ISSN (Print): 2328-7349

ISSN (Online): 2328-7330

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJER

   

Article

Household Electricity Consumption of Middle Class Family in Chiitagong - A Case Study

1Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Energy Research. 2016, 4(2), 35-41
doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md Rokonuzzaman, Sharmin Jahan, Md Shahidul Haque. Household Electricity Consumption of Middle Class Family in Chiitagong - A Case Study. American Journal of Energy Research. 2016; 4(2):35-41. doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Md  Rokonuzzaman, Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: rokonuzzaman@cu.ac.bd

Abstract

Introduction: Electricity is a necessity in the modern world. Electricity has attained a very important place in every household on this planet. It is a major contributor towards improvement of the standard of living of any individual, family and society at large. The aims of this study is to find out the monthly average household electricity consumption and fit a suitable time series model to predict the electricity use. Data and Analysis: A time series monthly electricity uses data of a middle class family in Chittagong from January 2001 to November 2015 is considered in this analysis. To check variability the descriptive statistics and different types of graphs are used. The volatility model ARCH family regression with ARIMA disturbances model is used for forecasting. Chow test statistic is used for checking the structural breaking point of the dataset. Results & Conclusion: From the ACF and PACF function we get the cut off point for AR and MA part are 2 and 3 respectively. Further as ARCH effect is significant for this data set we use ARCH family regression with ARMA disturbances model, After comparing the different value of the parameters, ARCH(1) with ARIMA (3,0,2) disturbances is best fit for this data set. There have a structural break point for the month of December in 2010. Before this date data, ARCH (1) regression family with ARIMA (2,0,2) disturbance is the best fitted model for the analysis. And for the post data follows only ARIMA(1,0,1) disturbance is the best fitted model for this analysis. Recommendation: For forecasting of the monthly electricity uses of a middle class family in Chittagong, ARCH(1) with ARIMA (3,0,2) disturbances time series model can be used. For better prediction one can consider to select a representative size of sample families with at least 20 years data. Also some covariates like family size and electronic items used in the family can be considered and can try to fit a GARCH or TGARCH model.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ahamad, M. G. and A.K.M. N. Islam (2011). Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences; Energy Policy.39, 6145-6150.
 
[2]  Ahmad, E. and F. Jamil (2010). The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan, Energy Policy. 38, 6016-6025.
 
[3]  Alam, K. and Sarker, A. R. (2010). “Nexus between Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Bangladesh”; Asian social Science. 6(12), 16-22.
 
[4]  Akinlo, A.E. (2009). “Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Evidence from Co-integration and Co-feature Analysis” Journal of Policy Modeling. 31, 681–693.
 
[5]  Asaduzzaman, M., A.H.M.Billah (2006). Emerging Issues in Bangladesh Economy: A Review of Bangladesh’s Development 2005-06, Chapter 14: Energy for future Bangladesh; Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), 361-392.
 
Show More References
[6]  Asafu Adjaye, J. (2000).The Relationship between Energy Consumption, Energy Prices and Economic Growth: Time Series Evidence from Asian Developing Countries, Energy Economics. 22, 615-625.
 
[7]  Buysse, J.; I. A. Begum, M. J. Alam and G.V. Huylenbroeck (2012). Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth Nexus in Bangladesh: Co-integration and Dynamic Causality Analysis; Energy Policy. 45, 217-225.
 
[8]  Chontanawat, J., L.C. Hunt and R. Pierse (2008). Does energy consumption cause economic growth? Evidence from a systematic study of over 100 countries; Journal of Policy Modeling. 30(2), 209-220.
 
[9]  Ghosh, S. (2002). Electricity consumption and economic growth in India, Energy Policy. 30, 125-129.
 
[10]  Kraft, J. and A Kraft (1978). On the relationship between energy and GNP, Journal of Energy Development. 3, 401-403.
 
[11]  Lean, H. H. and M. Shahbaz, (2012). “The dynamics of electricity consumption and economic growth: A revisit study of their causality in Pakistan”, Energy. 39, 146-153.
 
[12]  Lin, B. (2003). Structural change, efficiency improvement and electricity demand forecasting (in Chinese), Economic Research. 5, 57-65.
 
[13]  Morimoto, R. and C. Hope (2004). The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka; Energy Economics. 26, 77-85.
 
[14]  Mozumder, P. and A. Marathe, (2007). Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh. Energy Policy. 35, 395-402.
 
[15]  Saeki, C. and M.S. Hossain (2011). Does Electricity Consumption Panel Granger Cause Economic Growth in South Asia? Evidence from Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri-Lanka, European Journal of Social Sciences. 25(3), 316-328
 
[16]  Shiu, Alice and Pun-Lee Lam (2004). Electricity consumption and economic growth in China, Energy Policy. 32(1), 47-54.
 
[17]  Yuan, J., C.Zhao, S. Yu, and Z. Hu, (2007).Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in China: Co-integration and Co-feature Analysis, Energy Economics. 29, 1179-1191.
 
Show Less References

Article

Incidence Angle Effect on the Turbulent Flow around a Savonius Wind Rotor

1Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), University of Sfax, B.P. 1173, km 3.5 Soukra, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia


American Journal of Energy Research. 2016, 4(2), 42-53
doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sobhi Frikha, Zied Driss, Hedi Kchaou, Mohamed Salah Abid. Incidence Angle Effect on the Turbulent Flow around a Savonius Wind Rotor. American Journal of Energy Research. 2016; 4(2):42-53. doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Zied  Driss, Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), University of Sfax, B.P. 1173, km 3.5 Soukra, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia. Email: Zied.driss@enis.tn

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effect of the incidence angle on the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow around a Savonius wind rotor. Six configurations with different incidence angles equal to θ=0°, θ=30°, θ=60°, θ=90°, θ=120° and θ=150° were studied. For this, we have developed a numerical simulation using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code "Fluent". The considered numerical model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the k-ε turbulence model. These equations are solved by a finite volume discretization method. Particularly, we are interested in visualizing the velocity field, the mean velocity, the static pressure, the dynamic pressure, the turbulent kinetic energy, the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent viscosity. Results confirm that the variation of the incidence angle has an effect on the local characteristics. Our numerical results were compared with those obtained by anterior results. The comparison shows a good agreement and confirms the numerical method.

Keywords

References

[1]  Kamoji, M.A., Kedare, S.B., Prabhu, S.V., Experimental investigations on single stage modified Savonius rotor, Applied Energy, 86, 1064-1073, 2009.
 
[2]  Menet, J.L., Bourabaa, N., Increase in the Savonius rotors efficiency via a parametric investigation. European Wind Energy Conference, London, 2004.
 
[3]  Blackwell, B.F., Sheldahl, R.E., Feltz, L.V, Wind Tunnel performance data for two and three-bucket Savonius rotor. Journal of Energy, 2-3, 160-164, 1978.
 
[4]  Aldos TK, Savonius Rotor Using Swinging Blades as an Augmentation System. Wind Engineer 8 (1984) 214-220.
 
[5]  Ushiyama, I., Nagai, H, Optimum design configurations and performances of Savonius rotors. Wind Eng. 12-1, 59-75, 1988.
 
Show More References
[6]  Grinspan, AS, Kumar, PS, Saha, UK, Mahanta, P, Ratnarao, DV, Veda Bhanu, G, Design, development & testing of Savonius wind turbine rotor with twisted blades. Proceedings of international conference on fluid mechanics & fluid power, India, 28, 28-31, 2001.
 
[7]  Saha, U.K., Rajkumar, M., On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades, J. Renew. Energy, pp. 960-1481, 2005.
 
[8]  Akwa, JV, Júnior, GA, Petry, AP, Discussion on the verification of the overlap ratio influence on performance coefficients of a Savonius wind rotor using computational fluid dynamics. Renewable Energy, 38, 141-149, 2012.
 
[9]  Khan, N., Tariq, I. M., Hinchey, M., Masek, V, Performance of Savonius Rotor as Water Current Turbine, Journal of Ocean Technology, 4, N. 2, pp. 27-29, 2009.
 
[10]  Rogowski, K., Maronski, R., CFD computation of the Savonius rotor. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 53, no 1, p. 37-45, 2015.
 
[11]  Mohamed, M.H., Janiga, G., Thévenin E. Pap, D. Optimization of Savonius turbines using an obstacle shielding the returning blade, Renewable Energy 35, 2618-2626, 2010.
 
[12]  Choudhury Bhaskar Jyoti and Saraf Gaurav , Computational Analysis of Flow around a Two-Bladed Savonius Rotor ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology ,Volume 10 - Number 17 - (39-48), 2014.
 
[13]  Driss Z., Abid M. S, Numerical Investigation of the Aerodynamic Structure Flow around Savonius Wind Rotor, Science Academy Transactions on Renewable Energy Systems Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 196-204, 2012.
 
[14]  Driss, Z., Mlayeh, O., Driss, D., Maaloul, M., Abid, M. S., Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the turbulent flow around a small incurved Savonius wind rotor. Energy, 2014; 74:506-517.
 
[15]  Driss, Z., Mlayeh, O., Driss, S., Driss, D., Maaloul, M., Abid, M. S., Study of the bucket design effect on the turbulent flow around unconventional Savonius wind rotors. Energy, 2015; 89:708-729.
 
[16]  Matrawy K.K., Aly Ayman A., Mahrous A. F . Performance Evaluation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with a Leading Edge Flap. International Journal of Control, Automation And Systems Vol.3 No.4, 2014.
 
[17]  Qasim Ahmed Y., Quadir G.A Hameed., Salih, Obaid Waleed A. and Ziyed Adel Abdalrahman (Performance analysis of a newly designed three frame VAWT having cavity vanes. International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 3 Issue 10, Page No. 8469-8475, 2014. .
 
[18]  D'Alessandro, V., Montelpare, S., Ricci, R., Secchiaroli, A, Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Savonius wind rotor: a new computational approach for the simulation of energy performance, Energy 35, 3349-3363, 2011.
 
[19]  Dobreva, I, Massouh F., CFD and PIV investigation of unsteady flow through Savonius wind turbine, Energy Procedia 6, 711-720, 2011.
 
[20]  Kacprzak, K., Liskiewicz, G., Sobczak, K , Numerical investigation of conventional and modified Savonius wind turbines, Renewable Energy 60, 578-585, 2013.
 
[21]  Zhou, T., Rempfer, D., Numerical study of detailed flow field and performance of Savonius wind turbines, Renewable Energy 51, 373-381, 2013.
 
[22]  Roy, S., Saha U.K, Review on the numerical investigations into the design and development of Savonius wind rotors, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 24, 73-83, 2013.
 
[23]  Frikha, S., Driss, Z., Hagui, M. A, Computational study of the diffuser angle effect in the design of a waste heat recovery system for oil field cabins. Energy, 84, 219-238, 2015a.
 
[24]  Frikha, S., Driss, Z., Hagui, M. A, Computational Study of the Turbulent Flow inside a Waste Heat Recovery System with a 25° inclined Angle Diffuser. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 3(3A), 1-8, 2015b.
 
[25]  Menet, J.L., Cottier, F., Étude paramétrique du comportement aérodynamique d'une éolienne lente à axe vertical de type Savonius, 16è Congrès Français de Mécanique, Nice, 2003.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Use of Flexible Structures in Tehran Residential Spaces to Respond Better to the Changing Needs of Its Residents

1Architectural Technology, Faculty of Art, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

3Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Energy Research. 2017, 5(1), 1-11
doi: 10.12691/ajer-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ghazaleh Abbasian, Mohammadmehdi Moulaii, Seyyed Aliakbar Sadri. The Use of Flexible Structures in Tehran Residential Spaces to Respond Better to the Changing Needs of Its Residents. American Journal of Energy Research. 2017; 5(1):1-11. doi: 10.12691/ajer-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Ghazaleh  Abbasian, Architectural Technology, Faculty of Art, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Email: ghazal_p_l@yahoo.com

Abstract

The impact of technology is obviously perceptible on quality of life in different communities. As they are equipped to keep pace with advances in science and technology, a radical change is occurring in their way of life. Thus, a space to accommodate a wide range of activities must be designed to meet the needs of people. The exponential growth in scientific and technological advancements and the changes in their related needs might not keep up with currently permanent residential spaces. It could gradually hinder the efforts to create a favorable environment and to derive satisfaction. Hence, spatial phenomena necessitate adaptive architectural design to achieve a suitable model for responding to the needs of human societies, especially in residential areas. The space should be held accountable in accord with the demands of users. This important issue is detectable after spending long hours of activity and attending noisy and crowded spaces. Thus, people require places that psychologically bring them peace and tranquility. Spaces that are subject to adapt to the changeable psychological, cultural, and geographic conditions can provide consumers higher quality. This process leads to a sense of belonging to such kind of spaces among more users. Providing people the varied landscape to the exterior would refresh them during tiredness of daily activities, furthermore, such observations can maintain their relationship with outer space in one way or another. As a result, the residential environment should be diversifying and open to change based on individuals’ demands. Flexible architectural systems can promote a sense of satisfaction along with vitality and effectively recharge people to work the next day. Scholarly attention has been focused on the importance of human and his mental-physical needs. These human activities aim at reaching a certain goal in terms of peace, happiness, and satisfaction in worldly life. Using a system that changes its comportment in response to user’s demand in residential areas has a direct impact on stages of human life. By space change based on user’s need, he or she can increase the happiness of being in that space. Regarding the feeling of happiness, the results of this research could have an impact not only on each house but also on society. Using correlational method, interviews were conducted in this field study. Now that technology has had a significant influence on the formation of human needs, the current status of buildings with regard to change requests cannot be maintained any more. As a result, this study adopted the effective strategies to create flexible spaces for residential buildings and private residences.

Keywords

References

[1]  Asefi, M. Foruzandeh, A. “Nature and Kinetic Architecture: The Development of a New Type of Transformable Structure for Temporary Applications”. Journal of Engineering and Architecture, no.6 (2011).
 
[2]  Taghizadeh, K. “Application of Structural Systems for Movable and Temporary Shelters” Jahan, No. 3 (2012) p. 2.
 
[3]  Einifar, Ali Reza. “A model for analysis of flexibility in the traditional housing in Iran”. Honarhay-e Ziba, No. 13 (2003).
 
[4]  Abbasian, Ghazaleh. “Flexible Structure, The Essential Quality of a Convenient Residential Buildings”. Master’s thesis, Technology in Architecture, Tehran University (2009) pp. 17-24.
 
[5]  Chilton, J., Rodriguez, C. “Transformable & Transportable Architecture with Scissor Structures”, Transportable Environment III, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, (2006).
 
Show More References
[6]  Nakib, Faiza. “Technological Adaptability, an Approach Toward A Flexible and Sustainable Architecture”, Conference On Technology & Sustainability in the Built Environmen, (2010).
 
[7]  Mowatt, Kevin. J. “Adaptive housing”, Art and historic preservation, Roger Williams University. (2007).
 
[8]  Piva, Stefano and others, eds. “A Flexible Architecture for Ambient Intelligence Systems Supporting Adaptive Multimodal Interaction with Users”. IOS Press, http://www.ambientintelligence.org (2005).
 
[9]  Kirkegaard, Poul Henning and Parigi, Dario, “On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures”. IASS-APCS, The International Association for Shell and Spacial Structures, (2012).
 
[10]  Loonen, R.C.G.M. and others, “Design for façade adaptability – Towards a unified and systematic characterization”. Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, (2015).
 
[11]  Eqbali, Rahman. “Modular and Pre-fabricated Approach in Flexible Housing”. Maskan va Mohit-e Rousta, No. 143 (2013).
 
[12]  Afhami, Reza. “Aesthetics in Flexible Spaces”. Honar, No. 173 (2012), p. 4.
 
[13]  Friedman, Noemi, and Gyorgy Farkas. “Roof Structures in Motion”, Concrete Structures, (2011).
 
[14]  Fox, M. “Flexible: Architecture that Responds to Change”, Laurence King Publishers, (2007).
 
[15]  Fox, Michael A. and Yeh, Bryant P. “Intelligent Kinetic systems”. MIT Kinetic design group, USA, (1999).
 
[16]  Rabeneck Andrew., Sheppard, David., & Town,. , Peter.. Housing Flexibility? Architectural Design, 43, (1973): 698-727.
 
[17]  Brancart, Stijn, and De Laet, Lars, and De Temmerman, Niels, “Deployable textile hybrid structures: design and modelling ofkinetic membrane-restrained bending-active structures”. International Symposium on Novel Structural Skins, 155 (2016) 195-204.
 
[18]  Greden, Lara V., “Flexibility in buiding design: a real options approach and valuation methodology to address risk”. Ph.d. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2005. p. 31-32.
 
[19]  Barozzi, Marta and others, “The sustainability of adaptive envelopes: developments of kinetic architecture”. International Symposium on “Novel Structural Skins: Improving sustainability and efficiency through new structural textile materials and designs”, 155 (2016) 275-284.
 
[20]  Ismail, Imen and Moussa, Faouzi, “A PERVASIVE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART ENVIRONMENTS”. I nternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications (IJAIA), Vol.3, No.5, September 2012.
 
[21]  Brancart, S. and De Laet, L. and De Temmerman, N. “Transformable bending-active structures: Manipulating elastic deformation in kinetic and rapidly assembled structure”. Structures and Architecture – Cruz (Ed), Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2016.
 
Show Less References