American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi




Levels of Benzoic Acid, Sulphur (IV) Oxide and Sorbic Acid in Carbonated Drinks Sold in Lagos, Nigeria

1Chemistry Department, Lagos State University, LASU P.O. Box 0001, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

2Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Chemistry Department, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

3Biochemistry Department, Lagos State University, LASU P.O. Box 0001 Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

4Deparment of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(2), 38-44
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwordi C.T., Olanrewaju A.J., Wusu A.D., Oguntade B.K.. Levels of Benzoic Acid, Sulphur (IV) Oxide and Sorbic Acid in Carbonated Drinks Sold in Lagos, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(2):38-44. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-2.

Correspondence to: Onwordi  C.T., Chemistry Department, Lagos State University, LASU P.O. Box 0001, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. Email:


Residual sulphite as sulphur dioxide causes severe systemic reaction characterised by difficulty in breathing and cardiovascular collapse. Few studies have described exposure of humans to excessive preservatives from food and beverage products in Nigeria. Little is also known about the levels of preservatives such as benzoate, sorbates, sulphur (IV) oxide, sorbic acid and ascorbic acid in carbonated drink (CD) ,fruit juices (FJ), sport drinks(SD) and dairy drinks. Commonly consumed carbonated drinks (14), fruit juices (14), sport drinks (2) and dairy drinks (3) purchased in various markets in Lagos metropolis were analysed for the preservative contents using standard methods. Residual sulphite levels expressed as sulphur (IV) oxide in CD ranged from 4.0 ¨C 15.2 mg/L, FD ranged from ND-13.6 mg/L. SD ranged from 3.6-13.6 mg/L while in DD it ranged from ND ¨C 4.7 mg/L. Benzoic and citric acid contents for CD, FJ, SD and DD ranged from 222-702 mg/L & 0.38-0.89% m/v ; 168-799 mg/L & 0.26-0.89% m/v; 451-494 mg/L & 0.24-0.32% m/v; 132-318 mg/L & 0.36-0.7% m/v, respectively. The pH of the drinks ranged from 2.46-5.58. 55% of the samples analysed have benzoic acid content below the regulatory limit. Values of pH, ascorbic acid and sulphur (IV) oxide for all samples were in conformity with standards. Benzoic acid and ascorbic acid concentration was higher in Sport drinks than other samples while levels of sulphur (IV) oxide and citric acid were more in carbonated drinks. The citric acid values of about 21% of the samples analysed had value above required limit of 0.5%m/v. The sum total of the preservatives levels are within the regulatory limit, however, 71.4% of the carbonated and 100% of the fruit drinks have benzoic acid level above the national permitted level of 250 and 150 mg/L respectively.



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Copigmentation Effect of Some Phenolic Acids on Stabilization of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Anthocyanin Extract

1Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(2), 45-52
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Magda S. Sharara. Copigmentation Effect of Some Phenolic Acids on Stabilization of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Anthocyanin Extract. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(2):45-52. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-3.

Correspondence to: Magda  S. Sharara, Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Email:


The present study aimed at utilization of copigmentation phenomenon to increase the stability of anthocyanin in roselle extract during storage at 10°C for 60 days by the addition of some phenolic acids (ferulic, cinnamic and coumaric) as a copigments and investigate the possibility of using copigmented extracts as a natural food colorants instead of harmful synthetic ones. The data obtained confirmed that addition of the aforementioned phenolic acids to roselle anthocyanin extracts resulted in an increment of anthocyanin and color stability during storage comparing with the control extract. At the end of storage period, the reduction in anthocyanin content were 31.53, 20.48, 9.31 and 5.52% for control and extracts copigmented with ferulic, cinnamic coumaric acids respectively. Addition of phenolic acids to roselle extract also attributed to a hyperchromic effect and bathochromic shift in visible absorption spectra of copigmented extracts compared to the control. Roselle anthocyanin extracts treated with phenolic acids showed a noticeable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with control extract. Marshmallow prepared from studied copigmented roselle extracts as a natural colorants was highly accepted by panelists.



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The Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying Method on Nutrients, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) Leaves

1Food Biophysics, Biochemistry and Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 455, Ngaoundere, Adamawa Region, Cameroon

2College of Technology, University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39, Bambili, North West Region, Cameroon

American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(2), 53-60
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-4
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pierre Nobosse, Edith N. Fombang, Carl M F. Mbofung. The Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying Method on Nutrients, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) Leaves. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(2):53-60. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-4.

Correspondence to: Edith  N. Fombang, Food Biophysics, Biochemistry and Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 455, Ngaoundere, Adamawa Region, Cameroon. Email:


The antioxidant activity of plant materials is affected by post-harvest treatments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of steam blanching and two (solar and electric) drying methods on physicochemical composition, antioxidant activity (AOA) and rehydration properties of Moringa oleifera leaves. Fresh and blanched leaves of M. oleifera were dried by indirect solar-drying (≈35 ± 3°C, 12 h) and hot air electric drying (50°C, 5 h), and milled into flour (particle size ≤ 500 µm). Fresh, blanched and dried leaves were analyzed for their nutrient and phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity (Total Reducing Power (TRP) and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity) as well as rehydration properties (water absorption capacity (WAC) and water solubility index (WSI). Macronutrients content of M. oleifera leaves were unaffected by blanching and drying. Irrespective of drying method, drying had a significant negative effect (p < 0.05) on phytochemical contents, TRP and DPPH scavenging activity of M. oleifera leaves. Blanching prior to drying, however, dimmed the negative effect of the latter. Blanched leaves exhibited higher carotenoids content, TRP and WAC compared to unblanched leaves; whereas blanching caused a decrease in DPPH scavenging activity, vitamin C and WSI. This study highlights that fresh and blanched Moringa oleifera leaves are more suiTableas a source of dietary antioxidants than dry leaves.



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