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American Journal of Cancer Prevention

ISSN (Print): 2328-7322

ISSN (Online): 2328-7314

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCP

Article

Awareness and Knowledge of Smoking-Related Cancers Among University Students in Jordan

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ayoub A. Innabi, Dina A. Ammari, Wa'el J. K. Tuqan. Awareness and Knowledge of Smoking-Related Cancers Among University Students in Jordan. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Ayoub  A. Innabi, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Email: ayoubinnabi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, has a high prevalence rate of smoking. However, little research was done to evaluate knowledge of smoking-related cancers in the region. Objective: To assess knowledge of smoking-related cancers among Jordanian university students. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in July, 2013, using a self-administered online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to students from University of Jordan. Results: The final sample consisted of 230 students. The majority of participants (98.7%) were aware that smoking has harmful health effects and (95.7%) agreed that smoking causes cancer. Most of the participants agreed that smoking causes lung cancer (97.8%), oral cancer (83.0%), laryngeal cancer (82.6%), pharyngeal cancer (80.0%), and esophageal cancer (63.0%), while less than half of the participant thought that smoking causes AML (46.1%), stomach cancer (36.1%), kidney cancer (32.6%), cervical cancer (19.6%), pancreatic cancer (19.1%), and bladder cancer (14.8%). Females showed more knowledge about smoking-related cancers than males (p < 0.05) but the there was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: These findings show that most of the students know that lung cancer is caused by smoking. However, there is a lower knowledge of other smoking-related cancers. Our study suggests that more efforts should be done to increase the awareness of the adverse health hazards of smoking especially that are related to cancer.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genetic Testing for Risk of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study Examining Perceived Benefits and Barriers using Health Belief Model

1Division of Social and Administrative Sciences in Pharmacy, Oscar Rennebohm School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York City

3School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Suwanee, Georgia


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 24-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karishma Desai, Bupendra Shah, Hamid Rahim, Hongjun Yin, John Lonie. Genetic Testing for Risk of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study Examining Perceived Benefits and Barriers using Health Belief Model. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):24-30. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Karishma  Desai, Division of Social and Administrative Sciences in Pharmacy, Oscar Rennebohm School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Email: desaikaru@gmail.com

Abstract

Aim: To (i) assess participants’ awareness of the availability of genetic testing to determine the risk of different types of cancer; (ii) to assess participants’ beliefs about genetic testing for the risk of lung cancer using Health Belief Model; and (iii) to explore factors affecting intention to use genetic testing for risk of lung cancer. Methods: A sample of 360 New Jersey residents were surveyed by interviewers from three densely populated cities in the northern, central and southern regions of New Jersey. The survey instrument was developed using the Health Belief Model and measures were adapted from the literature. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with intention to use genetic testing. Results: A total of 360 individuals were surveyed in three cities in New Jersey. Of these, 50% were non-Hispanic White, female, and with an annual income of less than $50,000; 66% were nonsmokers without a family history of lung cancer. The overall intention to use the genetic test to determine lung cancer risk was low (35%), even though the majority of participants believed genetic testing for lung cancer to be highly beneficial, and despite believing it to be a severe condition [M(SD)=11.5(2.3)}. Approximately 50% of participants were aware of the availability of genetic tests for the risk of lung cancer, and respondents believed they were moderately susceptible to lung cancer [M(SD)=25.3(3.7)].Gender, education, smoking habits and perceived benefits of testing were significant predictors of intention. Conclusion: Awareness and intention to use genetic testing for the risk of lung cancer was low. This study provides useful information for healthcare professionals interested in promoting the use of genetic testing for at-risk populations such as smokers, and how to tailor interventions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Dutasteride and Prostate Cancer Risk: Does Family History of Prostate and/or Breast Cancers Influence the Number Needed to Treat? Results from REDUCE

1Surgery Section, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC

2Duke Prostate Center, Division of Urological Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke, University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Institute

4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

5The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY

6Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri

7Duke Prostate Center, Division of Urological Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke, University School of Medicine, Durham, NC;Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jean-Alfred Thomas II, Leah Gerber, Robert J. Hamilton, Adriana C. Vidal, Daniel M. Moreira, Gerald L. Andriole, Stephen J. Freedland. Dutasteride and Prostate Cancer Risk: Does Family History of Prostate and/or Breast Cancers Influence the Number Needed to Treat? Results from REDUCE. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Stephen  J. Freedland, Surgery Section, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC. Email: Steve.freedland@duke.edu

Abstract

Purpose: In REDUCE, dutasteride was associated with a ~5% absolute reduction in the risk of biopsy-detected prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods: We tested the influence of family history on the association between dutasteride and PCa diagnosis and calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) with dutasteride to avoid one PCa diagnosis. The REDUCE trial tested dutasteride 0.5mg/day for PCa risk reduction in men aged 50-75 with a serum PSA of 2.5-10.0ng/mL and a negative biopsy. Among men who underwent >1 on-study biopsy with complete data (n=6,415; 78.1%), the association between dutasteride and PCa risk as a function of PCa and/or breast cancer (BCa) family history was examined using multivariable logistic regression. Absolute risk reduction (ARR) and NNT were calculated. Results: On multivariate analysis, dutasteride was significantly associated with lower PCa risk in men without family history (25% lower; p<0.001), PCa family history only (37% lower; p=0.009), or BCa family history only (38% lower; p=0.04). While dutasteride lowered PCa risk in men with both PCa and BCa family history by 15%, this was not significant (p=0.69), though the number of men was small (n=115). ARRs were 6-9% for men with a PCa and/or BCa family history vs. 5% in men with no family history which translated into NNTs of 11-16 in men with PCa and/or BCa family history vs. 21 for men without family history. Conclusion: Using dutasteride as a model of chemoprevention, therapies targeting individuals with specific family histories may improve the risk-benefit profile. However, future studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparison of IHC, FISH, ER and PR in Breast Cancer in Western Iran

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Breanch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 37-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Anita Kabir koohian. Comparison of IHC, FISH, ER and PR in Breast Cancer in Western Iran. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):37-41. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

To evaluate the concordance and discordance between IHC and FISH results for detection of Her2/neu protein, analyses of ER and PR, and also evaluation of the benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab in patients diagnosed with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive invasive ductal carcinoma enrolled onto the Herceptin adjuvant. IHC analysis of ER, PR and HER2 was performed in 133 patients of breast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma. 90(67.6%) cases were confirmed by FISH. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS version 19, Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Age mean of patients was 46.39±10.81 years (range, 24-78 years). Concordance rates between IHC and FISH were 32.4% for IHC 2+ and 81.25% for IHC 3+ (P<0.001). There were 17 and 56 patients of IHC 2+ and 3+ with ER positive and also 23 and 59 patients of IHC 2+ and 3+ had PR positive.The 83 patients had age ≤50 years and 50 patients had >50 years. Of 133 the patients, 48(36.1%) patients were treated with trastuzumab and 85(63.9%) were treated without trastuzumab. The overall survival(OS) for patients treating with trastuzumab were mean of 37.8 months and the OS for patients treating without trastuzumab were mean of 20.8 months (P<0.05). The results are that trastuzumab therapy is effective and improves the survival of HER2-positive breast cancer patients and trastuzumab therapy is effective and tolerated for breast cancer with Her-2 positive. There is a statistically significant relationship between ER positive with PR positive and ER negative with PR negative that these results need to more studies with more patients in the world.

Keywords

References

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Article

Type of Treatment Can Effect on Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Rare Case with Review of Literature

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4Molecular Pathology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Seyed Hamid Madani. Type of Treatment Can Effect on Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Rare Case with Review of Literature. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Richter transformation is defined as a diffuse large cell lymphoma, occurring by transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of richter syndrome. Herein, we describe report of a 51 year-old man in western Iran that referred to Hematology Clinic with complaint of three months of weight loss and sweating with generalized abdominal lymphadenopathy and the Bulky cervical lymph node. Pathology’s specimens for him demonstrated CLL in the patient (Rai system stage 4) and during seven years ago, he was treated with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide regiment for 6 courses. Cervical biopsy pathology reported a new diagnosis of diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma and also immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis showed CD3, CD20, CD45 were positive and Bcl-2 was negative and so he was treated with new regiment of R-CHOP for 6 courses. One month after last course of chemotherapy, Cerebrospinal fluid cytology was positive with lymphomatous involvement, and also brain CT SCAN showed parenchymal involvement and therapy with high dose Methotrexate began for him. The result is that specialists should be careful that probably fludarabin therapy alone or combination it with other drug especially cyclophosphamide can effect on transformation CLL to DLBCL.

Keywords

References

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[8]  Yager NM, Ghate K, Swan RL, Farrokh A, Barba K, Beegle SH.A rare case of empyema. Answer: Transformation of CLL into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, also known as Richter syndrome.Chest. 2013 Jul.144(1):350-3.
 
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Article

Different Presentation of Treatment in Carcinomatous Meningitis of Breast Cancer: Report of 3 Cases

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 4-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Edris Sadeghi, Masoud Sadeghi, Akram Mozafari Eskandar. Different Presentation of Treatment in Carcinomatous Meningitis of Breast Cancer: Report of 3 Cases. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):4-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Edris  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mkn@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Carcinomatous Meningitis (CM) refers to the multifocal seeding of the leptomeninges by malignant cells. CM occurs in approximately 5% of patients with breast cancer. Herein, we suggest that Intrathecal (IT) can use in treatment of breast cancer patients with CM before of any treatment until can prevent of going patient to debilitating phase of this disease. Patients and Methods: Three patients with high risk breast cancer with CM: A 62 year-old Kurdish woman with a history of lung tuberculosis. Her cerebrospinal fluid was positive for malignant cells. She treated with IT chemotherapy and died 3 months after diagnosis of CM. A 48 year-old woman in premenopausal states had a left axillary mass for last 4 months. After one year of followed up she complaints with refractory headache. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis with diagnosis of CM treated with brain irradiation and multiple courses of IT chemotherapy. After six months she is well still and in follow up with previous drug list and monthly IT chemotherapy. A 63 year-old woman was presented at the emergency department of our hospital. After 4 months of her treatment she complained from decrease of consciousness and in CSF analysis with positive cytology. She treated with IT chemotherapy and She died about 2 weeks ago with exacerbation of brain tumor. Conclusion: According to the poor prognosis of this disease it is better that in high risk breast cancer patients like Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) high risk patients. IT prophylaxis was done for these high risk patients because by this way, we can prevent of going patient to debilitating phase of this disease.

Keywords

References

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Article

Association between Knowledge of Cervical Cancer/Screening and Attitude of Teachers to Immunization of Adolescent Girls with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine in Abakaliki, Nigeria

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ajah LO, Iyoke CA, Ezeonu PO, Ugwu GO, Onoh RC, Ibo CC. Association between Knowledge of Cervical Cancer/Screening and Attitude of Teachers to Immunization of Adolescent Girls with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine in Abakaliki, Nigeria. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ajah  LO, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Email: leookpanku@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Majority of the target population for HPV vaccination for the primary prevention of cervical cancer in Nigeria are found in secondary schools. Aim: To describe the knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki towards HPV vaccination, and determine if the attitude of teachers supports a possible role for teachers in promoting the uptake of the vaccine. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving secondary school teachers was carried out. Data analysis involved both descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% confidence level using the SPSS software version 16. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: A total of 412 teachers participated in the study. Approximately 78% were aware of cervical cancer and 75% of these were aware of at least one method of cervical cancer prevention. Eighty-six percent of those aware of cervical cancer knew that HPV infection was the cause of cervical cancer; although only 40.3% of these knew that HPV vaccine that protected against cervical cancer was available in the city. Approximately 70% of teachers who were aware of cervical cancer were willing to recommend HPV vaccination to children under their care. Age ≥31 years, knowledge of cervical cancer screening, knowledge of the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, and previous experience of cervical cancer screening, were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccine by secondary school teachers. Conclusion: A good majority of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki were aware of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine for preventing cervical cancer and over two-thirds of these were favourably disposed to recommending its use. Public health practitioners could therefore enlist teachers in programmes for influencing adolescent girls and their parents towards increased uptake of the vaccine in our environment.

Keywords

References

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Article

Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer-Emotional and Social Aspects

1Department of Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Banja Luka


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 13-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zivana Gavric. Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer-Emotional and Social Aspects. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):13-18. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Zivana  Gavric, Department of Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Banja Luka. Email: higija@inecco.net

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in most countries and significantly affects the quality of life of ill women. The aim of this study was to examine how the breast cancer affects their quality of life, especially emotional and social components of health, compared to healthy women in our community. The pilot study included 100 women with breast cancer and 100 healthy women aged 20-75, using EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0 questionnaire. Mean score of the global health status in women with breast cancer (29.5 ± 17.9) compared to healthy women (65.8 ± 24.7) was significantly lower in all age groups. Almost 2/3 women with breast cancer were tense and 3/4 worried. More than 2/3 ill women were irritable and depressed with a significantly lower score on the scale of emotional and social functioning compared with healthy women. Over 2/3 ill women said that their health status or treatment had an impact on their family and social life with statistically significant difference compared to 1/10 women in the control group. Data on quality of life for women with breast cancer are essential for prevention of particular adverse effects especially in emotional and social functioning.

Keywords

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Article

Analysis of KRAS, BRAF and NRAS in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: the First Report of Western Iran

1Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 19-22
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Faezeh Gholami. Analysis of KRAS, BRAF and NRAS in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: the First Report of Western Iran. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):19-22. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations are useful markers for predicting responses to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and distribution by tumor localization of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer and analysis of NRAS and BRAF in the patients in Western Iran. Materials and Methods: Between May 2008 and November 2014, Thirty- three patients with metastatic or high risk CRC were included in our study. DNA was extracted by FFPE QIAGEN Kit and also KRAS/NRAS and BRAF V600E were analyzed using allele specific PCR primers and pyrosequencing. The overall survival for patients was plotted by GraphPad Prism 5 software. Results: The mean of age for patients at diagnosis was 57.67±13.20 years (range, 28-80 years), 19 patients (57.6%) were male. Of 33 patients, 9 patients (27.3%) were high risk and rest of patients had metastasis that metastasis was more to liver and lung, respectively. Of 33 patients, 21 patients (63.6%) have KRAS wild-type and 12 patients (27.3%) have KRAS mutation. Also, 5 samples of patients were checked for BRAF and NRAS. The mean overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was 20 months. Location of tumor in 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was left-side colon. Conclusions: NRAS/BRAF testing should be used together and with KRAS genotype to select patients who will likely benefit from anti-EGFR therapy and also location of tumor probably in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in western Iran is more on left-side colon that it needs other studies with greater volume of patients.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu

3Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 23-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu, Nelson Chukwudi Ozonu, Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke, Peter Onubiwe Nkwo, Monique Iheoma Ajah. A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Leonard  Ogbonna Ajah, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Email: leookpanku@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer in Nigeria. The risk factors to cervical cancer are common in our environment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities and the risk factors associated with the disease in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective study of cervical cytology at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012, was undertaken. Results: The prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities in this study was 11.2%. These cervical squamous cell abnormalities comprised ASC-US (0.6%), LSIL (3.9%) and HSIL (6.7%). Cervical squamous cell abnormalities were significantly commoner among clients who were smokers, live in rural areas, had high parity and history of vaginal discharge/itching. However, age at coitarche, educational qualification and use of hormonal contraceptives did not have any effect on cervical squamous cell abnormality in this study. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormality in Abakaliki. So there is need for public sensitization about this problem and the various ways of stemming the tide.

Keywords

References

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