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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun




Health and Socio-economic Impacts of Livelihoods Programs among People Living with HIV in Cambodia: A Case-Control Study

1KHANA Center for Population Health Research, Cambodia

2Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia

3Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Japan

4KHANA Social Enterprise, Cambodia

5Center for Global Health Research, Public Health Program, Touro University California, USA

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 159-169
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sovannary Tuot, Kouland Thin, Mayumi Shimizu, Samedy Suong, Samrithea Sron, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Siyan Yi. Health and Socio-economic Impacts of Livelihoods Programs among People Living with HIV in Cambodia: A Case-Control Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):159-169. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Siyan  Yi, KHANA Center for Population Health Research, Cambodia. Email:


Background: In Cambodia, the circumstances surrounding people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain serious conditions. To ameliorate these situations, KHANA has implemented livelihoods programs since 2010, including village saving and loans (VSL), skill trainings, and cash grants with on-going technical support. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the programs in improving socio-economic conditions, health, and psychological well-being of PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods: In August 2014, a case-control study was conducted in six selected provinces. The cases were defined as PLHIV who lived in the selected operational districts where KHANA has implemented the livelihoods programs, and have participated in the programs for at least one year. Several indicators in socio-economic situations, food security, health conditions, and psychological well-being of the cases (n= 358) and the controls (n= 329) were compared. Results: The mean of monthly income of the cases who attended the programs for three years or more was 13.6% higher than that of the controls. A significantly higher proportion of the cases reported having three meals per day, while a significantly lower proportion of them received food assistance in the past 12 months. The mean total score for frequency of occurrence also indicated less severity of food insecurity among the cases. Regarding child education, the cases reported a significantly lower rate of out-of-school children. The proportion of the cases who rated their quality of life as good was significantly higher, and they were significantly less likely to report that they felt guilty being HIV-positive persons. Regarding psychological well-being, the mean total score of depressive symptoms for the cases was significantly lower than that for the controls, and the proportion of the cases with a cut-off score smaller than 1.75, which indicated less depressive symptoms, was also significantly higher than that of the controls. Conclusions: Findings from this study portray the positive impacts of KHANA’s livelihoods programs in maintaining and upgrading the livelihoods and quality of life of PLHIV in Cambodia. With these noticeable impacts, the programs should be scaled up to support PLHIV and vulnerable households across the country.



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Exploring Factors Influencing Antenatal Care Visit Dropout at Government Health Facilities of Dhanusha District, Nepal

1Department of Public Health, Satdobato, Purbanchal University, Asian College for Advance Studies, Lalitpur, Nepal

2Department of Public Health, Pokhara University, National Open College, Sanepa, Lalitpur, Nepal

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 170-175
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Devendra Raj Singh, Trishna Jha. Exploring Factors Influencing Antenatal Care Visit Dropout at Government Health Facilities of Dhanusha District, Nepal. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):170-175. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Devendra  Raj Singh, Department of Public Health, Satdobato, Purbanchal University, Asian College for Advance Studies, Lalitpur, Nepal. Email:


Background: High maternal mortality rate is still a major public health issue in resource poor countries. In Nepal, the regional socio-economic disparity explicitly reflects inequalities in maternal health service utilization and differences in maternal mortality rate. Only about 50% of pregnant women complete four antenatal care visits. Nearly 80% delivery is still conducted at home in absence of trained health worker among Terai/Madheshi dalits communities in Nepal. The present study intended to explore the factors influencing antenatal care visit dropout at government health facilities of Dhanusha district in Nepal. Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A total sample of 206 women who had received at least 1st ANC check up from the government health facility during March 2014 to March 2015 were selected using multistage sampling procedure. Interview method was adopted and semi-structure questionnaire was used to gather the study data. Data analysis was carried out in SPSS 20. Ethical clearance was taken from Nepal Health Research Council Ethical Review Board. Results: Out of total 206 respondents 104 (49.52%) of respondents have completed four ANC visits and 106 (50.47%) respondents have not completed four ANC visits. The study confirmed the significant association of antenatal visit dropout with respondents education (OR= 2.22, 95% CI= 1.264-3.917), economic status (OR= 2.37, 95% CI= 1.264-4.462, dissatisfaction with the health service provided at public health facilities (OR=17.48, 95% CI=8.764-34.88), dissatisfaction with the information provided during ANC visit (OR= 0.167, 95% CI=0.092-0.303) and unreceptive attitude of health worker (OR=3.766, 95% CI=2.095-6.769) as major hindering factors among respondents for not attending four ANC visit at government/public health facilities in Dhanusha district of Nepal. Conclusion: The study suggests promotion of positive attitude and behavior of health workers towards clients and building trust on government health facilities from health care provider side are equally important to increase antenatal service utilization among rural pregnant women.



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Oral Health Status and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors in Institutionalized Children - Sri Lanka

1Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

2Department Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

3Department Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 176-180
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sumith Gunawardane, Randilini Angammana, Shyama Bannaheka, Manil Fonseka. Oral Health Status and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors in Institutionalized Children - Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):176-180. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Manil  Fonseka, Department Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Email:


There is an under-researched area in scientific literature, regarding the oral health status and dental epidemiological investigations of the socially marginalized groups such as institutionalized children. The aim of this survey was to determine “the oral health status and impact of socio-behavioral factors of children under probationary care in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional population based study was conducted at 36 homes of institutionalized children in Central Province, Sri Lanka. All the children (1104) were screened and those who were above 6 years old has included to the study. An interview administered questionnaire was filled out for each child. Comprehensive oral examination was conducted by three calibrated examiners. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 26.86% while 56.79% in permanent teeth. The mean dmft was 0.75±1.61 while the mean DMFT was 1.19±1.43. Gingival bleeding presented in 44.67% of study subjects. Despite reporting higher usage of tooth brush and tooth paste, high percentage of bleeding gums were found in these children and this could be attributable to improper tooth brushing techniques and lack of individual supervision.



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