American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering

ISSN (Print): 2333-4665

ISSN (Online): 2333-4673

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMSE

Article

A Review of Conventional and Contemporary Luting Agents Used in Dentistry

1Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Dental Materials, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of Prosthodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

4Department of Orthodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 28-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sita Ramaraju DV, Rama Krishna Alla, Venkata Ramaraju Alluri, Raju MAKV. A Review of Conventional and Contemporary Luting Agents Used in Dentistry. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(3):28-35. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Rama  Krishna Alla, Department of Dental Materials, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: ramakrishna.a@vdc.edu.in

Abstract

The selection of an appropriate luting agent influences the long-term clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations. There are varieties of luting agents available from conventional water-based to contemporary adhesive resin cements. However, no single luting agent is capable of meeting all the stringent requirements. Introduction of adhesive resin systems has completely changed the face of fixed prosthodontic practice leading to an increased use of bonded all-ceramic crowns and resin-retained fixed partial dentures. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication.

Keywords

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Article

Effect of Pd2+ Doped on the Growth, Optical, Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of KAP Single Crystal

1Department of Physics, Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem, Tamilnadu, India

2Centre for Research and Development, Mahendra Educational Institutions, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 36-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Viji niraimathi, V. Aroulmoji, G. Rajarajan. Effect of Pd2+ Doped on the Growth, Optical, Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of KAP Single Crystal. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(3):36-41. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Viji  niraimathi, Department of Physics, Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem, Tamilnadu, India. Email: vijiniraimathi@yahoo.com

Abstract

In the present investigation, we have successfully grown optically transparent single crystals from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The influence of dopant Pd2+ on the growth process, crystalline properties of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) has been investigated. Powder XRD and ICP-OES studies confirmed the Pd2+ ion doping into KAP crystals. The modes of vibration in the crystal lattice have been determined by FTIR analysis. Optical transmission studies were carried out by allowing the UV-NIR ray of wavelength between 190 and 1000 nm, which is to pass through the (010) face of the grown KAP crystals and the results confirm that both the pure and doped KAP single crystal shows good transparency in the entire visible region, which is suitable for optical device applications. TGA studies reveal that the purity of the sample and no decomposition is observed below the melting point. Microhardness studies reveal that the Pd2+ doped crystals have higher hardness values than that of pristine KAP. Dielectric constant value of Pd2+ doped KAP at 100 Hz was found to be extensively higher than that of pristine KAP. The Pd doping significantly improves the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the KAP host crystal.

Keywords

References

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Article

Dielectric Studies of Single and Double Sintered Ni Substituted Li-Zn Ferrite

1Department of BS&H (Physics), NIT Manipur, Takyelpat, Imphal, India


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 42-44
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ibetombi Soibam, Sanatombi S. Dielectric Studies of Single and Double Sintered Ni Substituted Li-Zn Ferrite. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(3):42-44. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ibetombi  Soibam, Department of BS&H (Physics), NIT Manipur, Takyelpat, Imphal, India. Email: ibetombi96@gmail.com

Abstract

Ni substituted Li-Zn ferrites with compositional formula Li0.4-0.5xZn0.2NixFe2.4-0.5xO4 where 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 in steps of 0.02 was synthesized by using citrate precursor method. X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the spinel phase. A series of sample was given sintering at 1080C and another series given sintering at 1080C after a pre-sintering at a temperature of 600C. The dielectric constant was investigated as a function of composition and frequency for the two series. Room temperature dielectric constant showed a decrease with addition of Ni2+ ions. It was explained in terms of space charge polarization and koops two layer model. For both the series the variation in dielectric constant with frequency showed dispersion. The possible mechanism responsible for the above behavior is being discussed.

Keywords

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Article

Property Evaluation of Hybrid OPEBF/Banana/Glass Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Main Campus, University of Abuja, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru- Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 45-53
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ishaya M. Dagwa, Josiah O. Ohaeri. Property Evaluation of Hybrid OPEBF/Banana/Glass Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(4):45-53. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Ishaya  M. Dagwa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Main Campus, University of Abuja, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. Email: dagwaim@gmail.com

Abstract

The physical (density and water absorption) and mechanical (tensile, flexural, impact and hardness) properties of banana empty fruit bunch fiber -glass fiber- oil palm empty fruit bunch particles- reinforced polyester composite were investigated. The natural fibers were extracted and processed locally. Thereafter, the test specimens were prepared using polyester resin with different compositions and prepared in accordance with ASTM standards. The results showed that as the banana fiber content was increased, there was a corresponding decline in the flexural strength. However, increasing the glass fiber content resulted in a corresponding increase in flexural strength. Composite with OPEBF 5 wt % banana fiber 10wt% /glass fiber10 (wt%) produced high impact strength of 55.556J/m2 representing 1568.67% improvement over that of the virgin unsaturated polyester. It was discovered that banana fiber of 15wt% and glass fiber of 5wt% hybrid composite had the highest hardness (3.55HV) representing 136.67% improvement on the hardness of the polyester (1.5HV). It was observed that the hardness of the samples was influenced by increase in banana fiber content in the composite. Thus, banana fiber composite could be considered for applications in areas where high impact strength is a requirement such as in some parts of automobile vehicle.

Keywords

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Article

Effect of Variation in Magnesium and Copper on Mechanical Properties of X7475 Aluminium Alloy

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Research, Collaboration and Consultancy, National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Abuja, Nigeria


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 54-61
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
L.T. Tuleun, J.D. Amine, K. Abubakar. Effect of Variation in Magnesium and Copper on Mechanical Properties of X7475 Aluminium Alloy. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(4):54-61. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: K.  Abubakar, Department of Research, Collaboration and Consultancy, National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Abuja, Nigeria. Email: kz4tawa@gmail.com

Abstract

Aluminium (Al) alloys are employed, from aerospace, automotive body panel, building industry to kitchen wares. This paper attempts to close an existing gap in the usage and variation in the percentage weight (% w.t.) of two constituents [Magnesium (Mg) and Copper (Cu)] in Al alloy and evaluate the impact of such variations on yield strength in N/mm2 and percentage elongation (% e) at ambient temperature. Experimental X7475 alloy was prepared from constituents drawn from 6 % Zn, 2.5 % - 3.5 % Mg, 1.8 % - 3.0 % Cu, 0.03 % Mn, 0.23 % Cr and Al as balance in all cases. The result revealed that yield strength increased with increase in Mg and decreased with increase in Cu as a maximum yield strength of 384.57 N/mm2 was displayed by an alloy of 2.5 % Mg, 3.0 % Cu while the least yield strength of 130.00 N/mm2 was recorded by an alloy of 3.5 % Mg, 3.0 % Cu. Ductility (% e) increased with increase in Cu. The paper submitted that mechanical properties of Al alloys depend not only on the content of alloying elements, but also on their relative chemistries with each other, impact of impurities and heat treatments.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Rawajfeh, A.E. and Al Qawabah, S.M.A. (2009). Investigation of copper addition on the mechanical properties and corrosion Resistance of commercially pure aluminium. Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, 14 (1), 47-52 (2009).
 
[2]  Aniruddha, M. (2010). Tensile test of Aluminium at high temperature. National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008unpublished. Assessed online at http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/1805/1/final_year_project_report_aniruddhameena.pdf on 22/1/2012.
 
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[6]  Davis, J.R. (2004). Tensile Testing, 2nd Edition 05106G Materials Park, Ohio, USA. Assessed online at http://www.asminternational.org/content/ASM/StoreFiles/05106G_Frontmatter.pdf on 5/1/2012.
 
[7]  Dossett, J.L. and Boyer, H.E (2006). Practical heat treating. ASM International. Pp. 17-22.
 
[8]  Hossain A. & Kurny A. S. W. (2013). Effect of Ageing Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Al-6Si-0.5Mg Cast Alloys with Cu Additions Treated by T6 Heat Treatment. Universal Journal of Materials Science 1(1): 1-5.
 
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[11]  Lyle, J.P., Granger, D.A., and Sanders, R.E. (2005). Aluminium Alloys. Assessed online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ullmann%27s_encyclopedia_of_industrial_chemistry/ www.v.engineering.de/pro.of.Al.pdf on 31/03/2011.
 
[12]  Mohammed, S. (2010). A guide to alloying of non-ferrous metals. Unpublished, paper presented during an in-house seminar at the National Metallurgical Centre, Jos.
 
[13]  Samsudi, S. (n.d). Mechanical Properties and Testing lecture note on Materials Science (SSP 2412). Physics Dept. Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
 
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[16]  Zhenguo, C. (2010). Superplasticity of coarse grained aluminum alloys. Assessed online at http://www.materials.manchester.ac.uk/documents/research/epsrc/latest/Project%20Number%203%20%20Superplasticity%20of%20coarse%20grained%20aluminium%20alloys.pdf on 28/10/2010.
 
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Article

Synthesis of Chitosan-graft-Polyaniline-Based Composites

1Department of Chemistry, Govt. Institute of Science & Humanities Amravati, India


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 62-67
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S.R. Khairkar, A.R. Raut. Synthesis of Chitosan-graft-Polyaniline-Based Composites. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(4):62-67. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: S.R.  Khairkar, Department of Chemistry, Govt. Institute of Science & Humanities Amravati, India. Email: shyamkhairkar@gmail.com

Abstract

Chitosan was grafted with polyaniline through oxidative-radical copolymerization using ammonium persulfate in acidic medium. The grafting conditions were extensively studied by varying grafting parameters. All the findings have been discussed and proposed a plausible mechanism for the graft copolymerization. The representative chitosan-graft-polyaniline (Ch-g-PANI) was characterized using UV-VIS, FTIR, DSC, XRD and Scanning electron microscopy taking chitosan as reference. Ch-g-PANI exhibited electrical conductivity, which increases with the extent of grafting onto chitosan backbone. The application of conducting biomaterial such as Ch-g- PANI in the electronic devices especially for the fabrication of sensor devices would be attractive not only in terms of product cost and environmental safety but also from a materials science point of view.

Keywords

References

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Article

Physic-Mechanical Characterisation of Materials Clay Mayo-Tsanaga in the Far North Region of Cameroon

1Department of Materiel Processing, Architecture and Habitat, Higher Institute of the Sahel

2Department of physics Faculty of Sciences University of Maroua


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 68-72
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
E. Ngale Haulin, F. Tchangnwa Nya, C. Kabe, B. Touogam Touolak. Physic-Mechanical Characterisation of Materials Clay Mayo-Tsanaga in the Far North Region of Cameroon. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(4):68-72. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: F.  Tchangnwa Nya, Department of Materiel Processing, Architecture and Habitat, Higher Institute of the Sahel. Email: nyafridolin@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The Cameroon Development challenges are inseparable from the production of large basic infrastructure and building quality homes. To face this challenge, it is essential to promote better local and regional natural resources. The present work aims to contribute to the development of clay resources, in order to develop the production of sustainable building materials, and energy-efficient premises in the northern parts of Cameroon. The research is based on the study of clay materials for little greedy mudbrick energy and respecting the local housing. The physico-mechanical characterisation of clay materials will choose best raw materials for use in the manufacture of bricks suited to homes in the Sahel. This scientific work and leads to value of mineral resources (clay) for the eco-housing design in northern Cameroon. Along these lines, the following approach was adopted: We started with field work that consisted mostly to test campaigns; then we conducted laboratory studies. These studies have focused on the physical and mechanical tests. It is especially a question of determining the natural water content, the Atterberg limits, the particle size of the appropriate materials, the equivalent test sand, the Proctor test, and finally the CBR test. In a perspective of sustainable local development, this scientific work focuses on the development of industrial mineral clay should therefore serve as an interface relating to existing major cooperation projects between Cameroon and the World Bank.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Aluminium Alloy for Plasticity Applications

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Research, Collaboration and Consultancy, National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Abuja, Nigeria


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J.D. Amine, K. Abubakar, L.T. Tuleun. Evaluation of Aluminium Alloy for Plasticity Applications. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: K.  Abubakar, Department of Research, Collaboration and Consultancy, National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Abuja, Nigeria. Email: kz4tawa@gmail.com

Abstract

An evaluation of aluminium alloy for plasticity applications was undertaken to bridge the gap in appraising the impact of variation of alloying elements such as magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) on plasticity as a mechanical property of the aluminium alloy. To this end, twenty seven (27) samples of aluminium alloys were produced with constituents drawn from 6 % zinc (Zn), 2.5 % - 3.5 % magnesium (Mg), 1.8 % - 3.0 % copper (Cu), 0.03 % manganese (Mn), 0.23 % chromium (Cr) and aluminium (Al) as balance in all cases. 0.1 gram of sulphur (S), which the same as the quantity of iron (Fe) in chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn), was added to oxidize (eradicate) iron (Fe). Samples were subjected to hardness test; to measure the ability of the alloy to resist plastic deformation and percentage elongation (% e) to unveil the mechanical properties of the alloy. Maximum Vickers hardness (Hv) of 130.7 was displayed by an alloy of 6 % zinc (Zn), 2.5 % magnesium (Mg), 1.8 % copper (Cu), 0.03 % manganese (Mn), 0.23 % chromium (Cr) and aluminium, quenched in water at 490°C and soaked for five (5) hours. The same alloy, non-heat treated, displayed a least Hv of 91.5. Hardness increased from 91.5 Hv in an alloy of 2.5 percentage weight of magnesium to 120.3 Hv in an alloy of 3.5 percentage weight of magnesium. Maximum percentage elongation (% e) of 130.00 was recorded by an alloy of 3.5 % Mg and 2.5 % Cu. A least percentage elongation of 12.00 % was established in an alloy of 3.5 % Mg and 3.0 % Cu. The experiment observed that with increase in percentage weight of magnesium from 2.5 % - 3.0 % - 3.5 %, there was variation from 25.67-18.67- 130.00 respectively in percentage elongation. The alloy with 3.5 % Mg, 1.8 % Cu was recommended for plasticity (% elongation) applications. Investigation of the impacts of other constituents on this alloy may be considered.

Keywords

References

[1]  Agarwal, L., Rakesh, Y. and Abhishek, S. (2012). Effect of magnesium content on the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg alloys. International Journal on Emerging Technologies 3(1): 137-140.
 
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[3]  Al-Rawajfeh, A.E. and Al Qawabah, S.M.A. (2009). Investigation of copper addition on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of commercially pure aluminum. Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, 14 (1), 47-52.
 
[4]  Aniruddha, M. (2010). Tensile test of aluminium at high temperature. National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008 unpublished. Assessed online at http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/1805/1/final_year_project_report_aniruddhameena.pdf on 22/1/2012.
 
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[8]  Islamgaliev, R.K., Yunusova, N.F., Nikitina, M.A. and Nesterov, K.M., (2010). The effect of alloying elements on superplasticity in an ultrafine-grained aluminum alloy. Advance Material Science. 25 (2010) 241-248.
 
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[11]  Lyle, J.P., Granger, D.A., and Sanders, R.E. (2005). Aluminium alloys. Assessed online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ullmann%27s_encyclopedia_of_industrial_chemistry/ww.v.engineering.de/pro.of.Al.pdf on 31/03/2011.
 
[12]  Mohammed, S. (2010). A guide to alloying of non-ferrous metals. Unpublished, paper presented during an in-house seminar at the National Metallurgical Centre, Jos. Pp 1-15.
 
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[14]  Samsudi, S. (2011). Mechanical properties and testing lecture note on materials science (SSP 2412). Physics Dept. Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
 
[15]  Tuleun L.T., Amine, J.D. and Abubakar, K.,(2014). Effect of Variation in Magnesium and Copper on Mechanical Properties of X7475 Aluminium Alloy.” American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 4 (2014): 54-61.
 
[16]  Zhenguo, C. (2010). Superplasticity of coarse grained aluminum alloys. Assessed online at http://www.materials.manchester.ac.uk/documents/research/epsrc/latest/Project%20Number%203%20%20 Superplasticity%20of%20coarse%20grained%20aluminium%20alloys.pdf on 28/10/2010.
 
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Article

Contribution of the GP Zones to the Hardening and to the Electrical Resistivity in Al10at.%Ag Alloy

1Solids solutions laboratory, physics faculty USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers, Algeria


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 7-10
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Faiza Lourdjane, Azzeddine Abderrahmane Raho. Contribution of the GP Zones to the Hardening and to the Electrical Resistivity in Al10at.%Ag Alloy. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):7-10. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Azzeddine  Abderrahmane Raho, Solids solutions laboratory, physics faculty USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers, Algeria. Email: lourdjane_faiza@yahoo.fr; raho_azzeddine@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Using microhardness and electrical resistivity measurements, the contributions of the matrix and that of the Guinier-Preston zones to the hardening and to the electrical resistivity of the Al10at.%Ag alloy are determined separately during the Guinier-Preston zones precipitation. A linear correlation between the hardness and the electrical resistivity of the as quenched alloys exists. There is also a linear relationship between the contribution of the matrix to the hardening and that to the electrical resistivity of the isothermal aged alloy. However, no linear relation exists between the hardness and the electrical resistivity of the isothermal aged alloy.

Keywords

References

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Article

Precipitation Kinetics of the GP Zones in Al4,65at.% Ag(15%Wt.)

1Solids solutions laboratory, physics faculty USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers, Algeria


American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 11-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Faiza Lourdjane, Azzeddine Abderrahmane Raho. Precipitation Kinetics of the GP Zones in Al4,65at.% Ag(15%Wt.). American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):11-14. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Azzeddine  Abderrahmane Raho, Solids solutions laboratory, physics faculty USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers, Algeria. Email: raho_azzeddine@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The precipitation of the Guinier-Preston zones in Al4,65at.% Ag(15%wt.), studied using an electrical resistivity measurements technique during an isothermal aging, follows a nucleation, growth and coarsening stages. The particles growth obeys the JMAK law while their coarsening, the LSW theory. The diffusion coefficient of the solute atoms, during the GP zones formation at 125°C, is in the order of (8,69 ± 2,17).10-21m2/s. The electrical resistivity of the alloy results from the contribution of the Guinier-Preston zones and that of the matrix. Due to the weak Guinier-Preston volume fraction, the electrical resistivity of the alloy is essentially due to the matrix contribution.

Keywords

References

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Show More References
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