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Article

Family Based Directly Observed Therapy on Culture Conversion in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand

2Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

3Queen Sawang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chon Buri, Thailand

4Bureau of Tuberculosis, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand

5Chon Buri Hospital, Chon Buri, Thailand

6Information Technology Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 147-152
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Duangjai Duangrithi, Kamol Phojanamongkolkij, Vipa Thanachartwet, Varunee Desakorn, Yuthichai Kasetjaroen, Pasakorn Jitruckthai, Duangjai Sahassananda, Punnee Pitisuttithum. Family Based Directly Observed Therapy on Culture Conversion in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):147-152. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Duangjai  Duangrithi, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand. Email: djdr@hotmail.com

Abstract

Background: The effectiveness of directly observed therapy (DOT) on TB treatment outcome has been debated and different findings regarding different DOT practices and settings were demonstrated. Methodology: The observational study was conducted in new sputum smear and culture positive pulmonary TB patients at Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital and Chonburi Hospital, Chonburi province, Thailand during April 2010 and July 2012. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of family based DOT toward sputum culture conversion. Sputum AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility test were performed at the time of diagnosis, the second and the fifth month of treatment. Baseline characteristic, clinical and laboratory parameters, treatment regimens and adverse events were recorded. Descriptive statistics were applied as appropriate. Results: Proportion of patients with illiteracy, visual alteration and hepatitis was significantly higher in family based DOT group (p=0.026, p=0.011 and p=0.031). Sputum smear and culture conversion at 2 and 5 months after treatment were not significantly different between family based DOT and self administer groups. Patients in both group achieved over 90% cure rate without significant difference (p=0.262). Conclusions: Continuing patient education, counseling and AEs monitoring should be incorporated into family based DOT to achieved successful outcome. DOT can be interfered by many factors. Therefore appropriate implementing of DOT can enhance effectiveness of DOT toward patient adherence and further achieve success in TB treatment and control.

Keywords

References

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Article

Maternal Autonomy, Distance to Health Care Facility and ANC Attendance: Findings from Madiany Division of Siaya County, Kenya

1School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya

2Faculty of Health Science, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

3Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kisumu, Kenya

4Public Health Department, University of Kabianga, Kabianga, Kenya


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 153-158
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.O. Asweto, J.R. Aluoch, C.O. Obonyo, J.O. Ouma. Maternal Autonomy, Distance to Health Care Facility and ANC Attendance: Findings from Madiany Division of Siaya County, Kenya. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):153-158. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: C.O.  Asweto, School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya. Email: aswetocollins@yahoo.com

Abstract

Half a million women die annually from pregnancy related causes. In Kenya, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) remains high in spite of great efforts to improve maternal health care. We studied some factors linked to maternity in a rural community setting. A survey was conducted in the community living in Madiany division of Siaya County, Kenya. We randomly sampled 403 mothers of children under three years old. Variables of interest were antenatal care attendance (ANC), parity, distance from the health facility and women empowerment (autonomy). Nearly 94% of the mothers had at least one ANC visit and 48.6% had completed the recommended four or more ANC visits; about 65.7% initiated ANC at first trimester. Parity, distance to the health facility and autonomy were associated with ANC visits. Mothers with one child had a twice higher chance of at least four ANC visits than those with more than one child. Those living at most 60 minutes travel-time from the health facility were seven times more likely have early ANC initiation and five times more likely to have at least four ANC attendance than those living more than 60 minutes travel-time from the health facility. Autonomy was linked to early initiation of ANC visit. This may indicate that improving maternal care and achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 target, it is important to improve coverage of health facilities and implement development programs that empower rural women.

Keywords

References

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[19]  Fotso, J. C., Ochako, R. A. and Ezeh, A. (2006). Interplay between women's percieved quality of, and access to care and household wealth on the utilization of maternity services among the urban poor.
 
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Article

Improvement of Health Sector in Kenya

1Assistant Professor, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 159-169
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Haradhan Kumar Mohajan. Improvement of Health Sector in Kenya. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):159-169. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-6.

Correspondence to: Haradhan  Kumar Mohajan, Assistant Professor, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: haradhan1971@gmail.com

Abstract

Kenya faces major socio-economic and health challenges since the independent 1963. Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The Government of Kenya has been trying to build a health system which can effectively provide quality health services to the population of the country. In Kenya, health services are provided through a network of over 5,000 health facilities countrywide. The country spends 5.1% of its GDP on health sector. As a result both mortality and morbidity rates are decreasing in Kenya. Infant and under-5 mortality rates are high in the country compare to the some other developing countries. Despite many attempts are taken by the Government yet the health sector of Kenya is far to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The paper discusses aspects of health of Kenya to make a healthy nation in the world.

Keywords

References

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Article

An Ecological Study of the Role of Obesity and Excessive Alcohol Consumption on the Risk for Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Cancer of the Liver, Lungs, and Bones

1School of Health Sciences, Kaplan University, Florida, USA


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 170-175
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Brina M. Hollis. An Ecological Study of the Role of Obesity and Excessive Alcohol Consumption on the Risk for Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Cancer of the Liver, Lungs, and Bones. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):170-175. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-7.

Correspondence to: Brina  M. Hollis, School of Health Sciences, Kaplan University, Florida, USA. Email: brina.hollis@gmail.com

Abstract

Purpose: To examine excessive alcohol consumption and obesity as risk factors for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) of the liver, lungs, and bones. Methods: The nine tenets of the Bradford Hill criteria of epidemiological causation served as the conceptual framework of this study. Documented cases of EHE of the liver, lungs, and bones were collected from the International Hemangioendothelioma Epithelioid and Related Vascular Disorders registry database. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. US census data were employed to obtain regional demographic data that were used as covariate controls for the study. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships among the rates of regional obesity, alcohol consumption, and prevalence of EHE of the liver, lungs, and bones. Results: Obesity proved to be a significant predictor of EHE of the liver, lungs, and bones; excessive alcohol consumption was not a significant predictor. Income was found to be a statistically significant covariate. Conclusions: The results highlight the need for research further examining the link between obesity and EHE. Knowledge of potential risk factors may facilitate greater understanding of this rare cancer and the development of improved protocols to expand EHE screening and documentation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Economics of Obesity, Energy Intakes, and Physical Activity among Adults in Appalachia, USA

1Tillman School of Business, University of Mount Olive, Mt Olive, USA

2Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(4), 176-181
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Janaranjana Herath, Cheryl Brown, David Hill. Economics of Obesity, Energy Intakes, and Physical Activity among Adults in Appalachia, USA. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(4):176-181. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-4-8.

Correspondence to: Janaranjana  Herath, Tillman School of Business, University of Mount Olive, Mt Olive, USA. Email: samanjanaranjana@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many research outcomes highlight the use of behavioral changes to combat obesity. This study attempts to examine and discuss the potential use of physical activity and less energy intakes in mitigating obesity among the adults in Appalachia, USA. Within the context of utility theory and behavioral aspect of energy balances of an individual, a system of simultaneous equations with three endogenous variables; decision to reduce energy intakes, time engaged in physical activity and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used for the analysis. The results highlight the potentials of weight control by reducing energy intakes and engaging in more physical activity. Importantly, the results emphasize that elderly individuals are less likely to engage in physical activity and reduce energy intakes to control BMI at the same time. The individuals with high BMI values are more likely to reduce energy intakes than engage in physical activity. The male are more likely to engage in physical activity to control obesity than reducing energy intakes while the female are more likely to reduce energy intakes than engaging in physical activity. Higher income generation, job opportunities, service of health professionals, and availability of recreational facilities play a key role in changing behaviors for controlling obesity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Maternal Mortality among Women Seeking Health Care Services in Kisii Level 5 Hospital

1Kisii Medical Training College, P.O. Box 1165-40200, Kisii

2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases

3Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Zoology

4Kenya Medical Research Foundation (KEMRI), Nairobi


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 182-187
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Osoro AA, Ng’ang’a Z, Mutugi M, Wanzala P. Maternal Mortality among Women Seeking Health Care Services in Kisii Level 5 Hospital. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):182-187. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Osoro  AA, Kisii Medical Training College, P.O. Box 1165-40200, Kisii. Email: alfredosoro2013@gmail.com

Abstract

Background. Maternal mortality has continued to escalate in Kenya inspite of all the efforts being made by the government, non-governmental organization and the community. The purpose of the study was to establish the antecedent factors predisposing women to maternal death using the three delays model. Methodology: Retrospective 72 maternal death cases which occurred between January 01, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were reviewed by an independent gynecologist/obstetrician. Interviews were conducted with kins of the deceased women using a confidential questionnaire for female death based on distal as well as proximal factors that may have had a bearing on maternal death. Health care workers were likewise interviewed using a formulated questionnaire to assess the ability and readiness of the hospital to offer emergency obstetric care. Results: A record of 72 maternal deaths occurred during the study period thus between January 1, 2009 and June 30. 2010. Out of 72, 42 maternal deaths were as a result of direct obstetric complications which include hemorrhage, post-partum sepsis, pre-eclampsia and abortion. Post partum hemorrhage was the most common complication which contributed to maternal deaths. Again out of 72 maternal deaths, 33 were as a result of indirect causes with peritonitis, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, anemia, and convulsive disorder respectively. Delayed access to transport, lack of money for user fees, and hospital distance were challenges that led to delay in accessing care. Hospital experiences included; delay in service provision by staff, delayed quality emergency obstetric care and delayed care while at the hospital, unavailability of blood for transfusion, and lack of money for drugs, were reported as major challenges which attributed to maternal death. Conclusion: The study suggests maternal mortality occurs as a result of lack of access to quality healthcare facility poor health seeking behavior and poor socio-economic factors.

Keywords

References

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Article

Foreword for Special Issue


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5A), 0-0
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-0
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ningning Zhao. Foreword for Special Issue. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5A):0-0. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-0.

Abstract

Article

Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka

1Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5A), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jinadasa B.K.K.K., Samanthi R.I., Wicramsinghe I.. Trace Metal Accumulation in Tissue of Sea Cucumber Species; North-Western Sea of Sri Lanka. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5A):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5A-1.

Correspondence to: Jinadasa  B.K.K.K., Institute of Post Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Mattakkuliya, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka. Email: jinadasa76@gmail.com

Abstract

The presence of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) has been studied in ten sea cucumber (Holothurians) species in the Northwestern sea of Kalpitiya and Dutch Bay area (Sri Lanka) during October- November 2008 and 2009. The concentration of in holothurians body wall have been found to range from 1.84-9.18 mg/kg (Cu), 5.03-56.68 mg/kg (Fe), 3.68-24.38 mg/kg (Zn), <0.04-4.70 mg/kg (Cr), 0.04-2.29 mg/kg (Pb), 41.62-128.93 μg/kg (Cd), 0.07-0.25mg/kg (Co) and 24.63-445.69 μg/kg (Hg) in dry weight basis. The results show that, according to European legislation, the body wall of holothurians is generally “safe”, although the high levels of iron in all holothurians are noticeable.

Keywords

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Article

The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City

1Department of Family planning and child care, Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia

2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 188-197
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yeshareg Walle, Zelalem Alamrew. The Current States of Male Involvement on Family Planning and Factors Correlated with among Male Factory Workers in Bahir Dar City. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):188-197. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Zelalem  Alamrew, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Email: kzolam@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Men often play dominant role on decisions crucial to reproductive health but still they are at the back seat. In the past family planning programs have focused primarily on women because to free them from excessive child bearing. The aim of the study was to assess the involvement of men in family planning practices among male factory workers in Bahir Dar city. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in July 2013 among 306 male factory workers using simple random sampling technique. A pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS version 16 soft ware package. Results: The study revealed that 25.5% of male factory workers were involved in family planning practices. The study declared that educational status was a significantly predicts involvement on family planning (AOR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-11.14, 1.8= 95% CI: 1.31- 9.220, and 2.01= 95% CI: 1.51-7.76). Besides, respondents who stayed in marriage from 4 to 13 years were about 18 times more likely to be involved on family planning compared to respondents stayed more than 22 years (AOR= 18.06, 95% CI: 1.79-58.68). Moreover, number of living children in a family was associated with an outcome of interest (AOR= 11.01, 95% CI: 1.13- 106.9 and AOR= 7.40, 95% CI: 1.49- 36.64) respectively. Conclusion: Only one out of four respondents involved in family planning. Besides, educational status, number of years in marriage, number of living children, and joint decision on the number of children were statistically significant predictors of male involvement on family planning. Therefore, ministry of health and all sectors concerned on reproductive health issues need to work on male involvement on family planning to regulate fertility and rapid population growth.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers

1Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey

2Departmant of Nursing, Kirklareli Mouth and Dental Health Center, Turkey


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(5), 198-204
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aygul Yanik, Hulya Cetin. The Evaluation of Patient Safety in Oral and Dental Health Centers. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(5):198-204. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Aygul  Yanik, Department of Healthcare Management, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey. Email: aygulyanik@klu.edu.tr

Abstract

In our study, we aimed to determine the levels of patient safety and reporting adverse events in the healthcare employees of oral and dental health centers and to evaluate the effects socio-demographic characteristics on patient safety. The study performed in November and December, 2012 and included the medical staff of oral and dental health centers in the Thracian Region of Turkey. Data was collected using the survey. Using the random sampling method, the sample has been chosen from the population of 200 healthcare personnel and 150 completely answered surveys have been evaluated. The SPSS for Windows 15.0 software was used for analyzing data. Hospital safety, team work, security gap, system quality and the management assistance of healthcare employees was high but their adverse events assessment was determined to be on a moderate level. It was identified that sociodemographic characteristics of healthcare employees have an influence on patient safety.

Keywords

References

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