American Journal of Food Science and Technology

ISSN (Print): 2333-4827

ISSN (Online): 2333-4835

Editor-in-Chief: Hyo Choi

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJFST

   

Article

Mathematical Modelling and Solar Tunnel Drying Characteristics of Yellow Maize

1Department of Physics University of Lomé, Laboratory of Solar Energy (LES), Togo

2Department of mathematics, National Institute of technology (NITR) Rourkela, India


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(4), 115-124
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-4-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. Agbossou, K. Napo, S. Chakraverty. Mathematical Modelling and Solar Tunnel Drying Characteristics of Yellow Maize. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(4):115-124. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-4-5.

Correspondence to: K.  Agbossou, Department of Physics University of Lomé, Laboratory of Solar Energy (LES), Togo. Email: atheophile124@yahoo.fr, atheophile1245@gmail.com

Abstract

Solar drying experiments of maizes were conducted at Gape- Kpodzi, in southern Togo. In this purpose, new type tunnel solar dryer was used. Solar dryer consist of an air collector, drying chamber and an air circulation system. Heated air in solar air collector was forced through the maizes by a blower. Yellow dent type maize was used for drying experiments. During the drying period, drying air temperature, relative humidity, air flow rates, solar radiation, and lose of mass were measured continuously in different levels of the dryer. Maize with initial moisture content of 0.37 dry basis (kg water / kg dry matter) were dried until they reached a final moisture content of 0.13 (kg water / kg dry matter) at different temperatures with respect to solar radiation variation. Drying time was examined with moisture content ratio as exponential and polynomial correlations. The effective diffusivity varied from 1.938x10-10 to 1.164x10-10 m2/s over the different level of temperature range. Fourteen different mathematical models available in literature were compared using their coefficient of determination to estimate solar drying curves. According to statistical analysis results, Midilli et al. drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of maize with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.9975 as compared to other models. The results of this study revealed that the developed solar tunnel dryer can used for dehydration of maize crops under the climatic conditions of southern Togo.

Keywords

References

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Article

Isolation and Characterisation of Esherichia coli O157 in Human Stool Samples from Parts of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 125-128
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.O. AbdulAziz, Maryam Aminu, D. A. Machido. Isolation and Characterisation of Esherichia coli O157 in Human Stool Samples from Parts of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):125-128. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: H.O.  AbdulAziz, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Email: hazizono11@yahoo.com

Abstract

Esherichia coli O157 is pathogenic strain of Esherichia coli that is known to cause diarrhoea leading to fluid loss, electrolyte imbalance and other severe complications like haemolytic uraemic syndrome. This work was therefore aimed at isolating and serologically characterising Esherichia coli O157 from human stool with the set objectives of identifying the risk factors associated with diarrhoea and determining the serological characteristics of Esherichia coli isolates. A total of one hundred and forty four (144) stool samples were collected from patients with age ranging from zero to sixty (0-60) years, statistical analysis of the risk factors showed that only zero to five years age range of the respondents had a significant statistical difference of 0.012 (P<0.05). The presumptive Esherichia coli isolates that appeared as green metallic sheen on Eosin Methylene Blue agar were picked and confirmed biochemically as Esherichia coli using Microgen biochemical test kit. The confirmed E. coli isolates were then cultured on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar and the two isolates that appeared colourless on SMAC were confirmed serologically as Esherichia coli O157 using the latex agglutination test kit. Although 1.39% prevalence rate of Esherichia coli O157 was obtained it is pertinent to note that, Esherichia coli O157 is becoming a public health threat because of the debilitating effects it has on humans and also due to its low infectivity dose. There is therefore, the need for more public awareness to educate our citizens on ways of improving on the unsanitary environment.

Keywords

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Article

Utilization of Brown Rice Flour and Peanut Paste in Cake Production

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Ghana


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 129-134
doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Asimah V.K., Kpodo F.M., Adzinyo O.A, Dzah C.S. Utilization of Brown Rice Flour and Peanut Paste in Cake Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):129-134. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Kpodo  F.M., Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Ghana. Email: fideliskpodo@yahoo.com, fkpodo@hopoly.edu.gh

Abstract

Interest in gluten free and partially replaced wheat products have increased in recent years, hence the need for ingredients that can replace wheat in bakery products without compromising sensory and textural characteristics. The study evaluated the effect of partially and totally substituting wheat flour and margarine with brown rice flour and peanut paste on the sensory, nutritional and textural characteristics of the cake formulations. Total substitution of wheat flour with brown rice flour, and margarine with peanut paste was to produce a gluten free product with increased nutritional value. The study followed a 2 x 2 factorial design with replacement of wheat flour by brown rice flour (partially and totally) and replacement of margarine with peanut paste (partially and totally) as factors. Cake products with partially replaced margarine rated better in taste and overall acceptability than formulations in which margarine was totally replaced with peanut paste. However the gluten free formulation with high peanut proteins had higher sensory scores for texture confirmed by results for springiness, cohesiveness and resilience. Total replacement of margarine with peanut paste significantly increased crumb hardness of cake products. The crumb hardness, cohesiveness and springiness of the cake product (B) with total margarine replacement with peanut paste but partial wheat replacement with brown rice flour was not statistically different from the control. The peanut substituted brown rice cake products had significantly higher protein, fat and fibre content than the control product. Partial and total replacement of margarine with peanut paste and wheat with brown rice flour in cake formulations notably influenced the sensory, texture and nutritional characteristics of the products.

Keywords

References

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