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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR

   

Article

Oral Health Status and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors in Institutionalized Children - Sri Lanka

1Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

2Department Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

3Department Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 176-180
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sumith Gunawardane, Randilini Angammana, Shyama Bannaheka, Manil Fonseka. Oral Health Status and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors in Institutionalized Children - Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):176-180. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Manil  Fonseka, Department Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Email: sumithgunawardane7@gmail.com

Abstract

There is an under-researched area in scientific literature, regarding the oral health status and dental epidemiological investigations of the socially marginalized groups such as institutionalized children. The aim of this survey was to determine “the oral health status and impact of socio-behavioral factors of children under probationary care in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional population based study was conducted at 36 homes of institutionalized children in Central Province, Sri Lanka. All the children (1104) were screened and those who were above 6 years old has included to the study. An interview administered questionnaire was filled out for each child. Comprehensive oral examination was conducted by three calibrated examiners. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 26.86% while 56.79% in permanent teeth. The mean dmft was 0.75±1.61 while the mean DMFT was 1.19±1.43. Gingival bleeding presented in 44.67% of study subjects. Despite reporting higher usage of tooth brush and tooth paste, high percentage of bleeding gums were found in these children and this could be attributable to improper tooth brushing techniques and lack of individual supervision.

Keywords

References

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Article

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Dengue among the General Population in Honduras

1JOCV (Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers), JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) Honduras office, Tegucigalpa, M.D.C., Honduras

2Health Monitoring Division, Regional Office of Health Department of Lempira, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 181-187
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Miki Uematsu, Carlos Zúniga Mazier. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Dengue among the General Population in Honduras. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):181-187. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: Miki  Uematsu, JOCV (Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers), JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) Honduras office, Tegucigalpa, M.D.C., Honduras. Email: matsunoki.ueru@gmail.com

Abstract

The incidence of dengue infections continues to rise worldwide, including the Americas where a dramatic increase in dengue infections has been reported during the last 5 decades. Honduras had the worst epidemic of dengue in 2010. Good knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among the public are required to successfully prevent or minimize dengue outbreaks. However, very little is known about the public’s KAP on dengue and its prevention in Honduras. This study aimed to assess the level of KAP regarding dengue among the general population in Honduras. A household survey was conducted in eight communities in Gracias, Lempira in Honduras. Four hundred and twenty-three households were interviewed for this study. We found correlations between the educational level and knowledge score and between the knowledge and practice scores. Conversely, the lack of access to water affected dengue prevention practices. In multivariate analyses, dengue prevention practices significantly differed by educational level and access to water (P < 0.05). High education group had better practices than the low education group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.62]. People who had access to water in their households had better practices than others who lived without access to water (aOR, 1.83). Our findings suggested that although the population had sufficient knowledge about dengue prevention, their actions against dengue could be limited by a lack of access to water. For eliminating mosquito breeding sites, not only providing education, but also improving water supply systems is essential.

Keywords

References

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Article

Attaining a 64% Reduction in Fall-Caused Hospitalizations among Community Resident Elders: Two Multifactorial Studies

1Public Health, State University of New Jersey

2Medicine, University of Miami

3Statistical Consulting Center, Nova Southeastern University


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(5), 188-190
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
David C. Schwartz, Patrick C. Hardigan. Attaining a 64% Reduction in Fall-Caused Hospitalizations among Community Resident Elders: Two Multifactorial Studies. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(5):188-190. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Patrick  C. Hardigan, Statistical Consulting Center, Nova Southeastern University. Email: patrick@nova.edu

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the studies reported here is: 1.) to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-factorial, socio-medical fall prevention program among 1,894 community-resident elders in Philadelphia; 2.) to present the data from a replicative study among 1,053 identically selected and identically treated elders. Methods: In study #1, a random sample of Medicaid-eligible seniors, geographically representative of Philadelphia County’s dual-eligible, was selected using a geographic density procedure by zip code. Subjects participated in informational workshops, non-invasive somatic fall risk factor analysis, HIPPA compliant sharing of risk reports with physicians and pharmacists, in-home environmental fall risk analysis, pre- and post-fall counseling, and periodic safety grams. The treatment group was compared with two (2) large scale control groups for: a.) reduced hospitalizations for all injurious falls; and 2b) reduced hospitalization for fall-caused fractures. In study #2, 1,054 community-resident elders were selected via similar procedures and accorded to identical arrays of interventions. Results: In study #1, using Medicaid claims data, the treatment group was shown to have significantly fewer instances of healthcare utilization due to injurious falls compared to the control groups (p < 0.05): hospitalizations for fractures were 55% lower and hospitalizations for all fall-caused injuries were 65% lower. In study #2, participants who accepted all offered interventions were 400% less likely to suffer a self-reported fall than were non-participants. Conclusions: Multi-disciplinary, socio-medical fall prevention programs for community-resident elders can significantly reduce healthcare utilization due to injurious falls.

Keywords

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