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American Journal of Public Health Research

ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJPHR

Article

Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India

1Department of Prosthodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science, kadapa, India

2Department of Endodontics, Narayana Dental Colleg, PSR Nellore, India

3Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 221-225
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. Sesha Reddy, A. Swaroop Kumar Reddy, Ashish. R. Jain, R. Pradeep. Tooth Loss Prevalence and Risk Indicators in an Isolated Population of Kadapa- South India. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):221-225. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Ashish.  R. Jain, Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India. Email: dr.ashishjain_r@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Loss of teeth is mainly attributed to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Factors relating to tooth extractions are not, however, always dental in origin. Edentulousness and small number of remaining teeth are associated with low educational level, low family income and rural domicile. Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for tooth loss and to establish base line data about missing teeth, among patients attending OPD of Govt. Dental College and, Hospital, RIMS, Kadapa. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 patients, age group of 18 years and above with non- disease as factors for tooth loss, are considered. The subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire regarding age, sex, marital status, demographics, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, dental visiting patterns, and oral hygiene practices, and then clinically examined by a single examiner for number of missing teeth. Univariant analysis is carried out and those variables which show statistical significance Association between loss of teeth and selected variables are studied using Chi square test. Results: Of the 150 patients, 55 (36.7%) were males and 95 (63.4%) were females and mean age was 35.5 years with an average of 10.7% of teeth missing per person. Subjects with no schooling had more than 2 missing teeth, current smokeless tobacco users and non regular dental visiting pattern had more than 2 missing teeth. Smoking had no association with the missing teeth. Women than men, Education and the family income were also significantly associated with the number of missing teeth. Conclusion: Though most of the individual risk factors do lead to periodontal disease and loss of teeth, the present study has a drawback where smoking and tooth loss did not show any association. On the basis of the evidence presented it would seem that the loss of one’s natural teeth is a complex social and environmental phenomenon and is not merely a result of dental disease. This study demonstrates that modifications in the non-disease factors (education, income, smoking) could reduce the number of missing teeth and improve oral health status and function.

Keywords

References

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Article

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women

1Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics

2İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 226-231
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
İsmail Özkaya, Işıl Bavunoglu, Aydın Tunçkale. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Affect Lipid Parameters Negatively in Turkish Women. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):226-231. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: İsmail  Özkaya, Kırklareli University Health School, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics. Email: dytismail@hotmail.com

Abstract

Study Design: Obesity prevalence is incresing in Turkish population whose lipoprotein profile is characterised by low levels of HDL cholesterol. Our study aims to determine how obesity changes lipid profiles in Turkish women. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2501 overweight and obese adult women. After systemic physical examination and some antropometric studies, blood samples have been analysed for lipid parameters. Results: Body mass index (BMI), trigliserides (TG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), nonhigh density lipoprotein-cholesterol (NHDL- C), TG/HDL-C ratio, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are significantly increased (p<0,05), but HDL-C levels are significantly decreased (p<0,05) in study population. There was a negative correlation between HDL-C and BMI, waist circumference, TG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p<0,05). On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between HDL-C with age, TC (p<0,05) and between abdominal circumference with TG, NHDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). Similarly, there was also a positive correlation between BMI with some lipid parameters (TG, VLDL-C, NHDL- C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p<0,05). The patients are separated into two groups as metabolic syndrome positive (MS+) and negative (MS-) and then compared. HDL-C in MS+ group was significantly lower than MS- group (p<0,05). Other all parameters in MS+ group were significantly higher than MS- group (p<0,05). Conclusion: Increase of abdominal circumference and HOMA-IR has a negative effect on lipid parameters. Additionally, BMI has similarly negative effect on some lipid parameters in Turkish women.

Keywords

References

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Article

Developing and Selecting Auditory Warnings for a Real-Time Behavioral Intervention

1Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA

2Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA

3EME Systems LLC, Berkeley, USA


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 232-238
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
John Bellettiere, Suzanne C. Hughes, Sandy Liles, Marie Boman-Davis, Neil E. Klepeis, Elaine Blumberg, Jeff Mills, Vincent Berardi, Saori Obayashi, T. Tracy Allen, Melbourne F. Hovell. Developing and Selecting Auditory Warnings for a Real-Time Behavioral Intervention. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):232-238. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: John  Bellettiere, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA. Email: jbellettiere@cbeachsdsu.org

Abstract

Real-time sensing and computing technologies are increasingly used in the delivery of real-time health behavior interventions. Auditory signals play a critical role in many of these interventions, impacting not only behavioral response but also treatment adherence and participant retention. Yet, few behavioral interventions that employ auditory feedback report the characteristics of sounds used and even fewer design signals specifically for their intervention. This paper describes a four-step process used in developing and selecting auditory warnings for a behavioral trial designed to reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. In step one, relevant information was gathered from ergonomic and behavioral science literature to assist a panel of research assistants in developing criteria for intervention-specific auditory feedback. In step two, multiple sounds were identified through internet searches and modified in accordance with the developed criteria, and two sounds were selected that best met those criteria. In step three, a survey was conducted among 64 persons from the primary sampling frame of the larger behavioral trial to compare the relative aversiveness of sounds, determine respondents' reported behavioral reactions to those signals, and assess participant’s preference between sounds. In the final step, survey results were used to select the appropriate sound for auditory warnings. Ultimately, a single-tone pulse, 500 milliseconds (ms) in length that repeats every 270 ms for three cycles was chosen for the behavioral trial. The methods described herein represent one example of steps that can be followed to develop and select auditory feedback tailored for a given behavioral intervention.

Keywords

References

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Article

Treatment Adherence among Tuberculosis and Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Coinfected Patients in Ginnir Referral Hospital

1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 239-243
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed Yasin Mohammed, Muhammedawel Kaso Adem. Treatment Adherence among Tuberculosis and Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Coinfected Patients in Ginnir Referral Hospital. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):239-243. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  Yasin Mohammed, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba. Email: ahmedyassinmoha@yahoo.com

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia, and a high number of TB patients are co-infected with HIV. There is a need for more knowledge about factors influencing treatment adherence in co-infected patients on concomitant treatment. The objective of this study is to assess treatment adherence among TB/HIV co infected patients in Ginnir referral hospital from March - April 2013. Institution based cross sectional study design was used to collect, analyze and summarize data from TB/HIV co-infected patients. The data was sorted manually and scientific calculator was used to compile and express in table and graphs. Descriptive statistics like frequencies, mean and median were used to analyze the data. Prior to data collection, permission request was obtained from Madawalabu University, Goba campus and it was submitted to Ginnir referral hospital’s medical director. Respondents were told about the objective of this study, reassured for confidentiality and asked for consent. The results shown among the 53 TB/HIV co- infected patients, 11(20.7%) had missed taking both ARV and anti TB drugs at least once. Of these, 4 (36.4%) had missed the ARV treatment while remaining 7(63.6%) of them missed the anti TB medication. The result showed that, the main reason for missing the drugs was forgetting taking medication 6(54.6%). It can be concluded that the level of non adherence is relatively high and the main reason behind was forgetting distance from health institution and income related problems. Intervention s to reduce it need to be instituted such as adherence educations should have to be given for the patients to take the treatment by the recommended schedule and also family members and supporters should have to be told to remind and follow them carefully. On the other hand bringing the health service nearby might alleviate the problem of distance. In order to deal with the income related problems, Ginnir referral hospital should have to work in collaboration with NGOs and other fund raising institutions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Sexual Dysfunction on Female Teachers Performance

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Indonesia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 244-247
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Kanedi, Sutyarso. Effects of Sexual Dysfunction on Female Teachers Performance. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):244-247. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Kanedi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia. Email: wegayendi@yahoo.com

Abstract

This research is aimed to find out whether sexual dysfunction affects female teachers performance in fulfilling pedagogical tasks. Eighty-four female teachers who work at 12 elementary schools in the city of Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia became the participants in this study. To assess the teacher’s sexual quality, we used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a brief questionnaire designed to measure sexual functioning in women with focus on sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. To measure the quality of a teacher, two pupils were asked to become respondents and fill out a Likert Scale questionnaire containing both positive and negative quality indicators of the teacher. The positive indicators consist of punctual, prepared, approachable, respectful and professional, while the negative ones include bad tempered, rude, insulting, arrogant and domineering. Mann-Whitney comparison test and Spearman Rank Correlation were performed in data analysis. The results showed that 39 (46%) of the participant categorized as teachers without sexual disorder (total FSFI score of 29.1±1.33) and the other 45 (54%) categorized as teachers with sexual disorders (total FSFI score of 21.48 ± 2.84). Compared with the teacher without sexual dysfunction, teachers with sexual disorders tend to be less diligent (P <0.05), less prepared for class (P <0.001), less friendly (P <0.001) and less appreciative students (P <0.01). In addition, teachers with sexual problems tend to be more hothead (P< 0.001), rude (P<0.001) and domineering (P<0.01). As the conclusion, sexual dysfunction potentially affects teaching performance of the female teachers.

Keywords

References

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Article

Parasitic Infection and Associated Factors among the Primary School Children in Motta Town, Western Amhara, Ethiopia

1School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University Ethiopia


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 248-254
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mulusew Andualem Asemahagn. Parasitic Infection and Associated Factors among the Primary School Children in Motta Town, Western Amhara, Ethiopia. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):248-254. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: Mulusew  Andualem Asemahagn, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University Ethiopia. Email: muler.hi@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Globally, about 3.5 billion and 45 million people, particularly children are affected and ill with parasitic infection respectively. Intestinal parasitic infection constitutes one of the ten top major public health problems in resource-limited countries. Methods: An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted among 364 randomly selected students from the Motta primary School, November 2014. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated risk factors. The stool specimens were examined using a direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration techniques. Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version16 were used to enter and analyze data respectively. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to describe study objectives and indentify associated factors respectively. The strength of association between the study and outcome variables was described using Odds ratio at a 95% CI. Results: The majority (98.3%) of the students gave sample in the study. About 245 (68.4%) of the respondents were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Six types of intestinal parasites were identified and the most prevalent parasite was Hookworm 81(33.1%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica 42(17.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides 38 (15.5%), and Giardia lamblia 29 (11.8%). Double parasitic infection was found among 45(18.4%) students. Residence, health education access, family education, shoe wearing habits, hand washing practices, toilet availability and use, family income, availability of safe water, and open defecation practices were significant factors (p < 0.05) for intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infection is an important major health problem among Motta primary school students. Improving environmental/personal hygiene, availing water supply, providing health education to students and families, and availing toilet services are some of the important interventions to solve the problem.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Accident & Emergency, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 255-259
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwuakor C.E, Eze V.C, Nwankwo I.U, Iwu J.O. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):255-259. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: Onwuakor  C.E, Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: chijiokeonwuakor@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite the existence of a safe and effective vaccine, Nigeria has remained a hyper-endemic area for hepatitis B virus infection, with estimated 12% of the total population being chronic carriers. Neonates who contact hepatitis B virus infection will have an almost 90% risk of developing chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state and chronic liver disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women and identifying potential risk factors associated with the infection. This study involved a total of 350 pregnant women who attended antenatal at the Federal medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Blood samples from all consenting pregnant women were collected. A structured pro forma designed for this purpose was used to obtain socio-demographic information and the presence of risk factors. Data collated was analyzed using GraphPad Prism statistical software with P<0.05 at 95% confidence interval. The results showed that HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 7.1% was observed in all the pregnant women tested. Sero-prevalence of HBsAg amongst parturients were more in patients within their first trimesters (11.1%), Primigravida pregnant women (8.0%), women with history of dental or surgical procedures (34.0%) and multiple sexual partners (25.0%) and in women with no formal education (37.5%). An intermediate prevalence of HBsAg was identified which justifies the need for routine screening in pregnancy in order to identify and treat the infection, thus reducing the risk of transmission of the virus. Contraceptive options aimed at prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) should be encouraged.

Keywords

References

[1]  Goldstein, S,T., Zhou, F., Hadler, S.C., Bell, B.P., Mast, E.E and Margolis, H.S, “A mathematical model to estimate global hepatitis B disease burden and vaccination impact”, Int. J. Epidemol. 2005, 34(6): 1329-1339.
 
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Article

Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study

1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy

2Miller Institute for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Genoa, Italy

3Department of Mental Health, Florence, Italy

4Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Italy


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014, 2(6), 260-265
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrea Pozza, Davide Berardi, Sandro Domenichetti, Davide Dèttore. Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2(6):260-265. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: Andrea  Pozza, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy. Email: andrea.pozza@unifi.it

Abstract

Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) is a cognitive risk and maintenance factor for anxiety disorders, and it consists of three dimensions: Physical concerns, Cognitive concerns, and Social concerns. No study has investigated the role of AS in individuals with Alcohol-Dependence (A-D), comparing a group of patients with Alcohol-Dependence (A-D) to patients with Anxiety Disorders (AD) and healthy individuals on AS dimensions. Specific dimensions of AS might play a role as cognitive vulnerability and maintenance factors also for A-D-related problems. Examination of AS in patients with A-D might inform clinical practice and public health policy suggesting the integration of treatments specifically targeting AS in A-D patients. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between AS dimensions and A-D. One hundred twenty-five participants, including patients with a diagnosis of A-D (n= 35), patients with a diagnosis of any Anxiety Disorder (AD) (n= 40) and healthy individuals as a control group (CG) (n= 50) completed the ASI-3, STAI-Y and BDI-II. After controlling for anxious traits, A-D patients had stronger Social concerns. Physical and Cognitive concerns appeared, however, significantly more severe among the AD group than the other two groups. Given the strong association between Social concerns and A-D, treatments for A-D patients should also target Social concerns. Study limitations, implications for mental health policy and intervention programs are addressed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Study of the Effects of Snack-Centered Dietary Education on First-Grade Elementary Students and Duration of These Effects

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Toshiyuki Kohri, Naoko Kaba. Study of the Effects of Snack-Centered Dietary Education on First-Grade Elementary Students and Duration of These Effects. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Toshiyuki  Kohri, Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan. Email: tkohri@nara.kindai.ac.jp

Abstract

Irregular diets and nutrient imbalances that result from a lack of interest in food have become more common among not only adults but also children. Snacks are a category of food that most children like and can select for themselves. This study validated the effects of snack-centered dietary education for children on the ability of snack selection and duration of these effects. Twenty-three types of snacks, including drinks, were lined up on a table and presented to 103 Japanese first grade elementary students (intervention group) in a snack selection test in which children were allowed to freely select the snacks they would eat in one day. The ability of children to select the proper quality and quantity of snacks was evaluated on the basis of the energy and nutrient content of the selected snacks. Subsequently, snack-centered dietary education intervention lessons were provided to the children, and the same test conducted at baseline was immediately reconducted after the intervention and seven months after the end of the intervention. The control group comprised 118 children who were in the first grade during the subsequent school year. In the intervention group, the snacks selected in the baseline test had excessive energy content; post-intervention, the energy content approached a more appropriate level and the nutrient density of vitamins, iron, and dietary fiber increased. Moreover, these improvements were observed even seven months after the intervention ended. However, in the control group, there were no significant changes. These findings suggested that snack-centered dietary education for first grade elementary students contributed to improving the quality and quantity of snack selection, and these effects persisted for more than half a year.

Keywords

References

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Article

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitude among Military Recruits at Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Department of Community Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria


American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chinedu John-Camillus IGBOANUSI, Tukur DAHIRU, Istifanus Anekoson JOSHUA. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitude among Military Recruits at Depot Nigeria Army, Zaria, Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Chinedu  John-Camillus IGBOANUSI, Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Email: chinedujc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Military personnel have higher HIV/AIDS prevalence than the general population. They tend to be young, single, sexually active and highly mobile and may stay away from their home. This study assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude among recruits at Nigerian Army Depot in Zaria Nigeria. It was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out February 2011 using 300 structured, self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the respondents (80.3%) were within the age bracket of 20- 24 years with mean age of 21.8 ± 2.0 years, 93% single and 53.3% secondary school graduate. Majority of the respondents (91.0%) have heard of HIV/AIDS, while a lot of them (72.6%) knew those that are victims of the disease. Majority of the respondents (74.3%) also knew that HIV/AIDS was caused by virus. On the overall, only 48.7% of the respondents had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.7% of the respondents would offer assistance to HIV infected people, 62.3% agreed that HIV positive women should not be having babies, while 66.0% believed that HIV/AIDS patients should not be stigmatized against among others. The study revealed amongst others that the recruits had very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS and also good attitudes to it. The recommendations include- aggressive regular HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns, development of attitudinal and behavioural change communication strategies for the recruits in particular, health education by faith based organisations. There is also the need to develop a good practical tool and quality control programs for monitoring and evaluation of the various HIV/AIDS awareness programs in the barracks for enhanced effectiveness and efficiency.

Keywords

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