Welcome to American Journal of Food Science and Technology

American Journal of Food Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of food science and technology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of food science and technology.

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJFST

   

Article

Constraints and Compliances of Traceability in Low Grown Orthodox Black Tea Manufacturing Process

1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(3), 74-81
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ChandanaVindika Kumara Lokunarangodage, Indira Wickramasinghe, Kamburawala Kankanamge Don Somathilaka Ranaweera. Constraints and Compliances of Traceability in Low Grown Orthodox Black Tea Manufacturing Process. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(3):74-81. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: ChandanaVindika  Kumara Lokunarangodage, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. Email: vindikal@gmail.com

Abstract

Traceability practices and their compliances in low grown orthodox black tea manufacturing process were examined, while proposing possible solutions for identified major drawbacks. The physical traceability in supply chain was considered one step forward and one step backward from the point of manufacturing, starting from auction/buyer back to supplier. Randomized stratified sampling was used. The traceability was evaluated using a checklist, end product sampling, open ended interviews, observations and internal document studies. The orthodox process was more complicated unlike other production processes due to the different separation techniques employed for grading and variety of grades produced because the sifting/grading was the key to number of different tea varieties. Major traceability issues were observed in leaf collection and grading operations due to complexity of separation through Myddleton, Chota, Michie and Winnower, which reduced the specific amounts produced, where bulking and blending process further extended complexity, while increasing the mixing of different made tea together with increased number of suppliers. Considering 1st, 2nd, 3rd dhool and big bulk with given separation techniques during grading; a single tea leaf could pass many paths before it end up in a specific product due to weight, size and shape of the leaf of a shoot based on the way it was rolled in orthodox rollers, where traceability up to tea bush, grading, blending and traceability of sample back to supplier was not fully complying. Nevertheless, supplier records, traceability after packing, traceability at dispatch and after dispatch were in full compliance, and other factors had varying degree of traceability compliances which make the compliances unachievable. Alternatively, if made tea is considered as bulk material, use of emerging technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags or/and DNA barcoding may be potential tools in rectifying such drawbacks and further research is needed to assess their efficacy in the field.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Pre-treatments and Drying Methods on Chemical Composition, Microbial and Sensory Quality of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour and Porridge

1Arbamich University

2Food, Beverage and Pharmaceutical Industry Development Institute, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia

3Hawassa University, School of Nutrition, Food Science and Technology, Hawassa, Ethiopia


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(3), 82-88
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fana Haile, Shimelis Admassu, Abrehet Fisseha. Effects of Pre-treatments and Drying Methods on Chemical Composition, Microbial and Sensory Quality of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour and Porridge. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(3):82-88. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Shimelis  Admassu, Food, Beverage and Pharmaceutical Industry Development Institute, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia. Email: shimelisemire@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on the chemical composition (proximate composition, β-carotene content and phytochemicals), functional properties, microbial and sensory of orange-fleshed sweet potato flour and porridge. Physical (blanching) and chemical (1% salt, 0.5% citric acid solution soaked for 20 min) of the sliced OFSP followed by drying (sun, solar and fluidized bed dried) with complete randomized design for chemical composition, functional properties, and microbial load analysis and randomized complete block design was used for sensory analysis. The moisture (4 - 8%), protein (4 - 8%), fat (0.9 - 2.5), ash (4 - 8%), fiber (3.5 - 7%), total carbohydrates (80 - 84%) measured as a function of treatment and drying. The energy contribution of OFSP was determined by difference of the proximate excluding the fiber (352.9-365.6kcal/100g). The salt treated and FB dried had significantly lowest moisture content and highest ash content, citric acid treated and FB dried had significantly highest protein content and gross energy, control and FB dried had significantly highest fiber content, control and sun dried had significantly highest fat content and blanched and FB dried had significantly highest total carbohydrates. The β-carotene (82 -127μg/g), tannin (74 -108mg/100g) and phytate content (51 - 98mg/100g) was measured. Blanched and FB dried was observed better in retention of β-carotene and reduction of phytochemicals (tannin and phytate). The salt treated and FB dried was measured increment with WAC, viscosity and lowest LGC, blanched and FB had highest OAC and high bulk density in the control. The microbial analysis showed OFSP porridge within microbiological acceptable limit. The sensory acceptability showed OFSP was accepted in all sensory attributes. In conclusion, the blanching and FB drying techniques were the best approach in retaining the nutrients.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Fermentation on Selected Anti-Nutrients in the Products of Four Local Cassava Varieties from Niger State, Nigeria

1Centre for Preliminary and Extra-mural Studies, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

2Chemistry Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

3Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(3), 89-96
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Etsuyankpa M. B., Gimba C. E., Agbaji E. B., Omoniyi K. I., M.M. Ndamitso, Mathew J. T.. Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Fermentation on Selected Anti-Nutrients in the Products of Four Local Cassava Varieties from Niger State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(3):89-96. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-6.

Correspondence to: Etsuyankpa  M. B., Centre for Preliminary and Extra-mural Studies, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Email: myankpa@yahoo.com

Abstract

The effect of microbial fermentation on the anti-nutrient composition of some cassava products was evaluated by the inoculation of the pulps of four local varieties of cassava, using microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The results of the study revealed that microbial fermentation caused significant reductions (P < 0.05) in the cyanide (86%), tannins (73%), oxalate (61%), phytate (72%) and saponins (92%) contents of the cassava products. The results of the study suggest that cassava products can be nutritionally improved with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentations.

Keywords

References

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