American Journal of Energy Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-7349

ISSN (Online): 2328-7330

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJER

Article

Energy Management and Energy Crisis in Textile Finishing

1Textile Engineering Department, FoE, Baluchistan University of I. T. Engineering and Management Sciences, Airport Road, Balali, Quetta


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(3), 53-59
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Faheem Uddin. Energy Management and Energy Crisis in Textile Finishing. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(3):53-59. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Faheem  Uddin, Textile Engineering Department, FoE, Baluchistan University of I. T. Engineering and Management Sciences, Airport Road, Balali, Quetta. Email: Faheem.Uddin@buitms.edu.pk

Abstract

Textile industry is indeed one of the major energy consumers. Therefore, approaches introducing reduced energy processing of textiles in association with the standard energy management practices would be in obvious demand. Energy management standard is particularly desired for energy- intensive industrial sectors. Textile finishing organizations significantly depends upon the continual energy supply from fiber production to finished fabric. Textile processing areas that heavily consume water and electricity can be significantly improved in terms of reduced energy utilization and minimum energy loses through exercising improved housekeeping and standard management practices. It was perceived that ISO 50001 standard will provide management guideline and approaches to the textile sector organizations leading to an increased efficiency, reduced cost through less energy consumption, and improved energy performance. Any scientific information and data on hot air, heat, steam and processed water recycling available in literature would indeed be beneficial to enhance textile processing and finishing industry in the utilization of energy management policy, performance and efficiency measures, physical structure. The important factors that would be influenced by the energy management standard in textile finishing, ranging over fiber processing, pre- treatments, dyeing, printing, and special effects, are identified for improvement and discussed in this paper.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Impact of Gasoline Subsidy Removal on the Transportation Sector in Nigeria

1CEPMLP, University of Dundee, United Kingdom


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(3), 60-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ismail O. Soile, Hezekiah Tsaku, Bilikisu Musa Yar'Adua. The Impact of Gasoline Subsidy Removal on the Transportation Sector in Nigeria. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(3):60-66. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ismail  O. Soile, CEPMLP, University of Dundee, United Kingdom. Email: iosoile@yahoo.com

Abstract

Nigeria, like other oil exporting countries in the world has embarked on the policy of gradual removal of fuel subsidies since 1970s. However, this issue has become highly contentious in recent time due to the incessant nature and the effects on the economy.

Keywords

References

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Article

PIV Measurements to Study the Effect of the Reynolds Number on the Hydrodynamic Structure in a Baffled Vessel Stirred by a Rushton Turbine

1Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), University of Sfax (US), Tunisia


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(3), 67-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zied Driss, Ahmed Kaffel, Bilel Ben Amira, Ghazi Bouzgarrou, Mohamed Salah Abid. PIV Measurements to Study the Effect of the Reynolds Number on the Hydrodynamic Structure in a Baffled Vessel Stirred by a Rushton Turbine. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(3):67-73. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Zied  Driss, Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), University of Sfax (US), Tunisia. Email: Zied.Driss@enis.rnu.tn

Abstract

Turbulent flow inside a cylindrical baffled stirred vessel is studied experimentally for different Reynolds numbers. A set of speed was selected ranging from 100 rpm to 350 rpm. These speeds gave high turbulence but without significant surface vortex formation. Vector field’s maps and contours of time averaged velocities, for both radial and axial components in the impeller stream of a vessel stirred by a Rushton turbine, were determined by means of 2D PIV technique. This study reveals the importance of choosing the whole flow field of the entire vessel in order to provide comprehensive understanding of the flow pattern and mixing conditions which is essential for reliable design.

Keywords

References

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Article

An Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Engine Torque in a Biodiesel Engine

1Siirt University, Faculty of Engineering &Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kezer Campus, Siirt / TURKEY


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(4), 74-80
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bekir Cirak, Selman Demirtas. An Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Engine Torque in a Biodiesel Engine. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(4):74-80. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Bekir  Cirak, Siirt University, Faculty of Engineering &Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kezer Campus, Siirt / TURKEY. Email: bekircirak@mynet.com

Abstract

In this application study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the torque of a diesel engine. Using ANN performance of a diesel engine using biodiesel produced from canola and soybean oils through transesterification. To acquire data for training and testing of the proposed ANN. A four cylinder and four stroke test engine was fuelled with biodiesel and eurodiesel mixtured fuels with various percentages of biodiesel % amounts to half the CB with SB and operated at different loads engine speeds, coolant temperatures, biofuel mixtures and exhaust temperature. Levenberg Marquards algorithms for the engine was developed using some of the experimental data for training. As a nonlinear system has been accepted. The performance of the ANN was validated by comparing the prediction dataset with the experimental results. It was observed that the ANN model can predict the engine performance quite well with correlation coefficient R 0.98 for the engine torque respectively. The prediction MSE (Mean Square Error) error was between the desired outputs as measured values and the simulated values were obtained as 0.0002 by the model.

Keywords

References

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Article

Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Tunisia

1Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Street of Airport, LP 1088, Sfax 3018, Tunisia


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(4), 81-89
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kais Saidi, Sami Hammami. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Tunisia. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(4):81-89. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Kais  Saidi, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Street of Airport, LP 1088, Sfax 3018, Tunisia. Email: forever_kais@yahoo.fr (K. Saidi); sami_hammami2005@yahoo.fr

Abstract

This article examines the two-way linkages between energy consumption and economic growth using data from Tunisia over the period 1974-2011. This research tests this interrelationship between variables using the Johansen cointegration technique. Our empirical results show that there exists bidirectional causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in the long-run. The study suggests that energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth in order to maintain sustainable economic growth in Tunisia.

Keywords

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Article

Impact of Shape of Obstacle Roof on the Turbulent Flow in a Wind Tunnel

1Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), Univrsity of Sfax, TUNISIA


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(4), 90-98
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Slah Driss, Zied Driss, Imen Kallel Kammoun. Impact of Shape of Obstacle Roof on the Turbulent Flow in a Wind Tunnel. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(4):90-98. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Zied  Driss, Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), Univrsity of Sfax, TUNISIA. Email: zied.driss@enis.rnu.tn

Abstract

In this paper, we are interested in the impact of shape of obstacle roof on the turbulent flow in a wind tunnel. Particularly,arched, inclined, pitched and flat roofs obstacles are examined. A three-dimensional flow of a fluid is numerically analyzed using the Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ε turbulence model. These equations were solved by a finite-volume discretization method. The comparison between our numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement and confirms the numerical method.

Keywords

References

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Article

Prospects for Biofuel Industry in Fiji; Engine Performance of CNO blended Biodiesel

1College of Foundation Studies, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

2College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Fiji National University, Suva, Fiji


American Journal of Energy Research. 2014, 2(4), 99-104
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Krishnam Nair, Rishal Amar Singh. Prospects for Biofuel Industry in Fiji; Engine Performance of CNO blended Biodiesel. American Journal of Energy Research. 2014; 2(4):99-104. doi: 10.12691/ajer-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Krishnam Nair, College of Foundation Studies, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. Email: nair_k@usp.ac.fj

Abstract

Vegetable oils and their spinoff biofuels, unremarkably named as “biodiesel,” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. Twelve different blends of CNO, Ethanol and Butanol hybrid biofuel were tested for engine efficiency and it is discovered that they are technically competitive with or provide technical benefits compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable and domestic resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. A comprehensive study of Fiji’s coconut industry is also undertaken.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Novel Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Solar Catalytic Reforming Method for Enhanced Hydrogen Generation from Biomass

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA


American Journal of Energy Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anuradha Shende, Richa Tungal, Rajneesh Jaswal, Rajesh Shende. A Novel Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Solar Catalytic Reforming Method for Enhanced Hydrogen Generation from Biomass. American Journal of Energy Research. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Rajesh  Shende, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA. Email: rajesh.shende@sdsmt.edu

Abstract

Short energy intensive hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in the presence of Ni salt catalyst selectively generates H2 in the product gas and biocrude mainly containing C1-C3 acids (formic, lactic, propionic, acetic), HMF and furfural. The H2 mass balance indicated that only 3.12 vol% H2 in biomass (cotton) was released as product gas; 48.7 vol% was captured in the C1-C3 acids while the remainder H2 was trapped in oxygenated compounds and char. Continuing HTL after 120 minutes caused no further increase in gas phase H2 yields. To enhance the H2 yields with minimal energy input, solar photocatalytic reforming (PR) of the biocrude with Pt/TiO2 catalyst was investigated. Photocatalysis of activated carbon (AC) treated biocrude generated an additional H2, 17.82 wt%. H2 yields from photoreforming of simulated biocrude acid mixture and actual biocrude were compared. Enhanced H2 generation was observed with integrated HTL-PR of biomass.

Keywords

References

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Article

New Method of Solving the Seepage Model for the Multilayer Composite Reservoir with the Double Porosity

1Institute of Applied Mathematics, Xihua University, Chengdu, China

2Beijing Dong run ke Petroleum Technology Co,Ltd, Beijing, China


American Journal of Energy Research. 2015, 3(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Qiang Wang, Shunchu Li, Mei Luo, Dongdong Gui. New Method of Solving the Seepage Model for the Multilayer Composite Reservoir with the Double Porosity. American Journal of Energy Research. 2015; 3(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Qiang  Wang, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Xihua University, Chengdu, China. Email: wangqian1205@foxmail.com

Abstract

Aimed at multilayer composite reservoir with the double porosity, meanwhile considering the influence of well bore storage and skin effect, the seepage model for multilayer composite reservoir with the double porosity which the flow was steady from pore to crack was established in different outer boundary (infinite; closed; constant pressure) conditions; the exact solution of reservoir pressure drop and bottom hole pressure drop were obtained by Laplace transform in the Laplace space; the unified expression of solution was obtained by constructing similar kernel functions in different outer boundary conditions, therefore new method which solving this class of reservoir model is put forward, namely similar construction method. This method plays an important guiding role in exploring seepage law of oil and gas reservoir.

Keywords

References

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Article

Cooperation of a Steam Condenser with a Low-pressure Part of a Steam Turbine in Off-design Conditions

1Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw, Poland


American Journal of Energy Research. 2015, 3(1), 13-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rafał Laskowski, Adam Smyk, Janusz Lewandowski, Artur Rusowicz. Cooperation of a Steam Condenser with a Low-pressure Part of a Steam Turbine in Off-design Conditions. American Journal of Energy Research. 2015; 3(1):13-18. doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Artur  Rusowicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw, Poland. Email: rusowicz@itc.pw.edu.pl

Abstract

A steam condenser is an important component of a power plant, in which the heat of condensation is discharged to the environment. Changes of inlet temperature and mass flow rate of cooling water affect the steam pressure, which has a significant impact on the efficiency and power generated in the low-pressure (LP) part of the steam turbine. On the basis of data obtained from a simulator of the steam condenser and the actual measurement data from a 200-MW power plant, an analysis was performed of how the inlet cooling water temperature, the cooling water mass flow rate, and the steam mass flow rate affect the steam condenser effectiveness, the heat flow, the steam pressure in the condenser, and the efficiency and power of the LP part of the steam turbine. In the case of heat exchangers with a condensation zone, e.g. in a regenerative heat exchanger, the maximum value of the effectiveness ε means obtaining the maximum value of the heated fluid temperature at the outlet. Since the role of the steam condenser (providing the lowest possible vacuum) is slightly different from the role of a classical heat exchanger, increasing the value of ε does not mean better performance of the steam condenser. An even greater disparity exists in the evaluation of the performance of a system comprising the steam condenser and the LP part of the steam turbine. It was therefore suggested to evaluate the performance of the steam condenser and the LP part of the steam turbine using the parameter of efficacy, defined as: δ=(1-ε)=δtmin /ΔTmax. Moreover, for practical purposes, the relation (6) was given for the power of the LP part of the steam turbine as a function of the cooling water mass flow rate and its temperature at the inlet to the steam condenser. Knowing the characteristics of the LP part of the steam turbine and of the steam condenser, one can optimize operating conditions of the system.

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