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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 4, 2016


Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Bangladeshi Patients

1Department of Microbiology, Delta Medical College

2Department of Nephrology, Bangladesh Medical College & Hospital

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 122-125
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nayareen Akhtar, Rezwanur Rahman, Shahin Sultana. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Bangladeshi Patients. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):122-125. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Nayareen  Akhtar, Department of Microbiology, Delta Medical College. Email:


Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in the Bangladesh community. There has been an increasing resistance by Escherichia coli to the commonly available antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria & antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) to currently used antimicrobial agents. Methods and Results: In this study, three hundred urine specimens from clinically suspected UTI patients were collected from both outpatient and inpatient department during the period of February 2015 to January 2016 from a tertiary level hospital in the central part of country. The inclusion criteria included patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of UTI at the study site and who gave informed written consent to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria included patients on antibiotics within the last 2 weeks, and those with recent history of instrumentation. The urine samples received were processed using standard methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed on all E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples by disc diffusion method. Among 300 urine samples, (59%) yielded significant bacteriuria; 123 samples (41%) showed no growth. Out of 177 urine samples which showed significant bacterial growth, 72 (40.7%) samples comprised of males and 105 (59.3%) of females. Females within the age group of 20–29 years(26.67%) and elderly males of ≥60 years(34.7%) showed higher prevalence of UTI. 75.7% of isolates were found to be Escherichia coli, 7.9% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5.6% Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5.1%, 1.7% Enterococci faecalis, 2.8% Staphylococci saprophyticus and 1.1% were Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli as the predominant cause of UTI, showed the highest percentage of resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and amoxicillin. The isolates were most sensitive to Imipenam, Meropenam, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the second most prevalent pathogen. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent isolate. Imipenam, Meropenam, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were shown to be very effective against E. coli organisms.



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In Silico Prediction of a Novel Universal Multi-epitope Peptide Vaccine in the Whole Spike Glycoprotein of MERS CoV

1Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan

2Department of medical microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum-Khartoum, Sudan

3Sudan Armed forces hospital- Khartoum, Sudan

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 101-121
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marwan Mustafa Badawi, Maryam Atif SalahEldin, Marwa Mustafa Suliman, Samah Awad AbduRahim, Alaa Abd elghafoor Mohammed, Alaa Salah Aldein SidAhmed, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. In Silico Prediction of a Novel Universal Multi-epitope Peptide Vaccine in the Whole Spike Glycoprotein of MERS CoV. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):101-121. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: Marwan  Mustafa Badawi, Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a new viral emergent human disease caused by a novel strain of Coronavirus. First known case of MERS occurred in Jordan in April 2012, by December 2015, the disease had already struck 1,621 persons of whom 584 died. Despite of the high mortality rate of the infection, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs, thus, the aim of this study is to analyze Spike glycoprotein strains using in silico approaches looking for conservancy, which is further studied to predict all potential epitopes that can be used after in vitro and in vivo confirmation as a therapeutic peptide vaccine. Total of 255 Spike glycoprotein variants retrieved from NCBI database were aligned, to select the conserved regions for epitopes prediction. By means of IEDB analysis resource B and T cell epitopes were predicted and population coverage was calculated. Two epitopes were proposed for international therapeutic peptide vaccine for B cell (GTPPQVY and LTPRSVRSVP). Regarding T cell, FSFGVTQEY epitope was highly recommended as therapeutic peptide vaccine to interact with MHC class I along with eight other epitopes that showed good population coverage against the whole world population. Four epitopes showed high affinity to interact with MHC class II alleles (FNLTLLEPV, FAAIPFAQS, SFAAIPFAQ and FYVYKLQPL) with excellent population coverage throughout the world and Saudi Arabia. Herd immunity protocols can be conducted in countries with low population coverage to minimize the active transmission of the virus especially among people contacting camels and other groups at risk.



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Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Molds Isolated from Corn and Fermented Corn Paste

1Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

2Department of Microbiology, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

3Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, National High School of Agro-Industrial Science, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 90-100
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Roger Tchikoua, Carl Moses Mbofung Funtong. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Molds Isolated from Corn and Fermented Corn Paste. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):90-100. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Leopold  Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon. Email:


A total of 336 molds were isolated from dried corn, soaked corn and fermented corn paste. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of fungal growth in the following identification media, grouped all the 336 molds into 21 strains. The strains belonged mainly to 4 fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus. In addition, the aflatoxinogenic strains were dominant and were mostly isolated from Maroua (63 strains of Aspergillus flavus). Moreover, the antifungal activity of 53 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the samples was performed against 21 fungal strains. After a screening test, 06 were selected for their potent antifungal activity and were identified as Lactobacillus brevis (2 isolates), Lactobacillus buchneri (1 isolate), Lactobacillus cellobiosus (1 isolate) and Lactobacillus fermentum (2 isolates). During the antifungal tests in solid medium, most of the LAB inhibited the growth of molds but Lactobacillus brevis G25 (80 ± 0.5 mm) and Lactobacillus cellobiosus (82 ± 0.1 mm) had the greatest antifungal activities after 48 hours against Aspergillus carbonarius G23 and Aspergillus carbonarius G24. However, the antifungal activity was more efficient in liquid medium and Lactobacillus brevis G11 and Lactobacillus fermentum N33 totally inhibited the growth of the 21 molds tested in liquid medium. Thus organic acids were identified as substances responsible for the antifungal activity of the LAB. These results show the possibility of exploiting some of these LABs as starters to fight against spoilage molds in fermented corn paste.



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