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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 5, 2016


In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Natural and Trade Iraqi Honey against MRSA Staphylococcus Heamolyticus Isolated from Some Burned Patients in Misan City

1College of Science, Misan University, Iraq

2College of Basic Education, Misan University, Iraq

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 159-163
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed A. Abd Ali, Sailh M. Kidem, Ali A. Fadhil, Nusaybah KH.Saddam. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Natural and Trade Iraqi Honey against MRSA Staphylococcus Heamolyticus Isolated from Some Burned Patients in Misan City. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):159-163. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-6.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  A. Abd Ali, College of Science, Misan University, Iraq. Email:


The study is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of both natural Iraqi honeys (Sidr, Eucalyptus) and trade honey sample against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus isolated from burned patients in alsader hospital-misan city then were analyzed between (October to December in 2015). The samples were taken in order to determine the bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates of Staphylococcus heamolyticus were tested against 5 different antibiotics by a disk diffusion method 100% of the Staphylococcus heamolyticus isolates were resistant to the Optochin, Lincomycin, Ampicillin, Amphotercin, while the inhibitory effect of Amikacin antibiotic were (24mm) on MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus. Total antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the clear zone around the well. Honey samples were tested in different concentration (75%, 50 %, 25%, 10% and 100%). However, the results showed the absences of inhibitory zone to both natural and trade honeys type on MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus tested bacteria after dilution of(25% Sidr honey sample, 50% Eucalyptus honey sample, 50% Trade honey sample), while Sidr honey sample have more effective in 75%v/v concentration against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Sidr honey sample were also determined. Finally cytotoxicity evaluating toward human RBC, the results revealed the Iraqi honeys sample have not any cytotoxicity in all concentration. The good antimicrobial potency of sidr and Eucalyptus Iraqi honeys could potentially be used as therapeutic against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus as an alternative to the costly antibiotics.



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Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02

1Genetics and Cytology Department , Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre (Affiliation ID : 60014618), Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Plant Pathology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University

3Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 153-158
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Walaa Hussein, Hosam Awad, Sameh Fahim. Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):153-158. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Sameh  Fahim, Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt. Email:


Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a major disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) which can strongly reduce tomato yields. Different efforts have been made to control tomato virus infection. Among these efforts is the use of cyclic lipopeptides. The surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis BMG02 single overproducer strain strongly reduced (ToMV) virus symptoms and was responsible for the elicitation of Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in tomato. Treatment with 1000 mg surfactin used as critical antivirial concentration showed a strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results. The infected seedlings showed the ideal severe symptoms with fully positive ELISA reaction, while both healthy and infected seedlings treated with surfactin showed the same effect of strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results thus confirming the antivirial activities of surfactin. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways have been proven to be involved in the tomato plant defense responses by surfactin treatment, whereas relative gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β 1,3- glucanase 2 (BGL2) involved in SA and JA pathways, respectively increased in treated seedlings compared to infected ones. The healthy seedlings showed very low H2O2 levels compared to infected tomato seedlings. Moreover, high levels of H2O2 were detected in treated seedlings with the same behaviour BGL2 and PAL expression levels due to the relationship between the ISR involved substrates.



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Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Production by Exiguobacterium aurantiacum isolated from Marchica Lagoon Ecosystem in Morocco

1Laboratory of Microbiology, Pharmacology, Biotechnology and Environment, University Hassan II, Faculty of Sciences Ain-Chock, route El Jadida, B.P. 5366, Casablanca, Morocco

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 147-152
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Y. D. Dah Dossounon, K. Lee, K. Belghmi, F. Benzha, M. Blaghen. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Production by Exiguobacterium aurantiacum isolated from Marchica Lagoon Ecosystem in Morocco. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):147-152. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: Y.  D. Dah Dossounon, Laboratory of Microbiology, Pharmacology, Biotechnology and Environment, University Hassan II, Faculty of Sciences Ain-Chock, route El Jadida, B.P. 5366, Casablanca, Morocco. Email:


Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, a member of the Bacilli class, has the ability to synthesize and secrete exopolysaccharides. The strain, isolated from Marchica lagoon in Morocco, produced exopolysaccharide (EPS), mainly during its exponential growth phase but also to a lesser extent during the stationary phase. The optimum pH and temperature for growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were 8 and 37°C respectively, the dry weight of the exopolysaccharides products and biomass was found to be 259. 05 ± 1.48 mg/100ml and 150.25 ± 0. 35 mg/100ml respectively. The partially purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) samples were chemically analyzed. The results showed that the temperature and pH have no effect on the protein amount produced by E. aurantiacum while the carbohydrate amount varied. The functional groups in the partially purified exopolysaccharides were determined by the FT-IR. Because of its ability to produce large quantities of exopolysaccharides; this bacterium may prove to be an excellent model species for the development of biotechnology products.



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Qualitative Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Resistance Pattern of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Jatropha curcas

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria

4Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Faculty of Pure and applied Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 143-146
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Richard Rebecca, Denwe D Samuel, Yerima M.Bello, Olatunde K.Simeon. Qualitative Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Resistance Pattern of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Jatropha curcas. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):143-146. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Richard  Rebecca, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria. Email:


Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae) is used in folklore medicine to cure various ailments in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Present study investigated the phytochemical components and antimicrobial activities of Jatropha caurcas against some selected clinical isolates. The leaf and stem bark was macerated successively in ethanol and aqueous solvent for 24 hrs each. Qualitative phytochemistry screening of aqueous and ethanolic solvent extracts of plant materials was conducted using standard methods. The antibacterial susceptibility assay was carried out on three clinical isolates by preparing discs of a standard concentration of aqueous extracts of Jatropha caurcas. Result obtained indicates the presence of some secondary metabolites which are glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, tannin, steroids, reducing sugar and terpenoids. It was observed that alkaloids and saponins were absence in aqueous extract of leaves and stem bark solvent extract but present in stem bark extracts. However, ethanolic leaves extract contains no alkaloids and saponins. Susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae was measured to be 17mm, 23mm and 24mm respectively. Present investigation could serve as a panacea for emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria and also, the analysis of the secondary metabolites will provide the pharmacognosy and drug development sector preliminary information about the phytochemical constituent of Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae).



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Identification of Microbial Contamination of Popular Fruits of Bangladesh and Assessment the Effects of Alternative Preservatives Instead of Formalin

1Department of Microbiology, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Biochemistry, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College and Hospital, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh

4Department of Systems Neurophysiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

5Department of Biology and Chemistry, North South University, Bangladesh

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 138-142
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tasnuva Akhtar, M. Rowfur Rahman, Sumita Biswas, Rasheda Perveen, M. Shah Alam, Farida Adib Khanum, M. Amirul Islam, Shahangir Biswas, Chaman Ara Keya, M. Manirujjaman. Identification of Microbial Contamination of Popular Fruits of Bangladesh and Assessment the Effects of Alternative Preservatives Instead of Formalin. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):138-142. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: M.  Manirujjaman, Department of Biochemistry, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College and Hospital, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email:


The demand of fresh fruits is increasing as consumers are striving to eat healthy diets. Most of the fruits are generally eaten without further processing. During growth, harvest, transportation and handling, fruits become contaminated with pathogens from human or animal source. The study was aimed to isolate, identify the fruit surface microorganisms and to determine the microbial growth inhibitory effects of formalin, vinegar and salt. The fruits were washed with distilled water, vinegar, formalin and salt solution. These effluents were used as the sources of microbes. Results indicated the following bacterial growth pattern: Klebsiella pneumoniae (25%), Escherichia coli (21%), Serratia marcescens (12.5 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17%), Bacillus cereus (16.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Most of these isolated microorganisms are pathogenic to human. Due to increasing complications and health hazards for chemically synthesized preservative, consumers expect to get wholesome, fresh-like, and safe foods without addition of toxic preservatives (like formalin). A weak acid named acetic acid (vinegar) can be used to effectively reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms present on fruit surfaces. From the study it might be concluded that the use of chemical decontaminants like vinegar (acetic acid) or salt might be an effective way to reduce the microbial load on fruit surfaces.



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Synergistic Effect of Biogenic Silver-nanoparticles with β. lactam Cefotaxime against Resistant Staphylococcus arlettae AUMC b-163 Isolated from T3A Pharmaceutical Cleanroom, Assiut, Egypt

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 132-137
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. H. A. Hassan, M.A. Ismail, A.M. Moharram, A. Shoreit. Synergistic Effect of Biogenic Silver-nanoparticles with β. lactam Cefotaxime against Resistant Staphylococcus arlettae AUMC b-163 Isolated from T3A Pharmaceutical Cleanroom, Assiut, Egypt. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):132-137. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: A.  Shoreit, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt. Email:


The aim of this study was to biosynthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Staphylococcus arlettae AUMC b-163 isolated from T3A pharmaceutical company cleanroom, its antimicrobial activity, and the synergistic effect of AgNPs in combination with commonly used antibiotic Cefotaxime sodium against resistant bacteria. The synthesized AgNPs from bacterial were characterized by using UV-VS spectrophotometer analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).UV-VS spectrophotometer analysis showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles and FTIR analysis showed the potential biomolecule responsible for the reduction of silver. The structural properties of silver nanoparticles were confirmed using XRD technique, while TEM micrographs revealed that the silver nanoparticles are dispersed and aggregated, and mostly having spherical shape within the size range between 8 and 35 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited a varied growth inhibition activity against the tested pathogenic bacteria. A significant increase in area of growth inhibition was observed when a combination of silver nanoparticles and Cefotaxime antibiotics was applied. The current results revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles produced by the bacterial strain Staphylococcus arlettae AUMC b-163 is a promising to be used in medical therapy due to their broad spectrum against some pathogenic bacteria, fungi and resistant tested bacteria.



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