Welcome to American Journal of Public Health Research

American Journal of Public Health Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal in the field of public health science.
The aim of the journal is to stimulate debate and dissemination of knowledge in the public health field in order to improve efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of public health interventions to improve health outcomes of populations.
Published bi-monthly, American Journal of Public Health Research considers submissions in all aspects of public health.

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR



Association of Cost and Quality of Diets with Risk of Non-Communicable Diseases: A Review

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Lady Irwin College, Sikandra Road, New Delhi, University of Delhi, India

2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(4), 167-173
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kanika Agarwal, Ravinder Chadha, Nikhil Tandon. Association of Cost and Quality of Diets with Risk of Non-Communicable Diseases: A Review. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(4):167-173. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-7.

Correspondence to: Kanika  Agarwal, Department of Food and Nutrition, Lady Irwin College, Sikandra Road, New Delhi, University of Delhi, India. Email: kanika.agarwal@gmail.com


This review aims to examine evidence on whether dietary costs explain variations in diet quality; and that diet cost is an indicia of risk of non communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes etc. A thorough review of scientific literature available on PubMed and Google Scholar on diet cost and diet quality was undertaken. Research shows that the energy dense-nutrient poor diets are cheaper and have a lower diet quality compared to nutrition rich diets. One reason behind this may be that since energy dense foods are dry and have a stable shelf life and give more energy per unit cost while foods with lower energy density like fruits and vegetables are perishable. Education is shown to be related to high diet quality in some studies. Few studies have shown that the diet cost and body mass index as well as waist circumference are inversely related; however no association was seen between diet cost and risk of developing cardiovascular disease.



[1]  Banovic, M., Barreiram, M.M. and Fontes, M.A, “Portuguese household expenditure: 1990, 1995 and 2000,” New Medit N, 2, 25-31. 2006.
[2]  Drewnowski, A. “Fat and sugar: an economic analysis,” J Nutr, 133(3). 838S-840S. 2003.
[3]  Darmon, N., Darmon, M., Maillot, M. and Drewnowski, A. “A Nutrient Density Standard for Vegetables and Fruits: Nutrients per Calorie and Nutrients per Unit Cost,” J Am Diet Assoc,105(12), 1881-7. 2005.
[4]  Ledikwe, J.H., Blanck, H.M., Khan, L.K., Serdula, M.K., Seymour, J.D., Tohill, B.C. and et al. “Low-Energy-Density Diets Are Associated with High Diet Quality in Adults in the United States,” J Am Diet Assoc, 106(8), 1172-80. 2006.
[5]  Lopez, C.N., Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A., Alonso, A., Sanchez-Villegas, A., de la Fuente, C. and Bes-Rastrollo, M. “Cost of compliance with daily recommended values of micronutrients among a cohort of Spanish university graduates: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Study,” Public Health Nutr, 12(11), 2092-6. 2009.
Show More References
[6]  Murakami, K., Sasaki, S., Takahashi, Y., Uenishi, K. and the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. “Monetary cost of self-reported diet in relation to biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake in young Japanese women,” Public Health Nutr, 12(08), 1290-7. 2009.
[7]  Townsend, M.S., Aaron, G.J., Monsivais, P., Keim, N.L. and Drewnowski, A. “Less-energy-dense diets of low-income women in California are associated with higher energy-adjusted diet costs,” Am J Clin Nutr, 89(4):1220-6. 2009.
[8]  Lee, J.H., Ralston, R.A. and Truby, H. “Influence of food cost on diet quality and risk factors for chronic disease: A systematic review: Food cost and diet quality,” Nutr Diet, 68(4), 248–61. 2011.
[9]  Jensen, J.D. and Poulsen, S.K. “The new nordic diet–consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention,” BMC Public Health, 13(1):1114. 2013.
[10]  Rehm, C.D, Monsivais, P., and Drewnowski, A. “The quality and monetary value of diets consumed by adults in the United States,” Am J Clin Nutr, 94(5), 1333-9. 2011.
[11]  Maillot, M., Darmon, N., Vieux, F. and Drewnowski, A. “Low energy density and high nutritional quality are each associated with higher diet costs in French adults” Am J Clin Nutr, 86(3), 690-6. 2007.
[12]  Schröder, H., Marrugat, J. and Covas, M.I. “High monetary costs of dietary patterns associated with lower body mass index: a population-based study,” Int J Obes, 30(10), 1574-9. 2006.
[13]  Cade, J., Upmeier, H., Calvert, C. and Greenwood, D. “Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women’s Cohort Study,” Public Health Nutr, 2(04), 505-12. 1999.
[14]  Aggarwal, A., Monsivais, P., Cook, A.J. and Drewnowski, A. “Does diet cost mediate the relation between socioeconomic position and diet quality,” Eur J Clin Nutr, 65(9), 1059-66. 2011.
[15]  Bernstein, A.M., Bloom, D.E., Rosner, B.A., Franz, M. and Willett, W.C. “Relation of food cost to healthfulness of diet among US women,” Am J Clin Nutr, 92(5), 1197-203. 2010.
[16]  Darmon, N., Ferguson, E.L. and Briend, A. “A cost constraint alone has adverse effects on food selection and nutrient density: an analysis of human diets by linear programming,” J Nutr, 132(12), 3764-71. 2002.
[17]  Mitchell, D.C., Shannon, B.M., McKenzie, J., Smickla-Wright, H., Miller, B.M. and Tershhakovec, AM.” Lower fat diets for children did not increase food costs,” JNE, 32, 100-103. 2000.
[18]  Raynor, H., Kilanowski, C., Esterlis, I. and Epstein, L.H. “A cost-analysis of adopting a healthful diet in a family-based obesity treatment program,” J Am Diet Assoc, 102, 645-50. 2002.
[19]  Ottelin, A.M., Lindström, J., Peltonen, M., Martikainen, J., Uusitupa, M., Gylling, H. and et al. “Costs of a self-selected, health-promoting diet among the participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study,” Diabetes Care, 30(5), 1275-7. 2007.
[20]  Drewnowski, A., Monsivais, P., Maillot, M. and Darmon N. “Low-Energy-Density Diets Are Associated with Higher Diet Quality and Higher Diet Costs in French Adults,” J Am Diet Assoc, 107(6), 1028-32. 2007.
[21]  Monsivais, P., Aggarwal, A. and Drewnowski, A. “Are socio-economic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?,” J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(6), 530-5. 2012.
[22]  Darmon, N., Ferguson, E. and Briend, A. “Do economic constraints encourage the selection of energy dense diets?,” Appetite, 41(3), 315-22. 2003.
[23]  Darmon, N., Briend, A. and Drewnowski, A. “Energy-dense diets are associated with lower diet costs: a community study of French adults,” Public Health Nutr, 7(1), 21-7. 2004.
[24]  Andrieu, E., Darmon, N. and Drewnowski, A. “Low-cost diets: more energy, fewer nutrients,” Eur J Clin Nutr, 60(3), 434-6. 2005.
[25]  Maillot, M., Darmon, N., Darmon, M., Lafay, L. and Drewnowski, A. “Nutrient-dense food groups have high energy costs: an econometric approach to nutrient profiling,” J Nutr, 137(7), 1815-20. 2007.
[26]  Monsivais, P. and Drewnowski, A. “Lower-Energy-Density Diets Are Associated with Higher Monetary Costs per Kilocalorie and Are Consumed by Women of Higher Socioeconomic Status,” J Am Diet Assoc, 109(5),814-22. 2009.
[27]  Drewnowski, A. and Darmon, N. “The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost,” Am J Clin Nutr, 82(1), 265S-273S. 2005.
[28]  Drewnowski, A. “The role of energy density,” Lipids, 38(2), 109-15. 2003.
[29]  Drewnowski, A. “Energy density, palatability, and satiety: implications for weight control,” Nutr Rev, 56(12), 347-53. 1998.
[30]  Drewnowski, A., Darmon, N. and Briend, A. “Replacing fats and sweets with vegetables and fruits—a question of cost,” Am J Public Health, 94(9), 1555-9. 2004.
[31]  Stender, S., Skovby, F., Haraldsdóttir, J., Andresen, G.R., Michaelsen, K.F., Nielsen, B.S. and et al. “Cholesterol-lowering diets may increase the food costs for Danish children. A cross-sectional study of food costs for Danish children with and without familial hypercholesterolaemia,” Eur J Clin Nutr, 47(11), 776-786, 1993.
[32]  Drewnowski, A. and Darmon, N. “Food choices and diet costs: an economic analysis,” J Nutr, 135(4):900-4. 2005.
[33]  Lopez, C.N., Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A., Sanchez-Villegas, A., Alonso, A., Pimenta, A.M. and Bes-Rastrollo, M. “Costs of Mediterranean and western dietary patterns in a Spanish cohort and their relationship with prospective weight change,” J Epidemiol Community Health, 63(11), 920-7. 2009.
[34]  Murakami, K., Sasaki, S., Okubo, H., Takahashi, Y., Hosoi, Y. and Itabashi, M. “Monetary costs of dietary energy reported by young Japanese women: association with food and nutrient intake and body mass index,” Public Health Nutr, 10(12), 1430-9. 2007.
[35]  Rydén, P.J. and Hagfors, L. “Diet cost, diet quality and socio-economic position: how are they related and what contributes to differences in diet costs?,” Public Health Nutr, 14(09). 1680-92. 2011.
[36]  Waterlander,W.E., de Haas, W.E., van Amstel, I., Schuit, A.J., Twisk, J.W., Visser, M. and et al. “Energy density, energy costs and income – how are they related?,” Public Health Nutr, 13(10), 1599-608. 2010.
[37]  Brimblecombe, J.K. and O’Dea ,K. “The role of energy cost in food choices for an Aboriginal population in northern Australia,” MJA, 190, 549-51. 2009.
[38]  Darmon, N. and Drewnowski, A. “Does social class predict diet quality?,” Am J Clin Nutr, 87(5), 1107-17. 2008.
[39]  Drewnowski, A. and Specter, S.E. “Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs,” Am J Clin Nutr, 79(1):6–16. 2004.
[40]  Pakseresht, M., Lang, R., Rittmueller, S., Roache, C., Sheehy, T., Batal, M. and et al. “Food expenditure patterns in the Canadian Arctic show cause for concern for obesity and chronic disease,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 11(1), 51. 2014.
[41]  Rosinger, A., Tanner, S. and Leonard, W.R. “Precursors to overnutrition: The effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane’ adults in lowland Bolivia,” Soc Sci Med, 92, 53–60. 2013.
[42]  Murakami, K., Sasaki, S., Takahashi, Y., Uenishi, K. and the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. “Monetary cost of dietary energy is negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with other metabolic risk factors, in young Japanese women,” Public Health Nutr, 12(08), 1092-8. 2009.
[43]  Fukuda, Y. and Hiyoshi, A. “Associations of Household Expenditure and Marital Status With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japanese Adults: Analysis of Nationally Representative Surveys,” J Epidemiol, 21-7. 2013.
[44]  Vlismas, K., Panagiotakos, D.B., Pitsavos, C., Chrysohoou, C., Skoumas, Y., Sitara, M. and et al. “Quality, but not cost, of diet is associated with 5-year incidence of CVD: the ATTICA study,” Public Health Nutr, 13(11), 1890-7. 2010.
[45]  Brimblecombe, J.K., Ferguson, M.M., Liberato, S.C. and O’Dea, K. “Characteristics of the community-level diet of Aboriginal people in remote northern Australia,” Med J Aust, 198(7), 380-4. 2013.
[46]  Rauber, F., Vitolo, M.R. “Nutritional quality and food expenditure in preschool children,” J Pediatr (Rio J), 85(6), 536-40. 2009.
[47]  Ledikwe, J.H., Blanck, H.M., Khan, L.K., Serdula, M.K., Seymour, J.D., Tohill, B.C. and et al. “Dietary energy density determined by eight calculation methods in a nationally representative United States population,” J Nutr, 135(2), 273-8. 2005.
[48]  Popkin, B.M. “Nutritional patterns and transitions,” Popul Dev Rev, 138-57. 1993.
[49]  Tafreschi, D. “The income body weight gradients in the developing economy of China,” Econ Hum Biol, 16, 115-134. 2015.
Show Less References


Food Prohibition among the Urhobo Nation: Ethical Consideration

1Department of Family Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, P.M.B. 07, Oghara, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, P.M.B. 07, Oghara, Nigeria

3Department of Mental Health, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, P.M.B. 07, Oghara, Nigeria

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(4), 174-179
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anyanwu E. B., Abedi Harrison O., Edafiadhe E. W.. Food Prohibition among the Urhobo Nation: Ethical Consideration. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(4):174-179. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-8.

Correspondence to: Anyanwu  E. B., Department of Family Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, P.M.B. 07, Oghara, Nigeria. Email: ebirian@yahoo.com


The practice of food prohibition or food taboo has existed among the various local indigenous sects of the world for several generations. Such practices are usually attached to some myths or beliefs among the practicing population. The myths or beliefs are passed from generation to generation by means of stories, folklores, legends and even religious practices. The Urhobo people are found in the Southern part of Nigeria and they are found in a region that is surrounded by an evergreen forest. The people enjoy a lot of unique delicacies such as “Ukhodo” (yam and unripe plantain dish), starch meals, banga soup (from palm kernel), and oghwevwri soup (made with dried or smoked fish, bush meat, unique spices and oil palm). But then, the people practice some food prohibition with various reason attached to these acts that have various health implications for the local population.



[1]  Innocent Onyesom, Chibuzor Onyesom, Mary Isioma Ofili, Blaise Ebiringa Anyanwu and Ugochukwu Uzuegbu. Effect of Cultural beliefs and forbidden foods on the ABCD parameters of Nutrition among some children in Nigeria. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 3(2):53-56, 2008.
[2]  Ertem, G., Ergun, S. Traditional Practices and beliefs regarding nutrition of children in the 0 – 5 age group in Western Turkey: A qualitative study Available: www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=3991. [Assessed on 09/06/2015].
[3]  Gittelsohn, J., and Vastine, A. E. Socio-cultural and household factors impacting on the selection, allocation and consumption of animals source foods: current knowledge and application. J. Nutr. I. Vol. 133 No. 11 pg 40365-40415. 2003.
[4]  Delta State if Nigeria: Nigeria Information and guide. Available http://www.nigeriagalleria.com/Nigeria/state_Nigeria/Delta_State. [Assessed on 09/06/2015].
[5]  Nigeria: Delta State. Available: http://www.onlinenigeria.com/links/deltaadv.asp?blurb=230. [Assessed on 09/06/2015].
Show More References
[6]  Urhobo Historical Society. A Map of Delta State, Nigeria, showing Urhoboland and other ethnic nationalities Available: www.waado.org/nigerdelta/maps/deltastate/delta_state_ethnic:html. [Assessed on 09/06/2015].
[7]  Urhobo people. Wikipedia free encydopedia. Available: http://enocwikipedia.org/wiki/urhobo_people. [Assessed on 16/9/2013].
[8]  Akpokona Omafuaire. In Olomu Kingdom, Crocodile is god. Niger Delta Voice, Lifestyle extra pp 06. Oct, 2014.
[9]  Meyer-Rochow, V. B. Food taboos: their origins and purposes. J. Ethnobial Ethnomed. 5:18; 2009.
[10]  Ogbeide, O. Nutritional hazards of food taboos and preference, in Mid-West Nigeria. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 27: pp 213-216, 1974.
[11]  Onyesom, I. Nutritional hazards of food taboos in Nigerian society. Continental J. Medical Research 1: 27-29, 2007.
[12]  Religion and Dietary Practices Available: http://www.faqs.org/Nutrition/Pre-sma/Religion-and-Dietery_Practice.html. [Assessed on 16/9/2013].
[13]  Onuorah, C. E. and Ayo, J. A. Food taboos and their nutritional implications on developing nations like Nigeria – a review. Nutrition and Food science. Vol. 33 (5), pp. 235-240. (2003).
[14]  Odebiyi A. I. Food taboos in maternal and child health: the views of traditional healers in IIe-Ife, Nigeria. Soc. Sci. Med. 28(a): 985-96. 1989.
[15]  Bolton, J. M. Food taboos among the Orang Asli in West Malaysia: a potential nutritional hazard. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25: pp 789-799. 1972.
[16]  Lepowsky, M. Food taboos and child survival; A case study from the Coral Sea, Child survival. Nancy Scheper-Huges (ed). Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 71-92. 1987.
[17]  Medical ethics. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/medical_ ethics. [Assessed on 25/10/2013].
Show Less References


Professional Public Health Associations in USA;an Overview

1Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi-Arabia

2Health Administration, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi-Arabia

3Nursing, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi-Arabia

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(4), 180-181
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khalid Al Aboud, Rabea Al Zobaidi, Hasan Al Qurashi, Abdulelah Al Masoudi, Abas Al Kuraidmy. Professional Public Health Associations in USA;an Overview. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(4):180-181. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-4-9.

Correspondence to: Khalid  Al Aboud, Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi-Arabia. Email: amoa65@hotmail.com


This is a concise overview in a table format for the current membership-based Public Health Associations in USA. These Associations served several functions in the interests of practitioners and the people. Publishing periodicals and arranging conferences were possible because of the support of these societies. However, there is always a potential for improving the educational activities of these Associations. Researches are needed to investigate how these associations can serve the professionals and the community at the best level.



[1]  de Leeuw E, Clavier C. Healthy public in all policies. Health Promot Int. 2011 Dec; 26 Suppl 2 :ii237-44.
[2]  Greaves LJ, Bialystok LR. Health in All Policies--all talk and little action? Can J Public Health. 2011 Nov-Dec; 102(6):407-9.
[3]  Cholewka PA. 129th APHA annual meeting focuses on 'One world: global health'. J Healthc Qual 2002 Jan-Feb; 24(1):38, 45.
[4]  Bert F, Scaioli G, Gualano MR, Siliquini R. How can we bring public health in all policies? Strategies for healthy societies. J Public Health Res 2015 Apr 1; 4(1):393.
[5]  Brown TM, Fee E. Birth of the American Journal of Public Health. Am J Public Health 2010 Jan; 100(1):66-7.
Show More References
[6]  Bryce PH. History of the American Public Health Association. American Journal of Public Health 1918; 8:335.
[7]  Ravenel MP. The American Public Health Association, Past, Present, Future. Am J Public Health (N Y) 1921 Dec; 11(12): 1031-41.
[8]  Benjamin G. American Public Health Association. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2007 Jul; 1(1):8.
[9]  Maccabe AT, Matchett KE, Hueston WD. The need for public-health veterinarians as seen by future employers. J Vet Med Educ 2008 Summer; 35(2): 269-74.
[10]  Chaudry RV. The Precautionary Principle, public health, and public health nursing. Public Health Nurs 2008 May-Jun; 25(3): 261-8.
Show Less References