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Article

Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon)

1Department of Pathology, Gynaeco-obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Geneva University Hopsital, Geneva, Switzerland


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013, 1(3), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zacharie Sando, Tomas McKee, Jean Claude Pache, Herman Kemajou, Olive Folem, Laura Rubbia – Brandt, Anderson Sama Doh. Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon). American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 1(3):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: Zacharie Sando, Department of Pathology, Gynaeco-obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Email: sandozac@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to detect and determine the different genotypes of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) found in high-grade squamous preinvasive lesions of the uterine cervix of Cameroonian women. HPV genotyping was conducted on 37 endocervical secretions of women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV was found in 31 of the 37 women (83.8%); 9 different HPV genotypes were identified. The genotypes with high oncogenic potential were found in decreasing order of frequency as follows: 16, 18, 45, 33, 35 and 68. The frequency of strains found per patient ranged from 1 to 3. Genotypes 16 and 18 were single in 17 out of 31 patients. They were associated with other HPV genotypes in 4 out of 31 patients. In this study genotypes 16 and 18 are the most frequent genotypes encountered in high grade squamous preinvasive cervical lesions in Yaounde. This finding, if confirmed on a larger sample, portrays the potential effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the Cameroonian population as a preventive measure against cervical cancer. However, the position of genotype 45 is not negligible and should be confirmed on a large sample.

Keywords

References

[1]  Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJL et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. The lancet, 378 (9801):1461-1484, Oct. 2011.
 
[2]  Enow-Orock GE, Essame-Oyono JL, Doh A . Cancer incidence in Yaoundé 2004-2008: Yaoundé Cancer Registry Technical Report.Yaoundé: National Cancer Control Program, Yaounde Cameroon, 2009.
 
[3]  Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R. Colposcopie et traitement des néoplasies cervicales intraépithéliales : Manuel à l’usage des débutants. Centre international de recherche sur le cancer, Lyon France, 2004.
 
[4]  Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV et al. Humann papilloma virus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol, 189 (1):12-19, Sept. 1999.
 
[5]  Didelot-Rousseau M-N, Nagot N, Costes-Martineau V, Ouedraogo A, Konate I, Weiss HA et al. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution and cervical intraepithelial lesions among high-risk women with and without HIV-1 infection in Burkina Faso. Br J Cancer, 95 (3): 355-362, Aug. 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Ali-Risasi C, Praet M, Van Renterghem L, Zinga-Ilunga B, Sengeyi D, Lokomba V et al. Human Papilloma virus genotypic Profile in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo : implications for vaccination. Med Trop, 68(6) : 617-20, Dec. 2008.
 
[7]  Salih MM, Safi ME, Hart K, Tobi K, Adam I. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology, Infect Agent Cancer, 5: 26, Dec. 2010.
 
[8]  Ciapponi A, Bardach A, Glujovsky D, Gibbons L, Picconi MA.. Type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical cancer and high-grade lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 6 (10):e25493. Epub 2011 Oct. 4.
 
[9]  Wentzensen N, Schiffman M, Dunn T, Zuna RE, Gold MA, Allen RA et al. Multiple human papillomavirus genotype infections in cervical cancer progression in the study to understand cervical cancer early endpoints and determinants. Int J Cancer, 125 (9):2151-8, Nov. 2009.
 
[10]  Kuypers JM, C. W. Critchlow CW, Gravitt PE, Vernon DA, Sayer JB, Manos MM et al., Comparison of dot filter hybridization, southern transfer hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction amplification for diagnosis of anal human papillomavirus infection. J Clin Microbiol, 31(4):1003-6, Apr. 1993.
 
[11]  Gravitt PE, Peyton CL, Apple RJ, Wheeler CM. Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method, J Clin Microbiol, 36 (10):3020-7, Oct. 1998.
 
[12]  Wamai RG, Ayissi CA, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Manga S et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon. J Community Health, 37(5):917-26, Oct. 2012.
 
[13]  Ayissi CA, Wamai RG, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Welty T et al. acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents. J Community Health, 37(6):1127-35, Dec. 2012.
 
[14]  McCarey C, Pirek D, Tebeu PM, Boulvain M, Doh AS, Petignat P. Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Womens Health , 11:45, Oct. 2011.
 
[15]  Berner A, Hassel SB, Tebeu PM, Untiet S, Kengne-Fosso G, Navarria I et al. Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling in Cameroon: Women's Uncertainties Over the Reliability of the Method Are Barriers to Acceptance. J Low Genit Tract Dis, 17(3): 235-41, Jul. 2013.
 
[16]  Hwang HS, Park M, Lee SY, Kwon KH, Pang MG. Distribution and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Routine Pap Smear of 2470 Korean Women Determined by DNA chip. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13 (12):2153-56, Dec. 2004.
 
[17]  Stevens MP, Tabrizi SN, Quinn M , Garland SM. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (3): 1017–1024, May-Jun. 2006.
 
[18]  Lindemann MLM, Sanchez JMC, Chacon JA, Itziar S, Diaz E, Rubio MD et al. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk genotype of HPV in women with severe cervical lesion in Madrid, Spain: importance of detecting genotype 16 and other high-risk genotypes. Adv Prev Med 2011; 2011:269468. doi: 10.4061/2011/2694 Epub 2010 Sep. 27.
 
[19]  Winkelstein WJ. Smoking and cervical cancer-current status: a review. Am J Epidemiol, 131(6): 945-957, Jun. 1990.
 
[20]  Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, Muňoz N. & Franceschi S. Human papilloma virus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta analysis. Br J Cancer, 88 (1):63-73, Jan. 2003.
 
[21]  Muňoz N, Bosh F X, Casttellague X, de Sanjose S, Hammouda D, Shah K V & al. Against which human papilloma virus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective. Int J Cancer; 111(2):278-285, Aug. 2004.
 
[22]  Chen CA, Liuy HH, Chou CY, Ho CM, Twu NF, Kan YY et al. The distribution and differential risks of human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical pre invasive lesions: a Taiwan Cooperative Oncologic Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (5):1801-1808, Sept-Oct. 2006.
 
[23]  Desruisseau AJ, Schmidt-Drimminger D, Welty E. Epidemiology of HPV in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Fertile Women in Cameroon, West Africa. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol vol 2009 (2009).
 
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Article

Pancreatic Ewings Sarcoma- A Dreadful Tumor

1Department of Surgery, Sudha Hospital &Medical Research Centre, Talwandi, Kota, Rajasthan, India

2Sudha Hospital & Medical Research Centre Kota, Rajasthan, India

3Head of Dept of Surgery, Sudha Hospital &Medical Research Centre Kota, Rajasthan, India

4Department of Obs & Gynae, RNT Medical College, Udaipur


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013, 1(3), 24-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kumar Jayant, Swati Agrawal, Rajendra Agarwal, Susheela Khoiwal. Pancreatic Ewings Sarcoma- A Dreadful Tumor. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 1(3):24-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: Kumar  Jayant, Department of Surgery, Sudha Hospital &Medical Research Centre, Talwandi, Kota, Rajasthan, India. Email: jayantsun@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is an uncommon, aggressive, and malignant tumor with poor outcome. Pancreas in one of the very rare extraosseous location for this tumor thus minimal information regarding this disorder is present in literature. The present case was clinically and radiologically misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Histopathology of the tumor tissue revealed “small round cells” that were positive for CD99 (MIC-2), confirming the diagnosis of ES/PNET. This case report emphasis on the importance of considering Ewing’s sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of intraabdominal, extraintestinal masses particularly in young patients presenting with pancreatic mass.

Keywords

References

[1]  De Alava E, Gerald WL. Molecular biology of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. J ClinOncol 2000; 18:204-213.
 
[2]  Bulchmann G, Schuster T, Haas RJ et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the pancreas. An extremely rare tumor. Case report and review of the literature. KlinPadiatr 2000; 212: 185-188.
 
[3]  Danner DB, Hruban RH, Pitt HA et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the pancreas. Mod Pathol 1994; 7:200-204.
 
[4]  Perek S, Perek A, Sarman K et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the pancreas. A case report of an extremely rare tumor. Pancreatology 2003; 3:352-356.
 
[5]  Reilly C, Zenoni S, Hasan MK et al. Primary pancreatic Ewing's sarcoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2013 May; 17(5):1015-9.
 
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[6]  Moschovi M, Trimis G, Stefanaki K et al. Favorable
outcome of Ewing sarcoma family tumors to multiagent intensive preoperative chemotherapy: a single institution
experience. J SurgOncol 2005; 89: 239-243.
 
[7]  Eralp Y, Bavbek S, Basaran M et al. Prognostic factors and survival in late
adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors. Am J ClinOncol 2002; 25: 418-424.
 
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Article

A note on the Radiation Treatment Planning for the Prostate Cancer

1Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang, China


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Robert Shi. A note on the Radiation Treatment Planning for the Prostate Cancer. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Robert  Shi, Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang, China. Email: rshi01293@yahoo.com

Abstract

Radiation therapy has been one of the major treatment modalities for the prostate cancer over the past few decades. Treatment planning system (TPS) is an integral component in radiation therapy in order to ensure the accurate estimation of radiation dose to the tumor. However, due to the variability in optimization techniques and beam modeling among various TPS, the current literature on radiation treatment planning have shown disagreement on the dosimetric findings, especially for the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT). This may create a confusion for the cancer centers who are debating whether to implement IMRT or VMAT as the primary treatment modality for the cancer treatment in their institution. The purpose of this article is to provide the brief review on the IMRT and VMAT for the prostate cancer treatment.

Keywords

References

[1]  Otto K. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: IMRT in a single gantry arc. Med Phys 2008; 35: 310-17.
 
[2]  Kjaer-Kristoffersen F, Ohlhues L, Medin J, Korreman S. RapidArc volumetric modulated therapy planning for prostate cancer patients. Acta Oncol. 2009; 48 (2): 227-32.
 
[3]  Zhang P, Happersett L, Hunt M, Jackson A, Zelefsky M, Mageras G. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: planning and evaluation for prostate cancer cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Apr; 76 (5): 1456-62.
 
[4]  Rao M, Yang W, Chen F, Sheng K, Ye J, Mehta V, Shepard D, Cao D. Comparison of Elekta VMAT with helical tomotherapy and fixed field IMRT: plan quality, delivery efficiency and accuracy. Med Phys. 2010 Mar; 37 (3): 1350-9.
 
[5]  Sze HC, Lee MC, Hung WM, Yau TK, Lee AW. RapidArc radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer: Single-arc and double-arc techniques vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Med Dosim 2012; 37: 87-91.
 
Show More References
[6]  Herman TF, Schnell E, Young J, Hildebrand K, Algan Ö, Syzek E, Herman T, Ahmad S. Dosimetric comparison between IMRT delivery modes: Step-and-shoot, sliding window, and volumetric modulated arc therapy-for whole pelvis radiation therapy of intermediate-to-high risk prostate adenocarcinoma. J Med Phys 2013; 38: 165-72.
 
[7]  Tsai CL, Wu JK, Chao HL, Tsai YC, Cheng JC. Treatment and dosimetric advantages between VMAT, IMRT, and helical tomotherapy in prostate cancer. Med Dosim. 2011 Autumn; 36 (3): 264-71.
 
[8]  Wolff D, Stieler F, Welzel G, Lorenz F, Abo-Madyan Y, Mai S, Herskind C, Polednik M, Steil V, Wenz F, Lohr F. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. serial tomotherapy, step-and-shoot IMRT and 3D-conformal RT for treatment of prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2009; 93 (2): 226-33.
 
[9]  Yoo S, Wu QJ, Lee WR, Yin FF. Radiotherapy treatment plans with RapidArc for prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles and lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1; 76 (3): 935-42.
 
[10]  Chow JC, Jiang R. Prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy: dosimetry and radiobiological model variation between the single-arc and double-arc technique. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013 May 6; 14 (3): 4053.
 
[11]  Rana SB, Cheng C. Investigating VMAT planning technique to reduce rectal and bladder dose in prostate cancer treatment plans. Clin Cancer Investig J 2013; 2: 212-7.
 
[12]  Rana S, Cheng C. Feasibility of the partial-single arc technique in RapidArc planning for prostate cancer treatment. Chin J Cancer. 2013; 32 (10): 546-52.
 
[13]  Lu L. Dose calculation algorithms in external beam photon radiation therapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (2): 01025.
 
[14]  Oyewale S. Dose prediction accuracy of collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm in a multi-layer inhomogenous phantom. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (1): 01016.
 
[15]  Rana S, Rogers K. Dosimetric evaluation of Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm with measurements in predicting doses beyond different air gap thickness for smaller and larger field sizes. J Med Phys. 2013; 38 (1): 9-14.
 
[16]  Pokharel S. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (1): 01011.
 
[17]  Park JM, Choi CH, Ha SW, Ye SJ. The dosimetric effect of mixed-energy IMRT plans for prostate cancer. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2011; 12: 3563.
 
[18]  Hawke S, Torrance A, Tremethick L. Evaluation of planned dosimetry when beam energies are substituted for a fraction of the treatment course. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (2): 01014.
 
[19]  Kry SF, Salehpour M, Followill DS, et. al. The calculated risk of fatal secondary malignancies from intensity modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 62: 1195-203.
 
[20]  Mavroidis P. Clinical implementation of radiobiological measures in treatment planning. Why has it taken so long? Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (1): 01019.
 
[21]  Sanfilippo N, Hardee ME, Wallach J. Review of chemoradiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2011 Jan; 6 (1): 64-8.
 
[22]  Saha A, Chattopadhyay S. Assessment of pulmonary toxicities in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy and radiotherapy-a prospective study. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1 (2): 01021.
 
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Article

A Brief Note on the Limitation of Treatment Planning in Proton Therapy

1Department of Medical Physics, ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(1), 4-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Suresh Rana. A Brief Note on the Limitation of Treatment Planning in Proton Therapy. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(1):4-4. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Suresh  Rana, Department of Medical Physics, ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Email: suresh.rana@gmail.com

Abstract

References

[1]  http://ptcog.web.psi.ch/ptcentres.html [Accessed on January 12, 2014].
 
[2]  Wilson RR. Radiological use of fast protons. Radiology 1946; 47: 487-491.
 
[3]  Ulmer W. Notes of the editorial board on the role of medical physics in radiotherapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1):01014.
 
[4]  Zheng Y, Ramirez E, Mascia A, Ding X, Okoth B, Zeidan O, Hsi W, Harris B, Schreuder AN, Keole S. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams. Med Phys. 2011;38(4):2299-306.
 
[5]  Hong L, Goitein M, Bucciolini M, Comiskey R, Gottschalk B, Rosenthal S, Serago C, Urie M. A pencil beam algorithm for proton dose calculations. Phys Med Biol. 1996; 41(8):1305-30.
 
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[6]  Rana S, Zeidan O, Ramirez E, Rains M, Gao J, Zheng Y. Measurements of lateral penumbra for uniform scanning proton beams under various beam delivery conditions and comparison to the XiO treatment planning system. Med Phys 2013; 40:091708
 
[7]  Rana S, Singh H. Impact of heterogeneities on lateral penumbra in uniform scanning proton therapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1(2):01026.
 
[8]  Islam MR. Secondary neutrons issue in proton radiotherapy-a brief report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1):02017.
 
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Article

Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon)

1Department of Pathology, Gynaeco-obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Geneva University Hopsital, Geneva, Switzerland


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(1), 5-8
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zacharie Sando, Tomas McKee, Jean Claude Pache, Herman Kemajou, Olive Folem, Laura Rubbia–Brandt, Anderson Sama Doh. Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon). American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(1):5-8. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Zacharie  Sando, Department of Pathology, Gynaeco-obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Email: sandozac@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to detect and determine the different genotypes of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) found in high-grade squamous preinvasive lesions of the uterine cervix of Cameroonian women. The age of the effected women was 28-55 years with 27 (69.3%) women between 34 and 40 years old. HPV genotyping was conducted on 37 endocervical secretions of women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV was found in 31 of the 37 women (83.8%); 9 different HPV genotypes were identified. The genotypes with high oncogenic potential were found in decreasing order of frequency as follows: 16, 18, 45, 33, 35 and 68. The frequency of strains found per patient ranged from 1 to 3. Genotypes 16 and 18 were single in 17 out of 31 patients. They were associated with other HPV genotypes in 4 out of 31 patients. In this study genotypes 16 and 18 are the most frequent genotypes encountered in high grade squamous preinvasive cervical lesions in Yaounde. This finding, if confirmed on a larger sample, portrays the potential effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the Cameroonian population as a preventive measure against cervical cancer. However, the position of genotype 45 is not negligible and should be confirmed on a large sample.

Keywords

References

[1]  Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJL et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. The lancet, 378 (9801):1461-1484, Oct. 2011.
 
[2]  Enow-Orock GE, Essame-Oyono JL, Doh A. Cancer incidence in Yaoundé 2004-2008: Yaoundé Cancer Registry Technical Report.Yaoundé: National Cancer Control Program, Yaounde Cameroon, 2009.
 
[3]  Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R. Colposcopie et traitement des néoplasies cervicales intraépithéliales: Manuel à l’usage des débutants. Centre international de recherche sur le cancer, Lyon France, 2004.
 
[4]  Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV et al. Humann papilloma virus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol, 189 (1): 12-19, Sept. 1999.
 
[5]  Didelot-Rousseau M-N, Nagot N, Costes-Martineau V, Ouedraogo A, Konate I, Weiss HA et al. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution and cervical intraepithelial lesions among high-risk women with and without HIV-1 infection in Burkina Faso. Br J Cancer, 95 (3): 355-362, Aug. 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Ali-Risasi C, Praet M, Van Renterghem L, Zinga-Ilunga B, Sengeyi D, Lokomba V et al. Human Papilloma virus genotypic Profile in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for vaccination. Med Trop, 68 (6): 617-20, Dec. 2008.
 
[7]  Salih MM, Safi ME, Hart K, Tobi K, Adam I. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology, Infect Agent Cancer, 5: 26, Dec. 2010.
 
[8]  Ciapponi A, Bardach A, Glujovsky D, Gibbons L, Picconi MA. Type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical cancer and high-grade lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 6 (10): e25493. Epub 2011 Oct. 4.
 
[9]  Wentzensen N, Schiffman M, Dunn T, Zuna RE, Gold MA, Allen RA et al. Multiple human papillomavirus genotype infections in cervical cancer progression in the study to understand cervical cancer early endpoints and determinants. Int J Cancer, 125 (9): 2151-8, Nov. 2009.
 
[10]  Kuypers JM, C. W. Critchlow CW, Gravitt PE, Vernon DA, Sayer JB, Manos MM et al., Comparison of dot filter hybridization, southern transfer hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction amplification for diagnosis of anal human papillomavirus infection. J Clin Microbiol, 31 (4): 1003-6, Apr. 1993.
 
[11]  Gravitt PE, Peyton CL, Apple RJ, Wheeler CM. Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method, J Clin Microbiol, 36 (10): 3020-7, Oct. 1998.
 
[12]  Wamai RG, Ayissi CA, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Manga S et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon. J Community Health, 37 (5): 917-26, Oct. 2012.
 
[13]  Ayissi CA, Wamai RG, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Welty T et al. acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents. J Community Health, 37 (6): 1127-35, Dec. 2012.
 
[14]  McCarey C, Pirek D, Tebeu PM, Boulvain M, Doh AS, Petignat P. Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Womens Health, 11: 45, Oct. 2011.
 
[15]  Berner A, Hassel SB, Tebeu PM, Untiet S, Kengne-Fosso G, Navarria I et al. Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling in Cameroon: Women's Uncertainties Over the Reliability of the Method Are Barriers to Acceptance. J Low Genit Tract Dis, 17 (3): 235-41, Jul. 2013.
 
[16]  Hwang HS, Park M, Lee SY, Kwon KH, Pang MG. Distribution and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Routine Pap Smear of 2470 Korean Women Determined by DNA chip. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13 (12): 2153-56, Dec. 2004.
 
[17]  Stevens MP, Tabrizi SN, Quinn M, Garland SM. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (3): 1017-1024, May-Jun. 2006.
 
[18]  Lindemann MLM, Sanchez JMC, Chacon JA, Itziar S, Diaz E, Rubio MD et al. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk genotype of HPV in women with severe cervical lesion in Madrid, Spain: importance of detecting genotype 16 and other high-risk genotypes. Adv Prev Med 2011; 2011: 269468.
 
[19]  Winkelstein WJ. Smoking and cervical cancer-current status: a review. Am J Epidemiol, 131 (6): 945-957, Jun. 1990.
 
[20]  Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, Muňoz N. & Franceschi S. Human papilloma virus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta analysis. Br J Cancer, 88 (1): 63-73, Jan. 2003.
 
[21]  Muňoz N, Bosh F X, Casttellague X, de Sanjose S, Hammouda D, Shah K V & al. Against which human papilloma virus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective. Int J Cancer; 111 (2): 278-285, Aug. 2004.
 
[22]  Chen CA, Liuy HH, Chou CY, Ho CM, Twu NF, Kan YY et al. The distribution and differential risks of human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical pre invasive lesions: a Taiwan Cooperative Oncologic Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (5): 1801-1808, Sept-Oct. 2006.
 
[23]  Desruisseau AJ, Schmidt-Drimminger D, Welty E. Epidemiology of HPV in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Fertile Women in Cameroon, West Africa. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol vol 2009 (2009). Article ID 810596, 6 pages.
 
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Article

Knowledge and Practice on Oral Care among the Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

1Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Kavre

2Emergency Department, Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Kathmandu


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(1), 9-13
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Acharya Radha, Ojha Namrata. Knowledge and Practice on Oral Care among the Patients Receiving Chemotherapy. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(1):9-13. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Acharya  Radha, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Kavre. Email: radhapnd@yahoo.com

Abstract

Changes to the oral cavity arising from malignant disease, treatment and other co-morbidity factors can have a profound affect on the person with cancer, causing pain, discomfort, lack of nutrition, longer hospital stays, and in some situations sepsis and death. While it is recognized that caring for the mouth is an important aspect of cancer care, all too often this aspect of care may be overlooked until problems arise. This leads to needless distress and discomfort and in some cases serious clinical consequences. Oral and gastrointestinal mucositis can affect up to 100% of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge and practice on oral care among the patients receiving chemotherapy. This is descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 102 respondents, visiting B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur Chitwan and who met eligible criteria were systematically sampled and interviewed face to face. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis using the SPSS version 16.0. The duration of the study was one month i.e. June, 2010. The tool was developed after reviewing the related literatures. The knowledge on oral care was adequate among 23.4% of the respondents and 18.6% of the respondents had adequate practice receiving chemotherapy. Only 28.4% respondents had adequate knowledge. Among total respondents 60.7% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on the prevention of oral problems and 55.8% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on treatment of oral problems. Nurses were found as a main source of information on oral care. Thus, it was concluded that majority of the respondents had inadequate knowledge and practice on oral care. There was association between selected demographic (age and education). There was no association between family history of cancer and knowledge of respondents. Thus the study also concluded that adequate knowledge on oral care should be provided to the patients before undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords

References

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Article

Association between HPV and Head and Neck Cancer: Differences in Understanding among Three Distinct Populations

1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30308

2Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114

3Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, GA 30319


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(1), 14-19
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laura J. White, Francis X. Creighton Jr, Justin C. Wise, Edie R. Hapner. Association between HPV and Head and Neck Cancer: Differences in Understanding among Three Distinct Populations. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(1):14-19. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: Edie  R. Hapner, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30308. Email: ehapner@emory.edu

Abstract

The aim of this study is to compare the knowledge of the relationship between HPV and head and neck cancer (HNCA) in three unique populations: general public at a sporting event, undergraduates, and medical students, and to compare the frequency that a healthcare provider has discussed the topics of cervical cancer and HNCA amongst these populations. A one-way between subjects design was used to evaluate participants at a community based head and neck cancer screening, and students in individual classrooms. A28-item questionnaire was administered to 491 NASCAR race attendees, 186 undergraduate students, and 158 medical students. The survey assessed their knowledge of the relationship between HPV and HNCA using a Likert scale. The survey also assessed the level of information disseminated by healthcare providers regarding HPV and HNCA. NASCAR attendees evidenced significantly (p < .001, η2 = .10) lower levels of knowledge of the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer than college or medical students. NASCAR attendees evidenced significantly (p < .001, η2 = .02) lower levels of knowledge of the relationship between HPV and HNCA. NASCAR attendees reported significantly (p < .001, η2 = .10) more frequent discussions with health care providers regarding HNCA compared to college or medical students. Undergraduates and medical students reported significantly (p < .001, η2 = .02) more frequent discussions with health care providers regarding HPV than NASCAR attendees. Results demonstrated group differences in knowledge between the relationship of HPV and cervical cancer and HPV and HNCA. All groups were more aware of HPV’s association with cervical cancer than with HNCA.

Keywords

References

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Article

Awareness and Knowledge of Smoking-Related Cancers Among University Students in Jordan

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ayoub A. Innabi, Dina A. Ammari, Wa'el J. K. Tuqan. Awareness and Knowledge of Smoking-Related Cancers Among University Students in Jordan. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Ayoub  A. Innabi, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Email: ayoubinnabi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, has a high prevalence rate of smoking. However, little research was done to evaluate knowledge of smoking-related cancers in the region. Objective: To assess knowledge of smoking-related cancers among Jordanian university students. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in July, 2013, using a self-administered online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to students from University of Jordan. Results: The final sample consisted of 230 students. The majority of participants (98.7%) were aware that smoking has harmful health effects and (95.7%) agreed that smoking causes cancer. Most of the participants agreed that smoking causes lung cancer (97.8%), oral cancer (83.0%), laryngeal cancer (82.6%), pharyngeal cancer (80.0%), and esophageal cancer (63.0%), while less than half of the participant thought that smoking causes AML (46.1%), stomach cancer (36.1%), kidney cancer (32.6%), cervical cancer (19.6%), pancreatic cancer (19.1%), and bladder cancer (14.8%). Females showed more knowledge about smoking-related cancers than males (p < 0.05) but the there was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: These findings show that most of the students know that lung cancer is caused by smoking. However, there is a lower knowledge of other smoking-related cancers. Our study suggests that more efforts should be done to increase the awareness of the adverse health hazards of smoking especially that are related to cancer.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genetic Testing for Risk of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study Examining Perceived Benefits and Barriers using Health Belief Model

1Division of Social and Administrative Sciences in Pharmacy, Oscar Rennebohm School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York City

3School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Suwanee, Georgia


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 24-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karishma Desai, Bupendra Shah, Hamid Rahim, Hongjun Yin, John Lonie. Genetic Testing for Risk of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study Examining Perceived Benefits and Barriers using Health Belief Model. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):24-30. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Karishma  Desai, Division of Social and Administrative Sciences in Pharmacy, Oscar Rennebohm School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Email: desaikaru@gmail.com

Abstract

Aim: To (i) assess participants’ awareness of the availability of genetic testing to determine the risk of different types of cancer; (ii) to assess participants’ beliefs about genetic testing for the risk of lung cancer using Health Belief Model; and (iii) to explore factors affecting intention to use genetic testing for risk of lung cancer. Methods: A sample of 360 New Jersey residents were surveyed by interviewers from three densely populated cities in the northern, central and southern regions of New Jersey. The survey instrument was developed using the Health Belief Model and measures were adapted from the literature. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with intention to use genetic testing. Results: A total of 360 individuals were surveyed in three cities in New Jersey. Of these, 50% were non-Hispanic White, female, and with an annual income of less than $50,000; 66% were nonsmokers without a family history of lung cancer. The overall intention to use the genetic test to determine lung cancer risk was low (35%), even though the majority of participants believed genetic testing for lung cancer to be highly beneficial, and despite believing it to be a severe condition [M(SD)=11.5(2.3)}. Approximately 50% of participants were aware of the availability of genetic tests for the risk of lung cancer, and respondents believed they were moderately susceptible to lung cancer [M(SD)=25.3(3.7)].Gender, education, smoking habits and perceived benefits of testing were significant predictors of intention. Conclusion: Awareness and intention to use genetic testing for the risk of lung cancer was low. This study provides useful information for healthcare professionals interested in promoting the use of genetic testing for at-risk populations such as smokers, and how to tailor interventions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Dutasteride and Prostate Cancer Risk: Does Family History of Prostate and/or Breast Cancers Influence the Number Needed to Treat? Results from REDUCE

1Surgery Section, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC

2Duke Prostate Center, Division of Urological Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke, University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Institute

4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

5The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY

6Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri

7Duke Prostate Center, Division of Urological Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke, University School of Medicine, Durham, NC;Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jean-Alfred Thomas II, Leah Gerber, Robert J. Hamilton, Adriana C. Vidal, Daniel M. Moreira, Gerald L. Andriole, Stephen J. Freedland. Dutasteride and Prostate Cancer Risk: Does Family History of Prostate and/or Breast Cancers Influence the Number Needed to Treat? Results from REDUCE. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Stephen  J. Freedland, Surgery Section, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC. Email: Steve.freedland@duke.edu

Abstract

Purpose: In REDUCE, dutasteride was associated with a ~5% absolute reduction in the risk of biopsy-detected prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods: We tested the influence of family history on the association between dutasteride and PCa diagnosis and calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) with dutasteride to avoid one PCa diagnosis. The REDUCE trial tested dutasteride 0.5mg/day for PCa risk reduction in men aged 50-75 with a serum PSA of 2.5-10.0ng/mL and a negative biopsy. Among men who underwent >1 on-study biopsy with complete data (n=6,415; 78.1%), the association between dutasteride and PCa risk as a function of PCa and/or breast cancer (BCa) family history was examined using multivariable logistic regression. Absolute risk reduction (ARR) and NNT were calculated. Results: On multivariate analysis, dutasteride was significantly associated with lower PCa risk in men without family history (25% lower; p<0.001), PCa family history only (37% lower; p=0.009), or BCa family history only (38% lower; p=0.04). While dutasteride lowered PCa risk in men with both PCa and BCa family history by 15%, this was not significant (p=0.69), though the number of men was small (n=115). ARRs were 6-9% for men with a PCa and/or BCa family history vs. 5% in men with no family history which translated into NNTs of 11-16 in men with PCa and/or BCa family history vs. 21 for men without family history. Conclusion: Using dutasteride as a model of chemoprevention, therapies targeting individuals with specific family histories may improve the risk-benefit profile. However, future studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

Keywords

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