American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi




Utilization of Brown Rice Flour and Peanut Paste in Cake Production

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Ghana

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 129-134
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Asimah V.K., Kpodo F.M., Adzinyo O.A, Dzah C.S. Utilization of Brown Rice Flour and Peanut Paste in Cake Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):129-134. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Kpodo  F.M., Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Ghana. Email:,


Interest in gluten free and partially replaced wheat products have increased in recent years, hence the need for ingredients that can replace wheat in bakery products without compromising sensory and textural characteristics. The study evaluated the effect of partially and totally substituting wheat flour and margarine with brown rice flour and peanut paste on the sensory, nutritional and textural characteristics of the cake formulations. Total substitution of wheat flour with brown rice flour, and margarine with peanut paste was to produce a gluten free product with increased nutritional value. The study followed a 2 x 2 factorial design with replacement of wheat flour by brown rice flour (partially and totally) and replacement of margarine with peanut paste (partially and totally) as factors. Cake products with partially replaced margarine rated better in taste and overall acceptability than formulations in which margarine was totally replaced with peanut paste. However the gluten free formulation with high peanut proteins had higher sensory scores for texture confirmed by results for springiness, cohesiveness and resilience. Total replacement of margarine with peanut paste significantly increased crumb hardness of cake products. The crumb hardness, cohesiveness and springiness of the cake product (B) with total margarine replacement with peanut paste but partial wheat replacement with brown rice flour was not statistically different from the control. The peanut substituted brown rice cake products had significantly higher protein, fat and fibre content than the control product. Partial and total replacement of margarine with peanut paste and wheat with brown rice flour in cake formulations notably influenced the sensory, texture and nutritional characteristics of the products.



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Study the Storage Temperature & Periods on Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour

1Food Science and Technology, University of Aden

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Mysore, India

3Food Science and Technology, University of Aden, Aden, Yemen

4Food Science and Technology, University of Sana’a, Sana’a , Yemen

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 135-140
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muneer Saif Hassan Ahmed, Mohsen Omer Kanzal, Glal Ahmed Fadhl. Study the Storage Temperature & Periods on Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):135-140. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Muneer  Saif Hassan Ahmed, Food Science and Technology, University of Aden. Email:


When increasing the storage temperature from 27.5°C to 37.5°C the water absorption ratio of the flour is significantly increased. Besides, the average ratio of absorption of flour has increased more significantly when increasing storage period from one day to ten days, and by increasing the period of storage from ten days to thirty days, the increase is also significant. The overlap of the two factors of this study has a significant effect on this manner. There has been a significant increase in the time development of the dough at a storage temperature of 37.5°C, compared to 27.5°C. of storage. But, however, there has not been a significant effect of the storage periods or their overlapping with the temperature storage on this manner. It has been observed that the indicator of dough stability is higher when storing the flour under the temperature of 37.5°C in 4.45 minutes, compared with the stability of 2.23 minutes when storing the flour at a temperature of 27.5°C. On the other hand, increasing the period of storage from one day to ten days has led to a significant decrease in the stability of the dough, but in increasing the period to twenty days to thirty days, the high capacity of these would not reach the level of significance. The overlap, however, between these two factors has a significant effect on the stability of the dough.



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Effect of Hybrid Solar Drying Method on the Functional and Sensory Properties of Tomato

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, P. M. B. 2076 Yola, Nigeria

2SP Food and Bioscience Box 5401, 402 29 Gothenburg, Sweden

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 141-148
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J. B. Hussein, M. A. Usman, K. B. Filli. Effect of Hybrid Solar Drying Method on the Functional and Sensory Properties of Tomato. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):141-148. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: K.  B. Filli, Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, P. M. B. 2076 Yola, Nigeria. Email:


A hybrid solar dryer, direct solar energy dryer and open sun drying under the climatic conditions of Yola, Nigeria was used to dry tomato slices. The effect of these drying methods on the functional and sensory quality of the dried tomatoes was examined. The functional properties of the dried tomatoes slices were significantly different (p<0.05). In open sun dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.56 – 0.62 g/ml, water absorption index (WAI) 436.33 – 475.67 gH2O/sample, water solubility index (WSI) 6.00 – 14.00, specific volume 1.61 – 1.78 ml/g and wettability 10.33 – 13.33 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For solar dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.52 – 0.57 g/ml, the WAI ranged from 412.00 – 454.00 gH2O/sample, the water solubility index (WSI) range was 12.33 – 16.67, specific volume range was 1.73 – 1.90 ml/g and wettability ranged from 5.85 – 10.63 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For the hybrid dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.50 – 0.54 g/ml, the WAI values ranged from 386.00 – 436.00 gH2O/sample, the WSI 14.67 – 18.00, specific volume range was 1.84 – 1.99 ml/g and wettability 5.80 – 8.44 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato sample. The organoleptic properties showed that the tomatoes dried by hybrid drying method was superior in terms of acceptability test than those dried using direct solar energy and a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel tomato products. Conclusively, good quality shelf stable dried tomato slices could be produced using hybrid drying method.



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