American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi




Nutritional Evaluation of Breadfruit and Beniseed Composite Flours

1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(6), 182-187
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Peters Henry, Mgbang John Edward, Essien N. A., Ikpeme Christine Emmanuel. Nutritional Evaluation of Breadfruit and Beniseed Composite Flours. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(6):182-187. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-6-5.

Correspondence to: Peters  Henry, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Email:


This study assessed the chemical composition, functional, mineral, and anti-nutritional properties of composite flour produced from breadfruit and beniseed. Matured and freshly harvested breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and beniseed (Sesame indicum) were obtained from a local market in Calabar. Three blends were prepared by homogenously mixing breadfruit flour and beniseed flour in the percentage proportions as 70:30 (sample B), 80:20 (sample C), and 90:10 (sample D) while 100% wheat flour (sample A) was used as control. Proximate, functional, mineral, and anti-nutritional properties of the composite flour were examined using standard methods. Results obtained indicated that the chemical composition of the composite flour ranged from 25.40 to 36.23mg/100g moisture, 19.63 to 22.33mg/100g protein, 19.33 to 26.23mg/100g fat, 2.37 to 8.82mg/100g ash, 0.33 to 3.25mg/100g crude fibre, 65.73 to 141.67mg/100g calcium, 62.74 to 138.80mg/100g magnesium, 117.13 to 834.36mg/100g sodium. Residual anti-nutrients in the composite flour ranged from 3.30 to 7.94mg/100g oxalate and 0.26 to 0.79mg/100g phytate. The functional properties of the composite flour ranged from 140.8 to 170.03g/ml water absorption capacity, 0.76 to 4.79g/ml bulk density and 145.0 to 170.10g/ml oil absorption capacity. Sample B (70:30 ratio of breadfruit flour and beniseed flour) showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in the chemical composition, functional, and mineral properties of the flour when compared to the other substitution levels and control There was significant (p<0.05) reduction of anti-nutrients in sample B compared to the other substitution levels and control. The result has shown that sample B (70:30) composite flour showed improved chemical composition and could be utilized for product development in different food system.



[1]  Aboubakar, N. Y. N., Scher, J., Mbofung, C. M. F. (2008). Physicochemical, thermal properties and micro structure of six varieties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) flours and starches. Journal of Food Engineering, 86:294-305.
[2]  Abou-Garbia, H. A., Shehata, A. A. Y. & Shahidi, F. (2000). Effect of Processing on oxidative stability and lipid classes of Sesame oil. Food Resource International, 33:331-340.
[3]  Adebayo, B., (2012). Cassava bread will save Nigeria N300bn annually – NAFDAC. Punch May 18, 2012.
[4]  Adebooye, O. C., Singh, V. (2008). Physicochemical properties of the flours and starches of two cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp). Innovation Food Science and Emerging Technology, 9: 92-100.
[5]  Adeniyi, S. (2012). Cassava bread is good for diabetics-NSN President. Nigeria Tribune, Tuesday June 19, 2012.
Show More References
[6]  Aletor, V. A., & Omodara, O. A. (1994). Studies of some leguminous brow plants with particular reference to their proximate, mineral and some endogenous anti-nutritional constituents. Animal Feed Science Technology, 46:343-348.
[7]  Alobo, A. P. (2001). Effect of Sesame Seed flour on millet biscuit characteristics. Plant Food Human Nutrition, 56:195-202.
[8]  Alobo, A. P. (2006). Effect of Sesame seed on millet biscuit. Journal of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 64:21-27.
[9]  Amusa, N. A., Kehinde, I. A., Ashaye, O. A. (2002). Biodeterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition. African Journal of Biotechnology, 1(2):57-60.
[10]  Anderson, R. A., Conway, H. F., Pfeifer, V. F., Griffin, E. L. (1969). Roll and extrusion-cooking of grain sorghum grits. Certified Science Today, 14:372-380.
[11]  AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analaysis (15th Edn). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, V. A., U.S.A. P. 114-320.
[12]  AOAC (2010). Officials Methods of Analysis (17th Edn). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, D. C., U.S.A.
[13]  Babatunde, J. (2012). Fourty percent (40%) cassava inclusion in flour: are the millers fighting back? Vanguard, June 08, 2012.
[14]  Conney, R. V., Custer, L. T., Okinaka, L., & Franke, A. A. (2001). Effects of Dietary Sesame Seeds on Plasma Tocopherol levels. Nutrition and Cancer, 39: 66-71.
[15]  Day, R. A., & Underwood, A. I. (1986). Quantitative Analysis (5th Edn). Prentice & Hall Publication, London, P. 701.
[16]  Eke, O. S., Akobundu, E. N. T. (1993). Functional properties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed flour as affected by processing. Chemical, 48:337-340.
[17]  Ekwenye, U. N., and Okorie, C. F. (2010). Antibacterial activity of the tetraplura tetraptera (Taub pod) extracts. International Journal of Pharmacological and Biological Science, 1(4):731-741.
[18]  Giami, S. Y., Okonkwo, V. I., Akusu, M. O. (1994). Chemical composition and functional properties of raw, heat-treated and partially proteolysed wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed flour. Food Chemistry. 49:237-243.
[19]  Harbone, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plants analysis. USA: Champman press, PP 29-42.
[20]  Hui, Y. H. (1996). Bailey’s Industrial oil and Fat Products (5th Edn). London: Wiley Inter-Science Publishers.
[21]  Ihekoronye, M. E., and Ngoddy, B. N. (1985). Chemistry of Oil Extraction (5th Edn). Punglo Press, pg 21-56.
[22]  Kelsay, J. L. (1985). Effect of oxalic acid on calcium bioavailability in: Kies C (ed). Nutritional Bioavailability of calcium. Washington, D. C. pp 105-116.
[23]  Kinsella, J. E. (1976). Functional properties of proteins in foods: Critical Review of Food Science Nutrition, 7:219-280.
[24]  Mepba, H. D., Eboh, L., & Nwaojigwa, S. U. (2007). Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain composite flours. African Journal of Food Nutrition Development, 7(2):1-22.
[25]  Momoh, S. (2011). Bakeries to enjoy smooth transition to 40% cassava bread. Business day, Friday December 16, 2011.
[26]  Nkama, I., & Gbenyi, D. I. (2001). The effects of malting of millet & sorghum on the residue phytate and poly-phenols in “dakura”, a Nigerian cereal/legume snack food. Nigeria Tropical Journal of Agriculture, 3:270-271.
[27]  Oladele, A. K., and Aina, J. O. (2007). Chemical composition and functional properties of flour from two varieties of figernut (Cyperus esculentus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(21):2473-2476.
[28]  Oloye, O. A. (2006). Sensory evaluation of and acceptance of composite bread from wheat, cassava starch and cassava flour blends. Unpublished PhD thesis in Food Science and technology department Federal University of Technology, Akure.
[29]  Ragone, D (1997). Breadfruit (Artocarpu saltilis) (Parkinson) Fosberg. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops.
[30]  Shittu, T. A., Sanni, L. O., Awonorin, S. O., Maziya-Dixon, B., Dixon, A. (2005). Use of multivariate techniques in studying flour making characteristics of some Cassava Mosaic Disease resistant cassava clones. African Crop Science Con Proceedings, 7:621-630.
[31]  Subramania, S., Viswanathan, R. (2007). Bulk density and friction coefficients of selected minor millet grains and flours. Journal of Food Engineering, 81:118-126.
[32]  Uaboi-Egbenni, P. O., Osobande, A. O., Okolie, P. N., teniola, O. and Ofodigbo, C. (2008). Proximate composition of whole dehulled and fermented beniseed (sesame indicum) with associated bacteria species. Nigerian Food Journal, 26:1-6.
[33]  Ubbor, S. C., Akobundu, E. N. T. (2009). Quality Characteristics of Cookies from Composite Flours of Watermelon Seed, Cassava and Wheat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8:1097-1102.
[34]  Weaver, C. M., & Heaney, R. P. (2006). Calcium in Human Health. Humana Press Inc. Totowa New Jersey.
Show Less References


Preparation of Semi-dairy Yoghurt from Soy bean

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Education, University of Education, Winneba

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi

3Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Development Studies, Tamale

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sampson Gilbert Owiah, Duah Naomi, Gyima Vida, Alhassan Martha. Preparation of Semi-dairy Yoghurt from Soy bean. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Sampson  Gilbert Owiah, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Education, University of Education, Winneba. Email:


The study was undertaken to have soymilk used as an alternative low cost plant protein product in the production of yoghurt. It was in effect to also address the allergy phenomenon of some sections of vegetarianism and minimize post-harvest losses of soybean which has been underutilized. Semi-dairy yoghurts of cow-soymilk were produced to evaluate its proximate composition and consumer acceptability. Soybean was purchased from the central and Bantama markets and the soy and cow milks prepared at Boadi farms, KNUST. Four different yoghurt products; SDY01 (100%CM), SDY02 (80%CM: 20%SM), SDY03 (60%CM: 40%SM) and SDY04 (40%CM: 60%SM). Samples were examined proximately according to AACC 2000 standard of analysis while sensory evaluation was performed according to the 7 points score hedonic scale. Excel database was used to analysis result at 5% level of significance. Average proximate values for moisture 20.00±0.76; Ash 2.36±0.10; crude fat 4.00±0.29 and carbohydrate 75.92±1.35 contents were highest for sample SDY01 and least for SDY04. Crude fibre and protein were however, higher for SDY04, 2.25±0.81 and 23.00±2.85 respectively. That is, soymilk could contribute considerable amount of fibre and protein to the nutritive spectrum of diets. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences at P < 0.05 between mean values. Sensory analysis according to the hedonic scale inference showed that the four semi-dairy yoghurt under the food characteristics evaluated were fairly “moderately liked” and “liked very much” by the range 5.12 to 6.24, in the exception of SDY02 that recorded 4.94 implying a “neither liked nor disliked” assertion for thickness and sourness food characteristics. No significant difference existed between these values for all the samples. Per this study, soymilk could possibly be used as a composite raw material in the production of yoghurt and thus to ensure for better and greater utilization of the soybean.



[1]  Tull, A. (1996). Food and Nutrition, Oxford University Press: 109-111.
[2]  Wood, B. J. B. (1985). Microbiology of fermented foods Vol. 1. London: Elsevier Science Publishers. In: Viability of lactic acid microflora in different types of yoghurt, (eds.) Birollo, G.A.,
[3]  Roissart, H., and Luquet, F. M. (1994). BacteÂriesLactiques: Aspects fondamentauxet technologiques (Vol. 2). Grenoble, France: Lorica. In: Viability of lactic acid microflora in different types of yoghurt, (eds.).
[4]  Sanful, R.E., (2009).Promotion of Coconut in the Production of Yoghurt. African Journal of Food Science 3 (5): 147-149.
[5]  Flynn, A. and Cashman, K. (1997). Nutritional aspects of minerals in bovine and human milks. In: Advanced dairy chemistry Vol. 3, Fox P.F., (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall : 257-302.
Show More References
[6]  Fernandes, C.F., Shahani, K.M.,andAmer, M.A. (1987). Therapeutic role of dietary lactobacilli and lactobacillic fermented dairyproducts. E M S Microbiol Rev, 46: 343-356.
[7]  Fernandes, C.F. and Shahani, K.M. (1990). Anticarcinogenic and immunological properties of dietary lactobacilli. Journal of Food Protect, 53: 704-10.
[8]  Colombel, J.F., Cortot, A., Neu, C. and Romand, C. (1987). Yoghurt with Bifidobucteriurnfongurnreduces erythromycin induced gastrointestinal effects. Lancet, ii: 43.
[9]  Riener, J., Noci, F., Cronin, D.A., Morgan, D.J., Lyng, J.G. (2010). A comparison of selected quality characteristics of yoghurts prepared from thermosonicated and conventionally heated milks. Food Chemistry, 119 (3): 1108-1113.
[10]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2005). A.O.A.C. No. 945.38, No. 936.07, No.920.86 and No. 996.11. Chapter 32. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. Horwith, W. and Latimer, G.W. eds. A.O.A.C. International Suite 500, Maryland, U.S.A. pp. 2,5,18 and 27.
[11]  Ihekoronye, A.I and Ngoddy, P.O (1985).Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics.Macmillian Publishers Ltd, London and Oxford.Pp 283-292.
[12]  Borget, M. 1992. Food legumes. Macmillan Publishers. London.
[13]  Parman, G. K. (1968). Fortification of Cereals and Cereal Products with Proteins and Amino Acids. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 16.
[14]  Potter NN, Hotchkiss JH (1996). Food Science (5/e). CBS Publisher and Distributors, New Delhi.
[15]  Alvarez, F., Argüello, M., Cabero,M., Riera, F.A., Alvarez, R., Iglesias J.R. and Granda, J. (1998). Fermentation of concentrated skim-milk.Effects of different protein/lactose ratios obtained by ultrafiltration-diafiltration, J. Sci. Food Agric. In: Production and evaluation of a high protein version of non-fat yogurt, (ed.).
[16]  Magenis, R.B., Prudencio, E.S., Amboni, D.M.C., Junior, N.G.C., Oliveira, R.V.B., Soldi, V. and Benedet, H.D. (2006). Compositional and physical properties of yogurts manufactured from milk and whey cheese concentrated by ultrafiltration. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. In: Production and evaluation of a high protein version of non-fat yogurt, (ed.).
[17]  Abd El-khair, A.A. (2009). Production and evaluation of a high protein version of non-fat yogurt. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5(4): 310-316.
Show Less References


A View on Volatile Compounds of Kars Gruyere Cheese, a Traditional Cheese in Turkey

1Department of Food Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Kafkas University, TR-36100 Kars, Turkey

2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Atatürk University, TR-25240 Erzurum, Turkey

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(1), 6-10
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Asya ÇETİNKAYA, Güzin KABAN. A View on Volatile Compounds of Kars Gruyere Cheese, a Traditional Cheese in Turkey. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Asya  ÇETİNKAYA, Department of Food Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Kafkas University, TR-36100 Kars, Turkey. Email:


The study aims to determine volatile compound profile of Kars Gruyere cheese, which was produced by the traditional method. The volatile components were extracted from samples obtained from 20 different sales points, by using the SPME (solid phase micro-extraction) technique and identified using Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). In the samples, totally 40 compounds were identified including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids, esters, terpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogenous compounds and furan group. The study determined that the compounds of acetaldehyde, nonanal, 2-pentanone, ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, n-buthyl acetate, toluene and 6-methylthio-(1)-benzothiazole compounds have a significant share in the volatile compound porfile of Gruyere cheese’s.



[1]  Üçüncü, M. “A’dan Z’ye Peynir Teknolojisi,” Cilt II. Ege Üniversitesi, Mete Basım Matbaacılık, İzmir, 2004. (in Turkish).
[2]  Adam, R.C. “Türkiye Süt ve Mamullerinin Bileşimi,” Ankara Üniversitesi. Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, No: 92. Ankara, 1956. (in Turkish).
[3]  Yöney, Z. “Süt ve Mamülleri,” Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları. No: 421, Ankara, 1970. (in Turkish
[4]  Anonymous. “Kars 2015 yılı süt ve ürünleri kapasite raporu,” Kars Sanayi ve Ticaret Odası Müdürlüğü, Kars/Turkey (in Turkish).2015.
[5]  Anonymous. Düzey II Bölgeleri Kalkınma Programı, Pazarlama Araştırmaları, Süt ve Süt Ürünleri- TRA2, RD-AKKM, Kasım 2007.
Show More References
[6]  Ulutaş, Z., Çağlar, A., and Kurt, A. “Kars Gravyer peynirinin yapılışı, duyusal, fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri üzerinde bir araştırma,”Gıda, 18. 197-202. 1993. (in Turkish).
[7]  Fernandes R.. Microbiology Handbook Dairy Products. Leatherhead Publishing, a Divisionof Leatherhead Food International Ltd, RandallsRoad, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RY, UK. 173 p. 2008.
[8]  Anonymous. “Turkish Standardization Institute, Gruyere Cheese (TS 2174),” Ankara/Turkey. 1989.
[9]  McSweeney, P.L.H. Sousa, M.J. “Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening,” A review. Lait, 80.293-324. 2000.
[10]  Bintsis, T., Robinson, R.K. “A study of the adjunct cultures on the aroma compounds of Feta-type cheese,” Food Chemical, 88. 435-441. 2004.
[11]  Özdamar, K. “Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi”, Cilt 1.Anadolu Üniv. Yayınları No: 1001, Fen Fakültesi Yayınları No: 11, Eskişehir, 2015. (in Turkish).
[12]  Engels, W.J.M., Dekker, R., Jong, C., Neeter, R., Visser, S. “A comparative study of volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction of various types of ripened cheese,” Interntional Dairy Journal, 7. 255-263.1997.
[13]  Leuven, I.V., Caelenberg, T.V., Dirinck, P. “Aroma characterisation of Gouda-type cheese,” Interntional Dairy Journal, 18. 790-800. 2008.
[14]  Avşar, Y.K., Karagül-Yüceer, Y., Akdemir-Evren, G., Dilek, G., Eştürk, O. “Ekonomik öneme sahip geleneksel peynirlerimizin (Erzincan tulum peyniri, Ezine beyaz peyniri, Kars Kaşar peyniri, İzmir tulum peyniri) aroma profilinin belirlenmesi ve orijinal kalitesinin/kalitesinin belirlenmesinde potansiyel aroma-aktif maddelerin kullanılması,” 2009. (in Turkish).
[15]  Taylor, K.B.S. “Evaluation of flavor variation in Swiss cheese from five factories using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer,” The Ohio State University, Graduate Program in Food Science and Nutrition. 2013.
[16]  Çakmakçı, S. “Peynir lezzeti ve oluşumu-1,” Gıda, 21.261-268. 1996. (in Turkish).
[17]  Collins, Y.F., Mcsweeney, P.L.H., Wilkinson, M. G. “Lipolysis and free fatty acid catabolism in cheese: a review of current knowledge,” Interntional Dairy Journal, 13. 841-866. 2003.
[18]  Fox, P.F. Mcsweeney, P.L.H. “Chemistry, biochemistry and control of cheese flavor,” In 4th Cheese Symposium National Dairy Products Research Centre. Moorepark, pp, 135-159. Fermoy Co. Cork. 1995.
[19]  Leclercq, P.M.N., Corrieu, G., Spinnler, H.E. “Comparison of volatile compounds produced in model cheese medium deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii or K. marxianus,” Journal Dairy Science, 87. 1545-1550. 2004.
[20]  Kesenkeş, H., Akbulut, N. “Destek kültür olarak kullanılan bazı mayaların beyaz peynir aroması üzerine etkileri,” Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 43. 73-84. 2006. (in Turkish).
[21]  Barbieri, G., Bolzoni, L., Careri, M., Manglia, A., Parolari, G., Spagnoli, S.,Virgili, R. “Study of the volatile fraction of Parmesan cheese,” Journal Agriculture Food Chemical, 42.1170-l176.1994.
[22]  Bachmann, H.P., Bütikofer, U., Fröhlich-Wyder, M.T., Isolini, D., Jakob, E. “Swiss-Type Cheeses,” Fuquay JW, Fox P.J., & McSweeney P.L.H. editors. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, Amsterdam:Elsevier Ltd. p 712-720. 2011.
[23]  Bosset, J.O.,Collomb M., Sieber, R. “The aroma composition of Swiss Gruyere cheese. IV. The acidic volatile components and their changes in content during ripening,” Food Science Technology, 26.581-592. 1993.
[24]  Rychlik, M., Bosset, J.O. “Flavour and off-flavour compounds of Swiss Gruyére cheese. Evaluation of potent odorants,” Interntional Dairy Journal, 11. 895- 901. 2001.
[25]  Ertekin, B., Okur, O. D., Güzel-Seydim, Z. “Peynirde aminoasit katabolizması ile lezzet bileşenlerinin oluşumu,” Gıda, 34. 43-50. 2009. (in Turkish).
Show Less References