American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi




Diffusion Coefficient Estimation in Shrinking Solids. A Case Study: Tomato

1Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.Apartado Postal 55-534, México D.F., 09340, México

2Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Unidad Profesional Lázaro Cárdenas, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Col. Santo Tomas C.P. 11340. Del. Miguel Hidalgo. México, D.F

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(5), 132-136
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-5-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. Martínez-Vera, I. Anaya-Sosa, M. G. Vizcarra-Mendoza. Diffusion Coefficient Estimation in Shrinking Solids. A Case Study: Tomato. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(5):132-136. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-5-3.

Correspondence to: C.  Martínez-Vera, Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.Apartado Postal 55-534, México D.F., 09340, México. Email:


In this work are presented experimental results of the drying kinetics for a solid that shrinks between 88% and 94% in volume during the drying process depending on the drying temperature. The drying process is modeled and simulated as an isothermal diffusional process taking in account the shrinkage of the dried material. Two falling-rate drying periods were considered in the drying process. Diffusion-moisture content relationships were determined for each drying period at each of the temperature levels at which the experiments were conducted. Arrhenius type expressions were obtained for the diffusion-temperature dependency from the diffusion-moisture content profiles averaged at each drying temperature considered in this study for each drying period.



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Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Sap on Health Status of Male Wistar Rats

1Department of Food science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Ibrahim BadamasiBabangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Obstetrics and Reproductive Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(5), 137-144
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-5-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Theophilus Maduabuchukwu Ikegwu, Gabriel Ifeanyi Okafor, Izuchukwu Shedrach Ochiogu. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Sap on Health Status of Male Wistar Rats. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(5):137-144. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-5-4.

Correspondence to: Theophilus Maduabuchukwu Ikegwu, Department of Food science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Ibrahim BadamasiBabangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. Email:


Male Wistar rats (30) which were split into five groups of six rats each were administered four different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. The group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), and group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical compositions of the sap samples were determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. The mean body weight and feed intake of each rat group was measured every three (3) days. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of random and fasten blood glucose. After 2 months of treatment, the bloods of each male rat group samples were collected for determination of the liver and kidney functions, while the palm sap products were subjected for microbial analyses. The sap samples content were analysed [1]. The palm sap was evaluated for its effect on the mean body weight and vital organ weight of albino rats. Results showed that palm sap had effect in reducing the mean body weight of the exposed rat groups compared to the control which could be attributed to the low alcohol content and probiotic effect of the fresh palm sap on the treated rat group. The spleen and kidney of the control rat group showed significant decrease compared to the treated rat groups, while the liver of the rat groups could be compared favourably. The percentage increases observed in spleen and kidney of the exposed rat groups was attributed to the presence of alcohol in the palm sap. However, since the liver of the palm sap treated rat groups were comparable to the control; it showed that the presence of alcohol in the palm sap administered to the Wistar rats were within normal limits. There were no significant differences on the random and fasting blood glucose of the rats which is an indication that palm sap drinking may not elevate the blood glucose levels in the blood stream. Results obtained also showed that palm sap contained mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiea. However, the presence of Citrobacter freundi in the MW could be associated with adulteration or exposure to unhygienic environment.



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Some Quality and Micro-structural Characteristics of Soup Enriched with Debittered Moringa Oleifera Seeds Flour

1Department of Protein Chemistry & Technology, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India

2Department of Agricultural & Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(6), 145-149
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-6-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radha C., Ogunsina B.S., Hebina Babu K.T.. Some Quality and Micro-structural Characteristics of Soup Enriched with Debittered Moringa Oleifera Seeds Flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(6):145-149. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-6-1.

Correspondence to: Ogunsina  B.S., Department of Agricultural & Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Email:


Soup enriched with debittered moringa seeds flour (DBMS) was investigated for its quality and micro-structural characteristics following appropriate standard procedures reported in literatures. The results showed that soup sample enriched with 0.5% of DBMS had the highest overall sensory score for acceptability and its protein content was 4 g/100 g more than that of the control. Scanning electron micrographs showed soup sample enriched with DBMS as a dense, continuous agglomerated protein strands of irregular sizes and shapes. As the addition of DBMS increased, the viscosity and the body of the soup increased; the lightness “L” colour value of the soup reduced and the total colour difference (ΔE) increased. Enrichment of soup with DBMS promotes the use of moringa seeds as a protein ingredient; especially in the tropics where it is fast gaining acceptance as human food.



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