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Article

Experimental Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste for Energy Production in Niger Republic

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


American Journal of Energy Research. 2015, 3(2), 32-36
doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
OUMAROU Mohammed Ben. Experimental Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste for Energy Production in Niger Republic. American Journal of Energy Research. 2015; 3(2):32-36. doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: OUMAROU  Mohammed Ben, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Email: mmbenomar@yahoo.com

Abstract

Solid waste management and energy generation have been of major concern in Niger Republic. Municipal solid waste samples were collected during the months of February, March and April and during the rainy season in August for three years in Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey and Zinder in Niger Republic. The refuse physical characteristics were then evaluated by sifting through the waste and separated into wood, grass, metal, plastic, paper and sand. The refuse samples were analyzed by proximate and ultimate analyses using ASTM standards. Proximate and ultimate analyses results of refuse in the area of study showed refuse characteristics as moisture: volatile matter: fixed carbon: ash content, as 19.693: 26.877: 19.310 and 34.120 for Niamey and 17.539: 25.950: 19.111: 37.40 for Zinder. The standard deviation and the mean deviation of the lower calorific value were found to be 7.35% and 1.60 % respectively for the five cities in the study area. The lower calorific values of the refuse were low and found to fall below the limit for the production of steam in electricity generation, therefore would not to be able to sustain an industrial incineration process. There is need to provide a supplementary fuel in the form of bagasse, any herbaceous biomass at up to 50% of the total fuel to be loaded in the incinerator. It was found that population density and geographical locations are not real determining factors as whether refuse quality may change or not but rather the life style of the population and its awareness towards waste management techniques like recycling, re-use and composting.

Keywords

References

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Article

Techno-Economic Optimization of Diffuser Configuration Effect on Centrifugal Compressor Performance

1Researcher in Cranfield University, Bedford, UK

2Head of Propulsion Engineering Centre, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK


American Journal of Energy Research. 2015, 3(2), 37-48
doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-2-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Waleed Al-Busaidi, Pericles Pilidis. Techno-Economic Optimization of Diffuser Configuration Effect on Centrifugal Compressor Performance. American Journal of Energy Research. 2015; 3(2):37-48. doi: 10.12691/ajer-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Waleed  Al-Busaidi, Researcher in Cranfield University, Bedford, UK. Email: w.albusaidi@cranfield.ac.uk

Abstract

Extensive research has been conducted on centrifugal compressors to investigate the influence of diffuser features on the stage performance. However, there are several geometrical parameters affecting the diffuser performance and the unsteady interaction with the rotating impeller which makes the appropriate selection of the optimum features more complex. Furthermore, the trade-off between the efficiency improvement and operating range extension necessitates the need for an optimization tool to decide the typical diffuser configuration. Hence, this paper aims to introduce a multi-decision optimization approach to define the overall diffuser characteristics based on the specified duty requirements. This approach uses the most recent developed models in this field to evaluate the impact of different diffuser types on the overall stage performance technically and economically. From the performance perspective, the influences of diffuser geometry have been utilized to study the impact on stage efficiency and stable flow range. Furthermore, this has been also discussed economically as a function of the diffuser losses cost in order to make the typical decision.

Keywords

References

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Article

Exergoeconomic and Sustainability Analysis of Reheat Gas Turbine Engine

1Power and Propulsion Department, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

2Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, Al Asimah, P.O. Box 5969 Safat 13060, Khalidiya 72301, Kuwait


American Journal of Energy Research. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdulrahman Almutairi, Pericles Pilidis, Nawaf Al-Mutawa. Exergoeconomic and Sustainability Analysis of Reheat Gas Turbine Engine. American Journal of Energy Research. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/ajer-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Abdulrahman  Almutairi, Power and Propulsion Department, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK. Email: a.s.almutairi@cranfield.ac.uk

Abstract

Exergoeconomic and sustainability analyses have been performed for a heavy duty industrial reheat gas turbine engine. The proposed system was inspired by a GT26, Alstom advance-class gas turbine with a unique design modification based on the reheat principle using two sequential combustion chambers. The IPSEpro software package was used for validating the process and results tested against the manufacturer’s published data. Energy system performance is usually evaluated through energetic or exergetic criteria. The latter has the advantage of determining energy degradation and quantifying the deficiencies within a system as well as recognizing loss sources and types. The cost-effectiveness of using this gas turbine engine has been evaluated using exergoeconomic approach: the Specific Exergy Costing [SPECO] method. The sustainability of the proposed model was estimated using a generic combustor model, HEPHAESTUS, to appraise the emissions impact. The performance of gas turbine engines has been investigated for different load demand and climatic conditions using two configurations. The first system, Case-I, was a simple gas turbine (SCGT) engine, and the second, Case-II, a reheat gas turbine (RHGT) system. The reheat system boosted power output in RGHT, at the same time, reducing exergetic efficiency because of greater fuel consumption. Operating both systems at low ambient temperature is preferable and full load reduces waste exergy. The production cost on an exergy basis demonstrates that the RHGT has a lower value at 7.58 US$/GJ while the SCGT produces energy at 7.77 US$/GJ. From a sustainability perspective, the SCGT shows lower emission levels and has lower environmental impact than the RHGT.

Keywords

References

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