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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 2, 2016


Study of Haptoglobin Phenotypes in Sudanese Diabetic Patients

1Sudan Academy of Sciences, Council of Biological Sciences, New technology and Enviroments, Tropical Medcine Program Khartoum, Sudan

2Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Cenre for Research

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(2), 61-63
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nafisa M. Osman, Hind A. Gasim Elseed, Atif A. Elagib. Study of Haptoglobin Phenotypes in Sudanese Diabetic Patients. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(2):61-63. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Nafisa  M. Osman, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Council of Biological Sciences, New technology and Enviroments, Tropical Medcine Program Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


In this case – control study conducted during the period from February 2013 to January 2015, Haptoglobin phenotypes in diabetes patients has been investigated in 300 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 non diabetic healthy controls in Sudan. The samples were obtained from Elmotakmel diabetic center in Omdurman, Sudan and were categorized by their haptoglobin phenotypes using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The result of the study showed no significant difference in the distribution of haptoglobin phenotypes. Diabetic patients with Hp 2-2 phenotype tend to had highest fasting blood glucose levels and lower hemoglobin levels.



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Investigation on Vancomycin Resistance (VRSA) among Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Khartoum State, Sudan

1Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

2Faculty of Medicine, Al-Zaiem Al-Azhari University, Khartoum, Sudan

3Faculty of Medical laboratory science, University for Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

4Faculty of Medicine, Omdurman Islamic University, Khartoum, Sudan

5Faculty of Medicine, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan

6Faculty of Veterinary, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(2), 56-60
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marwa Mohamed Osman, Muataz Mohamed Osman, Nihal Abdulla Mohamed, Samah Mohamed Osman, Mamoun Magzoub, Suliman Mohamed El-Sanousi. Investigation on Vancomycin Resistance (VRSA) among Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Khartoum State, Sudan. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(2):56-60. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Marwa  Mohamed Osman, Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important and frequent cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Vacomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in clinical isolates in Khartoum. Methods: One hundred and thirty three various samples were collected from some hospitals in Khartoum over a period of 5 months. The samples were cultured on bacteriological media for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus using standard methods of isolation and identification of bacteria. The Staphylococcus aureus were tested for Methicillin susceptibility using 5 μg Oxacillin disc and Oxacillin E-test, with Resistance defined as an MIC of ≥ 4µg/ ml. Results: In this study all MRSA isolates displayed an Oxacillin MIC of ≥256µg/ml. The MRSA strains were 41.0% while the Resistance to vancomycin was examined by vancomycin E-test, with resistance defined as an MIC of ≥16 µg ml. In this study all VSSA isolates displayed vancomycin MIC of ≤ 2µg/ml "except three intermediate resistant isolate MIC between 4-8 µg/ml". The percentage of the VISA strains was 12.0%. Discussion: The unprevalence of resistance to vancomycin may be related to the low usage of this antibiotic in this study area The majority MRSA isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) to different classes of antibiotics including; amoxicillin /clavulinic acid, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. Nitroforantoine exhibit no resistant pattern while 92% of MRSA isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The unprevalence of resistance to Vancomycin may be related to the low usage of this antibiotic so Vancomycin might be used as a drug of choice for the treatment of MRSA infection.



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Effects of High Customer Patronage on the Indoor Air Quality of Restaurants in Lokoja Metropolis and Its Public Health Impact

1Department of Biosciences, Salem University-Lokoja, KogiState, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal university Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(2), 51-55
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Udochukwu U., Inetianbor J., Omorotionmwan F.O., Okpuruka N.S.. Effects of High Customer Patronage on the Indoor Air Quality of Restaurants in Lokoja Metropolis and Its Public Health Impact. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(2):51-55. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Udochukwu  U., Department of Biosciences, Salem University-Lokoja, KogiState, Nigeria. Email:


Indoor air is an essential environment for healthy living and it can become a dominant source of contaminants when it is incorporated with complex mixture of biological and non-biological particles as a result of human activities. The effect of high customer patronage on the indoor air quality of restaurants in Lokoja metropolis and its public health impacts was investigated. Twelve restaurants were sampled; seven from Lokoja-Abuja highway and five from IBB way using standard microbiological assays and biochemical test such as citrate utilization test, urease test, catalase test, indole test, oxidase test and coagulase test. Bacteria isolated from the sampled restaurants were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. The airborne fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolinifer, Fusarium oxysporum and Clasdosporium fulvum. Restaurant B on the Lokoja-Abuja high way has the highest bacterial count of 400cfu per minute of exposure while restaurant Y on the IBB way has the lowest bacterial count of 25cfu per minute of exposure. Restaurant B has the highest fungal count of 6.0 cfu per minute of exposure while restaurant Z has the lowest count of 1.5 cfu per minute exposure. Escherichia coli was the mostly distributed bacteria while Streptococcus pyogenes was the least distributed. Rhizopus stolinifer was the highest fungal distributed and Clasdosporium fulvum the least. Human activities contribute to the indoor air quality of these restaurants and this could pose a danger to customers especially the immunocompromised customers which will have a concomitant effect on the patronage of the restaurants. Proper sanitation, personal hygiene and good ventilation system is recommended to avoid contamination of food and spread of diseases.



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