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Article

Heavy Metal Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Collected from Selected Market Sites of Piliyandala Area, Colombo District, Sri Lanka

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

3Department of livestock Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 139-144
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thilini Kananke, Jagath Wansapala, Anil Gunaratne. Heavy Metal Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Collected from Selected Market Sites of Piliyandala Area, Colombo District, Sri Lanka. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):139-144. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Thilini  Kananke, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka. Email: thilini.kananke@yahoo.com

Abstract

The content of nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in five different types of green leafy vegetables viz., “Kangkung" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba) and “Kohila” (Lasia spinosa) collected from four randomly selected urban and sub urban market sites in and around Piliyandala area of Colombo District, Sri Lanka, were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed significant differences in elemental concentrations among the green leafy vegetables analyzed. The average concentrations of heavy metals detected in green leafy vegetables ranged from 0.71-15.89, 0.07-0.97, 0.18-5.05, 0.18-1.59, 7.05-18.44 mg/kg for Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu respectively, on dry matter basis. In addition, the mean concentrations of metals in the green leafy vegetables were found in the order of their abundance as Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. However, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the heavy metal contents in combined green leafy vegetables collected from the four market sites. It was also found that the Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb levels exceeded the maximum permissible limits set by FAO/WHO for human consumption.

Keywords

References

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Article

Microbiological and Sensory Profile of Soymilk Based Juice Treated with Liquid Extract of A. Danielli

1Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, West Africa


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 145-149
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dauda A.O, Adegoke G.O.. Microbiological and Sensory Profile of Soymilk Based Juice Treated with Liquid Extract of A. Danielli. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):145-149. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Adegoke  G.O., Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, West Africa. Email: adegboladauda@yahoo.com

Abstract

The microbiological and sensory profile soymilk-based juice treated with aqueous extract of Aframomum danielli (1%-3%-w/v) and stored at 27±2C for twenty four weeks were examined. Synthetic additives/preservatives, which have been in use over the years, are more expensive and mostly imported with hard earned scarce foreign exchange. Adequate research work into the production and utilization of indigenous food additives on a large scale has not been undertaken in developing countries. This work was therefore planned to ascertain the usefulness of extracts of A. danielli, a local spice, in stabilizing the microbiological quality of soymilk-based juice. Standard methods were used for the production of juice samples from pineapple, orange, carrot and milk from soybeans. They were blended together in equal proportion and thereafter treated with A. danielli extract (1.0% to 3.0%) and stored at 27+2C for twenty four weeks. Infrared spectrophotometer was used to identify functional groups in Aframomum danielli and hence the active components responsible for the stability of the juice. Standard AOAC method was used for microbiological analysis of treated and untreated samples. Consumer evaluation of juice samples was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Some of the active components of the spice identified are 4-amino-acetophenone, N,N-dimethyl-2-chloroacetoacetamide, 3-beta-acetoxy-5-etienic acid, 6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9,-diene2-one, Phenyl-3-buten and 4-Phenyl butanone. There were significant differences in the microbial counts of the treated and untreated samples. Treated samples experienced little or no growth over the period of storage. The results validate previous reports that A. danielli extract has great preservative potentials. There were significant differences (P < 0.5) for colour and overall acceptability of the samples. When A. danielli extract was added to soymilk-based fruit juice, the microbiological and sensory qualities were found to be better preserved than that of the untreated samples.

Keywords

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Article

Soaking and Drying Effect on the Functional Properties of Ogi Produce from Some Selected Maize Varieties

1Department of Food Technology Ikorodu Lagos Lagos State Polytechnic


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 150-157
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bolaji O.T., Oyewo A.O, Adepoju P.A. Soaking and Drying Effect on the Functional Properties of Ogi Produce from Some Selected Maize Varieties. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):150-157. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Bolaji  O.T., Department of Food Technology Ikorodu Lagos Lagos State Polytechnic. Email: olusholat@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of soaking period (12, 24 and 36 hours) and drying temperature (40,50 and 60°C) on the functional properties of Ogi powder produced from four different maize varieties; A5W, A4Y, D1Y and S7Y. The moisture content and drying rate decreased significantly (p< 0.05) with increase in time and drying temperature. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in Bulk Density, Sedimentation and Swelling Power. The result revealed that sedimentation volumes were not influenced by processing methods while starch damage of the Ogi powders varies from 92.03 to 95.02%. This increased with increase in drying temperature. Ogi powders had least gelation of 8% for all the maize varieties. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in Viscosity, Solubility, Water Absorption Capacities (WAC) and Oil Absorption Capacities (OAC). Ogi powder produced from A4Y variety and soaked for 12 hours exhibited higher WAC values at 50°C. This variety also displayed higher values of water absorption capacity at all temperatures. Solubility, viscosity and swelling power increased with increase in temperature. The viscosity of the Ogi powders pastes ranged from 1200-1794 cps, and 804- 1540 at 80 and 30°C, respectively. Ogi powders produced from D1Y and S7Y exhibited higher degree of retrogradation. Differences observed in the functional properties among varieties highlight the possible application of end-product suitability in Ogi powder processing.

Keywords

References

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Article

Preserving Strawberry (Fragaria Ananasa) Using Alginate and Soy Based Edible Coatings

1National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 158-161
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Waqas Ahmed, Masood Sadiq Butt. Preserving Strawberry (Fragaria Ananasa) Using Alginate and Soy Based Edible Coatings. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):158-161. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Waqas  Ahmed, National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan. Email: waqasbinniaz@yahoo.com

Abstract

Instant research project was an attempt to address the postharvest losses in strawberry using the concept of biodegradable edible coatings. Purposely, alginate and soy based coatings were developed at various levels (2, 2.5 and 3%) and assessed for the role in controlling the moisture loss and total solids in the coated fruit. From results, it was deduced that moisture loss was lowered to 4.86% in T3 (Soy 3%) as compared to 13.45% in T0 (Control) for strawberry kept at controlled climate chamber. Likewise, 2.5 and 3% combinations of soy and alginate based coatings were found efficient in maintaining overall solids content of the coated strawberry.Based on the findings, edible coatings are suggested as an innovative, cost effective and environmental friendly preservation technique that holds potential to be used on fresh perishable commodities.

Keywords

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Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Temperatures on Quality Degradation of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Olives Grown in Palestine

1Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine

2Department of Food Technology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine

3Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 162-174
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jehad Abbadi, Ibrahim Afaneh, Ziad Ayyad, Fuad Al-Rimawi, Wadie Sultan, Khalid Kanaan. Evaluation of the Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Temperatures on Quality Degradation of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Olives Grown in Palestine. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):162-174. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: Jehad  Abbadi, Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine. Email: jihadabbadi@yahoo.com

Abstract

The quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is intimately affected by packaging material and storage temperature. In this study, the influence of packaging materials and elevated temperature on EVOO quality was investigated during six months. At ambient temperatures, oil maintained EVOO when stored in glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), cans and Pottery in terms of chemical tests (acidity, peroxide value, K232, and K270). Loss of phenols was the highest in pottery-stored oil and the lowest was found in glass-stored oil. Only PET-stored oil maintained the EVOO grade in terms of sensory evaluation when stored at room temperature. At elevated temperature, oil stored in all packaging materials lost extra virgin quality in terms of chemical tests. The loss of phenols was the largest in HDPE and smallest in cans-stored oil. Sensory evaluation, maintained glass-stored oil and PET-stored oil as EVOO. This study has reaffirmed that at both storage temperatures, the best container in maintaining the EVOO quality was glass and the worst was pottery. Grading of stored olive oil under investigation using sensory evaluation solely was not sufficient. Also it was clear that the absorption coefficient K270 was the most sensitive determinant chemical test that determines the quality of stored olive oil and could be used as a rapid indicator test.

Keywords

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Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Short Chain Fatty Acid Triacylglycerols as a Potential Dietary Food Lipid Source

1Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 175-178
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ronald P. D’Amelia, Alexander E. Bleich, Lee Honig, William F. Nirode. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Short Chain Fatty Acid Triacylglycerols as a Potential Dietary Food Lipid Source. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):175-178. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Ronald  P. D’Amelia, Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA. Email: Ronald.P.Damelia@hofstra.edu

Abstract

SCFA(Short Chain Fatty Acids) are readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and play an important role in the maintenance of gut health. The deficiency of SCFA (particularly acetic, propionic and butyric) may affect the pathogenesis of a diverse range of diseases ranging from allergies to asthma to cancers. The potential of having three different SCFA on one molecule for direct ingestion and metabolism can be of significant importance to maintaining gut health. SCFA triglycerides have not been characterized for use in clinical nutrition therefore it is important to understand their specific structure and composition. We synthesized ten reaction products of various triacylglycerols containing different ratios of acetic, propionic and butyric SCFA by interesterification. The reaction products were characterized by Gas Chromatography (GC), GC/MS and H1 NMR. The weight % of the triesters found were compared to the amount predicted using the statistical randomized interesterification reaction model. We found that the difference in fatty acid size and the reduced steric demands of the SCFA did not give rise to positional specificity and found no observable deviations from the random interesterification model. By interesterification we have synthesized a molecule that contains SCFA essential to gut health. This molecule could potentially be used for direct ingestion possibly eliminating the need for other means of daily fiber intake.

Keywords

References

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[13]  Klemann, L.P.;Aji, K.; Chrysam, M.M.; D’Amelia, R.P. Random Nature of Triacylglycerols Produced by the Catalyzed Interesterification of Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Triglycerides J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 442-446, 1994.
 
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Article

Impact of Technological Diagram on Biochemical and Microbiological Quality of Borassus akeassii Wine Produced Traditionally in Burkina Faso

1Laboratory of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Research Center in Biological, Food and Nutrition Sciences (CRSBAN), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

2Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

3Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and pharmacology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

4Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso;Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and pharmacology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 179-186
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
François TAPSOBA, Aly SAVADOGO, Cheikna ZONGO, Alfred Sababenedyo TRAORÉ. Impact of Technological Diagram on Biochemical and Microbiological Quality of Borassus akeassii Wine Produced Traditionally in Burkina Faso. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):179-186. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: François  TAPSOBA, Laboratory of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Research Center in Biological, Food and Nutrition Sciences (CRSBAN), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Email: tapsobaf@gmail.com

Abstract

Palm wines are produced following several traditional processes, very consumed and appreciated in West Africa. In South-West of Burkina Faso, Borassus akeassii palm wine, plays a nutritional and socio-economic role and replaces Sorghum beer. Because of reported health issues due to the bad practices of palm wine tappers, we performed survey aimed to assess the impact of technological diagrams on the quality of this wine in order to improve its quality. In South-West of Burkina Faso, survey was undertaken among tappers, vendors and consumers of palm wine, followed by microbiological and biochemical analysis. Questioning of 88 tappers, 80 vendors and 155 consumers by using cards of survey, revealed that 3 critical points were very important for improvement of wine quality. It is washing of flask used for collection with, filtration without dilution of palm wine and washing of conditioning containers. According their practices, tappers were divided into two sub-groups: Sub-groups 1 and 2. Biochemical analysis of palm wines revealed differences between the two sub-groups’ processes for acidity 0.64±0.08 versus 0.82±0.29% (m/v), pH 4.90±0.10 versus 4.05±0.61 and alcohol content 5.80 ± 2.13 versus 4.7±1.47% (v/v) for sub-groups1 and 2 respectively. Microbiological investigations show that total and thermo-tolerant coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in wine of sub-group 2 and were 5.46±1.34, 3.15±1.90 and 6.40±1.23 log cfu/ml respectively but not detected in sub-group 1 wine. Our study shows that wine quality could be significantly improved by using undiluted sap and controlling the three critical points of main diagram.

Keywords

References

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Article

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Full Fat and Defatted Ackee (Blighia sapida) Aril Flours

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 187-191
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Veronica M. Dossou, Jacob K. Agbenorhevi, Francis Alemawor, Ibok Oduro. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Full Fat and Defatted Ackee (Blighia sapida) Aril Flours. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):187-191. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: Jacob  K. Agbenorhevi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: jkagbenorhevi.cos@knust.edu.gh

Abstract

The pulp/arils of ackee (Blighia sapida) were oven/freeze dried, processed into full fat and defatted flours and analyzed for some physicochemical and functional properties. Moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash and carbohydrate content of the flours ranged from 4.83-7.30%, 21.42-59.54%, 11.54-23.00%, 3.83-4.08%, 8.45-9.05% and 15.13-42.48% db, respectively. Potassium (462.21-968.29 mg/100 g) and zinc (1.99-3.55 mg/100 g) were the most and least abundant minerals, respectively. Functional properties ranged from 24.09 to 39.45% solubility, 11.03 to 23.02% swelling power, 111.75 to 139.57% oil absorption capacity, 4.33 to 5.67% foaming capacity, 76.34 to 84.35% foam stability, 61.67 to 69.17% emulsion capacity and 5.83 to 46.67% emulsion stability. Generally, defatted flours had higher values for proximate composition and functional properties than the full fat flours. Oven dried ackee aril flours had higher emulsion activity and stability suggesting their potential application in foods such as, mayonnaise, yogurt, ice-cream, sausages and processed meats.

Keywords

References

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Article

Are Breed-specific Differences in Beef Fatty-acid Profiles a "Needle in the Haystack"?

1Agriresearch Rapotin Ltd., Vikyrovice, Czech Republic

2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 192-195
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yuvaraj Ranganathan, Irena Hulova, Matthias Schreiner, Jan Macak. Are Breed-specific Differences in Beef Fatty-acid Profiles a "Needle in the Haystack"?. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):192-195. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: Yuvaraj  Ranganathan, Agriresearch Rapotin Ltd., Vikyrovice, Czech Republic. Email: yuvaraj.ranganathan@vuchs.cz

Abstract

A healthy human nutrition stems from macronutrients that provide energy and also from micronutrients that are indispensable for basic physiological processes. Essential fatty-acids have been proved and commonly agreed in the recent years as important elements of a healthy diet. This gives impetus to look for sources of essential fatty-acids in the diet. Beef is not only considered a complete protein, but also a source of essential fatty-acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. The levels of these fatty-acids are however variable depending on the diet and breed of cattle. In this work, we analyzed intra-muscular fatty acid profiles of two breeds (Aberdeen Angus and Blonde d'Aquitaine) as a part of long-term complex and comprehensive comparison of breed differences. Using a novel statistical algorithm we found interesting breed-specific fatty-acid profiles. The advantages of this approach over conventional approaches are discussed as well as the specific differences in fatty acid profiles between the breeds.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (Haccp) in the Production of Soy-kununzaki: A Traditional Cereal-Based Fermented Beverage of Nigeria

1Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

3Research Operations Department, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

4Research Outreach Department, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

5Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 196-202
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Danbaba Nahemiah, Oyeleke Solomon Bankole, MajiAlhassan Tswako, Kolo Isa Nma-Usman, Hauwawu Hassan, Kolo Isa Fati. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (Haccp) in the Production of Soy-kununzaki: A Traditional Cereal-Based Fermented Beverage of Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):196-202. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: Danbaba  Nahemiah, Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. Email: dnahemiah@gmail.com

Abstract

In this study, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) was adopted for the evaluation of food safety hazards in the production of local cereal-based beverage (soy-kununzaki) consumed in Nigeria. Significant quantity of physical hazards were recorded when about 1kg of production materials were analysed. 2.35% stones pieces, 1.25% pieces of plastic materials, 1.95% metallic materials, 7.00% soil, 5.69% weed seeds, 1.55% broken grains of soybean were the main physical hazards of concerned identified, while biological physical hazards includes 2.26% animal waste and 2.15% insects. Microorganisms of public health importance were also isolated. Critical control points in the beverage production were highlighted and process capability determined. Process capability index (Cp) was approximately 1.7 for bacterial count and 1.6 for coliform, indicating that the process can be considered capable. Hence HACCP would help in improvement of quality and safe beverage production when properly applied.

Keywords

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