American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi




Formulation and Nutritional Evaluation of Instant Weaning Foods Processed from Maize (Zea mays), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Red Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Mackerel Fish Meal (Scomber scombrus)

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

3Department of Biological science, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon

4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 149-159
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bernard Tiencheu, Aduni Ufuan Achidi, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Noel Tenyang, Eurydice Flore Tiepma Ngongang, Hilaire Macaire Womeni. Formulation and Nutritional Evaluation of Instant Weaning Foods Processed from Maize (Zea mays), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Red Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Mackerel Fish Meal (Scomber scombrus). American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):149-159. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Bernard  Tiencheu, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon. Email:


The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional, nutritional and sensory qualities of five Instantaneous Complementary Foods formulated from blends of fermented maize, beans, fishmeal, pawpaw, and sugar. The different ingredients -fermented maize, beans, fishmeal, pawpaw and sugar- were incorporated in the proportions of 70-10-10-5-5 for diet A, 30-50-10-5-5 for diet B, 65-15-10-5-5 for diet C, 40-40-10-5-5 for diet D and 60-20-10-5-5 for diet E, respectively. A commercial weaning food, Phosphatine® served as control. Results of the proximate analysis showed that the formulated diets contained 363.82kcal, 333.97kcal, 362.01kcal, 341.96kcal and 358.06kcal of energy for diets A, B, C, D, and E respectively; 17.88%, 23.71%, 18.61%, 22.25%, and 19.34% of protein content for diets A, B, C, D and E respectively; 58.04%, 47.11%, 56.79%, 49.87%, 55.41% of carbohydrates for diets A B, C, D and E respectively; 4.46%, 3.41%, 4.49%, 3.72%, 4.34% of fats for diets A, B, C, D and E respectively. All the formulations contained the following elements range: Zinc (0.91-2.27mg); Sodium (31.43-492 mg), Manganese (0.27-7.70 mg), Phosphorus (85.35-756.21mg), Iron (0.00-31.7 mg), Magnesium (0.00-253 mg), Calcium (0.00-419.11mg) and Potassium (201.17-1484.01mg). Sensory analysis showed ratings within acceptable limits using a 9-point hedonic scale. The bulk density values were comparable (though slightly higher) to that for the control. The water absorption capacity ranged from 2.00 to 3.30 with diet E having the highest value while diet C had the lowest and the control had the highest WAC value with 4.65. The Oil absorption capacity ranged from 2.30 for diet E to 3.00 for diet C while the commercial weaning diet had an oil absorption capacity of 2.90. The Swelling Index ranged from 0.91 (diet A) to 1.25 (diet E) while that for the control diet was 1.00. The Foam capacity values ranged between 2.83 for diet D and 7.69 for diet E, while that for the control was 13.56. The dispersibility was within the range 94.0 (diet A) and 98.0 (diet E) while the control had a dispersibility value of 171.0. Animal feeding experiments revealed that the formulated diets gave the higher weight gain compared with the control diet as well as the higher PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) values and higher body organ weights. The study concluded that the formulated diets could be used as alternatives to the weaning foods to improve the nutritional status of children and help to prevent protein-energy malnutrition.



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Thermal Properties and Energy Utilization of Cassava Meal in Conductive Rotary Drying

1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Prototype Engineering Development Institute, Ilesa, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(6), 160-167
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lateef A. Sanni, Oluseyi O. Oke, Faborode M. Oladimeji, Kolawole F. Ogbozomivaze. Thermal Properties and Energy Utilization of Cassava Meal in Conductive Rotary Drying. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(6):160-167. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: Lateef  A. Sanni, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Email:


In this study the thermal properties and drying behaviour of cassava meal in a conductive rotary dryer was investigated. Cassava flour and gelatinized gari were produced at drying temperatures of 70°C and 90°C, respectively. The activation energy of cassava meal was 49.52 kJ/mol, and the effective moisture diffusivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity increased with temperature from 1.74x10-10 to 4.51x10-10 m2/s, 0.329 to 0.344 W/m°C and 1.804 to 1.901 kJ/kg°C, respectively. With increase in bulk density of cassava meal from 379.50±2.55 to 464.79±30.38 kg/m3, thermal diffusivity and specific energy consumption decreased from 4.81x10-7 to 3.89x10-7 m2/s and 618.88 to 456 kJ/kg, respectively. The thermal efficiency of the dryer was greater than 31% for both cassava flour and gari. Compared with previous works, performance of the conductive rotary dryer was satisfactory and upgrade of its design will make it suitable for application in the cassava processing industry.



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Influence of Soaking and Cooking Techniques on Physical and Hydration Properties of Moringa oleifera Kernels

1School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV, USA

2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA

4Department of Agricultural Science, Osun State College of Education, Ilesa, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(6), 168-172
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oluwatosin J. Oginni, Babatunde S. Ogunsina, Gbenga A. Olatunde, Kehinde F. Jaiyeoba. Influence of Soaking and Cooking Techniques on Physical and Hydration Properties of Moringa oleifera Kernels. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(6):168-172. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: Oluwatosin  J. Oginni, School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV, USA. Email:


Prior to consumption, most human foods are subjected to certain processing techniques such as soaking, roasting, parboiling and cooking, which causes important changes in their physical and hydration properties. Several physical and hydration properties were evaluated as function of soaking time as well as cooking methods. Standard methods were followed to investigate changes in the axial dimensions, shape indices, hydration and swelling capacity of Moringa oleifera kernels that were soaked in distilled water for 2, 4 and 6 h and subjected to cooking by conventional and microwave methods. For conventional and microwave cooking, minimum cooking time reduced from 46 to 44.3 min and from 25 to 23 min, respectively. The hydration capacity of the cooked kernels (g/kernel) decreased from 0.16 to 0.15 (conventional cooking); whereas it increased from 0.10 to 0.14 (microwave cooking). The axial dimension of kernels that were soaked for 2, 4 and 6 h and cooked were found to be 7.9 and 7.48 mm, 7.94 and 7.18 mm, 8.12 and 7.13 mm for length; 8.48 and 7.61 mm, 8.11 and 7.26 mm, 8.14 and 7.26 mm for width and 8.09 and 7.12 mm, 7.64 and 7.14 mm, 7.77 and 7.06 mm for thickness, respectively. Understanding the properties of specific food products with respect to different methods of processing is vital to their overall utilization.



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