L., andValentin, J.S. (1998).Bioinorganic chemistry, ch9 Metals in Medicine 1st south Asian edition.(VinodVasishtha for Viva book private limited). pp. 505-513.
 
[5]  Catharina, Y.W.A., Keshun L. and Huang Y.W. (1999).Asian Food Science and technology,(CRC Press). pp. 389.
 
Show More References
[6]  Clarck, A.M. and Rowe F.E.W., (1971). A monograph of the existing crinoids. Bulletin of US National Museum. 82: 860.
 
[7]  Denton, G.R.W., Morrison, R.J., Bearden, B.G., Houk, P., Starmer, J.A., and Wood, H.R., (2009). Impact of a coastal dump in a tropical lagoon on trace metal concentrations in surrounding marine biota: A case study from Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Marine pollution bulletin. 58: 424-455.
 
[8]  Dissanayake, D.C.T. and Wijeyaratne, M.J.S. (2007). Studies on the sea cucumber fishery in the North Western coastal region of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Science. 12: 19-37.
 
[9]  Dissanayake, D.C.T., Athukorala, S. and Amarasiri C. (2010). Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in Sri Lanka. SPC beche-de-mer information bulletin. 30: 14-20.
 
[10]  Jun, X., (1998). Heavy metal accumulation in tissue/organs of a sea cucumber, Holothurialeucospilota. Journal of Hydrobiologia. 352: 17-23.
 
[11]  Kumara, P.B.T.P. (2005). Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in the southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry.SPC Beche-de-mer information bulletin. 22: 24-29.
 
[12]  Michel, W., Sandrine, D., Gilles, L., Alessia, M., Rodrigues, Y., and Philippe, D., (2006). Heavy Metals in the Sea Cucumber Holothuriatubulosa (Echinodermata) from the Mediterranean Posidoniaoceanica Ecosystem: Body Compartment, Seasonal, Geographical and Bathymetric Variations. Environmental Bio-indicators. 1: 268-285.
 
[13]  Medina, R.G., Carlos, Z.M., Manuel, C.B., and Roberto, P.C., (2004).Concentration the Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in sediments and in three species of sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea) from the coast of Yucatan. Mexican Journal of research article engineering. 8: 7-19.
 
[14]  MOFAR, 2011. Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Sri Lanka, 2011, available at, www.fisheries.gov.lk/statistics.html, [Accessed on June.16, 2012].
 
[15]  Nil, P.O., Suhendan, M.andCandan V. (2004). Effect of the handling procedures on the chemical composition of sea cucumber. Turkish journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences. 4: 71-74.
 
[16]  Pugh, R.S., Becker, R.R. (2001). Sea Turtle Contaminants: A Review with Annotated Bibliography. National Technical Information Service, Virginia, USA, pp. 144.
 
[17]  Tandon, A.M. and Henry M.H. (1873).The world of the sea, published by Casell, Petter and Galpin.
 
[18]  Turkmen, M., Turkmen, A., Tepe, Y., Ateş A.,andGokkuş, K., (2007). Determination of metal contaminations in seafood from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas: twelve fish species. Food Chemistry. 108: 794-800.
 
[19]  Sicuro, B., Piccinno, M., Gai F., Abete, M.C., Danieli, A., Dapra, F., Mioletti, S., and Vilella S., (2012). Food quality and safety of Mediterranean sea cucumbers Holothuriatubulosa and Holothuriapolli in Southern Adriatic Sea. Asian journal of animal and veterinary advances. 7 (9): 851-859.
 
[20]  Julshamn, K. and Grahl-Nielsen, O. (1996). Distribution of trace elements from industrial discharges in the Hardangerfjord, Norway: a multivariate data analysis of saithe, flounder and blue mussel as sentinel organisms. MarinePollutionBulletin. 32: 546-571.
 
[21]  Luoma, S. N. (1990). Processes affecting metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments. In Furrness, R. W. & P. S. Rainbow (eds) Heavy Metals in the Marine Environment, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton: 51-66.
 
[22]  Pacyna, J.M. and Pacyna, E.G. (2001): An assessment of global and regional emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources worldwide. Environment Rev., 9: 269-298.
 
[23]  Adachi, H., Takaaki, I., Shin, T., Tsunemi, K., Shinsuke, H. and Shinsuke, T. (2012). Bioaccumulation of trace elements in marine organisms from deep-waters of Off-Sanninn and Off-Hokuriku, Japan. Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry 6: 169-176
 
[24]  Chen, Z., Lawrence M.M., Christophe, Q., Olivier F.X.D., Robert F.L.S., Peter A. J. and Donald P.W. (2000). High concentrations of complexed metals in the guts of deposit feeders. Limnology and oceanography, 45 (6): 1358-1367
 
[25]  Maria P.I., Henry O., Colin L., Rod F. and Joan W. (2011). Trace element concentrations in nesting flat-back turtles (Natatordepressus). Marine Environmental Research. 71: 10-16
 
[26]  Xing, J. and Chia, F.S. (1997). Heavy metal accumulation in tissue/organs of a sea cucumber, Holothurialeucospilota. Journal of Hydrobiologia. 352: 17-23.
 
[27]  Reilly, C (1991). Metal Contamination of Food. 2nd Edition. Elsevier Applied Science. P 131-147.
 
[28]  Ray, S. and Kiceniuk, J.W. (1994). Cadmium. In: Analysis of contaminants in edible aquatic resources – General considerations: metals, organometallics, tainting and organics. VCH Publishers, USA. p 91-115.
 
[29]  Woodwell, G.M., Craig, P.P. and Johnson, H.A. (1971): DDT in the biosphere: Where does it go? Science, 174: 1101-1107.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City

1Department of Family planning and child care, Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia

2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 188-197
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yeshareg Walle, Zelalem Alamrew. The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):188-197. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Zelalem  Alamrew, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Email: kzolam@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Men often play dominant role on decisions crucial to reproductive health but still they are at the back seat. In the past family planning programs have focused primarily on women because to free them from excessive child bearing. The aim of the study was to assess the involvement of men in family planning practices among male factory workers in Bahir Dar city. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in July 2013 among 306 male factory workers using simple random sampling technique. A pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS version 16 soft ware package. Results: The study revealed that 25.5% of male factory workers were involved in family planning practices. The study declared that educational status was a significantly predicts involvement on family planning (AOR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-11.14, 1.8= 95% CI: 1.31- 9.220, and 2.01= 95% CI: 1.51-7.76). Besides, respondents who stayed in marriage from 4 to 13 years were about 18 times more likely to be involved on family planning compared to respondents stayed more than 22 years (AOR= 18.06, 95% CI: 1.79-58.68). Moreover, number of living children in a family was associated with an outcome of interest (AOR= 11.01, 95% CI: 1.13- 106.9 and AOR= 7.40, 95% CI: 1.49- 36.64) respectively. Conclusion: Only one out of four respondents involved in family planning. Besides, educational status, number of years in marriage, number of living children, and joint decision on the number of children were statistically significant predictors of male involvement on family planning. Therefore, ministry of health and all sectors concerned on reproductive health issues need to work on male involvement on family planning to regulate fertility and rapid population growth.

Keywords

References

[1]  Shazia A Khan, Zain Ul Amin, Fouzia, Samina Jadoon. A comparative trial of copper T 380 and Cu 375 IUCD. Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010; 22 (3): 185-187.
 
[2]  J E Darroch, S Singh. Trends in contraceptive need and use in developing countries in 2003, 2008, and 2012: an analysis of national surveys. The Lancet 2013; 381 (9879): 1756-1762.
 
[3]  The Faces of Unmet Need for Family Planning July 2012. [Accessed date 12/08/14]. Available from: http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2012/faces-unmet-need-familyplanning.aspx
 
[4]  UNFPA East and Southern Africa June 2012. Unmet need for contraception rises in sub-Saharan Africa. [Cited date 2 Jan 2014], Available at: http://esaro.unfpa.org/public/public/cache/offonce/news/pid/11166%3Bjsessionid=7AFFB08FFBC87F5CAF4F485285689904.jahia01
 
[5]  Index mundi. Ethiopian demographic profile 2013. Accessed on 27 January 2014. Available from: http://www.indexmundi.com/ethiopia/demographics_profile.html
 
Show More References
[6]  MELAKU DEMISSIE. Ethiopia: Business & Economy: Consequences of Population Explosion, Global Warming 3 March 2007
 
[7]  CSA, ORC M. Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Calverton, Maryland, USA 2006.
 
[8]  National Population Policy of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Office of the Prime Minister, April 1993. [Accessed date 17/05/2013]. Available from: [http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/population/policies/ETHIOPIA.htm].
 
[9]  Bongarts J, Bruce J. The causes of unmet need for contraception and the social content of services. Studies in Family planning 1995; 26 (2): 57-75.
 
[10]  John C. Caldwell and Pat Caldwell. High fertility in subsaharan Africa. Scientific America 1990; 262 (5): 118-8.
 
[11]  Doddo F, Amoo N. Men matters additive and interactive gendered preferences and reproductive behavior in India. Demography 1998; 35 (2): 229-42.
 
[12]  Andongo BP, Phillips JF, Kajihara B and et al. Cultural factors constraining the introduction of family planning among the Kasenna-Nankana of North Ghana. Social science and medicine 1997; 45 (12): 1789-804.
 
[13]  Toure L. Male involvement in family planning: A review of literature and selected program initiatives in Africa 1996.
 
[14]  Mary Chuwa. Male involvement in Family planning practice. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health 2012; 6 (3): 132-138.
 
[15]  Arwen Bunce Greg Guest, Hannah Searing. Factors Affecting Vasectomy Acceptability in Tanzania. International. Family Planning Perspectives Volume 33, Number 1, March 2007.
 
[16]  Eliz, Chika A. The influence of spouses over each other's contraceptive attitudes in Ghana. Studies in Family planning 1993; 24 (3): 163-73.
 
[17]  Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. The Global Family Planning Revolution: Three Decades of Population Policies and Programs. The World Bank 2007
 
[18]  Khalifa AM. Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning. Studies in Family planning 1988; 19 (4): 236-43.
 
[19]  Alemayehu Bayray. Assessment of male involvement in family planning use among men in south eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Scholarly Journal of Medicine 2012; 2 (2): 1-10.
 
[20]  Yigzaw Kebede. Contraceptive prevalence and factors associated with usage of contraceptives around Gondar Town. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2000; 14 (3): 327-334.
 
[21]  Fasil Haile Georgis. Assessment of Factors Influencing the Utilization of modern Contraceptive Methods among Women in the Reproductive Age Group in Angolela and Tera District, North Shewa Administrative Zone, Amhara National Regional State. Addis Ababa university school of graduate studies 2006.
 
[22]  SAHLE SITA. Assessment of the magnitude and determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married women in urban and periurban community in Awassa, southern Ethiopia. Addis Ababa university school of graduate studies 2003.
 
[23]  Binyam B, Mekitie W, Tizta T and et al. Married women’s decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2011, 11: 342.
 
[24]  Rachel L.S, Sara J.N, Maricianah O and et al. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Volume 2013.
 
[25]  Tsedeke T, Wakgari D, Ahmed A and et al. The role of men in contraceptive use and fertility preference in Hossana Town, southern Ethiopia. Ethiop.J. Health Dev. 2006; 20 (3).
 
[26]  Gisele Maynard-Tucker. Men's and Women's Reproductive and Contraceptive Decisions: A Case Study from Highland Peru. Working Paper #248, October 1994.
 
[27]  Richard Barrington. Why Mothers Should Play a Bigger Role in Family Finances. Accessed date November 18, 2013, Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-barrington/women-family-finance_b_3065219.html)
 
[28]  Melissa J. Williams and Serena Chen. When “Mom’s the Boss”: Control Over Domestic Decision Making Reduces Women’s Interest in Workplace Power. SAGE Journals 2013, 16 (6): 1-19.
 
[29]  Agatha Kafuko. Report on the Qualitative Assessment of Community Based Approaches to Promote Smaller Families and Family Planning Among Men in Uganda. September 2008.
 
[30]  Macellina Y, Titilayo C, Kayode T. and et al. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health 2010; 14 (4): 45.
 
[31]  Agyei WK, Migadde M. Demographic and sociocultural factors influencing contraceptive use in Uganda. J Biosoc Sci. 1995; 27 (1): 47-60.
 
[32]  Tawiah EO. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Ghana. J Biosoc Sci. 1997; 29 (2): 141-9.
 
[33]  T B Mekonnen, A Moges, B Mengesha. Assessment of family planning use and associated factors among people living with HIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Lancet, Volume 382, Issue, Page S10, 3 November 2013.
 
[34]  Abdurahman Mohammed, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Amsalu Feleke and Berihun Megabiaw. Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Reproductive Health 2014, 11: 13.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers

1Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey

2Departmant of Nursing, Kirklareli Mouth and Dental Health Center, Turkey


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 198-204
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aygul Yanik, Hulya Cetin. The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):198-204. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Aygul  Yanik, Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey. Email: aygulyanik@klu.edu.tr

Abstract

In our study, we aimed to determine the levels of patient safety and reporting adverse events in the healthcare employees of oral and dental health centers and to evaluate the effects socio-demographic characteristics on patient safety. The study performed in November and December, 2012 and included the medical staff of oral and dental health centers in the Thracian Region of Turkey. Data was collected using the survey. Using the random sampling method, the sample has been chosen from the population of 200 healthcare personnel and 150 completely answered surveys have been evaluated. The SPSS for Windows 15.0 software was used for analyzing data. Hospital safety, team work, security gap, system quality and the management assistance of healthcare employees was high but their adverse events assessment was determined to be on a moderate level. It was identified that sociodemographic characteristics of healthcare employees have an influence on patient safety.

Keywords

References

[1]  Aiken, L.H., Sermeus, W., Van, K., Sloane, D.M., Busse, R., McKee, M., et al., “Patient Safety, Satisfaction, and Quality of Hospital Care: Cross Sectional Surveys of Nurses and Patients in 12 Countries in Europe and United States”. BJM, 2012; 344(e1717): 1-14.
 
[2]  Akgun, S. & Al-Assaf, A., Patient Safety (Chapter 4), Healthcare Accreditation Handbook: A Practical Guide. (2th ed). 2009.
 
[3]  Alahmadi, H.A., “Assessment of Patient Safety Culture in Saudi Arabian Hospitals”. Qual Saf Health Care, 2010; 19(e17):1-5.
 
[4]  Altındis, S., “Event Reporting in Health Services and Effect to Patient Safety”. Journal of Performance and Quality in Health, 2010; 1: 17-32.
 
[5]  Beasley, J.W., Escato, K.M. & Karsh, B.T., “Design Elements for A Primary Care Medical Error Reporting System”. Winconsin Medical Journal, 2004; 103(1): 56-59.
 
Show More References
[6]  Blegen, M.A., “Patient Safety in Hospital Acute Care Units”. Annu Rev Nurs Res, 2006; 24: 103-125.
 
[7]  Bodur, S. & Filiz, E., “Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and Perception of Patient Safety in Public Hospitals in Turkey”. Health Services Research, 2010; 10(28): 1-9.
 
[8]  Bodur, S. & Filiz, E., “A Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Primary Healthcare Services in Turkey”. İnternational Journal for Quality in Health Care, 2009; 21(5): 348-355.
 
[9]  Coyle, Y.M., Mercer, S.Q., Murphy-Cullen, C.L., Schneider, G.W. & Hynan, L.S., “Effectiveness of a Graduate Medical Education Program for Improving Medical Event Reporting Attitude and Behavior”. Qual Saf Health Care, 2005; 14: 383-388.
 
[10]  Demirgil, H., Nonparametric Hypothesis Tests. (Ed: S. Kalayci). SPSS Applied Multivariate Statistical Techniques. 5th Edition, Ankara, 2010: 85-110.
 
[11]  El-Jardali, F., Dimassi, H., Jamal, D., Jaafar, M. & Hemadeh, N., “Predictors and Outcomes of Patient Safety Culture in Hospitals”. BMC Health Services Research, 2011; 11(45): 2-12.
 
[12]  Istanbullu, I.T., Yildiz, H. & Zora, H., “A Research for Development of Security Reporting System Applied in the Kartal Yavuz Selim State Hospital”. Journal of Performance and Quality in Health, 2010; 4: 1-17.
 
[13]  Leong, P., Afrow, J., Weber, H.P. & Howell, H., “Attitudes Toward Patient Safety Standarts in U.S. Dental Schools: A Pilot Study”. Journal of Dental Education, 2008; 72(4): 431-437.
 
[14]  Manser, T.M., “Teamwork and Patient Safety in Dynamic Domains of Healthcare: A Review of the Literature”. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 2009; 53: 143-151.
 
[15]  Mwachofi, A., Walston, S.L. & Al-Omar, B.A., “Factors Affecting Nurses’ Perceptions of Patient Safety”. Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2011; 24(4): 274-283.
 
[16]  Naveh, E., Katz-Novan, T. & Stern, Z., “Treatment Errors in Healthcare: A Safety Climate Aproach”. Management Science, 2005; 51(6): 949-966.
 
[17]  Official Gazette, “Regulation on Making Changes in the Business Precept of Inpatient Treatment Institutions”. 05.05.2005, Number: 25806.
 
[18]  Official Gazette, “T.R. Ministry of Health: Statement about the Procedures and Principles of Providing and Protecting Patient and Personnel Safety in Health Institutions”. 29.04.2009, Number: 27214.
 
[19]  Official Gazette, “T.R. Ministry of Health: Regulation on Providing Patient and Personnel Safety”. 06. 04. 2011, Number: 27897.
 
[20]  Ovalı, F., “Patient Safety Attitudes”. Journal of Performance and Quality in Health, 2010; 1: 33-43.
 
[21]  Siddiqi, S., Elasady, R., Khorshid, I., Fortune, T., Leotsakos, A., Letaief, M., et al., “Patient Safety Friendly Hospital Initiative: from Evidendence to Action in Seven Developing Country Hospitals”. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 012; 24(2): 144-151.
 
[22]  Singer, S.J., Gaba, D.M., Geppert, J.J., Sinaiko, A.D., Howard, S.K. & Park, K.C., “The Culture of Safety: Resulth of An Organization-wide Survey in 15 California Hospitals”. Qual Saf Health Care, 2003; 12: 112-118.
 
[23]  St.Pierre, M., “Safe Patient Care-safety Culture and Risk Management in Otorhinolaryngology”. Head and Neck Surgery, 2013; 12: 1-12.
 
[24]  Tak, B., “Building A Patient Safety System As A Main Component of Quality in Healthcare: A Road Map for Hospitals”. Journal of Performance and Quality in Health, 2010; 1: 72-113.
 
[25]  T.R. Ministry of Health, Health Services General Directorate, Department of Quality and Accreditation in Health. 1. Lecture Notes of the Service Quality Standards School. Pozitif Publishing Ltd., Ankara; 2011.
 
[26]  T.R. Ministry of Health, Health Services General Directorate, Department of Quality and Accreditation in Health. Quality in Health in the Light of Health Quality Standards (Vol:1). Eds: N.Tosun, I. Demirtas, I. Sencan, H. Guler, A. Ozturk, D. Tarhan, Pozitif Publishing Ltd., Ankara; 2012.
 
[27]  Wilson, R.M., Michel, P., Olsen, S., Gibberd, R.W., Vincent, C., El-Assady, R., et al., “Patient Safety in Developing Countries: Retrospective Estimation of Scale and Nature of Harm to Patients in Hospital”, BJM, 2012; 344(e832): 1-14.
 
Show Less References

Article

Dyspnea in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Quality of Life in Northern Greece

1Assistant Professor Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece

2Associate Professor, Physical Therapy Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece

3Associate Professor, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, Department of Nursing, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, Greece


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 205-210
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maria Lavdaniti, Maria Tsiligiri, Sofia Zyga. Dyspnea in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Quality of Life in Northern Greece. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):205-210. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Maria  Lavdaniti, Assistant Professor Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece. Email: maria_lavdaniti@yahoo.gr

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess dyspnea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and to determine whether dyspnea affects patients’ quality of life. Method: This study was descriptive and non-experimental. Two scales were used for the selection of the sample. Subjects were assessed for their dyspnea based on the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) and for quality of life using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Data collection was carried out during the third cycle of chemotherapy. Results: The mean age of patients was 58.95 ± 9.95 years. The majority of patients were male and married. 30% of patients belonging to the sample examined suffered from dyspnea. A percentage of 33.3% frequently experienced shortness of breath. With respect to severity, 31.7% replied that the symptom was severe; it was quite distressing for 21.7% of the sample and somewhat distressing for 18.5% of all patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that the statistically significant factors influencing dyspnea are age (p = 0.004) and gender (p = 0.030). Conclusions: Dyspnea is a symptom appearing in cancer patients during chemotherapy and it affects patients’ quality of life. This finding is very significant for Greek nurses seeking to recognize and assess this symptom in clinical settings. The recognition and evaluation of the symptom by nurses can lead to increased continuity in nursing care and to planned interventions to alleviate it.

Keywords

References

[1]  Globocan 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence Mortality and Incidence worldwide in 2012. Available at http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_cancer.aspx Αccessed 30 march 2014
 
[2]  Globocan 2008: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. Available at www.iarc.fr. Αccessed 30 march 2014.
 
[3]  Deshields, T.L., Potter, P., Olsen, S., Liu, J. The persistence of symptom burden: symptom experience and quality of life of cancer patients across one year. Support Care Cancer, 22 (4). 1089-96. Apr. 2014.
 
[4]  Quast, E., Williams, M. Distress with Breathing in People with Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 7 (4). Oct. 2009.
 
[5]  Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. American Thoracic Society. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 159 (1). 321-40, Jan. 1999.
 
Show More References
[6]  Glennon, C., Seskevich, J. Relaxation technique to ease dyspnea: a tool for oncology nurses. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12 (2). 369-71. Apr. 2008.
 
[7]  DiSalvo, W.M., Joyce, M.M., Tyson, L.B., Culkin, A.B., Mackay, K. Putting evidence into practice: Evidence-based interventions for cancer-related dyspnoea. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12. 241-352. Apr. 2008.
 
[8]  DeVita, V.T. Jr, Chu, E. A history of cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Research, 68 (21). 8643-53. Nov. 2008.
 
[9]  Corner J, Bailey C. Cancer nuring: care in context. 2006. Blackwell science.
 
[10]  Singh, H., Kaur, K., Banipal, R.P., Singh, S., Bala, R. Quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in tertiary care center in malwa region of punjab. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 20 (2). 116-22. May. 2014.
 
[11]  WHOQOL Group. Study protocol for the World Health Organization project to develop a quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). Quality of Life Research, 2 (2). 153-159. Apr 1993.
 
[12]  Smith, E.L., Hann, D.M., Ahles, T.A., Furstenberg, C.T., Mitchell, T.A., Meyer, L., Maurer, L.H., Rigas, J., Hammond, S. Dyspnea, anxiety, body consciousness, and quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Journal of Pain &Symptom Management, 21 (4). 323-9. Apr. 2001.
 
[13]  Hui, D., Morgado, M., Vidal, M, Withers L, Nguyen Q, Chisholm G, Finch C, Bruera E. Dyspnea in hospitalized advanced cancer patients: subjective and physiologic correlates. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 16 (3). 274-80. Mar. 2013.
 
[14]  Rhondali, W., Hui, D., Kim, S.H., Kilgore, K., Kang, J.H., Nguyen L, Bruera E. Association between patient-reported symptoms and nurses' clinical impressions in cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 15 (3). 301-7. Mar. 2012.
 
[15]  Aeckerle, S., Moor, M., Pilz, L.R., Gencer, D., Hofheinz, R.D., Hofmann, W.K., Buchheidt D. Characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with gynaecological malignancies treated in a palliative care unit at a university hospital. Onkologie, 36 (11). 642-8. Oct. 2013.
 
[16]  Cui, J., Fang, F., Shen, F., Song, L., Zhou, L., Ma, X., Zhao, J. Quality of Life in Patients With Advanced Cancer at the End of Life as Measured by the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire: A Survey in China. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, May 2014 2. pii: S0885-3924 (14) 00229-2.
 
[17]  Rupolo, M., Lleshi, A., Cacopardo, B., Michieli, M., Berretta, M. Hematopoietic growth factors support in the elderly cancer patients treated with antiblastic chemotherapy. Anticancer Agents in Medical Chemistry, 13 (9): 1438-43, Nov 2013.
 
[18]  Ellis, J., Wagland, R., Tishelman, C., Williams, M.L., Bailey, C.D., Haines, J., Caress, A., Lorigan, P., Smith, J.A., Booton, R., Blackhall, F., Molassiotis, A. Considerations in developing and delivering a nonpharmacological intervention for symptom management in lung cancer: the views of patients and informal caregivers. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 44 (6): 831-42. Dec. 2012.
 
[19]  Morita, T., Kuriya, M., Miyashita, M., Sato, K., Eguchi, K., Akechi, T. Symptom burden and achievement of good death of elderly cancer patients. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 217 (8). 887-93. Aug. 2014.
 
[20]  Koelwyn, G.J., Jones, L.W., Hornsby, W., Eves, N.D. Exercise therapy in the management of dyspnea in patients with cancer. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care, 6 (2). 129-37. Jun. 2012.
 
[21]  Hallqvist, A., Bergman, B., Nyman, J. Health related quality of life in locally advanced NSCLC treated with high dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy or cetuximab--pooled results from two prospective clinical trials. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 104 (1). 39-44. Jul. 2012.
 
[22]  Yang, J.C., Hirsh, V., Schuler, M., Yamamoto, N., O'Byrne, K.J., Mok, T.S., Zazulina, V., Shahidi, M., Lungershausen, J., Massey, D., Palmer, M., Sequis,t L.V. Symptom control and quality of life in LUX-Lung 3: a phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin/ pemetrexed in patientswith advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31 (27). 3342-50. Sep. 2013.
 
[23]  Hirsh, V., Cadranel, J., Cong, X.J., Fairclough, D., Finnern, H.W., Lorence, R.M., Miller, V.A., Palmer M, Yang JC. Symptom and quality of life benefit of afatinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients previously treated with erlotinib or gefitinib: results of a randomized phase IIb/III trial (LUX-Lung 1). Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 8 (2). 229-37. Feb. 2013.
 
[24]  Di Maio, M., Leighl, N.B., Gallo, C., Feld, R., Ciardiello, F., Butts, C., et al TORCH Investigators. Quality of life analysis of TORCH, a randomized trial testing first-line erlotinib followed by second-line cisplatin/gemcitabine chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 7 (12). 1830-44. Dec 2012.
 
[25]  Yildirim Y, Tokem Y, Bozkurt N, Fadiloglu C, Uyar M, Uslu R. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale in cancer patients. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12 (12). 3389-96. 2011.
 
[26]  Paice JA. Assessment of symptom clusters in people with cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, (32). 98-102. 2004.
 
[27]  Portenoy, R.K., Thaler, H.T., Kornblith, A.B., Lepore, J.M., Friedlander-Klar, H., Kiyasu, E., Sobel, K., Coyle, N., Kemeny, N., Norton, L., et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. European Journal of Cancer, 30A (9): 1326-36. 1994.
 
[28]  Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Available at: www.facit.org, access 30 March 2014.
 
[29]  Ferlay, J., Steliarova-Foucher, E., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Rosso, S., Coebergh, J.W.W., Comber, H., Forman, D., Bray, F. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer, 49 (6). 1374-403. Apr. 2013.
 
[30]  Pettersson, G., Berterö, C., Unosson, M., Börjeson, S. Symptom prevalence, frequency, severity, and distress during chemotherapy for patients with colorectal cancer. Support Care Cancer, 22 (5). 1171-9. May. 2014.
 
[31]  Nazik, E., Arslan, S., Nazik, H., Narin, M.A., Karlangic, H., Koc, Z. Anxiety and symptom assessment in Turkish gynecologic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13 (7). 3129-33. 2012.
 
[32]  Bausewein, C., Simon, S.T. Shortness of breath and cough in patients in palliative care. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 110 (33−34). 563-72. 2013.
 
[33]  Mercadante, S., Casuccio, A., Fulfaro, F. The course of symptom frequency and intensity in advanced cancer patients followed at home. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 20 (2). 104-12. Aug. 2000.
 
[34]  Mc Call, S. Management of dyspnea in cancer patients.Available at: http://www.oncolink.org/resources/article.cfm?id=1052, accessed 10 July 2014.
 
[35]  Reddy, S.K., Parsons, H.A., Elsayem, A., Palmer, J.L., Bruera, E. Characteristics and correlates of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. Palliatiative Medicine, 12 (1). 29-36. Jan. 2009.
 
[36]  Bruera, E., Schmitz, B., Pither, J., Neumann, C.M., Hanson, J. The frequency and correlates of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 19 (5): 357-62. May. 2000.
 
Show Less References

Article

Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Most-at-Risk Young People in Cambodia

1Research Department, KHANA, Cambodia

2Public Health Program, College of Education and Health Sciences, Touro University, California, USA

3Department of School Health, Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports, Cambodia

4School of Public Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cambodia

5The University of Health Sciences, Cambodia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 211-220
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Kunthearith Yung, Sanh Kim, Chhorvann Chhea, Vonthanak Saphonn. Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Most-at-Risk Young People in Cambodia. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):211-220. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: Siyan  Yi, Research Department, KHANA, Cambodia. Email: siyan@doctor.com

Abstract

Background: Recent surveys suggest that adolescents and young adults in Southeast Asian nations are at great risks of sexual reproductive health issues. This study explored factors associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among unmarried most-at-risk young people in Cambodia. Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,204 boys and 1,166 girls aged 10-24 from 252 hotspots in the capital city and seven provinces. A five-item scale was constructed to measure RSB. All variables were entered simultaneously in multivariate logistic regression models if they were significantly associated with RSB in bivariate analyses. Results: Of total, 37.7% of boys and 18.5% of girls had sexual intercourse in the past three months; of them, 69.6% of boys and 52.5% of girls were involved in commercial sex. Only 43.3% of boys and 6.5% of girls reported always using condom with unpaid regular partners in the past three months. Among sexually active girls, 43.5% reported having been pregnant and of them, 42.4% reported having induced abortion as a result of their most recent pregnancy. After adjustment, boys with higher levels of RSB were significantly more likely to live in an urban area, to have completed ≥ 9 years of formal education, and to be not currently living with parents. In contrast, girls with higher levels of RSB were significantly less likely to have completed ≥ 9 years of formal education and to have both parents alive. Both boys and girls with higher levels of RSB were significantly more likely to be in the age group of 20-24, to be not currently in school, to be employed, to becurrent alcohol drinkers, to becurrent heavy alcohol drinkers, to be current illicit drug users, and to have been tested for HIV. Conclusions: Unmarried young people in this study are exposed to several sexual reproductive health problems such as HIV and sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. These findings suggest the need for research and prevention programs for these key populations taking into account risk factors identified in this study.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNAIDS, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization. 2009 AIDS epidemic update. UNAIDS/WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 2009.
 
[2]  UNAIDS, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 2013.
 
[3]  Ahmadian, M., Hamsan, H.H., Abdullah, H., Samah, A.A. and Noor, A.M., “Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: A limited role of protective factors,” Global Journal of Health Sciences, 6 (3). 165-174. Mar. 2014.
 
[4]  Sychareun, V., Phengsavanh, A., Hansana, V., Chaleunvong, K., Kounnavong, S., Sawhney, M. and Durham, J., “Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence,” Global Public Health, 8 (8). 958-975. Sep. 2013.
 
[5]  Thin Zaw, P.P., Liabsuetrakul, T., McNeil, E. and Htay, T.T., “Gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut among poor Myanmar youths,” BMC Public Health, 5.1122. Dec. 2013.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sychareun, V., Thomsen, S., Chaleunvong, K. and Faxelid, E., “Risk perceptions of STIs/HIV and sexual risk behaviours among sexually experienced adolescents in the northern part of Lao PDR,” BMC Public Health, 13. 1126. Dec. 2013.
 
[7]  Yi, S., Poudel, K.C., Yasuoka, J., Palmer, P.H., Yi, S. and Jimba, M., “Role of risk and protective factors for risky sexual behaviors among high school students in Cambodia,” BMC Public Health, 10. 477. Aug. 2010.
 
[8]  National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ORC Macro. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Calverton, MD, USA. National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ORC Macro, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Sep. 2011.
 
[9]  Ministry of Education, Youth, & Sports. Most at risk young people survey in Cambodia, 2010. Ministry of Education, Youth, & Sports, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Jan. 2010.
 
[10]  Cuffee, J.J., Hallfors, D.D. and Waller, M.W., “Racial and gender differences in adolescent sexual attitudes and longitudinal associations with coital debut,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 41 (1). 19-26. Jul. 2007.
 
[11]  Guo, W., Wu, Z., Qiu, Y., Chen, G. and Zheng, X., “The timing of sexual debut among Chinese youth,” International Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health 38 (4). 196-204. Dec. 2012.
 
[12]  Hindin, M.J. and Fatusi, A.O., “Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: an overview of trends and interventions,” International Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35 (2). 58-62. Jun. 2009.
 
[13]  Oljira, L., Berhane, Y. and Worku, A., “Pre-marital sexual debut and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia,” BMC Public Health, 12. 375. May 2010.
 
[14]  Kenney, J.W., Reinholtz, C. and Angelini P.J., “Ethnic differences in childhood and adolescent sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy,” Journal Adolescent Health, 21 (1). 3-10. Jul. 1997.
 
[15]  Van Decraen, E., Michielsen, K., Herbots, S., Van Rossem, R. and Temmerman, M., “Sexual coercion among in-school adolescents in Rwanda: prevalence and correlates of victimization and normative acceptance,” African Journal Reproduction Health 16 (3). 140-154. Sep. 2012.
 
[16]  Ministry of Education, Youth, & Sports. Cambodia National Youth Risk behavior survey, 2004. Ministry of Education, Youth, & Sports, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Dec. 2004.
 
[17]  Tang, J., Gao, X., Yu, Y., Ahmed, N.I., Zhu, H., Wang, J. and Du, Y., “Sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis,” BMC Public Health, 11. 917. Dec. 2011.
 
[18]  Liu, Z., Zhu, M., Dib, H.H., Li, Z., Shi, S. and Wang, Z., “RH knowledge and service utilization among unmarried rural-to-urban migrants in three major cities, China,” BMC Public Health, 11. 74. Feb. 2011.
 
[19]  Tu, X., Cui, N., Lou, C. and Gao, E., “Do family-planning workers in China support provision of sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried young people?,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82 (2). 274-280. Apr. 2004.
 
[20]  Jones, C. and Long, D., "Cambodia: HIV TRaC Study Evaluating Condom Use with Sweethearts among High Risk Urban Men from four cities in Cambodia.” Population Services International, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Feb. 2010.
 
[21]  Cui, N., Tang, G., Li, M., Tian, A., Xie, L. and Lu, S.Y., “Survey of needs for reproductive health of unmarried adolescents in Chengdu,” Chinese Journal of Family Planning, 8 (2): 208-212. Feb. 2000.
 
[22]  Palen, L.A., Edward, A.S., Flisher, A.J., Caldwell, L.L. and Mpofu, E., “Substance use and sexual risk behavior among South African eighth grade students,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 39 (5). 761-763. Nov. 2006.
 
[23]  Carter, M., McGee, R., Taylor, B. and Williams,S., “Health outcomes in adolescence: Associations with family, friends, and school engagement,” Journal of Adolescence, 30 (1). 51-62. Feb. 2007.
 
[24]  Le, T.N. and Kato, T., “The role of peer and culture in risky sexual behavior for Cambodian and Lao/Mien adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 38 (3). 288-296. Mar. 2006.
 
[25]  Wight, D., Williamson, L. and Henderson, M., “Parental influences on young people’s sexual behavior: A longitudinal analysis,” Journal of Adolescence, 29 (4). 473-473. Aug. 2006.
 
[26]  Borawski, E.A., Ievers-Landis, C.E., Lovegreen, L.D. and Trapl, E.S., “Parental monitoring, negotiated unsupervised time, and parental trust: The role of parenting practices in adolescent health risk behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 33 (2). 60-70. Aug. 2003.
 
[27]  Fulkerson, J.A., Story, M., Mellin, A., Leffert, N., Neumark-Sztainer, D. and French, S.A., “Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: Relationship with development assets and high-risk behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 39 (3). 337-337. Sep. 2006.
 
[28]  Peres, C.A., Rutherford, G., Borges,G., Galano, E., Hudes, E.S. and Hearst, N., “Family structure and adolescent sexual behavior in a poor area of Sao Paulo, Brazil,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 42 (2). 177-183. Feb. 2008.
 
[29]  National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ORC Macro. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: National Institute of Statistics and ORC Macro, Dec. 2006.
 
[30]  Eaton, D.K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Harris, W.A., Lowry, R., McManus, T., Chyen, D., Lim, C., Whittle, L., Brener, N.D. and Wechsler, H., Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United Sates, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59 (SS05). 1-142. Jun. 2010.
 
[31]  Hutchinson, M.K., Jemmott, J.B., Jemmott, L.S., Braverman, P. and Fong, G.T., “The role of mother-daughter sexual risk communication in reducing sexual risk behaviors among urban adolescent females: a prospective study,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 33 (2). 98-107. Aug. 2003.
 
[32]  Wang, B., Li, X., Stanton, B., Kamali, V., Naar-King, S., Shah, I. and Thomas, R., “Sexual attitudes, pattern of communication, and sexual behavior among unmarried out-of-school youth in China,” BMC Pubic Health, 7. 189. Jul. 2007.
 
[33]  Earl, A. and Albarracin, D., “Nature, decay, and spiraling of the effects of fear-inducing arguments and HIV counseling and testing: A meta-analysis of the short-and long-term outcomes of HIV prevention interventions,” Health Psychology, 26 (4). 496-506. Jul. 2007.
 
[34]  Simbayi, L.C., Kalichman, S.C., Jooste, D., Mathiti. V., Cain, D. and Cherry, C., “Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV infection among men and women receiving sexually transmitted infection services in Cape Town, South Africa,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65 (4). 434-442. Jul. 2004.
 
[35]  Lowery, R., Galuska, D.A., Fulton, J.E., Wechsler, H., Kann, L. and Collins. J.L., “Physical activity, food choice, and weight management goals and practices among U.S. college students,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18 (1). 18-27. Jan. 2000.
 
[36]  Tapert, S.F., Aarons, G.A., Sedlar, G.R. and Brown, S.A., “Adolescent substance use and sexual risk-taking behavior,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 28 (3). 181-189. Mar. 2001.
 
[37]  Morrison, D.M., Gillmore, M.R., Hoppe, M.J., Gaylord, J., Leigh, B.C., Rainey, D., “Adolescent drinking and sex: findings from a daily diary study,” Perspectiveson Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35 (4).162-168. Jul-Aug. 2003.
 
[38]  Flisher, A.J. and Chalton, D.O., “Adolescent contraceptive non-use and co-variation among risk behaviors,” Journal Adolescent Health, 28 (3). 235-241. Mar. 2001.
 
[39]  Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S. and Eysenck, H.J., “Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (1). 139-149. Feb. 1978.
 
[40]  Baskin-Sommers, A. and Sommers, D.S.W., “The co-occurrence of substance use and high-risk behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 38 (5). 609-611. May 2006.
 
[41]  Bell, D.C., Trevino, R.A., Atkinson, J.S. and Carlson, J.W., “Motivations for condom use and non-use,” Clinical Laboratory Science, 16 (1). 20-33. Jan. 2003.
 
[42]  Douthwaite, M.R. and Sareoun, L., “Sexual behavior and condom use among unmarried young men in Cambodia,” AIDS Care, 18 (5). 505-513. Jul. 2006.
 
[43]  JamaShai, N., Jewkes, R., Levin, J., Dunkle, K. and Nduna, M., “Factors associated with consistent condom use among rural young women in South Africa,” AIDS Care, 22 (11). 1379-1385. Nov. 2010.
 
[44]  Cai, Y., Ye, X., Shi,R., Xu, G., Shen, L., Ren, J. and Huang, H., “Predictors of consistent condom use based on the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skill (IMB) model among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China,” BMC Infectious Diseases, 13. 262. Jun. 2013.
 
[45]  Fisher, C.M., “Are information, motivation, and behavioral skills linked with HIV-related sexual risk among young men who have sex with men?,” Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services, 10 (1). 5-21. Jan. 2011.
 
[46]  Scott-Sheldon, L.A., Carey, M.P., Vanable, P.A., Senn, T.E., Coury-Doniger, P. and Urban, M.A., “Predicting condom use among STD clinic clients using the Information-Motivation-behavioral Skills (IMB) model,” Journal of Health Psychology, 15 (7) 1093-1102. Oct. 2010.
 
[47]  Walsh, J.L., Senn, T.E., Scott-Sheldon, L.A., Vanable, P.A. and Carey, M.P., “Predicting condom use using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model: a multivariate latent growth curve analysis,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 42 (2). 235-244. Oct. 2011.
 
Show Less References

Article

Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India

1Department of Prosthodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science, kadapa, India

2Department of Endodontics, Narayana Dental Colleg, PSR Nellore, India

3Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 221-225
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. Sesha Reddy, A. Swaroop Kumar Reddy, Ashish. R. Jain, R. Pradeep. Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):221-225. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Ashish.  R. Jain, Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India. Email: dr.ashishjain_r@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Loss of teeth is mainly attributed to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Factors relating to tooth extractions are not, however, always dental in origin. Edentulousness and small number of remaining teeth are associated with low educational level, low family income and rural domicile. Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for tooth loss and to establish base line data about missing teeth, among patients attending OPD of Govt. Dental College and, Hospital, RIMS, Kadapa. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 patients, age group of 18 years and above with non- disease as factors for tooth loss, are considered. The subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire regarding age, sex, marital status, demographics, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, dental visiting patterns, and oral hygiene practices, and then clinically examined by a single examiner for number of missing teeth. Univariant analysis is carried out and those variables which show statistical significance Association between loss of teeth and selected variables are studied using Chi square test. Results: Of the 150 patients, 55 (36.7%) were males and 95 (63.4%) were females and mean age was 35.5 years with an average of 10.7% of teeth missing per person. Subjects with no schooling had more than 2 missing teeth, current smokeless tobacco users and non regular dental visiting pattern had more than 2 missing teeth. Smoking had no association with the missing teeth. Women than men, Education and the family income were also significantly associated with the number of missing teeth. Conclusion: Though most of the individual risk factors do lead to periodontal disease and loss of teeth, the present study has a drawback where smoking and tooth loss did not show any association. On the basis of the evidence presented it would seem that the loss of one’s natural teeth is a complex social and environmental phenomenon and is not merely a result of dental disease. This study demonstrates that modifications in the non-disease factors (education, income, smoking) could reduce the number of missing teeth and improve oral health status and function.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ahlqwist m.Bengstsson C, Grondahl H-G, Lapidus L: Social factors and tooth loss in a 12 year follow up study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden, CDOE 1991; 19: 141-6.
 
[2]  Casanova-Rosado JF Medina-Solis CE Lifestyle and psychosocial factors associated with tooth loss in Mexican adolescents and young adults. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 Aug 15; 6 (3): 70-7.
 
[3]  Sakki TK. Knuuttilla MLE, Anttilla SS; Lifestyle, gender and occupational status as determinants of dental health behavior. JClin Periodontol 1998; 25: 566- 570
 
[4]  Barbato PR, Muller Nagano HC, Zanchet FN, Boing AF, Peres MA, Tooth loss and associated socioeconomic, demographic, and dental-care factors in Brazilian adults: an analysis of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey, 2002-2003] Cad Saude Publica, 2007 Aug; 23 (8): 1803-14.
 
[5]  Xie Q, Ainamo A: Association of edentulousness with systemic factors in elderly people living at home, CDOE 1999; 27: 202-9.
 
Show More References
[6]  D.Locker, j. Ford, and J.L Leake; Incidence of and risk factors for tooth loss in a population of older Canadians, JDent Res 75 (2): 783-789, Feb 1996.
 
[7]  Eklund SA, Burt BA. Risk factors for total tooth loss in the United States; longitudinal analysis of national data J Public Health Dent. 1994 Winter; 54 (1): 5-14.
 
[8]  Ahlqwist m.Bengstsson C, Hollender L, Osterberg T: Smoking habits and tooth loss in Swedish women. CDOE 1989; 17: 144-7.
 
[9]  Susin C, Oppermann RV, Haugejorden O, Albandar JM, Tooth loss and associated risk indicators in an adult urban population from south Brazil. Acta Odontol Scand., 2005 Apr; 63 (2): 85-93.
 
[10]  Hamasha AH., Sasa I, Al Quadah M: Risk indicators associated with tooth loss in Jordanian adults, CDOE 2000; 28: 67-72.
 
[11]  Amarasena N, Ekanayaka AN, Herath L, Miyazaki H,. Socio-demographic risk indicators for tooth mortality in rural Sri Lankans. Asia Pac J Public Health, 2003; 15 (2): 105-10.
 
[12]  Susin C, Haas AN, Opermann RV, Albandar JMTooth loss in a young population from south Brazil. J Public Health Dent. 2006 spring; 66 (2): 110-5.
 
[13]  López R, Baelum V. Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates. Acta Odontol Scand 2006 Jun; 64 (3): 169-76.
 
[14]  Wennström A, Ahlqwist M, Stenman U, Björkelund C, Hakeberg. M. Trend in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004. BMC Oral Health. 2013 Nov 6; 13 (1): 63.
 
[15]  Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Aoyama HRelationship between smoking status and tooth loss: findings from national databases in Japan. J Epidemiol., 2007 Jul; 17 (4): 125-32.
 
Show Less References

Article

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women

1Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics

2İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 226-231
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
İsmail Özkaya, Işıl Bavunoglu, Aydın Tunçkale. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):226-231. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: İsmail  Özkaya, Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics. Email: dytismail@hotmail.com

Abstract

Study Design: Obesity prevalence is incresing in Turkish population whose lipoprotein profile is characterised by low levels of HDL cholesterol. Our study aims to determine how obesity changes lipid profiles in Turkish women. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2501 overweight and obese adult women. After systemic physical examination and some antropometric studies, blood samples have been analysed for lipid parameters. Results: Body mass index (BMI), trigliserides (TG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), nonhigh density lipoprotein-cholesterol (NHDL- C), TG/HDL-C ratio, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are significantly increased (p<0,05), but HDL-C levels are significantly decreased (p<0,05) in study population. There was a negative correlation between HDL-C and BMI, waist circumference, TG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p<0,05). On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between HDL-C with age, TC (p<0,05) and between abdominal circumference with TG, NHDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). Similarly, there was also a positive correlation between BMI with some lipid parameters (TG, VLDL-C, NHDL- C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). The patients are separated into two groups as metabolic syndrome positive (MS+) and negative (MS-) and then compared. HDL-C in MS+ group was significantly lower than MS- group (p<0,05). Other all parameters in MS+ group were significantly higher than MS- group (p<0,05). Conclusion: Increase of abdominal circumference and HOMA-IR has a negative effect on lipid parameters. Additionally, BMI has similarly negative effect on some lipid parameters in Turkish women.

Keywords

References

[1]  Hatemi H, Yumuk VD, Turan N et al. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2003; 1: 285-90.
 
[2]  Onat A. Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Turkey. Atherosclerosis 2001; 156: 1-10.
 
[3]  Mahley RW, Palaoglu KE, Atak Z et al. Turkish Heart Study: Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. J Lipid Res 1995; 36: 839-59.
 
[4]  Mahley RW, Ozbayrakci S, Bersot TP et al. Modulation of high density lipoproteins in a population in Istanbul Turkey with low levels of high density lipoproteins. Am J Cardiol 2005; 96: 547-55.
 
[5]  Luttmann S, von Eckardstein A, Wei W et al. Electrophoretic screening for genetic variation in apolipoprotein C-III: Identification of a novel apoC-III variant, apoC-III (Asp45→Asn), in a Turkish patient. J Lipid Res 1994; 35: 1431-40.
 
Show More References
[6]  Bersot TP, Vega GL, Grundy SM et al. Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. J Lipid Res 1999; 40: 432-8.
 
[7]  Mahley RW, Pépin J, Palaoglu KE et al. Low levels of high density lipoproteins in Turks, a population with elevated hepatic lipase: High density lipoprotein characterization and gender-specific effects of apolipoprotein E genotype. J Lipid Res 2000; 41: 1290-301.
 
[8]  Wagner AM, Perez A, Sanchez-Quesada Jl et al. Triglyceride to Hdl cholesterol ratio in the dyslipidemic classification of type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 1798-800.
 
[9]  Shishehbor MH, Hoogwerf BJ, Lauer MS. Association of triglyceride to Hdl cholesterol ratio with heart rate recovery. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 936-41.
 
[10]  The Expert Panel. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. J Am Med Assoc 1993; 269: 3015-23.
 
[11]  Orgeas MG, Troché G, Azoulay E et al. Body Mass Index. Intensive Care Medicine 2004; 30: 437-43.
 
[12]  Cox BD, Whichelow MI. Ratio of waist circumference to height is better predictor of death than body mass index. Br Med J 1996; 313: 1487-91.
 
[13]  Tunckale A, Aran SN, Karpuz H et al. Relationship between insulin resistance and end-organ damage in white coat hypertension. Am J hypertens 2004; 17: 1011-6.
 
[14]  Expert Panel On Detection Evaluation And Treatment Of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults. Executive Summary Of The Third Expert Panel On Detection, Evaluation And Treatment Of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adults Treatment Panel 3). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-97.
 
[15]  Fava S,Wilson PWF, Schaefer EJ. Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women The Framingham Offspring Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 1996; 16: 1509-15.
 
[16]  Hu G, http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/24/2212.short-aff-1Tuomilehto J, Silventoinen K et al. Joint effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 2212-19.
 
[17]  Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM. Excess Body Weight. An under recognized contributor to dyslipidemia in white American women. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 401-10.
 
[18]  Howard BV, Ruotolo G, Robbins DC. Obesity and Dyslipidemia. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 2003; 32: 855-67.
 
[19]  Brown CD, Higgins M, Donato KA et al. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Obes Res 2000; 8: 605-19.
 
[20]  Wilson PWF, Anderson K, Hanri T et al. Determinants of change in total cholesterol and HDL-C with age: The Framingham Study. J Gerontol 1994; 49: 252-7.
 
[21]  Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens 2013; 31: 1281-357.
 
[22]  A. Tunckale, S. Aran, S. Tavsanoglu et al. Are serum HDL-C levels of Turkish people really low? Atherosclerosis 2005;6 (Suppl 1): 28
 
[23]  Assmann G, Schulte H. Relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides to incidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease The Procam Experience. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 733-7.
 
[24]  Castelli WP, Abbott RD, Mcnamara PM. Summary estimates of cholesterol used to predict coronary heart disease. Circulation 1983; 67: 730-4.
 
[25]  Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2003; 1: 29-37.
 
[26]  Mataix J, Lopez-Frias M, Martinez-De-Victoria E et al. Factors associated with obesity in an adult Mediterranean population. Influence on plasma lipid profile. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24: 456-65.
 
[27]  Blackett PR, Blevins KS, Stoddart M et al. Body mass index and high-density lipoproteins in Cherokee Indian children and adolescents. Pediatr Res 2005; 58: 472-7.
 
Show Less References

Article

Developing and Selecting Auditory Warnings for a Real-Time Behavioral Intervention

1Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA

2Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA

3EME Systems LLC, Berkeley, USA


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 232-238
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
John Bellettiere, Suzanne C. Hughes, Sandy Liles, Marie Boman-Davis, Neil E. Klepeis, Elaine Blumberg, Jeff Mills, Vincent Berardi, Saori Obayashi, T. Tracy Allen, Melbourne F. Hovell. Developing and Selecting Auditory Warnings for a Real-Time Behavioral Intervention. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):232-238. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: John  Bellettiere, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA. Email: jbellettiere@cbeachsdsu.org

Abstract

Real-time sensing and computing technologies are increasingly used in the delivery of real-time health behavior interventions. Auditory signals play a critical role in many of these interventions, impacting not only behavioral response but also treatment adherence and participant retention. Yet, few behavioral interventions that employ auditory feedback report the characteristics of sounds used and even fewer design signals specifically for their intervention. This paper describes a four-step process used in developing and selecting auditory warnings for a behavioral trial designed to reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. In step one, relevant information was gathered from ergonomic and behavioral science literature to assist a panel of research assistants in developing criteria for intervention-specific auditory feedback. In step two, multiple sounds were identified through internet searches and modified in accordance with the developed criteria, and two sounds were selected that best met those criteria. In step three, a survey was conducted among 64 persons from the primary sampling frame of the larger behavioral trial to compare the relative aversiveness of sounds, determine respondents' reported behavioral reactions to those signals, and assess participant’s preference between sounds. In the final step, survey results were used to select the appropriate sound for auditory warnings. Ultimately, a single-tone pulse, 500 milliseconds (ms) in length that repeats every 270 ms for three cycles was chosen for the behavioral trial. The methods described herein represent one example of steps that can be followed to develop and select auditory feedback tailored for a given behavioral intervention.

Keywords

References

[1]  Deiss D, Bolinder J, Riveline J-P, Battelino T, Bosi E, Tubiana-Rufi N, Kerr D, Phillip M: Improved glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes using real-time continuous glucose monitoring.Diabetes Care 2006, 29: 2730-2.
 
[2]  Garg S, Zisser H, Schwartz S, Bailey T, Kaplan R, Ellis S, Javanovic L: Improvement in Glycemic Excursions With a Transcutaneous, Real-Time Continuous Glucose Sensor. 2006, 29: 44-50.
 
[3]  Dylos Corporation: Air Quality Monitoring Innovation [http://www.dylosproducts.com/].
 
[4]  Klepeis NE, Hughes SC, Edwards RD, Allen T, Johnson M, Chowdhury Z, Smith KR, Boman-Davis M, Bellettiere J, Hovell MF: Promoting smoke-free homes: a novel behavioral intervention using real-time audio-visual feedback on airborne particle levels. PLoS One 2013, 8: e73251.
 
[5]  Wilson I, Semple S, Mills LM, Ritchie D, Shaw A, O’Donnell R, Bonella P, Turner S, Amos A: REFRESH--reducing families’ exposure to secondhand smoke in the home: a feasibility study.Tob Control 2013, 22:e8.
 
Show More References
[6]  Gay V, Leijdekkers P: Around the clock personalized heart monitoring using smart phones. In Smart Homes and Beyond. Edited by Nugent C, Augusto JC. IOS Press; 2006: 82-89.
 
[7]  Tapia EM, Intille SS, Haskell W, Larson K, Wright J, King A, Friedman R: Real-time recognition of physical activities and their intensities using wireless accelerometers and a heart rate monitor. 2007 11th IEEE Int Symp Wearable Comput 2007: 1-4.
 
[8]  Edworthy J, Hellier E: Fewer but better auditory alarms will improve patient safety.Qual Saf Health Care 2005, 14: 212-5.
 
[9]  Reagan IJ, Bliss JP, Van Houten R, Hilton BW: The effects of external motivation and real-time automated feedback on speeding behavior in a naturalistic setting. Hum Factors 2013, 55: 218-230.
 
[10]  Wise J, Operario D: Use of electronic reminder devices to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review.AIDS Patient Care STDS 2008, 22: 495-504.
 
[11]  Haas E, Edworthy J: An introduction to auditory warnings and alarms. In Handb Warn. 1 edition. Edited by Wogalter MS. CRC Press; 2006:189-198.
 
[12]  Hovell MF, Hughes SC: The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: a pathway to complete tobacco control.Nicotine Tob Res 2009, 11: 1254-64.
 
[13]  Glazener C, Evans J, Peto R: Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Evidence-Based Child Heal A Cochrane Rev J 2006, 1: 9-97.
 
[14]  Hurkmans HL, Bussmann JB, Benda E, Verhaar J a, Stam HJ: Effectiveness of audio feedback for partial weight-bearing in and outside the hospital: a randomized controlled trial.Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012, 93: 565-70.
 
[15]  Lai DT, Cahill K, Qin Y, Tang J-L: Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation.Cochrane database Syst Rev Online 2010: CD006936.
 
[16]  Martino S, Carroll K, Ball S: Teaching, monitoring, and evaluating motivational interviewing practice. Prof Motiv interviewing Pract 2007.
 
[17]  Rubak S, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Christensen B: Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Br J Gen Pract 2005, 55: 305-12.
 
[18]  Edworthy J: The design and implementation of non-verbal auditory warnings. Appl Ergon 1994, 25: 202-210.
 
[19]  Johnston JM: Punishment of human behavior.Am Psychol 1972, 27:1033-54.
 
[20]  Lerman DC, Vorndran CM: On the status of knowledge for using punishment implications for treating behavior disorders.J Appl Behav Anal 2002, 35: 431-64.
 
[21]  Biding T, Lind G: Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA): Results of Large-Scale Trials in Borlänge, Lidköping, Lund and Umeå during the Period 1999–2002. Borlänge, Sweden; 2002.
 
[22]  Edworthy J, Stanton N: A user-centered approach to the design and evaluation of auditory warning signals: 1. Methodology. Ergonomics 1995, 38: 2262-2280.
 
[23]  Hovell MF, Wahlgren DR, Gehrman CA: The behavioral ecological model: integrating public health and behavioral science. In Emerg Theor Heal Promot Pract Res Strateg Improv Public Heal. Edited by DiClemente RJ. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.; 2002: 347-385.
 
[24]  Patterson RD: Warning sounds in the work environment [and discussion]. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B Biol Sci 1990, 327: 485-492.
 
[25]  Patterson R: Guidelines for auditory warning systems on civil aircraft. In CAA Pap 82017. London, UK: Civil Aviation Authority; 1982.
 
[26]  Hellier EJ, Edworthy J, Dennis I: Improving auditory warning design: quantifying and predicting the effects of different warning parameters on perceived urgency.Hum Factors 1993, 35: 693-706.
 
[27]  Suied C, Susini P, McAdams S: Evaluating warning sound urgency with reaction times.J Exp Psychol Appl 2008, 14: 201-12.
 
[28]  Edworthy J, Loxley S, Dennis I: Improving auditory warning design: relationship between warning sound parameters and perceived urgency.Hum Factors 1991, 33: 205-31.
 
[29]  Azrin NH: Some effects of noise on human behavior.J Exp Anal Behav 1958, 1: 183-200.
 
[30]  Reed P, Yoshino T: The effect of response-dependent tones on the acquisition of concurrent behavior in rats. Learn Motiv 2001, 32: 255-273.
 
[31]  Audacity Team: Audacity version 2.0.3. 2012.
 
[32]  Guillaume A: Intelligent auditory alarms. In Sonification Handb. Edited by Hermann T, Hunt A, Neuhoff JG. Berlin, Germany: Logos Publishing House; 2011: 493-508.
 
[33]  Rovniak LS, Hovell MF, Wojcik JR, Winett R A, Martinez-Donate AP: Enhancing theoretical fidelity: an e-mail-based walking program demonstration. Am J Health Promot 2005, 20: 85-95.
 
[34]  Hovell MF (PI): Innovation for Smoke-Free Homes: Real-Time Feedback Study. Supported by grant # R01 HL103684-02 from the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute, NIH.
 
Show Less References

Article

Treatment Adherence among Tuberculosis and Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Coinfected Patients in Ginnir Referral Hospital

1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 239-243
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed Yasin Mohammed, Muhammedawel Kaso Adem. Treatment Adherence among Tuberculosis and Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Coinfected Patients in Ginnir Referral Hospital. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):239-243. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  Yasin Mohammed, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba. Email: ahmedyassinmoha@yahoo.com

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia, and a high number of TB patients are co-infected with HIV. There is a need for more knowledge about factors influencing treatment adherence in co-infected patients on concomitant treatment. The objective of this study is to assess treatment adherence among TB/HIV co infected patients in Ginnir referral hospital from March - April 2013. Institution based cross sectional study design was used to collect, analyze and summarize data from TB/HIV co-infected patients. The data was sorted manually and scientific calculator was used to compile and express in table and graphs. Descriptive statistics like frequencies, mean and median were used to analyze the data. Prior to data collection, permission request was obtained from Madawalabu University, Goba campus and it was submitted to Ginnir referral hospital’s medical director. Respondents were told about the objective of this study, reassured for confidentiality and asked for consent. The results shown among the 53 TB/HIV co- infected patients, 11(20.7%) had missed taking both ARV and anti TB drugs at least once. Of these, 4 (36.4%) had missed the ARV treatment while remaining 7(63.6%) of them missed the anti TB medication. The result showed that, the main reason for missing the drugs was forgetting taking medication 6(54.6%). It can be concluded that the level of non adherence is relatively high and the main reason behind was forgetting distance from health institution and income related problems. Intervention s to reduce it need to be instituted such as adherence educations should have to be given for the patients to take the treatment by the recommended schedule and also family members and supporters should have to be told to remind and follow them carefully. On the other hand bringing the health service nearby might alleviate the problem of distance. In order to deal with the income related problems, Ginnir referral hospital should have to work in collaboration with NGOs and other fund raising institutions.

Keywords

References

[1]  Swaminath S, Padmapaiyadarsini C and Narendran G (2011). HIV-Associated Tuberculosis. J Manag Care Pharm, 17(3), 213-23.
 
[2]  World Health Organization (2007). Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO report.
 
[3]  Afework K, Mengistu G, Ayele B (2007).Co-infection and clinical manifestation of TB in HIV infected and uninfected adults at teaching hospital. J Microbial Immunol Infect. 25, 135-143.
 
[4]  Demissie M, Lindtjon B, Tegbaru B (2000).Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients. J Health Dev, 60, 564-674.
 
[5]  Anthony Harries Stephen Graham Dermot Maher (2004). Department of child and adolescent health and development, World Health Organization,2nd edition.
 
Show More References
[6]  Shargie EB, Lindtjørn B (2007). Determinants of treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Journal pmed, 4(2), e37.
 
[7]  Chesney MA, Morin M, Sherr L (2000). Adherence to HIV combination therapy. Soc Sci Med, 50, 1599-1605.
 
[8]  Farmer P (1997). Social scientists and the new tuberculosis. Soc Sci Med. 44, 347-358.
 
[9]  Wares DF, Singh S et al (2003). Non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment, Soc Sci Med, 7, 327-335.
 
[10]  Amare D, Markos T, Yohannis H (2009). TB and HIV co infection its impact on quality of life. Soc Sci Med, 8, 212-230.
 
[11]  Munro SA, Lewin SA, Smith H, Engel ME, Fretheim A, et al (2007). Patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment: A systematic review of qualitative research. PLoS Med, 4(7), e238.
 
[12]  Mekdes K, Gunnar A, Jane F (2010). Barriers and facilitators of adherence to TB treatment in patients on concomitant TB and HIV treatment PLoS Med, 1471-2458.
 
[13]  Mkopi A, Range N, Lwilla F, Egwaga S, Schulze A, et al (2012). Adherence to Tuberculosis Therapy among Patients Receiving Home-Based Directly Observed Treatment: Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51828.
 
[14]  Nackers F, Huerga H, Espie´ E, Aloo AO, Bastard M, et al (2012). Adherence to Self-Administered Tuberculosis Treatment in a High HIV-Prevalence Setting: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Homa Bay, Kenya. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32140.
 
[15]  Estifanos Biru, Bernt Lindtjorn (2007). Determinants of treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in South Ethiopia, 122-130.
 
[16]  Wondimeneh Y, Muluye D, Belyhun Y (2012). Prevalence of PTB and immunological profile of HIV-co infected patient in North west Ethiopia, 456-460.
 
[17]  Monica G, Paul K, Freddy E (2009). Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Mbarara Hospital Uganda. African Health Sciences, 9 (1), 326-371.
 
[18]  Adams SA, Soumeraj BS, Jonathan L, Doss-Degan D (1999). Evidence of self report bias in assessing adherence to guidelines. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 187-192.
 
[19]  Kebede A and Wube K (2012). Medication adherence and its determinants among patients on concomitant tuberculosis and anti retroviral therapy. North American journal of medical science, 4(2), 60-69.
 
[20]  Jaiswal A, Singh V, Ogden J.A et al (2003). Adherence to tuberculosis treatment: lessons from the urban setting of Delhi, India. Tropical medicine and international health, 8(7), 625-633.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effects of Sexual Dysfunction on Female Teachers Performance

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Indonesia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 244-247
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Kanedi, Sutyarso. Effects of Sexual Dysfunction on Female Teachers Performance. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):244-247. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Kanedi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia. Email: wegayendi@yahoo.com

Abstract

This research is aimed to find out whether sexual dysfunction affects female teachers performance in fulfilling pedagogical tasks. Eighty-four female teachers who work at 12 elementary schools in the city of Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia became the participants in this study. To assess the teacher’s sexual quality, we used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a brief questionnaire designed to measure sexual functioning in women with focus on sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. To measure the quality of a teacher, two pupils were asked to become respondents and fill out a Likert Scale questionnaire containing both positive and negative quality indicators of the teacher. The positive indicators consist of punctual, prepared, approachable, respectful and professional, while the negative ones include bad tempered, rude, insulting, arrogant and domineering. Mann-Whitney comparison test and Spearman Rank Correlation were performed in data analysis. The results showed that 39 (46%) of the participant categorized as teachers without sexual disorder (total FSFI score of 29.1±1.33) and the other 45 (54%) categorized as teachers with sexual disorders (total FSFI score of 21.48 ± 2.84). Compared with the teacher without sexual dysfunction, teachers with sexual disorders tend to be less diligent (P <0.05), less prepared for class (P <0.001), less friendly (P <0.001) and less appreciative students (P <0.01). In addition, teachers with sexual problems tend to be more hothead (P< 0.001), rude (P<0.001) and domineering (P<0.01). As the conclusion, sexual dysfunction potentially affects teaching performance of the female teachers.

Keywords

References

[1]  Meston C.M. and Bradford, A,”Sexual Dysfunction in Women,” Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol., 3:233-56. 2007.
 
[2]  van Klaveren, M., Tijde, K., Hughie-Williams, M. and Martin, N.R, “An overview of women’s work and employment in Indonesia,” in Working Paper 10-91. May 2010. Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies University of Amsterdam. CrossRef
 
[3]  UNESCO. World education report 1998: Teachers and teaching in a changing world. Unesco Publishing, 1998, 178p.
 
[4]  United Nation, “The World's Women 2010: Trends and Statistics,” United Nation Publication Sales No. E.10.XVII.11. 2010.
 
[5]  Hausmann, R., Tyson, L.D., Zahidi, S, The Global Gender Gap Report 2012. World Economic Forum collaborated with Faculty at Harvard University and the University of California. Berkeley.
 
Show More References
[6]  Thakur, K.S. and Kumar, S., “Mental Health as a Predictor of Emotional Competence of Prospective Teachers of Science in Himachal Pradesh,” MIER Journal of Educational Studies. Trends & Practice. Vol. 3. No. 1 pp. 84-94. May 2013.
 
[7]  Holeyannavar, P.G. and Itagi, S.K.,”Stress and Emotional Competence of Primary School Teachers,” J Psychology, 3(1): 29-38. 2012.
 
[8]  Laumann, E.O., Nicolosi, A., Glasser, D.B., Paik, A., Gingell, C., Moreira, E. and Wang, T., “Sexual problems among women and men aged 40–80 y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors,” International Journal of Impotence Research, 17. 39-57. 2005.
 
[9]  Stronge. J., Qualities of effective teachers, Alexandria. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2002.
 
[10]  Gorham, J. and Christophel, D.M., “Students' Perceptio of Teacher Behaviors As Motivating and Demotivating Factors in College Classes,” Communication Quarterly. Vol. 40. No. 3. 239-252. Summer 1992.
 
[11]  Fisher, D., Waldrip, B. and Brok, P.J, “Students' perceptions of primary teachers' interpersonal behaviour and of cultural dimensions in the classroom environment,” International Journal of Educational Research, 43(1/2). 25-38. 2005.
 
[12]  Khine, M.S. and Atputhasamy, L., “Self-perceived and students’ perceptio of teacher interaction in the classrooms,” A paper presented at the Conference on Redesigning Pedagogy; Research. Policy. Practice. Singapore. 30 May to 1 June 2005.
 
[13]  Keeley, J., Smith, D., & Buskist, W., “The teacher behaviors checklist: Factor analysis of its utility for evaluating teaching,” Teaching of Psychology, 33(2), 84-91. 2006.
 
[14]  Rosen, R., Brown, C., Heiman, J., Leiblum, S., Ferguson, D. and D’agostino, R., “The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A Multidimensional Self-Report Itrument for the Assessment of Female Sexual Function,” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 26: 191-208. 2000.
 
[15]  Wiegel, M., Meston, C., and Rosen, R., The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): Cross-Validation and Development of Clinical Cutoff Scores. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 31: 1-20, 2005.
 
[16]  Palacios,S., Castaño, R. and Graziottin, A., ”Epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction,” Maturitas 63(2). 2009. Special issue on "Female sexual dysfunctions in the office: tools to meet the challenge", p. 119-123.
 
[17]  Cayan, S., Akbay, E., Bozlu, M., Canpolat, B., Acar, D. and Ulusoy, E., “The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and potential risk factors that may impair sexual function in Turkish women,” Urol Int. 2004.72(1):52-7.
 
[18]  Thompson, R. J., Mata, J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2012, June “The Everyday Emotional Experience of Adults With Major Depressive Disorder:Examining Emotional Instability, Inertia, and Reactivity”. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
 
[19]  Kunnskapssenteret, “Psychological, social and sexual consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C): a systematic review of quantitative studies,” Report from Kunnskapssenteret (Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services) No.13-2010.Systematic review. pp.77.
 
[20]  Marwick, C, “Survey Says Patients Expect Little Physician Help on Sex,” JAMA, 28.23: 2173-4. 1999.
 
[21]  Blumberg, E.S, “The Lives and voices of highly sexual women,” The Journal of Sex Research, 40.2: 146-157. 2003.
 
[22]  Mah, K. and Binik, Y.M, “Female orgasmic disorders: A Clinical approach,” Urodinamica, 14:99-104. 2004.
 
[23]  Fons, C.E, “Impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life among anxiety disorder patients (2008)”. Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations. (2008) Paper 189.
 
[24]  Davison, S.L., Bell R.J., La China, M., Holden, S.L. and Davis, S.R, “The relationship between self-reported sexual satisfaction and general well-being in women,” J Sex Med., 6(10):2690-7. Oct.2009.
 
[25]  Dogan, T., Tugut, N. and Golbasi, Z, “The Relationship Between Sexual Quality of Life,Happiness, and Satisfaction with Life in Married Turkish Women,”.
 
[26]  Edalati, A. and Redzuan, M, “A Review: Dominance, Marital Satisfaction and Female Aggression,” Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (2): 162-166. 2010.
 
[27]  Gupta, V, “Importance of Being Happy at Work,” International Journal of Research and Development - A Management Review (IJRDMR), 1(1). 2012. 9-14.
 
Show Less References