ISSN (Print): 2327-669X

ISSN (Online): 2327-6703

Editor-in-Chief: Jing Sun




Pharmaceutical Representatives' Opinion about Pharmacists' Drug Dispensing Practices in Romania and Factors that Influence them

1Behavioral Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Interdisciplinarity, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr.T.Popa” Iasi, Romania

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 88-92
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laszlo-Zoltan Sztankovszky, Magdalena Iorga, Vasile Astaratoae. Pharmaceutical Representatives' Opinion about Pharmacists' Drug Dispensing Practices in Romania and Factors that Influence them. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):88-92. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Magdalena  Iorga, Behavioral Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Interdisciplinarity, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr.T.Popa” Iasi, Romania. Email:


The objective of the research is to identify pharmaceutical representatives’ opinions on some practices of drug dispensing amongst community pharmacists in Romania. Material and methods: 70 pharmaceutical representatives working with different pharmaceutical companies in Romania answered questions regarding practices of drug dispensing. Different variables were taken into account: age, gender, type of education, and length of employment time. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0. Results: over 70% of the pharmaceutical representatives consider that pharmacists counsel the patient regarding other drug brand names and take into consideration patient financial contribution when dispensing a certain drug. Regarding the relationship of the pharmacist with doctor and rep, 65% of pharmaceutical representatives consider the relationship with the doctor, and 40% the relationship with the rep, important when dispensing a drug. No important differences were identified in relation to the gender or type of education. Conclusion: the study provides information regarding pharmaceutical representatives’ opinions on practices of drug dispensing. More than 2/3 of the reps consider that pharmacists are counseling the patient regarding a drug to a high level.



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Does Breast Cancer Risk Awareness Motivate Personal Prevention Practices: Findings from a Community-based Assessment?

1University of Kabianga, Kabianga, Kenya

2Tropical Institute of Community Health, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

3School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

4School of Health Science, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 93-97
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ouma J, Olang’ S, Asweto CO, Obago IT, Kaseje D. Does Breast Cancer Risk Awareness Motivate Personal Prevention Practices: Findings from a Community-based Assessment?. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):93-97. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ouma  J, University of Kabianga, Kabianga, Kenya. Email:


Breast cancer, is the leading cause of cancer specific mortality. But nearly 80% of the mortality is preventable by early diagnosis. We assessed knowledge and practice of breast cancer prevention by women in a rural community setting. Data was collected on demographics, family history, knowledge and practice of breast cancer by interviewer administered questionnaire. Knowledge (including knowledge of risk) and practice were measured using a response-based score to a set of 9 and 10 questions respectively. Prevalence odds ratio was calculated to estimate association between independent and outcome variables. Knowledge of breast cancer risk was low (14.2%). Family history and socioeconomic status were significantly associated with knowledge; respondents with more than eight years of school were more likely to have higher knowledge (OR=2.859; CI=1.578-5.178). Practice of prevention was equally low (17.2%). Practice was significantly associated with knowledge; respondents with higher knowledge of prevention were more likely to practice prevention (OR=6.8; CI=3.308-14.104). We propose that community-based risk communication and awareness creating programs may motivate breast cancer prevention practices. Women of lower socio-economic status should especially be targeted with such interventions. There is need to develop these into a sustainable community-based health education program.



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Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing

1Department of Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Room 312, Building 37, 1 Gwanak-ro, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea

2College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia

American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 4(3), 98-106
doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Birku Reta Entele, Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi. Health Insurance Technology in Ethiopia: Willingness to Pay and Its Implication for Health Care Financing. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 4(3):98-106. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-4-3-4.

Correspondence to: Nnaemeka  Vincent Emodi, College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, P. O. Box 6811, Cairns Qld 4870, Australia. Email:


Low-income households in rural areas of Ethiopia are facing catastrophic out-of-pocket health care expenditure due to lack of proper financing mechanism complemented with unexpected health related shock. However, to smooth their health care consumer spending, they need to have a cost-effective health insurance. This study analyzes' Households Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance and the potential market for this cost effective health insurance products. The data used in this study was collected from rural households in East Shewa zone, Adama Woreda, which constitutes about 500 household heads respondents. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) with double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) elicitation method was used to estimate respondents WTP for proposed health insurance technology. The result of the study shows that households' average WTP (considering their ability to pay) is higher than their cost of public health care and self-treatment per year at a national level on average. Variables such as farm income, frequent visit to the health center, age, education, and insurance cost (premium) are significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. For the hypothetical health insurance scenario, households do have enough willingness to pay to cover cost for public health care consumption expenditure if the payment mode is planned, conducive and once per year. The study implies valuable information for policy makers and concerned stakeholders such as the Ministry of health and different private insurance provider in health care financing.



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