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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR

Article

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Accident & Emergency, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 255-259
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwuakor C.E, Eze V.C, Nwankwo I.U, Iwu J.O. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):255-259. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: Onwuakor  C.E, Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: chijiokeonwuakor@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite the existence of a safe and effective vaccine, Nigeria has remained a hyper-endemic area for hepatitis B virus infection, with estimated 12% of the total population being chronic carriers. Neonates who contact hepatitis B virus infection will have an almost 90% risk of developing chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state and chronic liver disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women and identifying potential risk factors associated with the infection. This study involved a total of 350 pregnant women who attended antenatal at the Federal medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Blood samples from all consenting pregnant women were collected. A structured pro forma designed for this purpose was used to obtain socio-demographic information and the presence of risk factors. Data collated was analyzed using GraphPad Prism statistical software with P<0.05 at 95% confidence interval. The results showed that HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 7.1% was observed in all the pregnant women tested. Sero-prevalence of HBsAg amongst parturients were more in patients within their first trimesters (11.1%), Primigravida pregnant women (8.0%), women with history of dental or surgical procedures (34.0%) and multiple sexual partners (25.0%) and in women with no formal education (37.5%). An intermediate prevalence of HBsAg was identified which justifies the need for routine screening in pregnancy in order to identify and treat the infection, thus reducing the risk of transmission of the virus. Contraceptive options aimed at prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) should be encouraged.

Keywords

References

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Article

Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study

1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy

2Miller Institute for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Genoa, Italy

3Department of Mental Health, Florence, Italy

4Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Italy


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 260-265
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrea Pozza, Davide Berardi, Sandro Domenichetti, Davide Dèttore. Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):260-265. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: Andrea  Pozza, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy. Email: andrea.pozza@unifi.it

Abstract

Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) is a cognitive risk and maintenance factor for anxiety disorders, and it consists of three dimensions: Physical concerns, Cognitive concerns, and Social concerns. No study has investigated the role of AS in individuals with Alcohol-Dependence (A-D), comparing a group of patients with Alcohol-Dependence (A-D) to patients with Anxiety Disorders (AD) and healthy individuals on AS dimensions. Specific dimensions of AS might play a role as cognitive vulnerability and maintenance factors also for A-D-related problems. Examination of AS in patients with A-D might inform clinical practice and public health policy suggesting the integration of treatments specifically targeting AS in A-D patients. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between AS dimensions and A-D. One hundred twenty-five participants, including patients with a diagnosis of A-D (n= 35), patients with a diagnosis of any Anxiety Disorder (AD) (n= 40) and healthy individuals as a control group (CG) (n= 50) completed the ASI-3, STAI-Y and BDI-II. After controlling for anxious traits, A-D patients had stronger Social concerns. Physical and Cognitive concerns appeared, however, significantly more severe among the AD group than the other two groups. Given the strong association between Social concerns and A-D, treatments for A-D patients should also target Social concerns. Study limitations, implications for mental health policy and intervention programs are addressed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Study of the Effects of Snack-Centered Dietary Education on First-Grade Elementary Students and Duration of These Effects

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Toshiyuki Kohri, Naoko Kaba. Study of the Effects of Snack-Centered Dietary Education on First-Grade Elementary Students and Duration of These Effects. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Toshiyuki  Kohri, Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan. Email: tkohri@nara.kindai.ac.jp

Abstract

Irregular diets and nutrient imbalances that result from a lack of interest in food have become more common among not only adults but also children. Snacks are a category of food that most children like and can select for themselves. This study validated the effects of snack-centered dietary education for children on the ability of snack selection and duration of these effects. Twenty-three types of snacks, including drinks, were lined up on a table and presented to 103 Japanese first grade elementary students (intervention group) in a snack selection test in which children were allowed to freely select the snacks they would eat in one day. The ability of children to select the proper quality and quantity of snacks was evaluated on the basis of the energy and nutrient content of the selected snacks. Subsequently, snack-centered dietary education intervention lessons were provided to the children, and the same test conducted at baseline was immediately reconducted after the intervention and seven months after the end of the intervention. The control group comprised 118 children who were in the first grade during the subsequent school year. In the intervention group, the snacks selected in the baseline test had excessive energy content; post-intervention, the energy content approached a more appropriate level and the nutrient density of vitamins, iron, and dietary fiber increased. Moreover, these improvements were observed even seven months after the intervention ended. However, in the control group, there were no significant changes. These findings suggested that snack-centered dietary education for first grade elementary students contributed to improving the quality and quantity of snack selection, and these effects persisted for more than half a year.

Keywords

References

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Article

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitude among Military Recruits at Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Department of Community Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chinedu John-Camillus IGBOANUSI, Tukur DAHIRU, Istifanus Anekoson JOSHUA. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitude among Military Recruits at Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Chinedu  John-Camillus IGBOANUSI, Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Email: chinedujc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Military personnel have higher HIV/AIDS prevalence than the general population. They tend to be young, single, sexually active and highly mobile and may stay away from their home. This study assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude among recruits at Nigerian Army Depot in Zaria Nigeria. It was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out February 2011 using 300 structured, self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the respondents (80.3%) were within the age bracket of 20- 24 years with mean age of 21.8 ± 2.0 years, 93% single and 53.3% secondary school graduate. Majority of the respondents (91.0%) have heard of HIV/AIDS, while a lot of them (72.6%) knew those that are victims of the disease. Majority of the respondents (74.3%) also knew that HIV/AIDS was caused by virus. On the overall, only 48.7% of the respondents had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.7% of the respondents would offer assistance to HIV infected people, 62.3% agreed that HIV positive women should not be having babies, while 66.0% believed that HIV/AIDS patients should not be stigmatized against among others. The study revealed amongst others that the recruits had very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS and also good attitudes to it. The recommendations include- aggressive regular HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns, development of attitudinal and behavioural change communication strategies for the recruits in particular, health education by faith based organisations. There is also the need to develop a good practical tool and quality control programs for monitoring and evaluation of the various HIV/AIDS awareness programs in the barracks for enhanced effectiveness and efficiency.

Keywords

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Article

Stress, a Major Determinant of Nutritional and Health Status

1Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Apata, Ibadan, Nigeria. University of Ibadan, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 15-20
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paulina Oludoyin ADENIYI. Stress, a Major Determinant of Nutritional and Health Status. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):15-20. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Paulina  Oludoyin ADENIYI, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Apata, Ibadan, Nigeria. University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Email: doyinadeniyi@yahoo.com

Abstract

The continual desire to thrive against all odds even with the current global economic and other livelihood challenges coupled with various natural and man-made disasters has subjected humanity incessantly to physical, physiological and psychological stress traceable to different etiologic stressors. This has consequently resulted into increasing prevalence in stress and stress-related diseases worldwide. Hence, this paper reviews stress as it relates to appetite, digestion, nutrient metabolism, immunity and other diseases with a view of creating public awareness on this concept and the possible stress management techniques. The search engines used are HINARI, PubMED and Google Scholar. Stress can have both orexigenic and anorexigenic effect thus influencing appetite and food intake via the metabolic activities of glucocorticiods and Neuropeptide Y commonly produced during a fight-or-flight response to stress. Vagus nerve activation which occurs during stress directly and profoundly influences metabolic responses to food via altered digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients thus pre-disposing the body to malnutrition. Glucocorticoids may adversely affect immune system by suppressing the helper T-cells and over-expressing the T suppressor cells thus inhibiting the body’s defence mechanism against both infectious and non-infectious diseases. More still, glucocorticoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes via increased hepatic blood glucose by increased gluconeogenesis and may exacerbate or inhibit tumorigenicity in cancer progression. Regular exercise, healthy diet, deep breath exercise, adequate sleep and limiting exposure to stressors if possible are generally effective in coping with stress and managing stress.

Keywords

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Article

Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Maternal and Child Health Service Utilization in Mwingi; A Rural Semi-Arid District in Kenya

1Department of Environmental Health, University of Kabianga, Kericho, Kenya

2Department of Public Health, Maseno University, Kisumu , Kenya

3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 21-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Japheth M. Nzioki, Rosebella O. Onyango, James H. Ombaka. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Maternal and Child Health Service Utilization in Mwingi; A Rural Semi-Arid District in Kenya. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):21-30. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: James  H. Ombaka, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya. Email: nziokimativo@gmail.com

Abstract

By the end of this year (2015), Kenya is expected to meet the targets of Millennium Development Goals number 4 and 5 among others. Available evidence suggests that utilization of Maternal and Child Health services is critical in realization of these goals. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-demographic factors influencing Maternal and Child Health service utilization in Mwingi district. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data was collected from a sample of 416 women. Variables of interest were; socio-demographic variables and selected MCH service utilization indicators. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of socio demographic characteristics on MCH service utilization. Results indicated that Women who sought WHO recommended Antenatal Care services (at least 4 visits) were 38.9%, 47% delivered assisted by Skilled Birth Attendants , 46.2% sought postpartum care within 2 days after delivery, 88.7% ensured their children completed routine immunizations in time and 35.6% used modern family planning within 6 weeks after postpartum. Women with secondary education and above, women in households earning more than 1 US Dollar in a day and women in employment or operating a business were more likely to utilize MCH services. Women over 26 years of age and these with 3 children and above were less likely to utilize MCH services with exception of utilization of Family Planning services in which Women with 3 children and above were more likely to utilize Family Planning services compared to these with 2 children and below. Increasing the number of women with secondary level of education and above, creating initiatives to economically empower people especially these living in rural semi-arid regions, and developing and implementing age specific health education programs may improve utilization of MCH services in Mwingi district and other semi- arid regions in Kenya.

Keywords

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Article

The Practice of Medical Referral: Ethical Concerns

1Department of Family Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Oghara, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Oghara, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 31-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anyanwu E. B., Abedi Harrison O., Onohwakpor Efe A.. The Practice of Medical Referral: Ethical Concerns. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):31-35. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Anyanwu  E. B., Department of Family Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Oghara, Nigeria. Email: ebirian@yahoo.com

Abstract

Medical referral is the act of sending a patient by one professional care giver to another, who may be a specialist and therefore be more knowledgeable in the diagnosing and further management of the patient. Most cases of referral of patients is therefore for proper diagnosis, adequate investigations and their proper treatment by the receiving specialists. It is mostly assumed and believed that patients depend on the medical information available to their health care providers. Therefore, the need for a referral, its appropriatness, timing and to whom the referral is made to mostly depends on the attending physician. This should be done after due consultation with the patients family and appropriate consent obtained. It is believed that a health practitioner should make a referral when he thinks that it will be of benefit to the patient and not when he wants to avoid the challenges of unraveling the patients’ complex problems. Also, referral should not be made to avoid possible death of the patient in a hospital so as not to worsen its statistics. Unfortunately, the seemingly good intention of referring of patients may cause a conflict of interests when physicians because of inherent financial gains refer patients to facilities that they own or have investment interest in. Such referral challenges as self-referral, and fee-splitting whereby a fee is paid to one physician by another for a referral is unethical, and are known to occur. Several “Anti-referral Laws” have subsequently been set up to prevent such actions and protect patients against abuse by health workers.

Keywords

References

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Article

Perceived Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs and Service Utilization among Higher Secondary School Students in Urban Nepal

1James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh, Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Pokhara University Research Center (PURC), Pokhara University, Nepal

4Fulbright Student Researcher

5BRAC Institute of Global Health, BRAC University Mohakali, Dhaka, Bangladesh

6Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu, Nepal


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 36-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kiran Bam, Fariha Haseen, Rajendra Kumar BC, M. Sophia Newman, Asiful Haider Chaudhary, Rajshree Thapa, Ismat Bhuyia. Perceived Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs and Service Utilization among Higher Secondary School Students in Urban Nepal. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):36-45. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Kiran  Bam, James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: bam.kiran@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) is best addressed through the promotion of responsible, healthy behavior and the provision of age-appropriate services. This study aimed to assess Nepali adolescents’ perceived ASRH service needs and factors influencing their utilization of ASRH services. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was based on a structured, self-administered questionnaire of adolescents aged 15-19 (n = 338) in three government-run higher secondary schools in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Descriptive data was used to summarize socio demographics, sexual activity, and awareness and usage of SRH services. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and binary logistical regression modeling were used to identify factors influencing ASRH service utilization. Results: ASRH service utilization was 9.2% among all respondents. Service utilization was lower among female (4.3%) than males (12.5%). Fifteen percent of students had ever felt a need to access ASRH services, a larger percentage than those who had accessed ASRH services (9.2%). Almost 37% intend to utilize ASRH services in the future. Students attending secondary schools that included ASRH in the school’s health services were 15 times more likely to utilize ASRH services(Adjusted OR: 14.85). The distance from health facility (Adjusted OR: 12.80) and being sexually active within 12 months (Adjusted OR: 10.31) were found to be associated with ASRH service utilization. Those who perceived barriers to services were more likely to utilize the services (Adjusted OR: 7.05).Lack of confidential services was the biggest barrier (71.4%),while friend and peer group influence (86.7%) was a major motivator to access ASRH services. Conclusion: ASRH service utilization among the adolescents is very low, with a gap between perceived needs and service utilization. Students who have accessed ASRH services are more likely to report that they perceived barriers, demonstrating that logistical difficulties may be considerable. Accessibility should be expanded.

Keywords

References

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Article

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: some Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects

1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

2San Fernando General Hospital, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 46-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Angel Justiz-Vaillant, Patrick E. Akpaka, Peter Poonking. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: some Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):46-50. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Angel  Justiz-Vaillant, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Email: Angel.Vaillant@sta.uwi.edu

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder with a wide array of clinical manifestations including rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, arthritis, serositis, glomerulonephritis among others clinical findings. In this paper we globally summarized the most important epidemiological and clinical aspects to bear in mind, when the time comes to make the diagnosis of this rheumatic disorder and its management. Factor that are involved in the SLE pathogenesis and novel treatment options are mentioned.

Keywords

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Article

Sexual History, Behaviour and Practice of HIV/AIDS Prevention among Recruits of Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria-Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

3Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(2), 51-55
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ChineduJohn-Camillus IGBOANUSI, IstifanusAnekoson JOSHUA, Tukur DAHIRU. Sexual History, Behaviour and Practice of HIV/AIDS Prevention among Recruits of Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria-Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(2):51-55. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: ChineduJohn-Camillus  IGBOANUSI, Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Email: chinedujc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Among Nigerian Military Personnel (NMP), HIV prevalence has been reported to be higher than in the general population due to several factors. Data on HIV among the military are difficult to obtain and comprehensive program for the military in Sub-Saharan Africa were not well coordinated. This study assessed sexual history, behavior and practice of HIV/AIDS prevention among military recruits at Depot Nigeria Army in Zaria Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out on February, 2011 with a sample of 300 army recruits selected by a stratified random sampling technique. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual history, behavior and practice of HIV/AIDS prevention were collected using structured, self–administered questionnaire, and blood samples collected were screened using Determine® and and Uni-gold® test kits for HIV antibodies. Stat pak® test kit was used as a tie-breaker. The data collected were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 15.0 and results presented in tables and statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: The age range of the respondents was 17 – 29 years, with mean age of 29 ±1.9 years and male: female ratio of 2.8:1. Majority (93.0%) were single with mean age at sexual debut of 15 years and 40.0% had coitus a month prior to the time of the study. About 21.0% satisfied their sexual urge by having sex with their partners. Two-thirds had used male condom before out of which 29.7% had problems such as reduced sexual urge (16.7%), burst condom (11.3%) among others. The results of the HIV screening for all the respondents were negative for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Conclusion: The sexual history, behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention among the military recruits showed mixed picture and the HIV screening results were negative for HIV 1 and HIV 2. There is need to have a well-coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention program that is multi-disciplinary and innovative among others to ensure the recruits remain negative for HIV.

Keywords

References

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