ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR

   

Article

Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing

1Department of Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Room 312, Building 37, 1 Gwanak-ro, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea

2College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 98-106
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Birku Reta Entele, Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi. Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):98-106. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4.

Correspondence to: Nnaemeka  Vincent Emodi, College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia. Email: nnaemeka.emodi@my.jcu.edu.au

Abstract

Low-income households in rural areas of Ethiopia are facing catastrophic out-of-pocket health care expenditure due to lack of proper financing mechanism complemented with unexpected health related shock. However, to smooth their health care consumer spending, they need to have a cost-effective health insurance. This study analyzes' Households Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance and the potential market for this cost effective health insurance products. The data used in this study was collected from rural households in East Shewa zone, Adama Woreda, which constitutes about 500 household heads respondents. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) with double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) elicitation method was used to estimate respondents WTP for proposed health insurance technology. The result of the study shows that households' average WTP (considering their ability to pay) is higher than their cost of public health care and self-treatment per year at a national level on average. Variables such as farm income, frequent visit to the health center, age, education, and insurance cost (premium) are significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. For the hypothetical health insurance scenario, households do have enough willingness to pay to cover cost for public health care consumption expenditure if the payment mode is planned, conducive and once per year. The study implies valuable information for policy makers and concerned stakeholders such as the Ministry of health and different private insurance provider in health care financing.

Keywords

References

[1]  Mehrotra A, Adams JL, Armstrong K, Eibner C, Hussey PS, Lave J, Liu H, McGlynn EA, Pollack CE, Ridgely MS, Rudavsky R. Health care on aisle 7: The growing phenomenon of retail clinics. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-9491-1. 2010.
 
[2]  (FMH) Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Health. April 2014. Ethiopia’s Fifth National Health Accounts 2010/2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
[3]  Asfaw A, von Braun J. Innovations in health care financing: new evidence on the prospect of community health insurance schemes in the rural areas of Ethiopia. International journal of health care finance and economics. 2005 Sep 1;5(3):241-53.
 
[4]  Asenso-Okyere WK, Osei-Akoto I, Anum A, Appiah EN. Willingness to pay for health insurance in a developing economy. A pilot study of the informal sector of Ghana using contingent valuation. Health policy. 1997 Dec 31;42(3):223-37.
 
[5]  Jung J, Liu Streeter J. Does health insurance decrease health expenditure risk in developing countries? The case of China. Southern Economic Journal. 2015 Oct 1;82(2):361-84.
 
Show More References
[6]  Dalinjong PA, Laar AS. The national health insurance scheme: perceptions and experiences of health care providers and clients in two districts of Ghana. Health economics review. 2012 Jul 23;2(1):1.
 
[7]  Panda P, Chakraborty A, Dror DM. Building awareness to health insurance among the target population of community‐based health insurance schemes in rural India. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2015 Aug 1;20(8):1093-107.
 
[8]  Mladovsky, Philipa. Social capital and enrolment in community-based health insurance in Senegal. Diss. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), 2014.
 
[9]  Carrin G, Waelkens MP, Criel B. Community‐based health insurance in developing countries: a study of its contribution to the performance of health financing systems. Tropical medicine & international health. 2005 Aug 1;10(8):799-811.
 
[10]  Kruk ME, Goldmann E, Galea S. Borrowing and selling to pay for health care in low-and middle-income countries. Health Affairs. 2009 Jul 1;28(4):1056-66.
 
[11]  Macha J, Harris B, Garshong B, Ataguba JE, Akazili J, Kuwawenaruwa A, Borghi J. Factors influencing the burden of health care financing and the distribution of health care benefits in Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa. Health policy and planning. 2012 Mar 1;27(suppl 1):i46-54.
 
[12]  Newhouse JP, Manning WG, Morris CN, Orr LL, Duan N, Keeler EB, Leibowitz A, Marquis KH, Marquis MS, Phelps CE, Brook RH. Some interim results from a controlled trial of cost sharing in health insurance. New England Journal of Medicine. 1981 Dec 17;305(25):1501-7.
 
[13]  Robyn PJ, Hill A, Liu Y, Souares A, Savadogo G, Sié A, Sauerborn R. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso. Health policy and planning. 2012 Mar 1;27(2):156-65.
 
[14]  Liu X, Tang S, Yu B, Phuong NK, Yan F, Thien DD, Tolhurst R. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? A comparison between China and Vietnam. Int J Equity Health. 2012 Feb 29;11(10):1-9.
 
[15]  Asgary A, Willis K, Taghvaei AA, Rafeian M. Estimating rural households’ willingness to pay for health insurance. The European Journal of Health Economics, formerly: HEPAC. 2004 Sep 1;5(3):209-15.
 
[16]  Wagstaff A, Nguyen HT, Dao H, Bales S. Encouraging Health Insurance for the Informal Sector: A Cluster Randomized Experiment in Vietnam. Health economics. 2015 Jan 1.
 
[17]  Cohodes SR, Grossman DS, Kleiner SA, Lovenheim MF. The effect of child health insurance access on schooling: Evidence from public insurance expansions. Journal of Human Resources. 2015 Nov 30.
 
[18]  Adams R, Chou YJ, Pu C. Willingness to participate and Pay for a proposed national health insurance in St. Vincent and the grenadines: a cross-sectional contingent valuation approach. BMC health services research. 2015 Apr 9;15(1):1.
 
[19]  Mitchell RC, Carson RT. Using surveys to value public goods: the contingent valuation method. Resources for the Future; 1989.
 
[20]  Cameron TA, Quiggin J. Estimation using contingent valuation data from a “dichotomous choice with follow-up” questionnaire. Journal of environmental economics and management. 1994 Nov 30;27(3):218-34.
 
[21]  Haab TC, McConnell KE. Valuing environmental and natural resources: the econometrics of non-market valuation. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2002.
 
[22]  Hanemann WM, Kanninen B. The statistical analysis of discrete-response CV data. Valuing environmental preferences: theory and practice of the contingent valuation method in the US, EU, and developing countries. 1999;441.
 
[23]  Krinsky and Robb. Mean and median willingness to pay measures, updated version 2002.
 
Show Less References

Article

Research on Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements for Primary Medical Institutions-based Hospital Alliance

1Science and Education Department, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China

2Administration Office, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 107-111
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ma Fujun, Liu Tianjiang, Tang Qian, Yang Yongxue. Research on Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements for Primary Medical Institutions-based Hospital Alliance. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):107-111. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-5.

Correspondence to: Yang  Yongxue, Administration Office, Chengdu Fifth People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China. Email: 3188997@qq.com

Abstract

Primary medical institutions have been plagued by the contradictory situation of strong creativity and low transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements for a long time in China. In this paper, the status quo of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in primary medical institutions is analyzed, and the necessity of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in primary medical institutions is summarized. Further, the realistic paths for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in the primary medical institutions are proposed. We further point out that it is necessary to transform the scientific and technological achievements of primary medical institutions with the aid of hospital alliance.

Keywords

References

[1]  sichuandaily.scol.com.cn. Why the Medical Science Achievements Have a Low Transformation Rate [EB/ON]. [2011-08-17]. http://sichuandaily.scol.com.cn/2011/08/17/20110817650454028069.htm.
 
[2]  http://www.gov.cn. State Council's Opinions on Promoting the Construction of Graded Diagnosis and Treatment System [EB/ON]. [2015-9-11] http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2015-09/11/content_10158.htm.
 
[3]  Pku Healthcare [EB/ON]. http://www.pkucare.com/group/about.html.
 
[4]  whb.nes365.com.cn. Innovation Workshop Facilitates the Clinical Doctors to Transform Achievements [EB/ON]. [2015-06-05] whb.news365.com.cn/jkw/201506/t20150605_1975550.html.
 
[5]  www.duob.cn. Ruijin Hospital Signed an Agreement with Zhangjiang Intellectual Property Operation Platform [EB/ON]. [2015-08-19] http://www.duob.cn/cont/812/186218.html.
 
Show More References
[6]  www.bioon.com. The Opening of Transformation Medicine Center in the Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Indicates that Large Hospitals Become the Optimal Research Platforms [EB/ON]. [2012-9-20] www.bioon.com/tm/organization/530059.shtml.
 
[7]  www.sc.gov.cn. Signing and Opening of Sichuan Transformation Medicine Research Hospital of Chinese Academy of Sciences [EB/ON]. [2012-10-31]. http://www.sc.gov.cn/10462/10464/10465/10574/2012/11/1/10234565.shtml.
 
[8]  http://www.cd120.com. Notice on Establishing a Transformation Medicine Center in West China Hospital. [EB/ON]. [2011-11-11]. http://www.cd120.com/htmlnewsyuannatongzhi/56295.jhtml.
 
[9]  Du, A.H., Liu,W.H. “Problems in the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements of Large General Hospitals and the Corresponding Countermeasures, Chinese Journal of Social Medicine , 31(3): 152-154.2014.
 
[10]  Jiang, X., Bai, L.L., Zhang, B.S. et al. “Research on Related Issues in the Transformation of Clinical Research Achievements . Chinese Journal of Healthcare Science Research Management, 27(5): 551-553. 2014.
 
[11]  Ye,P., Li,Y., Tan, Y.J. et al. “On Bottlenecks of Military Hospital Achievements Transformation and the Countermeasures. Medical Journal of National Defending Forces in Southwest China, 25(3): 327-328. 2015.
 
[12]  Li,M.N., Ding,T., Liu,J.Z. et al. “Multi Subject Analysis of Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements of Research Hospitals. Chinese Hospitals, 18(10): 17-18. 2014.
 
[13]  http://www.gov.cn. Notice on 2014 Work Summary and 2015 Key Tasks about Deepening Medical and Health System Reforms Issued by the General Office of the State Council [EB/ON]. [2015-5-9] http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2015-05/09/content_9716.htm.
 
Show Less References

Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Adamawa, Nigeria

1Department of Natural & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Arts/Science, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Adamawa State

2Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Arts, University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Rd, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 112-119
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jennifer A. Tyndall, Richard Kamai, Daliya Changchangi. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Adamawa, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):112-119. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-6.

Correspondence to: Jennifer  A. Tyndall, Department of Natural & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Arts/Science, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Adamawa State. Email: tyndalljen@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Despite the efficacy of the Early Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) approach to child nutrition in reducing child mortality, few nursing mothers in Nigeria are willing to adopt this method of feeding. Objective: This research was therefore undertaken in order to assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on EBF of antenatal clinic attendees in North-eastern Nigeria. Study Design: Cross Sectional Community Survey. Methods: Two hundred and fifty expectant mothers attending the ANC clinical sessions at Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, were recruited for this study. The mean age of the women was twenty eight. Data was generated from a corpus consisting of health talks and questionnaires on the respondents’ KAP on EBF during these clinical sessions at this health facility. Results: The results of the survey revealed the problems that inhibit or reduce the practice of exclusive breastfeeding to include the following: the assumption that colostrum is stale milk--84%; breast milk lacks sufficient nutrients--approximately 62%; and expressed breast milk is contaminated milk--just under 98%. With respect to the mother’s attitude to EBF, 60% believed that this method of feeding would flatten their breasts and 78% that EBF causes respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, over 64% thought that food supplements were ideal for infants and that EBF was suitable only for working mothers. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrate the lack of awareness and education on EBF. From both a national and international perspectives, poor maternal nutrition, inadequate support from spouses, family and even nurses and doctors are some of the constraints that limit the rate of practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Public health initiatives on the benefits of EBF need to be addressed, particularly at antenatal clinics and also through outreach programs that target mothers in the rural communities who have limited access to health care.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bonomi, A. E., Patrick, D. L., Bushnell, D. M., & Martin, M. (2000). Validation of the United States' version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instrument. Journal of clinical Epidemiology, 53(1), 1-12
 
[2]  Austin, W., & Boyd, M. A. (2010). Psychiatric and mental health nursing for Canadian practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, USA.
 
[3]  National Breastfeeding Committee. (2009). National strategic plan of action for breastfeeding 2008-2012. Wellington: Ministry of Health http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/pagesmh/8939/$ File/breastfeeding-action-plan. pdf.
 
[4]  Natural Resources Defence Council. 2005. Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby: Chemical Pollution and Mother’s Milk. New York, NY: National Resources Defence Council. Retrieved from: http://www.nrdc.org/breastmilk/chems.asp. Accessed on February 8, 2015.
 
[5]  Quinn, V. J., Guyon, A. B., Schubert, J. W., Stone-Jiménez, M., Hainsworth, M. D., & Martin, L. H. (2005). Improving breastfeeding practices on a broad scale at the community level: Success stories from Africa and Latin America. Journal of Human Lactation, 21(3), 345-354.
 
Show More References
[6]  Esquivel, M., Álvarez, G., Izquierdo, M. E., Martínez, D., & Tamayo, V. (2014). Well child care: A comprehensive strategy for Cuban children and adolescents. MEDICC review, 16(1), 7-11.
 
[7]  Martinez, J. C., Rea, M., & De Zoysa, I. (1992).Breast feeding in the first six months. British Medical Journal, 304(6834), 1068.
 
[8]  Subbiah, N. (2003). A study to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and problems of postnatal mothers regarding breastfeeding. The Nursing Journal of India, 94(8), 177.
 
[9]  Young, S. L., Mbuya, M. N., Chantry, C. J., Geubbels, E. P., Israel-Ballard, K., Cohan, D., Vosti, S.A., & Latham, M. C. (2011). Current knowledge and future research on infant feeding in the context of HIV: Basic, clinical, behavioural, and programmatic perspectives. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 2(3), 225-243.
 
[10]  Rea & Martines, 1991.
 
[11]  Huffman, S. L., & Combest, C. (1990). Role of breastfeeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Journal of Diarrheal Diseases Research, 8 68-81.
 
[12]  Cushing, A. H., Samet, J. M., Lambert, W. E., Skipper, B. J., Hunt, W. C., Young, S. A., & McLaren, L. C. (1998). Breastfeeding reduces risk of respiratory illness in infants. American journal of epidemiology, 147(9), 863-870.
 
[13]  Arifeen, S., Black, R. E., Antelman, G., Baqui, A., Caulfield, L., & Becker, S. (2001). Exclusive breastfeeding reduces acute respiratory infection and diarrhea deaths among infants in Dhaka slums. Paediatrics, 108(4), e67-e67.
 
[14]  Story, L., & Parish, T. (2008). Breastfeeding helps prevent two major infant illnesses. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 6(3).
 
[15]  Duncan, B., Ey, J., Holberg, C. J., Wright, A. L., Martinez, F. D., & Taussig, L. M. (1993). Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media. Paediatrics, 91(5), 867-872.
 
[16]  Caramez da Silva, F., Justo Giugliani, E. R., & CapsiPires, S. (2012).Duration of breastfeeding and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Breastfeeding Medicine, 7(6), 464-468.
 
[17]  Unicef (1999). Breastfeeding: Foundation for healthy future. Unicef, Division of Communication: New York, USA. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/pub_brochure_en.pdf. Accessed on February 7, 2015.
 
[18]  Godhia, M. L., & Patel, N. (2013). Colostrum–its composition, benefits as a nutraceutical–A review. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 1(1), 37-47.
 
[19]  vKries, R., Shearer, M., McCarthy, P. T., Haug, M., Harzer, G., & Goebel, U. (1987). Vitamin K1 content of maternal milk: Influence of the stage of lactation, lipid composition, and vitamin K1 supplements given to the mother. Pediatric Research, 22(5), 513-517.
 
[20]  Bradbury, J. (2011). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): An ancient nutrient for the modern human brain. Nutrients, 3(5), 529-554.
 
[21]  Jenness, R. (1979). The composition of human milk. In Seminars in perinatology 3, (3) 225-239).
 
[22]  Playford, R. J., Macdonald, C. E., & Johnson, W. S. (2000). Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(1), 5-14.
 
[23]  Kulski, J. K., & Hartmann, P. E. (1981). Changes in human milk composition during the initiation of lactation. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci, 59 (1), 101-114.
 
[24]  Davis, T. A., Nguyen, H. V., Garcia-Bravo, R., Fiorotto, M. L., Jackson, E. M., & Reeds, P. J. (1994). Amino acid composition of the milk of some mammalian species changes with stage of lactation. British journal of nutrition, 72(06), 845-853.
 
[25]  Gibson, R. A., & Kneebone, G. M. (1981). Fatty acid composition of human colostrum and mature breast milk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34(2), 252-257.
 
[26]  Griffiths, E., & Humphreys, J. (1977). Bacteriostatic effect of human milk and bovine colostrum on Escherichia coli: importance of bicarbonate. Infection and immunity, 15(2), 396-401.
 
[27]  Otto, W., Najnigier, B., Stelmasiak, T., & Robins-Browne, R. M. (2011). Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology, 46 (7-8), 862-868.
 
[28]  Korhonen, H., Syväoja, E. L., Ahola‐Luttila, H., Sivelä, S., Kopola, S., Husu, J., & Kosunen, T. U. (1995). Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Applied Bacteriology,78(6), 655-662.
 
[29]  Vassilev, T., & Veleva, K. (1996). Natural Polyreactive IgA and IgM Autoantibodies in Human Colostrum. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 44(5), 535.
 
[30]  Al-Farsi, Y. M., Al-Sharbati, M. M., Waly, M. I., Al-Farsi, O. A., Al-Shafaee, M. A., Al-Khaduri, M. M., Trivedi, MS & Deth, R. C. (2012). Effect of suboptimal breast-feeding on occurrence of autism: a case–control study. Nutrition, 28(7), e27-e32.
 
[31]  Brown, C., & Austin, D. (2009). Fatty acids, breastfeeding and autism spectrum disorder. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture, 5(1), 49-52.
 
[32]  Lauritzen, L., Jørgensen, M. H., Mikkelsen, T. B., Skovgaard, I. M., Straarup, E. M., Olsen, S. F., & Michaelsen, K. F. (2004). Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n− 3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes. Lipids, 39(3), 195-206.
 
[33]  Krugman, S. & Law, P. (1999). Breastfeeding and IQ. Paediatrics, 103: 193.
 
[34]  Awi, D. D., &Alikor, E. A. D. (2007).Barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of healthy full-term babies who deliver at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 9(1), 57-64.
 
[35]  Chua. A. S. & Lim. I. (1994). Influence of breastfeeding and nipple stimulation on postpartum uterine activity. Breastfeeding Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology. 101:804-805.
 
[36]  Tay, C. C. K., Glasier, A. F., & McNeilly, A. S. (1993). Effect of antagonists of dopamine and opiates on the basal and GnRH-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin during lactational amenorrhoea in breastfeeding women. Human Reproduction, 8(4), 532-539.
 
[37]  Eiger. M. S. & Wendkos. O. S. (1999). The complete book of breastfeeding. New York: Workman.
 
[38]  Napieralski, J. A., & Devine, C. (1999). Breast feeding and breast cancer risk. Fact Sheet No. 29.
 
[39]  National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD). (2009). Breastfeeding and Breast Milk Condition Information: What are the benefits? Retrieved from: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/breastfeeding/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed on December 28, 2014.
 
[40]  Gajalakshmi, V., Mathew, A., Brennan, P., Rajan, B., Kanimozhi, V. C., Mathews, A., & Boffetta, P. (2009). Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk in India: A multicenter case‐control study. International Journal of Cancer, 125(3), 662-665.
 
[41]  Lipworth, L., Bailey, L. R., & Trichopoulos, D. (2000). History of breast-feeding in relation to breast cancer risk: A review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92(4), 302-312.
 
[42]  Möeller, T., Olsson, H., Ranstam, J., & Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. (2002). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50 302 women with breast cancer and 96 973 women without the disease. Lancet, 360(9328), 187-195.
 
[43]  WHO & Unicef (1990). Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding. WHO/Unicef policymakers’ meeting on “Breastfeeding in the 1990s: A Global Initiative.” SpedaledegliInnocenti, Florence, Italy, 30 July-1 August, 1990.
 
[44]  Unicef (2005) Unite for children, unite against AIDS campaign. Unicef. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/aids/index.html. Accessed on February 7, 2015.
 
[45]  WHO & Unicef (2003). Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9241562218/en/index.html. Accessed on February 7, 2015.
 
[46]  UNICEF. (2008). The state of the world's children 2009: maternal and newborn health (Vol. 9). Unicef. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/sowc09/index.php. Accessed on February 7, 2015.
 
[47]  Naugle, D. A., & Hornik, R. C. (2014). Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media interventions for child survival in low-and middle-income countries. Journal of Health Communication, 19 (sup1), 190-215.
 
[48]  Sood, S., Shefner-Rogers, C., & Skinner, J. (2014). Health communication campaigns in developing countries. Journal of Creative Communications, 9(1), 67-84.
 
[49]  Higgs, E. S., Goldberg, A. B., Labrique, A. B., Cook, S. H., Schmid, C., Cole, C. F., & Obregón, R. A. (2014). Understanding the role of health and other media interventions for behavior change to enhance child survival and development in low-and middle-income countries: An evidence review. Journal of Health Communication, 19 (sup1), 164-189.
 
[50]  Victoria, C. G. (2000). Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: A pooled analysis. Lancet (British edition), 355(9202), 451-455.
 
[51]  National Population Commission (NPC) (2008). Federal Republic of Nigeria. Final 2006 census results. Retrieved from: http://www.population.gov.ng/index.php. Accessed on December 14, 2014.
 
[52]  Unicef. (2006). Progress for children: a report card on nutrition (No. 4). Unicef.
 
[53]  Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C, & Rivera, J. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet, 371(9608), 243-260.
 
[54]  WHO (2010).World health statistics 2010.WHO. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241563987_eng.pdf. Accessed on February 7. 2015.
 
[55]  Sellen, D. W. (2001). Comparison of infant feeding patterns reported for non-industrial populations with current recommendations. Journal of Nutrition, 131(10), 2707-2715.
 
[56]  NHDS 2008.
 
[57]  Jones, G., Steketee, R. W., Black, R. E., Bhutta, Z. A., & Morris, S. S. (2003). How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet, 362(9377), 65-71.
 
[58]  Agunbiade, O. M., & Ogunleye, O. V. (2012). Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up. International Breastfeeding Journal, 7(5).
 
[59]  Agbo, H. A., Envuladu, E. A., & Adams, H. S. (2013). Barriers and facilitators of the practise of exclusive breastfeeding among working class mothers: A study of female resident doctors in tertiary health institutions in Plateau State. E3 J Med Research, 2(1), 112-116.
 
[60]  Cox, K., Giglia, R., Zhao, Y., & Binns, C. W. (2014). Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in rural western Australia. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(4), 488-497.
 
[61]  Hernández-Aguilar, M. T., Lasarte-Velillas, J. J., Martín-Calama, J., Flores-Antón, B., Borja-Herrero, C., García-Franco, M., Navas-Lucena V., & Pallás-Alonso, C. (2014). The Baby-friendly initiative in Spain: a challenging pathway. Journal of Human Lactation, 30 (3), 276-282.
 
[62]  Ojofeitimi, E. O., Esimai, O. A., Owolabi, O. O., Olaobaju, O. F., & Olanuga, T. O. (2000). Breast feeding practices in urban and rural health centres: Impact of baby friendly hospital initiative in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Nutrition and health, 14(2), 119-125.
 
[63]  WHO (2010).World health statistics 2010.WHO. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241563987_eng.pdf. Accessed on February 7. 2015.
 
[64]  WHO (2005). The World health report: 2005: make every mother and child count. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/world-health day/2005/toolkit/en/. Accessed on February 7, 2015.
 
[65]  Toulmin, S. (1959). Criticism in the history of science: Newton on absolute space, time, and motion, I. Philosophical Review, 1-29.
 
[66]  Kim, D., & Benbasat, I. (2006). The effects of trust-assuring arguments on consumer trust in Internet stores: Application of Toulmin’s model of argumentation. Information Systems Research, 17(3), 286-300.
 
[67]  Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public health goal: A challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 259-267.
 
[68]  World Medical Association (WMA). (2001). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79(4), 373.
 
[69]  Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. (2002). International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. Bulletin of medical ethics, (182), 17.Jackson, K. M., & Nazar, A. M. (2006). Breastfeeding, the immune response, and long-term health. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 106(4), 203-207.
 
[70]  Jackson, K. M., & Nazar, A. M. (2006). Breastfeeding, the immune response, and long-term health. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 106(4), 203-207.
 
[71]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2000). Collaborative study team on the role of breastfeeding on the prevention of infant mortality. Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: A pooled analysis. Lancet, 355(9202), 451-455.
 
[72]  Agho, K. E., Dibley, M. J., Odiase, J. I., & Ogbonmwan, S. M. (2011). Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 11(1), 2.
 
[73]  Thome, M., Alder, E. M., & Ramel, A. (2006). A population-based study of exclusive breastfeeding in Icelandic women: Is there a relationship with depressive symptoms and parenting stress? International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(1), 11-20.
 
[74]  Chen, Y. C., Wu, Y. C., & Chie, W. C. (2006). Effects of work-related factors on the breastfeeding behaviour of working mothers in a Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 6(1), 160.
 
[75]  Mirkovic, K. R., Perrine, C. G., Scanlon, K. S., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2014). In the United States, a mother’s plans for infant feeding are associated with her plans for employment. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(3), 292-297.
 
[76]  Ogbonna, C & Daboer, J.C.(2006). Current knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Jos, Nigeria. Niger Journal of Medicine; 16(3):256-60.
 
[77]  Cohen, R., & Mrtek, M. B. (1994).The impact of two corporate lactation programs on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding by employed mothers. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(6), 436-441.
 
[78]  Li, R., Hsia, J., Fridinger, F., Hussain, A., Benton-Davis, S., & Grummer-Strawn, L. (2004). Public beliefs about breastfeeding policies in various settings. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(7), 1162-1168.
 
[79]  Ortiz, J., McGilligan, K., & Kelly, P. (2004). Duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program. Paediatric Nursing, 30(2), 111-119.
 
[80]  Aluko-Arowolo, S. O., & Adekoya, J. A. (2012).Exclusive breastfeeding in the contexts of socio-cultural challenges and mothers' health in rural and mixed urban areas of Ijebu, South Western Nigeria. Gender and Behaviour, 10(2), 46-57.
 
[81]  Setegn, T., Belachew, T., Gerbaba, M., Deribe, K., Deribew, A., & Biadgilign, S. (2012). Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: A cross-sectional sFtudy. International Breastfeeding Journal, 7(1), 17.
 
[82]  Salami, L. I. (2006). Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 6, (2)
 
[83]  Awi, D. D., &Alikor, E. A. D. (2007).Barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of healthy full-term babies who deliver at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 9(1), 57-64.
 
[84]  Marshall, J. L., Godfrey, M., & Renfrew, M. J. (2007).Being a ‘good mother’: Managing breastfeeding and merging identities. Social Science & Medicine, 65(10), 2147-2159.
 
[85]  Kronborg, H., Væth, M., Olsen, J., & Harder, I. (2008). Health visitors and breastfeeding support: Influence of knowledge and self-efficacy. The European Journal of Public Health, 18(3), 283-288.
 
[86]  Oche, M.O; Umar, A.S & Ahmed H. (2011). Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Kwara, Nigeria. African Health Science, 11(3):518-23.
 
[87]  Davies-Adetugbo, A. A. (1997). Sociocultural factors and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Yoruba communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Social science & medicine, 45(1), 113-125.
 
[88]  Arnon, S. S. (1986). Infant botulism: anticipating the second decade. The Journal of infectious diseases, 154(2), 201-205.
 
[89]  Koepke, R., Sobel, J., & Arnon, S. S. (2008). Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976–2006. Pediatrics, 122(1), e73-e82
 
[90]  Esrey, S. A., Feachem, R. G., & Hughes, J. M. (1985). Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: improving water supplies and excreta disposal facilities. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 63(4), 757.
 
[91]  Rowland, M. G., Barrell, R. A. E., & Whitehead, R. G. (1978). Bacterial contamination in traditional Gambian weaning foods. Lancet, 311(8056), 136-138.
 
[92]  Black, R. E., Brown, K. H., Bravo, N., Bazalar, O. G., & Kanashtro, H. C. (1989). Incidence and aetiology of infantile diarrhea and major routes of transmission in Huascar, Peru. American journal of epidemiology, 129(4), 785-799.
 
[93]  Walker, C. L. F., Rudan, I., Liu, L., Nair, H., Theodoratou, E., Bhutta, Z. A., & Black, R. E. (2013). Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. Lancet, 381(9875), 1405-1416.
 
[94]  Simhon, A., Yolken, R. H., & Mata, L. (1979). S‐IgA cholera toxin and rotavirus antibody in human colostrum. Acta Paediatrica, 68(3), 161-164.
 
[95]  Israel-Ballard, K., Chantry, C., Dewey, K., Lönnerdal, B., Sheppard, H., Donovan, R., ... & Abrams, B. (2005). Viral, nutritional, and bacterial safety of flash-heated and Pretoria-pasteurized breast milk to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor countries: A pilot study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 40(2), 175-181.
 
[96]  Jeffery, B. S., Soma‐Pillay, P., Makin, J., & Moolman, G. (2003). The effect of Pretoria pasteurization on bacterial contamination of hand‐expressed human breastmilk. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 49(4), 240-244.
 
[97]  Riordan, J., & Wambach, K. (2010). Breastfeeding and human lactation. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
 
[98]  Almroth, S., & Bidinger, P. D. (1990). No need for water supplementation for exclusively breast-fed infants under hot and arid conditions. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84(4), 602-604.
 
[99]  Pattenden, S., Antova, T., Neuberger, M., Nikiforov, B., De Sario, M., Grize, L., ... & Fletcher, T. (2006). Parental smoking and children’s respiratory health: Independent effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure. Tobacco control, 15(4), 294-301.
 
[100]  Schulte‐Hobein, B., Schwartz‐Bickenbach, D., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1992). Cigarette smoke exposure and development of infants throughout the first year of life: influence of passive smoking and nursing on cotinine levels in breast milk and infant's urine. Acta Paediatrica, 81(6‐7), 550-557.
 
[101]  Nafstad, P., Jaakkola, J. J., Hagen, J. A., Botten, G., & Kongerud, J. (1996). Breastfeeding, maternal smoking and lower respiratory tract infections. European Respiratory Journal, 9(12), 2623-2629.
 
[102]  Malloy, M. H., Kleinman, J. C., Land, G. H., & Schramm, W. F. (1988). The association of maternal smoking with age and cause of infant death. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128(1), 46-55.
 
[103]  Greiner, T. (1979). Breast-feeding in decline: perspectives on the causes. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation, 61-70.
 
[104]  Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., & Bartholomew, E. F. (2015). Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 2011. Pearson Education.Ilinois, USA.
 
[105]  Elsie, W. D. (1952). U.S. Patent No. 2,621,328. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
 
[106]  Ogbonna, C & Daboer, J.C.(2006). Current knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Jos, Nigeria. Niger Journal of Medicine; 16(3):256-60.
 
[107]  Onis, M. D., Frongillo, E. A., & Blössner, M. (2000). Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(10), 1222-1233.
 
[108]  Van de Poel, E., Hosseinpoor, A. R., Jehu-Appiah, C., Vega, J., & Speybroeck, N. (2007). Malnutrition and the disproportional burden on the poor: the case of Ghana. International Journal for Equity in Health, 6(1), 21.
 
[109]  Jinadu, M. K., Ojofeitimi, E. O., & Osifor, E. O. (1986). Feeding patterns of children with protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria. Tropical Doctor, 16(2), 82-85.
 
Show Less References