Currrent Issue: Volume 3, Number 4, 2015


Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Drinking Water from Different Sources in Junagadh City, India

1Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh

2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University, Egypt

3Scientific Research Deanship, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Unit, Taif University, KSA

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 148-154
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
V.G. Vyas, Mohammad M. Hassan, S.I. Vindhani, H.J. Parmar, V.M. Bhalani. Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Drinking Water from Different Sources in Junagadh City, India. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):148-154. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  M. Hassan, Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University, Egypt. Email:


In the present study, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the drinking water were determined in November 2014 from different locations in Junagadh region, Gujarat, India. Total 22 water samples were collected from different locations in and around Junagadh city. E.C (Electrical conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), Salinity, pH and DO (Dissolve oxygen) were analyzed for different water samples. The results indicated that E.C, TDS and Salinity were highest in W-12. pH, hardness and DO were observed higher in W-5, W-11 and W-6 Samples respectively. Enteric pathogen E. coli was found in samples viz W-22 and Enterobacter was present in the most of water samples. No coliforms were observed in samples number 1, 4, 15, 17, 18, 19 and 20. Total aerobic microbial count was higher in W-10. In conclusions relative to the water adequacy of springs and drills, water tanks and supply network, as well as the possible reasons for water quality problems are presented in the study. Generally, the water quality depends on its chemical and microbiological condition. The water is easily infected during its transportation from the source to the internal water supply network and finally to the consumer. The condition of the water supply networks is a factor which contributes to the water quality.



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Screening of MRSA in and outside Benghazi Hospitals

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, Libya

2Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 144-147
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saleh. H. Baiu, Nadia. E. AL-Abdli. Screening of MRSA in and outside Benghazi Hospitals. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):144-147. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-4.

Correspondence to: Nadia.  E. AL-Abdli, Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Email:


Background and Purpose: Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Libya. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 643 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of MRSA. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to Automated BD Phoenix. Results: Screening for suspected carriers of MRSA showed that most of the healthcare workers (technicians, nurses, and doctors) were asymptomatically MRSA-positive. S. aureus isolates were confirmed by various biochemical tests as per latest CLSI guidelines. Cefoxitin Disk Diffusion test was performed for the detection of methicillin resistance and antibiotic susceptibility was performed against different antibiotics as per CLSI guidelines. Statistical analyses showed that there was no significant relation between MRSA carriage and age and sex of the study population. The prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was (21.4%) among HCWs, with some differences between hospitals, also prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was (9.6%) among community. Hospital acquired MRSA were more susceptible to various antibiotics as compared to Community acquired MRSA. Conclusion: MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment.



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16S rRNA Amplicons Survey Revealed Unprecedented Bacterial Community in Solid Biomedical Wastes

1The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania

2BecA-ILRI Hub International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya

3Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, W238A Millennium Science Complex University Park, PA 16802, Penn State University, USA

4Huck Institutes of Life Sciences, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, 205 Wartik Laboratories, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

5Genome Sciences Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 135-143
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kilaza Samson MWAIKONO, Solomon Maina, Aswathy Sebastian, Vivek Kapur, Paul Gwakisa. 16S rRNA Amplicons Survey Revealed Unprecedented Bacterial Community in Solid Biomedical Wastes. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):135-143. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Kilaza  Samson MWAIKONO, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania. Email:


Despite known risks of inappropriate disposal of biomedical solid waste; most cities in developing countries are still disposing unsorted and untreated solid biomedical waste in common dumpsites. While many studies reported the presence of pathogens in fresh biomedical waste from hospitals, none has reported on the abundance and diversity of bacterial community in aged solid biomedical waste from a common dumpsite. A qualitative survey was done to identify types of solid biomedical waste on the dumpsite. Soils, sludge or washings of biomedical wastes were sampled. Total DNA was extracted and v4 region of 16S rRNA amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 1,706,442 sequences from 15 samples passed quality control. The number of sequences per sample ranged from 70664 to 174456 (mean 121765, SD 35853). Diversity was high with an InvSimpson index of 63 (Range 5 – 496, SD 121). Thirty five phyla were identified, but only 9 accounted for 96% of all sequences. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria 37.4%, Firmicutes 34.4%, Bacteroidetes 14.1 %, Actinobacteria 5.6% and Chloroflex 1.7%. Catchall analysis predicted a mean of 9399 species per sample. Overall, 31402 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, however, only 19.8% (6,202) OTUs were found more than ten times. The most predominant OTUs were Proteinclasticum (10.4%), Acinetobacter (6.9), Halomonas (3.9), Pseudomonas (1.7%), Escherichia/Shigella 1.5% and Planococcus (1.3%). Proteiniclasticum spp and Acinetobacter spp were found in 67% (10/15) of all samples at relative abundance of 1%. Taxonomic-to-phenotype mapping revealed the presence of 36.2% related to bacteria involved in dehalogenation, 11.6% degraders of aromatic hydrocarbons, 14.8% chitin degraders, 8.5% chlorophenol degradation and Atrazine metabolism 8.3%. Taxonomy-to human pathogen mapping found 34% related to human pathogens and 39.4% were unknown. Conclusions There’s rich and diverse bacterial community in aged solid biomedical waste. Some of the predominant OTUs are related to bacteria of industrial use. We found a good number of OTUs mapping to human pathogens. Most of OTUs mapped to unknown metabolism and also to group unknown whether they human pathogens or not. To our knowledge, this is the first reports on bacteria related to industrial use from solid biomedical waste. This finding will facilitate to design further research using functional metagenomics to better understand the potential of bacteria from aged solid biomedical waste.



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Immunomodulator Potential of Miana Leaves(Coleus scutellarioides (L) Benth) in Prevention of Tuberculosis Infection

1Health Technology Department, Ministry of Health, Makasssar, Indonesia

2Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia

3Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia

4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

5Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

6Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 129-134
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sesilia Rante Pakadang, Chatarina Umbul Wahjuni, Hari Basuki Notobroto, Dwi Winarni, Ressy Dwiyanti, Yadi, Muhammad Sabir, Mochammad Hatta. Immunomodulator Potential of Miana Leaves(Coleus scutellarioides (L) Benth) in Prevention of Tuberculosis Infection. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):129-134. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email:


Aim, The aim of this study to investigate the immunonomodulator effects of miana leaves (Coleus scutellarioides (L) Benth) on prevention of tuberculosis in wistar rats, Method, Samples of white male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, the samples were treated with miana leaves extract (EDM) and then infected by intra tracheal M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and subsequently given a placebo, EDM and GAB (combined Rifampicin and EDM) and healthy control animals were treated with EDM. In this study we measure the level of Immunomodulatory parameter; the number of T-lymphocytes and CD4 T-cells measured by flowcytometry method, the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured by ELISA and the number of M. tuberculosis colonies derived from the rat lung in LJ media. Result, Results showed the increasing of T-lymphocytes, CD4 T-Cells, the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and decreasing in the number of M. tuberculosis colonies after EDM treatment. Conclusion, Miana leaves extract (Coleus scutellarioides, (L) Benth.) increased the number of T-lymphocytes, CD4 T-cell counts, levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and decreased in the number of M. tuberculosis colony in infected wistar lung.



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Genotyping of Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sudan Using Spoligotyping

1Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Center for Research, Khartoum, Sudan

2College of Applied Medical Science, Shaqra University, Shaqra, KSA

3Blood Transfusion Service, National Blood Transfusion Center, Khartoum, Sudan

4Tuberculosis Research Center, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan

5National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Laboratory of Public Health, Khartoum, Sudan

66Molecular biology Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

7Faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Khartoum, Sudan

88Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 125-128
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muataz M. Eldirdery, Intisar E. Alrayah, Mona OA. Awad ElkareIm, Fatima A. Khalid, Asrar M A/Salam Elegail, Nuha Y. Ibrahim, Eman O M. Nour, Rahma H. Ali, Elena Hailu, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa, Najem Aldin M. Osman, Maowia M. Mukhtar, Nihad M A. Elhaj, Atif A. Elagib. Genotyping of Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sudan Using Spoligotyping. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):125-128. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Muataz  M. Eldirdery, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Center for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem worldwide due to its high risk of person-to-person transmission, morbidity and mortality [1]. Sudan has a high burden of tuberculosis. Spoligotyping (spacer oligonucleotide typing) a rapid method for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the principle of reverse hybridization. The ecology of the prevalent mycobacteria strain can vary depending on country and region. The aim of this study was to determine the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Sudan using spoligotyping SPOLDB4. A total of 75 Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum samples were collected from pulmonary Tuberculosis patients attending references Laboratories and diagnostic centers in Khartoum and Eastern Sudan in (2011-2013). The mycobacteria were genotyped using Spoligotyping technique and data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SPOLDB4 database. Among the 75 isolate analyzed, 57(76%) were identified by SPOLDB4 and 18 (24%) could not be matched to any lineages. The most prevalent genotype cluster was MANU2 38 (50.7%) followed by CASI Delhi 8 (10.7%). In the study SIT54 was the most common pattern 37 (49.3%) followed by SIT25 6(8%).



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