ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun




Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing

1Department of Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Room 312, Building 37, 1 Gwanak-ro, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea

2College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 98-106
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Birku Reta Entele, Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi. Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):98-106. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4.

Correspondence to: Nnaemeka  Vincent Emodi, College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia. Email:


Low-income households in rural areas of Ethiopia are facing catastrophic out-of-pocket health care expenditure due to lack of proper financing mechanism complemented with unexpected health related shock. However, to smooth their health care consumer spending, they need to have a cost-effective health insurance. This study analyzes' Households Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance and the potential market for this cost effective health insurance products. The data used in this study was collected from rural households in East Shewa zone, Adama Woreda, which constitutes about 500 household heads respondents. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) with double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) elicitation method was used to estimate respondents WTP for proposed health insurance technology. The result of the study shows that households' average WTP (considering their ability to pay) is higher than their cost of public health care and self-treatment per year at a national level on average. Variables such as farm income, frequent visit to the health center, age, education, and insurance cost (premium) are significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. For the hypothetical health insurance scenario, households do have enough willingness to pay to cover cost for public health care consumption expenditure if the payment mode is planned, conducive and once per year. The study implies valuable information for policy makers and concerned stakeholders such as the Ministry of health and different private insurance provider in health care financing.



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Research on Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements for Primary Medical Institutions-based Hospital Alliance

1Science and Education Department, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China

2Administration Office, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 107-111
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ma Fujun, Liu Tianjiang, Tang Qian, Yang Yongxue. Research on Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements for Primary Medical Institutions-based Hospital Alliance. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):107-111. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-5.

Correspondence to: Yang  Yongxue, Administration Office, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China. Email:


Primary medical institutions have been plagued by the contradictory situation of strong creativity and low transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements for a long time in China. In this paper, the status quo of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in primary medical institutions is analyzed, and the necessity of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in primary medical institutions is summarized. Further, the realistic paths for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in the primary medical institutions are proposed. We further point out that it is necessary to transform the scientific and technological achievements of primary medical institutions with the aid of hospital alliance.



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Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Adamawa, Nigeria

1Department of Natural & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Arts/Science, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Adamawa State

2Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Arts, University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Rd, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 112-119
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jennifer A. Tyndall, Richard Kamai, Daliya Changchangi. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Adamawa, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):112-119. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-6.

Correspondence to: Jennifer  A. Tyndall, Department of Natural & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Arts/Science, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Adamawa State. Email:


Background: Despite the efficacy of the Early Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) approach to child nutrition in reducing child mortality, few nursing mothers in Nigeria are willing to adopt this method of feeding. Objective: This research was therefore undertaken in order to assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on EBF of antenatal clinic attendees in North-eastern Nigeria. Study Design: Cross Sectional Community Survey. Methods: Two hundred and fifty expectant mothers attending the ANC clinical sessions at Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, were recruited for this study. The mean age of the women was twenty eight. Data was generated from a corpus consisting of health talks and questionnaires on the respondents’ KAP on EBF during these clinical sessions at this health facility. Results: The results of the survey revealed the problems that inhibit or reduce the practice of exclusive breastfeeding to include the following: the assumption that colostrum is stale milk--84%; breast milk lacks sufficient nutrients--approximately 62%; and expressed breast milk is contaminated milk--just under 98%. With respect to the mother’s attitude to EBF, 60% believed that this method of feeding would flatten their breasts and 78% that EBF causes respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, over 64% thought that food supplements were ideal for infants and that EBF was suitable only for working mothers. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrate the lack of awareness and education on EBF. From both a national and international perspectives, poor maternal nutrition, inadequate support from spouses, family and even nurses and doctors are some of the constraints that limit the rate of practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Public health initiatives on the benefits of EBF need to be addressed, particularly at antenatal clinics and also through outreach programs that target mothers in the rural communities who have limited access to health care.



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