American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835



Are Breed-specific Differences in Beef Fatty-acid Profiles a "Needle in the Haystack"?

1Agriresearch Rapotin Ltd., Vikyrovice, Czech Republic

2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 192-195
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yuvaraj Ranganathan, Irena Hulova, Matthias Schreiner, Jan Macak. Are Breed-specific Differences in Beef Fatty-acid Profiles a "Needle in the Haystack"?. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):192-195. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: Yuvaraj  Ranganathan, Agriresearch Rapotin Ltd., Vikyrovice, Czech Republic. Email:


A healthy human nutrition stems from macronutrients that provide energy and also from micronutrients that are indispensable for basic physiological processes. Essential fatty-acids have been proved and commonly agreed in the recent years as important elements of a healthy diet. This gives impetus to look for sources of essential fatty-acids in the diet. Beef is not only considered a complete protein, but also a source of essential fatty-acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. The levels of these fatty-acids are however variable depending on the diet and breed of cattle. In this work, we analyzed intra-muscular fatty acid profiles of two breeds (Aberdeen Angus and Blonde d'Aquitaine) as a part of long-term complex and comprehensive comparison of breed differences. Using a novel statistical algorithm we found interesting breed-specific fatty-acid profiles. The advantages of this approach over conventional approaches are discussed as well as the specific differences in fatty acid profiles between the breeds.



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Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (Haccp) in the Production of Soy-kununzaki: A Traditional Cereal-Based Fermented Beverage of Nigeria

1Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

3Research Operations Department, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

4Research Outreach Department, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

5Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 196-202
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Danbaba Nahemiah, Oyeleke Solomon Bankole, MajiAlhassan Tswako, Kolo Isa Nma-Usman, Hauwawu Hassan, Kolo Isa Fati. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (Haccp) in the Production of Soy-kununzaki: A Traditional Cereal-Based Fermented Beverage of Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):196-202. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: Danbaba  Nahemiah, Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, PMB 8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. Email:


In this study, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) was adopted for the evaluation of food safety hazards in the production of local cereal-based beverage (soy-kununzaki) consumed in Nigeria. Significant quantity of physical hazards were recorded when about 1kg of production materials were analysed. 2.35% stones pieces, 1.25% pieces of plastic materials, 1.95% metallic materials, 7.00% soil, 5.69% weed seeds, 1.55% broken grains of soybean were the main physical hazards of concerned identified, while biological physical hazards includes 2.26% animal waste and 2.15% insects. Microorganisms of public health importance were also isolated. Critical control points in the beverage production were highlighted and process capability determined. Process capability index (Cp) was approximately 1.7 for bacterial count and 1.6 for coliform, indicating that the process can be considered capable. Hence HACCP would help in improvement of quality and safe beverage production when properly applied.



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Characteristics and Sensory Analysis of Ketchup and Sauce Products from "Bibisan" Fish Hydrolyzate

1Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan IJember, East Java, Indonesia

2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan IJember, East Java, Indonesia

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 203-208
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yuli Witono, Wiwik Siti Windrati, Iwan Taruna, Asmak Afriliana, Ahib Assadam. Characteristics and Sensory Analysis of Ketchup and Sauce Products from "Bibisan" Fish Hydrolyzate. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):203-208. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: Yuli  Witono, Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan IJember, East Java, Indonesia. Email:


“Bibisan” fish can be developed into a food flavor using enzymatic hydrolysis. The combination of “Biduri” protease and papain can shorten the time of hydrolysis. Bibisan fish hydrolyzate can be made derived products like the fish sauce and fish ketchup. Proximate analysis of fish sauce and ketchup observedincluding moisture content (72-74%), protein (9-10%), fat (9.15 to 16.3%), and ash (5.81 to 9.90%). Theabsorbance average value of Maillarddegree obtained from experiment then result of inferior fish sauce ranged from 0.432 to 0.463 while the fish ketchup ranged from 0228 to 0.281. Fish sauce color is lighter (light brown) instead of fish ketchup. Viscosity of fish sauce (14.86 to 18.78 mp) were also higher than fish ketchup (10.81 -14.80 mp). The highest amino acid inof bibisan fish hydrolyzate was glutamic acid that range from 8.76% - 10.17%; while the lowest AA was histidine (1.12 to 1.22%). The sensory evaluation of fish sauce and ketchup reveals that the products have a good sensory quality and overall acceptability.



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Comparative Study of Quality-Analysis of Three Different Bangladeshi Smoke-Dried Lean Fishes Using Salt and Turmeric Stored at Refrigeration Temperature (4°C)

1Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

2Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

3Institute of Food Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(6), 209-215
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gulshan Ara Latifa, Subhash Chandra Chakraborty, Mohajira Begum, Farzana Binte Farid, Mosarrat Nabila Nahid. Comparative Study of Quality-Analysis of Three Different Bangladeshi Smoke-Dried Lean Fishes Using Salt and Turmeric Stored at Refrigeration Temperature (4°C). American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(6):209-215. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: Mosarrat  Nabila Nahid, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Email:


This study evaluated shelf-life quality of salt and turmeric treated smoke-dried three different Bangladeshi lean fishes, Chapila (Gudusia chapra, Hamilton; 1822), Kaika (Xenentodon cancila; Hamilton; 1822) and Guchi Baim (Mastacembelus pancalus, Hamilton-Buchanan; 1822) by analyzed their biochemical (proximate and chemical)l composition and sensory evaluation during storage at refrigeration temperature(4°C). There was a general decline in sensory characteristics i.e. color, texture, odor, general appearance and mean of acceptability of fish- product during storage. The differences in the biochemical comsition of the fresh and smoke-dried samples were statistically significant (p<0.05). Moisture (%) and TVB-N value (mgN/100gm) increased significantly whereas protein(%), lipid (%) and ash(%) contant significantly decreased. The initial value of moisture, protein, lipid, ash and TVB-N of freshly smoke-dried Chapila, Kaika and Guchi-Baim fish was 6.21%, 45.93%, 30.81%, 18.95% and 4.65mgN/100gm, 8.24%, 63.04%, 6.71%, 22.52% and 8.84 mgN/100gm and 6.97%, 59.22%, 11.67%, 22.54% and 6.62 mgN/100gm respectively. Among these three fish species smoke-dried kaika fish product became spoiled at the end of 9month whereas smoke-dried Chapila and Guchi Baim fish product still remain in good condition. The shelf-life of smoke-dried Chapila and Guchi Baim fish product was 18 month and 27 month. Because of using salt and turmeric as natural preservative, no yeast or mould was detected in this three smoke-dried fish samples. Therefore, it can be inferred that salt and turmeric treated smoke-dried Guchi Baim fish product has longer shelf life than another two fish products.



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Utilization of Pulse Processing Waste (Cajanus cajan Husk) for Developing Metal Adsorbent: A Value-added Exploitation of Food Industry Waste

1Department of Food Technology, UICT, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001, India

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 1-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vishal. R. Parate, Mohammed. I. Talib. Utilization of Pulse Processing Waste (Cajanus cajan Husk) for Developing Metal Adsorbent: A Value-added Exploitation of Food Industry Waste. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(1):1-9. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Vishal.  R. Parate, Department of Food Technology, UICT, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001, India. Email:


India is the largest producer of pulses (edible legume) in the world. Pigeon pea or Tur (Cajanus cajan) is the second most major pulse produced in India and is mainly processed to convert into product known as “Tur dal”. The manufacturing industries of Tur dal generate considerable amount of byproduct/waste in the form of husk. The present investigation explores the possibility of exploiting activated carbon prepared from the Tur dal husk for removing heavy metal. The objective of the work was to enhance the performance of prepared activated carbon by carrying out batch experiments study to optimize the condition of adsorption for complete removal of Cu ions from its 50 ml, 50 ppm solution. The char was produced by carbonizing the washed and dried Tur dal husk in air tight container at 500°C for 1 hr. The obtained char was then activated by soaking in concentrated sulfuric acid (1:1 ratio) for 24 hr. at room temperature to get activated carbon. The physicochemical characterization of achieved activated carbon was done for various parameters along with analysis of trace elements (ICP), crystal nature (XRD) and structural morphology (SEM). The optimum condition for adsorption was studied by altering pH (2-10), agitation speed (50-250 rpm), temperature (10-60°C), adsorbent dose (0.1- 2.25 g) and contact time (0.5-4 hr.). The work concludes activated carbon prepared from Tur dal husk possess considerable metal adsorption property and showing maximum activity in an optimum condition of 6 pH, 200 rpm agitation speed, 10°C temperature, 2.25 g adsorbent dose and 3 hr. contact time. The examination of thermodynamic data confirmed the adsorption by the developed activated carbon was exothermic (positive ΔH0), changing from spontaneous to non-spontaneous with increase temperature (both negative and positive ΔG0), making system ordered and feasible (positive ) through adsorption. The work suggests way of giving value addition to pulse processing industry waste for their better utilization in eco-friendly and economical way.



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Kithul Flour (Caryota urens) as a Potential Flour Source for Food Industry

1Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

2Food Research Unit, Gannoruwa

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 10-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J A A C Wijesinghe, I. Wicramasinghe, K.H Saranandha. Kithul Flour (Caryota urens) as a Potential Flour Source for Food Industry. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(1):10-18. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: J  A A C Wijesinghe, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Email:


This study search for underutilized flour source, obtained from Kithul (Caryota urens) trees in Sri Lanka which is potentially valuable as food ingredient for the industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the Physico-chemical and functional properties of Kithul flour. The protein content of the flour was 1.0% while the total fat content was 0.33%. It contained considerable amount of Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium and Iron content as 70.1, 59.5, 66.6 and 14.0 mg/100g respectively. Total starch content was 66.82%. In the case of Amylose content, Kithul flour contained 28.42% while amylopectin presented 71.32%. The high moisture sorption value has presented by Kithul flour samples as 29.47%. And also being high density flour (as 0.69g/cm3) this will be better thickener as well as a stabilizer in baking powders and as an emulsifier in the food industry. The measurement of gelatinization temperature which was obtained by Differential scanning colorimetric method was 76.74 °C, while enthalpy for gelatinization of Kithul flour was 11.12 J/g. The least gelation concentration (LGC) was 6. Length of the granules ranged from 26.5 to 64.7 μm and width of granules ranged from 7.0 to 56.9 μm. Three types of granular shapes as oval, spherical and irregular globular shape were exhibited. By considering all above Physico-chemical properties there is high possibility to use Kithul flour for empower the food industry, simultaneously strengthening the Kithul Industry with rural economy in Sri Lanka.



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Rapid Determination of Trans Fats in Thermally Oxidized Soybean Oil by Transmission FT-IR Spectroscopy

1Government Muslim Science Degree College Hyderabad-71000, Education and Literacy Department, Sindh Pakistan

2National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan;Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry Konya, Turkey

3National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan

4Metallurgy & Material Engineering Department, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan

5Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan

6Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry Konya, Turkey

7Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Necmettin Erbakan University- 42090, Konya, Turkey

8Institute of Advanced Research Studies in Chemical Science University of Sindh Jamshoro

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 19-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Younis Talpur, Syeda Sara Hassan, S.A. Mahesar, Aftab Ahmed Kandhro, Huseyin Kara, S.T.H. Sherazi, Abdul Majid Channa. Rapid Determination of Trans Fats in Thermally Oxidized Soybean Oil by Transmission FT-IR Spectroscopy. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(1):19-23. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: M.  Younis Talpur, Government Muslim Science Degree College Hyderabad-71000, Education and Literacy Department, Sindh Pakistan. Email:


The oxidative deterioration of soybean oil during intermittent heating associated with 190°C was monitored by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least square approach. Transmission infrared spectroscopy was applied to attain better sensitivity using 200 µm KCl cell. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, due to this, the formation of trans fatty acids occurred during heating at different interval of times from fresh to 12 hour at constant temperature of 190°C. The best regression at 0.999 was obtained for the determination of trans fats and there is an increased pattern of trans fatty acids in thermally oxidized soybean oil at temperature of 190°C. The result of the study shows that transmission infrared spectroscopy can be used as a fast and accurate method for the determination of trans fatty acids in the heated edible oils.



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Partial Substitution of Barely Malt by Effective Use of Selected Secondary Starch Crops in Brewing Technology by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with a Case Example of Dashen Brewery

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Bahirdar University, Bahirdar, P.O.Box 26, Ethiopia

2Bahirdar University, Bahirdar, P.O.Box 26, Ethiopia

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(1), 24-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Temesgen Atnafu, Getasew Abebaw. Partial Substitution of Barely Malt by Effective Use of Selected Secondary Starch Crops in Brewing Technology by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with a Case Example of Dashen Brewery. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(1):24-26. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Temesgen  Atnafu, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bahirdar University, Bahirdar, P.O.Box 26, Ethiopia. Email:


In this study partial substitute of barley malt by effective use of maize, potato and enset were investigated using saccharomyces cervisiae. Barley malt is the principal ingredient in the manufacturing of beer and has traditionally been the grain of choice in the brewing industry. However, it is not always economically feasible to brew with 100% malted barley, and at present time breweries are forced to minimize their costs without changing the quality of their beer. Therefore, this study was utilized Maize, Potato and Enset starch as a partial substitute for barley malt and to evaluate some physico-chemical quality attributes of the beer. All the experiments were conducted Dashen Brewery S.C, Ethiopia. Four series of experiments in triplicate involving the starch from the three crops (50%, 62.5% and 75% starch substitute from each) with full barley malt serving as a control was conducted. The major characteristics of the beer (alcohol content & flavor) were evaluated for each of the 50%, 62.5% and 75% substitutes from the three crops with reference to the control beer. The results showed that 75% substitution of barley malt with Maize and Enset starch is promising in the beer production.



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Modeling and Evaluation of Thermal Diffusivity and Activation Energy of Potato slices in Forced Convection Multi Tray Solar Dryer

1Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, SRMGPC, Lucknow U.P, India

2Centre For Energy Resource and Development (CERD), Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology

3(Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, India

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(2), 27-32
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Srivastava A.K, Shukla S.K, Singh U.K. Modeling and Evaluation of Thermal Diffusivity and Activation Energy of Potato slices in Forced Convection Multi Tray Solar Dryer. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(2):27-32. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Srivastava  A.K, Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, SRMGPC, Lucknow U.P, India. Email:


In the work being presented, the modeling and analysis of thermal diffusivity and activation energy of high moisture potato slices in multi tray solar dryer has been investigated. Thin layer drying experiments were conducted on potato slices kept in multi tray cabinet dryer with PCM (Lauric acid) as energy storage system on 14/3/2014 and 24/3/2014 under Indian climatic conditions. The experimental setup consists of a flat plate solar collector with a blower and a drying cabinet with PCM kept in a chamber. The study was performed in the drying temperature ranging from 300.2K to 332K and at 0.4 m/Sec air velocity. Seven common thin layer drying models were fitted to the experimental data and several statistical tools (R2, RMSE and SSE) were used to adjudge the most appropriate model. Logarithmic model for effective moisture diffusivity and quadratic power model for activation energy were found as the most appropriate models for their computation. Effective diffusivity was found to vary from 1.17exp (-7) to 10.0889exp(-7)m2/sec and activation energy was found to vary from 0.0525KJ/mole to 4.524742 KJ/mole. These findings are being presented in this paper.



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Effect of Starch Type on the Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Beef Patties Formulated with Local Spices

1Department of Process Engineering, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

2Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

3Laboratory of Biomolecular Engineering, Lorraine University, Nancy, France

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(2), 33-39
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. D. Mbougueng, D. Tenin, C. Tchiégang, J. Scher. Effect of Starch Type on the Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Beef Patties Formulated with Local Spices. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(2):33-39. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: P.  D. Mbougueng, Department of Process Engineering, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon. Email:


This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of local potato and cassava starch on the proximate compositions, physicochemical and textural properties of beef patties. The control patty (Pcontrol) was prepared with commercial Leader priceTM potato starch incorporated at 50g/kg of ground meat, while other patties were formulated with starch from two local potatoes (Sipiera and Tselefou) and tree local cassava varieties (2524, 4115 and Seedling) during which 20, 30, 40 and 50g starch /kg of ground meat was used.The results showed that moisture content varied according to starch type and starch quantity for both raw and cooked patties. Water contents of cooked patties were lower than their corresponding raw ones. The same trend was not observed for protein and fat contents of cooked patties. Starch content significantly affected the water holding capacity of raw patties (P<0.05) and for cooked patties, cooking yield was improved (P<0.05) at the lowest starch incorporation rate (20%) irrespective of the starch type. Patty prepared with Seedling starch at incorporation rate of 40g/kg of batter (PS40) is the most similar to the control one.



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