You are here:

American Journal of Cancer Prevention

ISSN (Print): 2328-7322

ISSN (Online): 2328-7314

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCP

Article

Comparison of IHC, FISH, ER and PR in Breast Cancer in Western Iran

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Breanch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014, 2(2), 37-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Anita Kabir koohian. Comparison of IHC, FISH, ER and PR in Breast Cancer in Western Iran. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2014; 2(2):37-41. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

To evaluate the concordance and discordance between IHC and FISH results for detection of Her2/neu protein, analyses of ER and PR, and also evaluation of the benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab in patients diagnosed with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive invasive ductal carcinoma enrolled onto the Herceptin adjuvant. IHC analysis of ER, PR and HER2 was performed in 133 patients of breast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma. 90(67.6%) cases were confirmed by FISH. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS version 19, Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Age mean of patients was 46.39±10.81 years (range, 24-78 years). Concordance rates between IHC and FISH were 32.4% for IHC 2+ and 81.25% for IHC 3+ (P<0.001). There were 17 and 56 patients of IHC 2+ and 3+ with ER positive and also 23 and 59 patients of IHC 2+ and 3+ had PR positive.The 83 patients had age ≤50 years and 50 patients had >50 years. Of 133 the patients, 48(36.1%) patients were treated with trastuzumab and 85(63.9%) were treated without trastuzumab. The overall survival(OS) for patients treating with trastuzumab were mean of 37.8 months and the OS for patients treating without trastuzumab were mean of 20.8 months (P<0.05). The results are that trastuzumab therapy is effective and improves the survival of HER2-positive breast cancer patients and trastuzumab therapy is effective and tolerated for breast cancer with Her-2 positive. There is a statistically significant relationship between ER positive with PR positive and ER negative with PR negative that these results need to more studies with more patients in the world.

Keywords

References

[1]  M Y, Ahmadi M R H, J K, H P, K H A, M R Y, et al. An 8 years retrospective study of breast cancer incidence in ilam province, Western iran. J Clin Diagn Res.2013. 7(12): 2923-5.
 
[2]  Toi M, Ohashi Y, Seow A, Moriya T, Tse G, Sasano H, et al. The breast cancer working group presentation divided into three sections: the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of breast cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010.40(Suppl 1):i13-18.
 
[3]  Banin Hirata BK, Oda JM, Losi Guembarovski R, Ariza CB, de Oliveira CE, Watanabe MA. Molecular markers for breast cancer: prediction on tumor behavior. Dis Markers. 2014. 2014: 513158.
 
[4]  Cui H, Cheng Y, Piao SZ, Xu YJ, Sun HH, Cui X, et al. Correlation between HER-2/neu(erbB-2) expression level and therapeutic effect of combination treatment with HERCEPTIN and chemotherapeutic agents in gastric cancer cell lines. Cancer Cell Int. 2014 Jan 29.14(1): 10.
 
[5]  Yarden Y, Sliwkowski MX. Untangling the ErbB signalling network. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Feb. 2(2): 127-37.
 
Show More References
[6]  Buendía JA, Vallejos C, Pichón-Rivière A. An economic evaluation of trastuzumab as adjuvant treatment of early HER2-positive breast cancer patients in Colombia. Biomedica. 2013. 33(3): 411-7.
 
[7]  Rexer BN, Chanthaphaychith S, Dahlman KB, Arteaga CL. Direct inhibition of PI3K in combination with dual HER2 inhibitors is required for optimal antitumor activity in HER2+ breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2014. 16(1): R9.
 
[8]  Khabaz MN. Immunohistochemistry subtypes (ER/PR/HER) of breast cancer: where do we stand in the West of Saudi Arabia? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014.15(19): 8395-400.
 
[9]  Keyhani E, Muhammadnejad A, Behjati F, Sirati F, Khodadadi F, Karimlou M, et al. Angiogenesis markers in breast cancer--potentially useful tools for priority setting of anti-angiogenic agents. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013.14(12): 7651-6.
 
[10]  Yip CH, Rhodes A. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. Future Oncol. 2014.10(14): 2293-301.
 
[11]  Bahreini F, Soltanian AR, Mehdipour P. A meta-analysis on concordance between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect HER2 gene overexpression in breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
 
[12]  Jacquemier J, Spyratos F, Esterni B, Mozziconacci MJ, Antoine M, Arnould L, et al. SISH/CISH or qPCR as alternative techniques to FISH for determination of HER2 amplification status on breast tumors core needle biopsies: a multicenter experience based on 840 cases. BMC Cancer. 2013. 13: 351.
 
[13]  Jiang H, Bai X, Meng F, Zhang C, Zhang X. Evaluation of chromosome 17 polysomy in breast cancer by FISH analysis of whole nuclei, and its clinicopathological significance. Oncol Lett. 2014. 7(6): 1954-1958.
 
[14]  Sui W, Ou M, Chen J, Wan Y, Peng H, Qi M, et al. Comparison of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment for Her-2 status in breast cancer. World J Surg Oncol. 2009. 7: 83.
 
[15]  Qiao EQ, Ji M, Wu J, Li J, Xu X, Ma R, et al. Joint detection of multiple immunohistochemical indices and clinical significance in breast cancer. Mol Clin Oncol. 2013.1(4):703-710.
 
[16]  Ha JH, Seong MK, Kim EK, Lee JK, Seol H, Lee JY, et al. Serial Serum HER2 Measurements for the Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence in HER2-Positive Patients. J Breast Cancer. 2014. 17(1): 33-9.
 
[17]  Varga Z, Noske A, Ramach C, Padberg B, Moch H. Assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer: overall positivity rate and accuracy by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in a single institution over 12 years: a quality control study. BMC Cancer. 2013.13:615.
 
[18]  Ghaffari SR, Sabokbar T, Dastan J, Rafati M, Moossavi S. Her2 amplification status in Iranian breast cancer patients: comparison of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011. 12(4): 1031-4.
 
[19]  Shirsat HS, Epari S, Shet T, Bagal R, Hawaldar R, Desai SB. HER 2 status in invasive breast cancer: immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in-situ hybridization and chromogenic in-situ hybridization. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012. 55(2): 175-9.
 
[20]  Park S, Park HS, Koo JS, Yang WI, Kim SI, Park BW. Breast cancers presenting luminal B subtype features show higher discordant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cancer. 2012.118(4):914-23.
 
[21]  DE Vargas Wolfgramm E, Gavioli CF, Entringer ML, Alves LN, Stur E, DE Castro Neto AK, et al. Histological profile and age at diagnosis of breast and ovarian tumors: A register-based study in Espirito Santo, Brazil. Mol Clin Oncol. 2013.1(2):353-358.
 
[22]  Bertrand KA, Tamimi RM, Scott CG, Jensen MR, Pankratz VS, Visscher D, et al. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics. Breast Cancer Res. 2013.15(6): R104.
 
[23]  Sofi GN, Sofi JN, Nadeem R, Shiekh RY, Khan FA, Sofi AA, et al. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer in relation to age, histological grade, size of lesion and lymph node involvement. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012.13(10): 5047-52.
 
[24]  Song Q, Huang R, Li J, Fan J, Zheng S, Zhang B, et al. The diverse distribution of risk factors between breast cancer subtypes of ER, PR and HER2: a 10-year retrospective multi-center study in China. PLoS One. 2013.8(8): e72175.
 
[25]  Shomaf M, Masad J, Najjar S, Faydi D. Distribution of breast cancer subtypes among Jordanian women and correlation with histopathological grade: molecular subclassification study. JRSM Short Rep. 2013.4(10):2042533313490516.
 
[26]  Okita Y, Narita Y, Suzuki T, Arita H, Yonemori K, Kinoshita T, et al. Extended trastuzumab therapy improves the survival of HER2-positive breast cancer patients following surgery and radiotherapy for brain metastases. Mol Clin Oncol. 2013.1(6):995-1001.
 
[27]  Gultekin M, Eren G, Babacan T, Yildiz F, Altundag K, Guler N, et al. Metaplastic breast carcinoma: a heterogeneous disease. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014.15(6): 2851-6.
 
Show Less References

Article

Type of Treatment Can Effect on Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Rare Case with Review of Literature

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4Molecular Pathology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Seyed Hamid Madani. Type of Treatment Can Effect on Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Rare Case with Review of Literature. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Richter transformation is defined as a diffuse large cell lymphoma, occurring by transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of richter syndrome. Herein, we describe report of a 51 year-old man in western Iran that referred to Hematology Clinic with complaint of three months of weight loss and sweating with generalized abdominal lymphadenopathy and the Bulky cervical lymph node. Pathology’s specimens for him demonstrated CLL in the patient (Rai system stage 4) and during seven years ago, he was treated with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide regiment for 6 courses. Cervical biopsy pathology reported a new diagnosis of diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma and also immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis showed CD3, CD20, CD45 were positive and Bcl-2 was negative and so he was treated with new regiment of R-CHOP for 6 courses. One month after last course of chemotherapy, Cerebrospinal fluid cytology was positive with lymphomatous involvement, and also brain CT SCAN showed parenchymal involvement and therapy with high dose Methotrexate began for him. The result is that specialists should be careful that probably fludarabin therapy alone or combination it with other drug especially cyclophosphamide can effect on transformation CLL to DLBCL.

Keywords

References

[1]  Olaniyi JA, Ibijola AA.Richter’s Syndrome: A Case Report. Med PrincPract. 2009.18(2):152-4.
 
[2]  Ishida F, Nakazawa H, Takezawa Y, Matsuda K, Asano N, Sano K, et al. Richter transformation in the brain from chronic lymphocytic leukemia.J ClinExpHematop. 2013.53(2):157-60.
 
[3]  Thornton PD, Bellas C, Santon A, Shah G, Pocock C, Wotherspoon AC, et al. Richter's transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible role of fludarabine and the Epstein-Barr virus in its pathogenesis. Leuk Res. 2005 Apr.29(4):389-95.
 
[4]  Español I, Büchler T, Ferrá C, Gallardo D, Reyes P, Sarrá J, et al. Richter's syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia successfully treated by withdrawal of immunosuppression, and donor lymphocyte infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Feb.31(3):215-8.
 
[5]  Ghofrani M, Tantiwongkosi B, Smith AS, Wasdahl DA. Richter transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a dural-based non-hodgkinlymphomamass.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Feb.28(2):318-20.
 
Show More References
[6]  Resende LS, Bacchi CE, Resende LA, Gabarra RC, Niéro-Melo L. ISOLATED RICHTER’S SYNDROME IN CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. ArqNeuropsiquiatr. 2005 Jun.63(2B):530-1.
 
[7]  Robak E, Góra-Tybor J, Kordek R, Wawrzyniak E, Bartkowiak J, Bednarek A, et al. Richter syndrome first manifesting as cutaneous B-cell lymphoma clonally distinct from primary B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.Br J Dermatol. 2005 Oct.153(4):833-7.
 
[8]  Yager NM, Ghate K, Swan RL, Farrokh A, Barba K, Beegle SH.A rare case of empyema. Answer: Transformation of CLL into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, also known as Richter syndrome.Chest. 2013 Jul.144(1):350-3.
 
[9]  Salihoglu A, Ozbalak M, Keskin D, Tecimer T, Soysal T, Ferhanoglu B. An unusual presentation of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient with 17p deletion after reduced-intensity transplantation: Richter syndrome and concomitant graft-versus-host disease--case report.Transplant Proc. 2013 Sep.45(7):2845-8.
 
[10]  Yu L, Bandhlish A, Fullen DR, Su LD, Ma L. Cutaneous Richter syndrome: report of 3 cases from one institution.J Am AcadDermatol. 2012 Nov.67(5):e187-93.
 
[11]  Rasool J, Jeelani S, Jeelani S, Khan A, Lone MS. Chest Wall Swelling, A Rare Presentation of Richter's Transformation. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2010 Jun.26(2):70-2.
 
[12]  Kaźmierczak M, Kroll-Balcerzak R, Balcerzak A, Czechowska E, Gil L, Sawiński K, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: cases report and discussion. Med Oncol. 2014 Jan.31(1):800.
 
[13]  Solh M, Rai KR, Peterson BL, Kolitz JE, Appelbaum FR, Tallman MS, et al. The impact of initial fludarabine therapy on transformation to Richter syndrome or prolymphocytic leukemia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: analysis of an intergroup trial (CALGB 9011). Leuk Lymphoma. 2013 Feb.54(2):252-4.
 
Show Less References

Article

Different Presentation of Treatment in Carcinomatous Meningitis of Breast Cancer: Report of 3 Cases

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 4-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Edris Sadeghi, Masoud Sadeghi, Akram Mozafari Eskandar. Different Presentation of Treatment in Carcinomatous Meningitis of Breast Cancer: Report of 3 Cases. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):4-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Edris  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mkn@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Carcinomatous Meningitis (CM) refers to the multifocal seeding of the leptomeninges by malignant cells. CM occurs in approximately 5% of patients with breast cancer. Herein, we suggest that Intrathecal (IT) can use in treatment of breast cancer patients with CM before of any treatment until can prevent of going patient to debilitating phase of this disease. Patients and Methods: Three patients with high risk breast cancer with CM: A 62 year-old Kurdish woman with a history of lung tuberculosis. Her cerebrospinal fluid was positive for malignant cells. She treated with IT chemotherapy and died 3 months after diagnosis of CM. A 48 year-old woman in premenopausal states had a left axillary mass for last 4 months. After one year of followed up she complaints with refractory headache. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis with diagnosis of CM treated with brain irradiation and multiple courses of IT chemotherapy. After six months she is well still and in follow up with previous drug list and monthly IT chemotherapy. A 63 year-old woman was presented at the emergency department of our hospital. After 4 months of her treatment she complained from decrease of consciousness and in CSF analysis with positive cytology. She treated with IT chemotherapy and She died about 2 weeks ago with exacerbation of brain tumor. Conclusion: According to the poor prognosis of this disease it is better that in high risk breast cancer patients like Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) high risk patients. IT prophylaxis was done for these high risk patients because by this way, we can prevent of going patient to debilitating phase of this disease.

Keywords

References

[1]  Payandeh M, Sadeghi M, Sadeghi E, koohian AK. Comparison of IHC, FISH, ER and PR in Breast Cancer in Western Iran. American Journal of Cancer Prevention.2014. 2(2):37-41.
 
[2]  Duan H, Li M, Sun X. Clinical features of patients with carcinomatous meningitis in the Chinese population: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg.2014. 24 (1):13-8.
 
[3]  Boskovitz A, McLendon RE, Okamura T, Sampson JH, Bigner DD, Zalutsky MR. Treatment of HER2-positive breast carcinomatous meningitis with intrathecal administration of alpha-particle-emitting (211)At-labeled trastuzumab. Nucl Med Biol.2009. 36: 659-669.
 
[4]  Chamberlain MC, Glantz M, Groves MD, Wilson WH. Diagnostic tools for neoplastic meningitis: detecting disease, identifying patient risk, and determining benefit of treatment. Semin Oncol.2009. 36(Suppl):S35-S45.
 
[5]  Tanaka Y, Oura S, Yoshimasu T, Ohta F, Naito K, Nakamura R, et al. Response of meningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer to capecitabine monotherapy: a case report. Case Rep Oncol.2013. 6(1):1-5.
 
Show More References
[6]  Niwińska A, Rudnicka H, Murawska M. Breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis: propensity of breast cancer subtypes for leptomeninge and theanalysis of factors influencing survival. Med Oncol.2013.30 (1):408.
 
[7]  Niwinska A, Rudnicka H, Murawska M. Breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis: propensity of breast cancer subtypes for leptomeninges and the analysis of factors influencing survival. Med Oncol.2013.30: 408.
 
[8]  Van Horn A, Chamberlain MC. Neoplastic meningitis. J Support Oncol.2012.10:45-53.
 
[9]  Dumitrescu C, Lossignol D. Intrathecal Trastuzumab Treatment of the Neoplastic Meningitis due to Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Reports in Oncological Medicine. Case Rep Oncol Med.2013.2013:154674.
 
[10]  Rudnicha H, Niwinska A, Murauska M. Breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis – the role of multimodality treatment. J Neurooncol.2007.84:57-62.
 
[11]  Tanaka Y, Oura S, Yoshimasu T, Ohta F, Naito K, Nakamura R, et al. Response of Meningeal Carcinomatosis from Breast Cancer to Capecitabine Monotherapy: A Case Report. Case Rep Oncol.2013.6:1-5.
 
Show Less References

Article

Association between Knowledge of Cervical Cancer/Screening and Attitude of Teachers to Immunization of Adolescent Girls with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine in Abakaliki, Nigeria

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ajah LO, Iyoke CA, Ezeonu PO, Ugwu GO, Onoh RC, Ibo CC. Association between Knowledge of Cervical Cancer/Screening and Attitude of Teachers to Immunization of Adolescent Girls with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine in Abakaliki, Nigeria. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ajah  LO, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Email: leookpanku@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Majority of the target population for HPV vaccination for the primary prevention of cervical cancer in Nigeria are found in secondary schools. Aim: To describe the knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki towards HPV vaccination, and determine if the attitude of teachers supports a possible role for teachers in promoting the uptake of the vaccine. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving secondary school teachers was carried out. Data analysis involved both descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% confidence level using the SPSS software version 16. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: A total of 412 teachers participated in the study. Approximately 78% were aware of cervical cancer and 75% of these were aware of at least one method of cervical cancer prevention. Eighty-six percent of those aware of cervical cancer knew that HPV infection was the cause of cervical cancer; although only 40.3% of these knew that HPV vaccine that protected against cervical cancer was available in the city. Approximately 70% of teachers who were aware of cervical cancer were willing to recommend HPV vaccination to children under their care. Age ≥31 years, knowledge of cervical cancer screening, knowledge of the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, and previous experience of cervical cancer screening, were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccine by secondary school teachers. Conclusion: A good majority of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki were aware of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine for preventing cervical cancer and over two-thirds of these were favourably disposed to recommending its use. Public health practitioners could therefore enlist teachers in programmes for influencing adolescent girls and their parents towards increased uptake of the vaccine in our environment.

Keywords

References

[1]  Sankaranarayanan R. Overview of cervical cancer in the developing world. FIGO 26 th Annual Report on the Results of Treatment in Gynecological Cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 95 (Suppl 1): S205-10.
 
[2]  Okonufua F. HPV vaccine and prevention of cervical cancer in Africa. Afr J Reprod Health 2007; 11:7-12.
 
[3]  World Health Organization. Nigeria:Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet 2014. WHO/ICO HPV Information Centre.Institut Català d’Oncologia Avda. Gran Via de l’Hospitalet, 199-20308908 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain).e-mail: info@hpvcentre.net.internet adress:www.hpvcentre.net.
 
[4]  Walker ARP, Michelow PM, Walker BF. Cervix cancer in African women in Durban, South Africa. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2002; 79:45-46.
 
[5]  Buga GA. Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students. East Afr Med J 1998; 75(7):411-16.
 
Show More References
[6]  Ajayi IO, Adewole IF. Knowledge and attitude of out patients' attendants in Nigeria to cervical cancer. Central Afr J Med 1998; 44(2):41-44.
 
[7]  Wellensiek N, Moodley M, Moodley J, Nkwanyana N. Knowledge of cervical cancer screening and use of cervical screening facilities among women from various socioeconomic backgrounds in Durban, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2002; 12: 376-82.
 
[8]  Anorlu RI, Banjo AAF, Odoemhum C. Cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening: level of awareness in women attending a primary health care facility in Lagos. Nig Postgrad Med J 2000; 70: 25-28.
 
[9]  Frazer H. Human papilloma virus vaccine. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006; 94:381-8.
 
[10]  Ugwu E O, Obi S N, Ezechukwu P C, Okafor I I, Ugwu A O. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening among female health-care workers in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2013; 16: 249-52.
 
[11]  Villa LL, Costa RLR, Petta CA, et al. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre Phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol, 2005; 6, 271-8.
 
[12]  Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, Moscicki AB, Romanowski B, Rotell- Martin CM, et al. Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papilloma virus types 16 and 18: Follow-up from a randomised control trial. Lancet 2006; 367:1247-55.
 
[13]  World Health Organization Human papillomavirus vaccines WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiol Rec. 2009; 15 (84):117-132.
 
[14]  Federal Ministry of Health. Nigeria Cancer Control Plan 2008-2013. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, 2008:1-40.
 
[15]  de Sanjosé S, Serrano B, Castellsagué X, Brotons M, Muñoz J, Bruni L, et al. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Related Cancers in the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) Countries. A WHO/ICO HPV Information Centre Report. Vaccine, 2012; 30 (Suppl 4). Available at: www.who.int/hpvcentre Accessed 24/12/2014.
 
[16]  GAVI. Countries eligible for support. Available at: http://www.gavi.org/support/apply/countries-eligible-for-support/.Accessed 25/07/2014.
 
[17]  GAVI. Human papillomavirus vaccine support. Available at: http://www.gavi.org/support/nvs/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-support/. Accessed 25/07/2014.
 
[18]  Ezegwui HU, Onoh RC, Ikeako LC, Onyebuchi A, Umeora OUJ, Ezeonu P, Ibekwe P.Investigating Maternal Mortality in a Public Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013; 3(1): 75-80.
 
[19]  Anorlu RI, Banjo AAF, Odoemhum C. Cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening: level of awareness in women attending a primary health care facility in Lagos. Nig Postgrad Med J 2000; 70: 25-28.
 
[20]  Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006; 1: 9-14.
 
[21]  Bingham A, Drake JK, La Montagne DS. Sociocultural issues in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine in low-resource settings Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med .2009; 163:455-61.
 
[22]  Songthap A, Pitisuttithum P, Kaewkungwal J, Fungladda W, Bussaratid V. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of a human papilloma virus vaccine among students, parents and teachers in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012 Mar; 43(2):340-53.
 
[23]  Nwozor C. M. and Oragudosi A. L. Awareness and Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Onitsha, South-East, Nig Greener J Med Sci .2013; 3 (8): 283-288.
 
[24]  Ezem B.U. Awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening in Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2007;6:94-8.
 
[25]  Eze J.N., Umeora O.U., Obuna J.A., Egwuatu V.E., Ejikeme B.N (2012).Cervical cancer awareness and cervical screening uptake at Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 11: 238-43.
 
[26]  Yen CF, Chen SF, Lin LP, Hsu SW, Chang MJ, Wu CL, Lin JD. The acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among women with physical disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2011 Sep-Oct; 32(5):2020-6.
 
Show Less References

Article

Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer-Emotional and Social Aspects

1Department of Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Banja Luka


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 13-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zivana Gavric. Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer-Emotional and Social Aspects. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):13-18. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Zivana  Gavric, Department of Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Banja Luka. Email: higija@inecco.net

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in most countries and significantly affects the quality of life of ill women. The aim of this study was to examine how the breast cancer affects their quality of life, especially emotional and social components of health, compared to healthy women in our community. The pilot study included 100 women with breast cancer and 100 healthy women aged 20-75, using EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0 questionnaire. Mean score of the global health status in women with breast cancer (29.5 ± 17.9) compared to healthy women (65.8 ± 24.7) was significantly lower in all age groups. Almost 2/3 women with breast cancer were tense and 3/4 worried. More than 2/3 ill women were irritable and depressed with a significantly lower score on the scale of emotional and social functioning compared with healthy women. Over 2/3 ill women said that their health status or treatment had an impact on their family and social life with statistically significant difference compared to 1/10 women in the control group. Data on quality of life for women with breast cancer are essential for prevention of particular adverse effects especially in emotional and social functioning.

Keywords

References

[1]  World Health Organization. GLOBOCAN 2008. Section of Cancer Information. Geneva, 2010.
 
[2]  Fallowfield L. Quality of life: a new perspective for cancer patients. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002; 2: 873-9.
 
[3]  Brown LF, Kroenke K. Cancer related fatigue and its associations with depression and anxiety: a systematic review. Psychosomatics. 2009; 50: 440-7.
 
[4]  Paterson Ch. Quality of life measures. The British Journal of General Practice. 2010; 60 (570): 53.
 
[5]  WHOQOL Group. Study protocol for the World Health Organization project to develop a quality of life Health Organization project to develop a quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). Qual life Res. 1993; 2: 153-159.
 
Show More References
[6]  Newsom J T, Schulz R. Social support as a mediator in the relation between functional status and quality of life in older adults. Psychology and Agin-1996; 11 (1): 34-44.
 
[7]  Friedland J, Renwick R, Mccoll M. Coping and social support as determinants of quality of life in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 1996; 8 (1): 15-32.
 
[8]  Sherbourne DC, Meredith LS, Rogers W, Ware JE. Social support and stressful life events: age differences in their effects on health-related quality of life among the chronically ill. Quality of Life Research. 1992; 1 (4): 235-246.
 
[9]  Hengelson VS. Social support and quality of life. Quality of Life Research. 2003; 12 (1): 25-31.
 
[10]  Lewis JA, Manne SL, DuHamel KN, Vickburg JSM, Bovbjerg DA, Currie V,Winkel G, Redd WH. Social Support, Intrusive Thoughts, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2001; 24 (3): 231‐245.
 
[11]  Williams C. Alert Assistants in Managing Chronic Illness: The Case of Mothers and Teenage Sons. Sociology of Health and Illness. 2000; 22: 254-272.
 
[12]  Victorson D, Cella D, Wagner L, Kramer L, Smith ML. Measuring quality of life in cancer survivors. In: Feuerstein M, editor. Handbook of cancer survivorship. New York: Springer. 2007; 79-110.
 
[13]  Stanton AL, Revenson TA, Tennen H. Health psychology: psychological adjustment to chronic disease. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007; 58: 565-92.
 
[14]  Cohen M H. The Unknown and the Unknowable: Managing Sustained Uncertainty, Western Journal of Nursing Research. 1993; 15: 77-96.
 
[15]  Wdowik M J, Kendall P A, Harris M A. College students with diabetes: Using focus groups and interviews to determine psychosocial issues and barriers to control. The Diabetes Educator. 1997; 23 (5): 558-562.
 
[16]  National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Management, Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, DIS-2; 2007.
 
[17]  Fayers PM, Aaronson NK, Bjordal K, Groenvold M, Curran D, Bottomley A. On behalf of the EORTC Quality of Life Group. The EORTC QLQ-C30 Scoring Manual (3rd Edition). EORTC, Brussels 2001.
 
[18]  De Haes JCJM, Von Knipperg ECE, Neijt JP. Measuring psyhological and physical distres in cancer patients: structure and application of the Rotherdam Symptom Checlist.Br J Cancer. 1990; 62: 1034-8.
 
[19]  Young T, De Haes JCJM, Curran D, Fayers PM, Brandberg Y. On behalf of the EORTC Quality of Life Study Group. Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Life in EORTC Clinical Trials. EORTC, Brussels, 1999.
 
[20]  Sammarco A, Konecny M L. Quality of Life, Social Support, and Uncertainty among Latina Breast Cancer Survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2008; 35 (5): 190-235.
 
[21]  Gumus AB, Cam O, Malak AT. Relationships between psychosocial adjustment and hopelessness in women with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12 (2): 433-8.
 
[22]  Salander P, Lilliehorn S, Hamberg K, Kero A. The impact of breast cancer on living an everyday life 4.5-5 years post-diagnosis-a qualitative prospective study of 39 women. Acta Oncol. 2011; 50 (3): 399-407.
 
[23]  Sprangers MA, Groenvold M, Arraras JI, Franklin J, Te Velde A, Muller M, Franzini L, Williams A, De Haes HC, Hopwood P, Cull A, Aaronson NK. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaire module: first results from a three-country field study. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14 (10): 2756-68.
 
[24]  Di Sipio T, Hayes SC, Newman B, Aitken J, Janda M. Does quality of life among breast cancer survivors one year after diagnosis differ depending on urban and non-urban residence? A comparative study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2010; 8: 3.
 
[25]  Arndt V, Merx H, Sturmer T, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Brenner H. Age-specific detriments to quality of life among breast cancer patients one year after diagnosis. Eur J Cancer. 2004; 40 (5):673-680.
 
[26]  Schou I, Ekeberg O, Sandvik L, Hjermstad M, Ruland C. Multiple predictors of health-related quality of life in early stage breast cancer. Data from a year follow-up study compared with the general population. Qual Life Res. 2005; 14 (8): 1813-1823.
 
Show Less References

Article

Analysis of KRAS, BRAF and NRAS in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: the First Report of Western Iran

1Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(1), 19-22
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi, Faezeh Gholami. Analysis of KRAS, BRAF and NRAS in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: the First Report of Western Iran. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(1):19-22. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: sadeghi_mbrc@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations are useful markers for predicting responses to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and distribution by tumor localization of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer and analysis of NRAS and BRAF in the patients in Western Iran. Materials and Methods: Between May 2008 and November 2014, Thirty- three patients with metastatic or high risk CRC were included in our study. DNA was extracted by FFPE QIAGEN Kit and also KRAS/NRAS and BRAF V600E were analyzed using allele specific PCR primers and pyrosequencing. The overall survival for patients was plotted by GraphPad Prism 5 software. Results: The mean of age for patients at diagnosis was 57.67±13.20 years (range, 28-80 years), 19 patients (57.6%) were male. Of 33 patients, 9 patients (27.3%) were high risk and rest of patients had metastasis that metastasis was more to liver and lung, respectively. Of 33 patients, 21 patients (63.6%) have KRAS wild-type and 12 patients (27.3%) have KRAS mutation. Also, 5 samples of patients were checked for BRAF and NRAS. The mean overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was 20 months. Location of tumor in 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was left-side colon. Conclusions: NRAS/BRAF testing should be used together and with KRAS genotype to select patients who will likely benefit from anti-EGFR therapy and also location of tumor probably in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in western Iran is more on left-side colon that it needs other studies with greater volume of patients.

Keywords

References

[1]  Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013. 63 (1): 11-30.
 
[2]  Perincheri S, Hui P. KRAS mutation testing in clinical practice. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014. 1-10.
 
[3]  Yokota T. Are KRAS/BRAF mutations potent prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancers? Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012. 12 (2): 163-71.
 
[4]  André T, Blons H, Mabro M, Chibaudel B, Bachet JB, Tournigand C, et al. Panitumumab combined with irinotecan for patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy: a GERCOR efficacy, tolerance, and translational molecular study. Ann Oncol. 2013. 24 (2): 412-9.
 
[5]  Douillard JY, Oliner KS, Siena S, Tabernero J, Burkes R, Barugel M, et al. Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013. 369 (11): 1023-34.
 
Show More References
[6]  Stintzing S, Stremitzer S, Sebio A, Lenz HJ. Predictive and Prognostic Markers in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC): Personalized Medicine at Work. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2015. 29 (1): 43-60.
 
[7]  Schirripa M, Cremolini C, Loupakis F, Morvillo M, Bergamo F, Zoratto F, et al. Role of NRAS mutations as prognostic and predictive markers in metastatic colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2015. 136 (1): 83-90.
 
[8]  Roa I, Sánchez T, Majlis A, Schalper K. [KRAS gene mutation in colorectal cancer]. Rev Med Chil. 2013. 141 (9): 1166-72.
 
[9]  Yaeger R, Cowell E, Chou JF, Gewirtz AN, Borsu L, Vakiani E, et al. RAS mutations affect pattern of metastatic spread and increase propensity for brain metastasis in colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2014.
 
[10]  Cai B, Wang MY, Liao K, Xu YS, Wei WY, Zhuang Y, et al. Distribution characteristics of 3,369 chinese colorectal cancer patients for gender, age, location and tumor size during colonoscopy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014. 15 (20): 8951-5.
 
[11]  Hajmanoochehri F, Asefzadeh S, Kazemifar AM, Ebtehaj M. Clinicopathological features of colon adenocarcinoma in Qazvin, Iran: a 16 year study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014. 15 (2): 951-5.
 
[12]  Thapa R, Lakhey M, Yadav PK. Clinico-pathological Study of Colorectal Carcinoma. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2013. 52 (191): 449-52.
 
[13]  De Stefano A, Carlomagno C. Beyond KRAS: Predictive factors of the efficacy of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2014. 20 (29): 9732-43.
 
[14]  Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny W, Cartwright T, Hainsworth J, Heim W, et al. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004. 350 (23): 2335-42.
 
[15]  Cunningham D, Humblet Y, Siena S, Khayat D, Bleiberg H, Santoro A, et al. Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004. 351 (4): 337-45.
 
[16]  Bleeker WA, Hayes VM, Karrenbeld A, Hofstra RM, Hermans J, Buys CC, et al. Impact of KRAS and TP53 mutations on survival in patients with left-and right-sided Dukes' C colon cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000. 95 (10): 2953-7.
 
[17]  Zulhabri O, Rahman J, Ismail S, Isa MR, Wan Zurinah WN. Predominance of G to A codon 12 mutation K-ras gene in Dukes' B colorectal cancer. Singapore Med J. 2012. 53 (1): 26-31.
 
[18]  Zahrani A, Kandil M, Badar T, Abdelsalam M, Al-Faiar A, Ismail A. Clinico-pathological study of K-ras mutations in colorectal tumors in Saudi Arabia. Tumori. 2014. 100 (1): 75-9.
 
[19]  Baskin Y, Dagdeviren YK, Calibasi G, Canda AE, Sarioglu S, Ellidokuz H, et al. KRAS mutation profile differences between rectosigmoid localized adenocarcinomas and colon adenocarcinomas. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2014. 5 (4): 265-9.
 
[20]  Montomoli J, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Frøslev T, Taylor A, Erichsen R. Retrospective analysis of KRAS status in metastatic colorectal cancer patients: a single-center feasibility study. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2012. 5: 167-71.
 
[21]  Sameer AS, Chowdhri NA, Abdullah S, Shah ZA, Siddiqi MA. Mutation pattern of K-ras gene in colorectal cancer patients of Kashmir: a report. Indian J Cancer. 2009. 46 (3): 219-25.
 
[22]  Abubaker J, Bavi P, Al-Haqawi W, Sultana M, Al-Harbi S, Al-Sanea N, et al. Prognostic significance of alterations in KRAS isoforms KRAS-4A/4B and KRAS mutations in colorectal carcinoma. J Pathol. 2009. 219 (4): 435-45.
 
[23]  Roth AD, Tejpar S, Delorenzi M, Yan P, Fiocca R, Klingbiel D, et al. Prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF in stage II and III resected colon cancer: results of the translational study on the PETACC-3, EORTC 40993, SAKK 60-00 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010. 28 (3): 466-74.
 
[24]  Watanabe T, Yoshino T, Uetake H, Yamazaki K, Ishiguro M, Kurokawa T, et al. KRAS mutational status in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer: results from a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013. 43 (7): 706-12.
 
[25]  Gunal A, Hui P, Kilic S, Xu R, Jain D, Mitchell K, et al. KRAS mutations are associated with specific morphologic features in colon cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013. 47 (6): 509-14.
 
[26]  El-Halabi MM, Chaaban SA, Meouchy J, Page S, Salyers WJ Jr. Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report. Oncol Lett. 2014. 8 (5): 2221-2224.
 
[27]  Field K, Lipton L. Metastatic colorectal cancer-past, progress and future. World J Gastroenterol. 2007. 13 (28): 3806-15.
 
[28]  Chan WL, Lee VH, Siu WK, Ho PY, Liu RK, Leung TW. Biweekly cetuximab and first-line chemotherapy in chinese patients with k-ras wild-type colorectal cancers. South Asian J Cancer. 2014; 3 (3): 175-8.
 
[29]  De Roock W, Piessevaux H, De Schutter J, Janssens M, De Hertogh G, Personeni N, et al. KRAS wild-type state predicts survival and is associated to early radiological response in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Ann Oncol. 2008; 19 (3): 508-15.
 
[30]  Kim ST, Park KH, Kim JS, Shin SW, Kim YH. Impact of KRAS Mutation Status on Outcomes in Metastatic Colon Cancer Patients without Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Therapy. Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 45 (1): 55-62.
 
[31]  Bagadi SB, Sanghvi M, Nair SB, Das BR. Combined mutational analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in Indian patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2012; 27 (1): 27-33.
 
Show Less References

Article

A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu

3Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 23-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu, Nelson Chukwudi Ozonu, Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke, Peter Onubiwe Nkwo, Monique Iheoma Ajah. A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Leonard  Ogbonna Ajah, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Email: leookpanku@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer in Nigeria. The risk factors to cervical cancer are common in our environment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities and the risk factors associated with the disease in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective study of cervical cytology at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012, was undertaken. Results: The prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities in this study was 11.2%. These cervical squamous cell abnormalities comprised ASC-US (0.6%), LSIL (3.9%) and HSIL (6.7%). Cervical squamous cell abnormalities were significantly commoner among clients who were smokers, live in rural areas, had high parity and history of vaginal discharge/itching. However, age at coitarche, educational qualification and use of hormonal contraceptives did not have any effect on cervical squamous cell abnormality in this study. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormality in Abakaliki. So there is need for public sensitization about this problem and the various ways of stemming the tide.

Keywords

References

[1]  Anorlu RI, Igwilo CI, Akanmu AS, Banjo AA, Odunukwe NN, Okany CC, et al. Prevalence of abnormal cervical smears among patients with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2007 Apr-Jun; 26 (2): 143-7.
 
[2]  Parkin DM, Ferlay J, Hamdi-Cherif M, Sitas F, Thomas JO. Cancer in Africa: Epidemiology and Prevention. IARC Scientific Publications. No. 153. Lyon: IARC Press, 2003.
 
[3]  Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Teppo L and Thomas DB (editors). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol VIII. IARC Scientific Publication No. 155. Lyon: IARC, 2002.
 
[4]  Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2002 Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. IARC Cancer Base; Lyon, 2004.
 
[5]  World Health Organization. Nigeria:Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet 2014. WHO/ICO HPV Information Centre. Institut Català d’Oncologia Avda. Gran Via de l’Hospitalet, 199-20308908 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain). e-mail: info@hpvcentre.net.internet adress: www.hpvcentre.net.
 
Show More References
[6]  Galadanci HS, Mohammed AZ, Uzoho CC, Jido TA, Ochicha O. Gynaecological Malignancies Seen in a Tertiary Health Facility in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003; 20 (2): 105-108.
 
[7]  Greenlee RT, Hill-Norman MB, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer Statistics 2001. Cancer J Clin 2001; 51: 15-36
 
[8]  Dim CC, Ezegwui HU, Ikeme AC, Nwagha UI, Onyedum CC. Prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-positive women in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Nov; 31 (8): 759-62.
 
[9]  Azodi M, Roy W. Premalignant lesions of the lower genital tract. In: Okonofua F,Odunsi K, editors. Contemporary Obstetrics and Gynaecology in DevelopingCountries. Benin City: Women’s Health and Action Research Center; 2003: 255-88.
 
[10]  Chan MK, Wong FW. The Papanicolaou Test-Its Current Status. Hong Kong Practitioner 1990; 12. Available from: http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/article.jsp?book=23&issue=230141.
 
[11]  Guilbert E, Boroditsky R, Black A, Kives S, Leboeuf M, Mirosh M, et al. Canadian Consensus Guideline on Continuous and Extended Hormonal Contraception, 2007. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2007; 29: S1-32.
 
[12]  Kabir M, Iliyasu Z, abubakar IS, Mahbooh S. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Female Health Professionals in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano. Nig Post Grad Med J. 2005: 12 (3):179-182.
 
[13]  Eze JN, Umeora OU, Obuna VE, Ejikeme BN. Cervical cancer awareness and cervical screening uptake at the mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, South-East Nigeria. Ann Afr Med J 2012, 11: 238-43.
 
[14]  Chinaka CC, Nwazue UC. Awareness of cervical cancer and its screening in Abakaliki,Nigeria. African Journal of Cellular Pathology. 2013; 1 (1): 47-51.
 
[15]  Chukwuali LI, Onuigbo WIB, Mgbor NC. Cervical cancer screening in Enugu.Trop J Obs Gyn. 2003; 20 (2): 147-154.
 
[16]  Obaseki D E, Nwafor C C. Cervical Cancer Screening In Benin City, South-South Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS. 2013; 5 (1): 16-19.
 
[17]  Ezechi OC, Pettersson KO, Okolo CA, Ujah IAO, Ostergren PO. The Association between HIV Infection, Antiretroviral Therapy and Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in South Western Nigerian Women. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9 (5): e97150.
 
[18]  Thomas JO; Ojemakinde KO; Ajayi IO; Omigbodun AO; Fawole OI; Oladepo O. Population-based prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria: implications for cervical cancer control programs and human papilloma virus immunization. Acta Cytol; 56 (3): 251-8, 2012.
 
[19]  Pimentel VM, Jiang X, Mandavilli S, Umenyi NC, Schnatz PF. Prevalance of high risk cervical human papillomavirus and squamous intraepithelial lesions in Nigeria. J Low GenitTract Dis. 2013; 17 (2): 203-209.
 
[20]  Yakasai IA, Abdullahi HM, Mohammed AZ, Galadanci H. Prevalance of cervical dysplasia among women in Kano Municipal,Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics. 2012; 14 (1): 64-68.
 
[21]  Ahmed SA, Ayuba HU, Maiangwa A, Vakkai VI, Dashe DR, Joel R, et al. Prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions in Jalingo, Nigeria. African Journal of Cellular Pathology. 2013; 1:1:19-22.
 
[22]  Mahmoud M, Khalida M. Prevalence of abnormal cervical smears among females in Kirkuk governorate. Journal of Kirkuk University Scientific Studies. 2012; 7 (2).
 
[23]  Atilgan R, Celik A, Boztosun A, Ilter E, Yalta T, Ozercan R. Evaluation of cervical cytological abnormalities in Turkish population. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012; 55: 52-5.
 
[24]  Bayo S, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Munoz N, Combita AL, Coursaget P, et al. Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 31: 202-09.
 
[25]  Solomon D, Davey D, Kurman R, Moriarty A, O'Connor D, Prey M, et al. The 2001 Bethesda System: Terminology for Reporting Results of Cervical Cytology. JAMA. 2002; 287 (16): 2114-2119.
 
[26]  National Cancer Institute, surveillance epidemiology and end results. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/cervix.html.
 
[27]  National Population Commission [Nigeria] and ICF International. 2014. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Rockville, Maryland, USA: National Population Commission and ICF International.
 
[28]  Sule ST, Shehu MS. Cervical Cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria. Afr J Health Sci. 2007; 14 (3-4): 149-153
 
[29]  Fonn S,Bloch B,Madina M,Carpenter S, Cronge H,Maise C.Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer.South Afr Med J. 2002; 92 (1): 148-156.
 
[30]  Franceschi S. The IARC commitment to cancer prevention: the example of papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Recent Results in Cancer Research 2005; 166: 277-297.
 
Show Less References

Article

Detection of BCL2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Miniauniversity

2Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University

4Andcentral Administration for Pharmaceutical Affairs, Ministry Of Health


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 27-34
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Olfat Gamil Shaker, Doha El-Sayed Ellakwa, Eman Fathy Abdel-Maksoud. Detection of BCL2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):27-34. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Doha  El-Sayed Ellakwa, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University. Email: profdoha@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Despite advances in the knowledge of the molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the mechanisms of hepatocellular injury in HCV infection are not completely understood. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) influences the susceptibility to apoptosis. This could lead to insufficient antiviral immune response and persistent viral infection. Aim of this study: Is to examine whether BCL-2 gene polymorphism at codon 43 (+127G/A or Ala43Thr) has an impact on development of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by chronic hepatitis C infection among Egyptian patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included three groups; group 1: composed of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), group 2 composed of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) and group 3 composed of 30 healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status were taken as a control group. Gene polymorphism of BCL2 (Ala43Thr) was evaluated by Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniqueand measured for all patients and controls. Results: The summed 43Thr genotype was more frequent and statistically significant in HCC patients as compared to control group. This genotype of BCL2 gene may inhibit the programmed cell death which leads to disturbance in tissue and cells homeostasis and reduction in immune regulation. This result leads to viral replication and HCV persistence. Moreover, virus produces variety of mechanisms to block genes participated in apoptosis. This mechanism proves that CHC patients who have 43Thr genotype are more susceptible to HCC. Correlation coefficients between AFP versus ALT and AST were statistically significant. Conclusion: The data investigated for the first time that BCL2 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to in Egyptian populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating risk. This study clearly demonstrated that CHCexhibit a deregulation of apoptosis with the disease progression. This provides an insight into the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C infection, and may contribute to the therapy.

Keywords

References

[1]  Akkız, H., Bayram, S., Bekar, A., et al. A functional polymorphism in pre-microRNA-196a-2 contributes to the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Turkish population: a case-control study. J Viral Hepat. 2011, 18:399-407.
 
[2]  Daniele, B., Bencivenga, A., Megna, AS., et al. Alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasonography screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004, 127: S108-12.
 
[3]  Farinati, F., Marino, D., De, Giorgio, M., et al. Diagnostic and prognostic role of alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma: both or neither? Am J Gastroentero 2006, 101: 524-32.
 
[4]  Furth, PA., Bar-Peled, U., Li, M., et al. Loss of anti-mitotic effects of Bcl-2 with retention of anti-apoptotic activity during tumor progression in a mouse model. Oncogene 1999, 18: 6589-96.
 
[5]  Greider, C., Chattopadhyay, A., Parkhurst, C., et al. BCL-x(L) and BCL2 delay Myc-induced cell cycle entry through elevation of p27 and inhibition of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Oncogene 2002, 21: 7765-75.
 
Show More References
[6]  Hanafy, SM., Shehata, OH., Farahat, NM. Expression of apoptotic markers BCL-2 and bax in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Clinical Biochemistry 2010, 43: 1112-1117.
 
[7]  Holmes, JA., Desmond, PV. and Thompson, AJ. Does IL28B Genotyping Still have a Role in the Era of Direct-acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection? J Viral Hepat. 2012, 19 (10): 677-684.
 
[8]  Huang, D., Adams, J., Cory, S. The conserved N-terminal BH4 domain of BCL-2 homologues is essential for inhibition of apoptosis and interaction with CED-4. EMBO J 1998, 17:1029–39.
 
[9]  Johansson, C., Castillejo-Lopez, C., Johanneson, B. Association analysis with microsatellite and SNP markers does not support the involvement of BCL-2 in systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexican and Swedish patients and their families. Genes Immun 2000, 1:380-5.
 
[10]  Johnson, PJ. The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation in the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis. 2001, 5:145-59.
 
[11]  Komaki, S., Kohno, M., Matsuura, N., et al. The polymorphic 43Thr BCL-2 protein confers relative resistance to autoimmunity: an analytical evaluation. Hum Genet. 1998, 103(4):435-440.
 
[12]  Kvansakul, M. and Hinds, M G. Structural biology of the Bcl-2 family and its mimicry by viral proteins. Cell Death Dis. 2013, 4 (11): e909.
 
[13]  Marcellin, P. Hepatitis C: the clinical spectrum of the disease. J Hepatol. 1999, 31:9–16.
 
[14]  Mohamoud, YA., Mumtaz, GR., Riome, S., Miller, D. and Abu-Raddad, LJ. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Egypt: a systematic review and data synthesis.Bio Med Central Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:288.
 
[15]  Niederau, C., Lange, S., Heintges, T., et al. Prognosis of chronic hepatitis C: results of a large prospective cohort study. Hepatology 1998, 28: 1687–95.
 
[16]  Seeff, LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002, 36(Suppl 1):S35–46.
 
[17]  Song, P., Gao, J., Inagaki, Y., et al. Biomarkers: Evaluation of Screening for and Early Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan and China. Liver Cancer 2013, 2:31-39.
 
[18]  Taketa, K. Alfafetoprotein: reevaluation in hepatology. Hepatology 1990, 12: 1420-32.
 
[19]  Tarr, AW., Urbanowicz, R A. and Ball, JK. The Role of Humoral Innate Immunity in Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Viruses 2012, 4(1): 1-27.
 
[20]  Youssef, A., Yano, Y., Utsumi, T., abd El-alah, EM., abd El-HameedAel, E., SerwahAel, H., et al. Molecular epidemiological study of hepatitis viruses in Ismailia, Egypt. Intervirology 2009, 52 (3) 123-31.
 
Show Less References

Article

Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

1Nursing Department, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel, Nepal

2Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 35-44
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radha Acharya Pandey, Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Jyotsana Twi Twi, Sudeepa Byanju, Barsha Khawas. Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):35-44. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Radha  Acharya Pandey, Nursing Department, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Email: radhapnd@yahoo.com

Abstract

This research entitled “Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan” was conducted to assess the quality of life of cancer patients. It was carried out among patients attending B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan. Background: In patients with different type of cancers and the quality of life (QoL) improvement is the main goal, since survival can be prolonged marginally. A diagnosis is very stressful for people, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. Up to date, knowledge on QoL impairments throughout the entire treatment process, often including several treatment modalities is scarce. One objective of this study was to assess the quality of life of cancer patient undergoing cancer treatment. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, design was adapted. A total of 245 cancer patients above 20 years old, were enrolled in the studies during August-September, 2013. Inclusion criteria were patients who had already received at least one type of cancer treatment and had attended the hospital for receiving the same or next type of treatment again. Exclusion criteria were any other chronic co-morbidity condition that could be influenced their QoL. The most commonly listed medical co-morbidities were: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease. Cancer patients who have Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 4 (i.e. fully bed-ridden) were excluded from the study. The data was collected by interview, using modified, structured scale of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ- C30), prepared by the EORTC group. Information about the patient’s disease condition and treatment were obtained from the patient’s medical records. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the respondent’s quality of life (QoL) scores and to identify the factors affecting it respectively. Results: The study findings revealed the quality of life of cancer patients to be influenced by many factors such as: site of cancer, stage of cancer, time elapsed since diagnosis and Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. The average QoL scores (out of 100) for different scales were 85.54 (global health/QoL), 77.03 (functional), and 16.14 (symptom). Loss of appetite was the most frequent complaint (mean = 20.27) and was present in almost all the patients. As the overall QoL of the patients was significantly correlated with different QoL scales as-, cognitive, emotional, physical, social, role functioning, pain, fatigue, dyspnoea, loss of appetite and nausea/vomiting and financial problem. Conclusion: Hence, in average, the quality of life of cancer patients was found to be relatively better, although there were higher ratings for some (as: cognitive, physical, role and emotional functioning) and lower for others (like social functioning). Additional research should be done in this area for improving the quality of life of specific type of cancer patients in Nepal, though the findings of this study are expected to provide the baseline knowledge regarding it.

Keywords

References

[1]  Global Health Observatory (GHO, 2012). Cancer mortality and morbidity. Available at www.who.org. (retrieved on 26th june, 2013).
 
[2]  American Cancer Society (2013). Cancer Facts & Figures 2013. Annual report (2013). Available at wrongdiagnosis.com. (Retrieved on 2nd July, 2013).
 
[3]  World Health Organization, (2006). Focus in Priorities, WHO Report 2005, Available at www.who.org. (Retrieved on 26th June, 2013).
 
[4]  Annual Report, B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal, 2010.
 
[5]  Sajid, MS., Tonsi, A., & Baig, MK. (2008). Health-related quality of life measurement. Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 21(4), 365-73.
 
Show More References
[6]  Aaronson, NK., Ahmedzai, S., & Bergman, B., (1993). The European organization for research and treatment of cancer QLQ-C30: a quality-of-life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst, 85, 365-376.
 
[7]  Ahmedzai, N. S., Bergman, B., Bullinger, M., Cull, A., & Duez, N.J. (1993). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30: a quality of life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst. 85(5), 365-76.
 
[8]  Testa, MA., & Simonson, DC. (2009). Assessments of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med 334, 835-4.
 
[9]  Maryam, Farooqui., Mohamed, Azmi. Hassali., Aishah, Knight., Asrul, Akmal. Shafie., Fahad, Saleem., Muhammad, Aslam. Farooqui., Hisham, Aljadhey.,(2013). Cross Sectional Assessment Health Related Quality of Life among Patients with Cancer in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer prevention, 14 (5), 3017-3021.
 
[10]  Carlos, k. H. Wong., Cindy, l. K. Lam., jensen, t. C. Poon., & dora, l. W. Kwong. (2013).clinical indicators of depression among ambulatory cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Japanese journal of clinical oncology.10, 334-337.
 
[11]  World Health Organization, (2009). Focus in Priorities, WHO Report 2008, Available at www.who.org. (Retrieved on 26th June, 2011).
 
[12]  Zhen, Gou, J., Zheng, Y., Qian, JX., Gu, XQ. & Wang JJ. (2013). Study on factors affecting the quality of life to cancer patients at the community level in Shaghai. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 26 (100), 761-6 (Retrieved on 20th September, 2013).
 
[13]  Andrade, V., Sawada, N.O., & Barichello, E. (2011). Quality of life in hematologic oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. Medical Journal of Malayasia, 66, (2) 84-87.
 
[14]  Bahar, Mahjoubi., Rezvan, -Mirzaei., and Leila, Zahedi-Shoolami.(2012). A cross-sectional survey of quality of life in colostomates. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 10,136.
 
[15]  Lim, G. (2011). Health related quality of life among patients with cancer. ASEAN J Psychiatry, 13 (1), 210-14.
 
[16]  Golden, Masika., Lena, Wettergren., Thecla, W. Kohi., & Louise von Essen (2012). "Health-related quality of life and needs of care and support of adult Tanzanians with cancer: a mixed-methods study" BioMed Central, 10, 90-94.
 
[17]  Donald, P. B., Gupta, D., and Edgar D. S. (2012). Predicting survival in prostate cancer: the role of quality of life assessment. Support Care Cancer. 20(6), 1267-1274.
 
[18]  Bottomley, A., & Therasse, p. (2005). Quality of life in patients undergoing systemic therapy for advanced breast cancer. Lancet oncol. 3, 620-628.
 
[19]  Johnsen A. (2009). Health related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of hematological patients. Eur. J. Haematol. 83 (92), 139-148. (PMC free article).
 
[20]  Priscilla, D. (2011). Quality of life among patients with Hematological cancer. Medical Journal of Malayasia, 66, (2).
 
[21]  Gupta, D., Braun, D.P., & Markman, M. (2013). Longitudinal health-related quality of life assessment: implications for prognosis in ovarian cancer.J Ovarian Res. 6, 17.
 
[22]  Heydarnejad, MS., Dehkordi, G., Hassanpour, D., & Dehkordi, K. (2011). Factors Affecting Quality of Life in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy. African Health Science Journal, 11(2), 266-270. Http://Www.Ncbinlm.
 
[23]  Meyer, F., Fortin, A., Gelinas, M., Nabid, A., Brochet, F.,& Tetu, B. (2009). Health-related quality of life as a survival predictor for patients with localized head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol, 27, 2970-6.
 
[24]  Güner, P., Ishikhan V., Komurcu, S., Il, S., Ozturk, B., Arpaci, F., & Ozet, A. (2006). Quality of life and socio demographic characteristics of patients with cancer in Turkey. Oncology.
 
[25]  Damm K., Roeske, N., & Jacob, C. (2013). Health-related quality of life questionnaires in lung cancer trials: a systematic literature review. Health Econ Rev,13(3)11-15.
 
[26]  Zhou, De-ming., Chu, Jin-wei., & Cheng, Xiao-lin. (2004). Factors affecting the health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients; Measured by EORTC QLQ-C30 QLQ-L13. Turkish respiratory journal, 4(2), 61-66.
 
[27]  Rustoen, T., Moum, T., Wiklund, I. & Hanestad, BR. (2004). Quality of life in newly diagnosed cancer patients, Sigma Theta Tau International, Available at google.com. (Retrieved on 20th September, 2011).
 
[28]  Toyama, Yoichi., Seiya, Yoshiida., Ryota Saito., Hiroaki, Kitamura., Norimitsu Okui., Ryo, Miyake.,….Katsuhiko, Yanaga. (2013). Successful adjuvant bi-weekly gemcitabine chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer without impairing patients’ quality of life. BiomedCentral.
 
[29]  Nemati, M., Alhani, F.,,& Zandshahdi, R.(2013). 1st congress in quality of life. Tehran, Iran: Book of Abstracts. Quality of life in cancerous adolescences undergoing chemotherapy; p. 25.
 
[30]  Rustøen, T., & Hope, S. (2004). Quality of life, two central issues for cancer patients: a theoretical analysis. Cancer Nurs. 18, 355-361.
 
[31]  Esbensen, B. A., Osterlind, K., Roer, O. & Hallberg, R. (2004). Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care (Engl).13(5), 443-53. Available at www.pubmed.gov (Retrieved on 21st June, 2011).
 
[32]  Lee, H. L., Ku, N. P., Dow, W.j. & Pai, l. (2001). Factors related to quality of life in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Journal of nursing research, 9(3):57 - 68. Www.pubmed.gov. (retrieved on 23rd june, 2013).
 
[33]  Gurm,BK., Stephen, J., & Mackenzie, G. (2008). Understanding Canadian Punjabi- speaking South Asian Women’s experience of breast cancer: qualitative study. Int J Nursing studies, 45, 266-76.
 
[34]  Van den Beuken (2009). Quality of life and non pain symptoms in Patients with Cancer. Journal of Pain and symptom Management, 38(2), 216-33.
 
Show Less References

Article

Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxicity and Anti-oxidant Activity of Juglans regia Extract

1Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India

2Department of Botany, Benazeer College of science, Bhopal, India

3Department of Zoology, Benazeer College of Science and Commerce Bhopal, India


American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 45-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tajamul Islam Shah, Ekta Sharma, Gowhar Ahmad Shah. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxicity and Anti-oxidant Activity of Juglans regia Extract. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):45-50. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Tajamul  Islam Shah, Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India. Email: taju.zoology@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective: Juglans regia (walnuts), the royal species from Junglandaceae family, well-known for its valuable medicinal uses, their regular consumption may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases including cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the total phenolic content, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant activity of Juglans regia leaves. Methods: The leaf powder was extracted using different solvents and subjected for phytochemical investigation. The total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The extracts comprising a good amount of secondary metabolites especially polyphenols were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity using Fenton’s reagent reaction and DPPH scavenging assay, while cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 mice melanoma and A375 human melanoma cell were screened using MTT Assay. Observation: Methanolic extract presented the highest total phenolic content (94.39 ± 5.63 mg of GAE/g of extract) as compared to aqueous extract (27.92 ± 1.40 mg of GAE/g of extract). Similarly, methanolic extract presented the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 of 0.250mg/ml) followed by water extract (EC50 of 0.325mg/ml) in Fenton’s reaction and 0.199 ± 0.023 and 2.991 ± 0.740, respectively in DPPH assay. The extracts showed concentration dependent growth inhibition activity (IC50 0.234 and 0.304mg/ml) against B16F10 mice melanoma and A375 human melanoma cell line (IC50 0.298 and 0.350mg/ml) respectively. The extracts proved least toxic when treated with normal lymphocytes. The results indicate that walnut leaves are an excellent source of antioxidant and anti-cancerous agents and may prove fruitful herbal remedy in near future. However, the extracts proved effective against mice melanoma and human melanoma cells. Despite, more study is required before coming to any conclusion.

Keywords

References

[1]  Block, G., Patterson, B., Subar, A., 1992. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr. Cancer 18, 1-29.
 
[2]  Heimendinger, J., Van Duyn, M.A., Chapelsky, D., Foerster, S., Stables, G., 1996. The national 5 A Day for Better Health Program: a large-scale nutrition intervention. J. Public Health Manag. Pract. 2, 27-35.
 
[3]  Reddy, L., Odhav, B., Bhoola, K.D., 2003. Natural products for cancer prevention: a global perspective. Pharmacol. Ther. 99, 1-13.
 
[4]  Mathew, A., Peters, U., Chatterjee, N., Kulldorff, M., Sinha, R., 2004. Fat, fiber, fruits, vegetables, and risk of colorectal adenomas. Int. J. Cancer 108, 287-292.
 
[5]  Jenab, M., Ferrari, P., Slimani, N., et al., 2004. Association of nut and seed intake with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 13, 1595-1603.
 
Show More References
[6]  Cao, G., Sofic, E., Prior, R., 1996. Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. J. Agr. Food Chem. 44, 3426-3431.
 
[7]  Silva, B.M., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Ferreres, F., Seabra, R.M., Ferreira, M.A., 2004. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed (pulp, peel, and seed) and jam: antioxidant activity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 52, 4405-4712.
 
[8]  Silva, B.M., Valentão, P., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B., 2008. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller): an interesting dietary source of bioactive compounds. In: Papadopoulos, K.N. (Ed.), Food Chemistry Research Developments. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 243-266.
 
[9]  Giada, M.L., Filho, J.M., 2006. The importance of dietary phenolic compounds in the promotion of human health. Biol. Health Sci. 12, 7-15.
 
[10]  Sun, J., Chu, Y.F., Wu, X., Liu, R., 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common seeds. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50, 7449-7454.
 
[11]  Parry, J., SU, L., Moore, J., Cheng, Z., Lutner, M., Rao, J.N., Wang, J. Y., YU, L., 2006. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected seed flours. J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 3773-3778.
 
[12]  Yang, J., Liu, R., Halim, L., 2009. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common edible nut seeds. Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1-8.
 
[13]  Blomhoff, R., Carlsen, M.,Andersen, L., Jacobs Jr., D., 2006. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants. Br. J. Nutr. 96, S52–S60.
 
[14]  Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Ferreira, I., Bento, A., Estevinho, L., Pereira, J.A., 2008. Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 2326-2331.
 
[15]  Bruneton, J., 1999. Pharmacognosie, phytochimie, plantes médicinales. In: Technique et Documentation Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 418-419.
 
[16]  Amaral, J., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Pereira, J.A., Ferreres, F., 2004.Phenolic profile in the quality control of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves. Food Chem. 88, 373-379.
 
[17]  Pereira, J.A., Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Valentão, P., Andrade, P.B., Ferreira, I., Ferreres, F., Bento, A., Seabra, R.M., Estevinho, L., 2007. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 2287-2295.
 
[18]  Pereira, J.A., Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Ferreira, I., Bento, A., Estevinho, L., 2008. Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 2103-2111.
 
[19]  Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A.Jr., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16, 144-158.
 
[20]  Shah, T.I., Akthar, S., Ganesh, N., 2013. Prelimnary phytochemical evaluation and anti-bacterial potential of different leaf extracts of J. regia: A ubiquitous dry fruit from Kashmir-India. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 19(2), Mar-Apr 2013; n0 18, 93-96.
 
[21]  Almeida, I., Fernandes, E., Lima, J., Costa, P., Bahia, M.F., 2008. Walnut (Juglans regia) leaf extracts are strong scavengers of pro-oxidant reactive species. Food Chem. 106, 1014-1020.
 
[22]  Hatano, T., Kagawa, H., Yasuhara, T., Okuda, T., 1988. Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice root: their relative astringency and scavenging effects. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36, 2090-2097.
 
[23]  Chen, C.Y., Blumberg, J.B., 2008. Phytochemical composition of nuts. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 17, 329-332.
 
[24]  Fukuda, T., Ito, H., Yoshida, T., 2003. Antioxidative polyphenols from walnuts (Juglans regia L.). Phytochemistry 63, 795-801.
 
[25]  Khandelwal KR, 2005. Practical Pharmacognocy 16th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan.
 
[26]  Umadevi P., A. Ganasoundari, B.S. Rao and K.K.Srinivasan. 1999. In vivo radioprotection by Ocimum flavanoids: survival of mice. Radiat. Res, 151 (1), 74-78.
 
[27]  Kaur, K., Michael, H., Arora, S., Härkönen, P.L., Kumar, S., 2003. Studies on correlation of antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of Juglans regia L.. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 22, 59-67.
 
[28]  Fleshner, N.E., 2002. Vitamin E and prostate cancer. Urol. Clin. North Am. 29, 107-113.
 
[29]  Spaccarotella, K.J., Kris-Etherton, P.M., Stone, W.L., Bagshaw, D.M., Fishell, V.K., West, S.G., Lawrence, F.R., Hartman, T.J., 2008. The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men. Nutr. J. 2, 7-13.
 
[30]  Bradford, P.G., Awad, A.B., 2007. Phytosterols as anticancer compounds. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51, 161-170.
 
[31]  Han, D.H., Lee, M.J., Kim, J.H., 2006. Antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing activities of ellagic acid. Anticancer Res. 26, 3601–3606.
 
[32]  Losso, J.N., Bansode, R.R., Trappey, A., Bawadi, H.A., Truax, R., 2004. In vitro anti- proliferative activities of ellagic acid. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15, 672-678.
 
[33]  Yáñez, J., Vicente, V., Alcaraz, M., Catillo, J., Benavente-García, O., Canteras, M., Teruel, J., 2004. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activities of several phenolic compounds against three melanocytes cell lines: relationship between structure and activity. Nutr. Cancer 49, 191-199.
 
[34]  Kawaii, S., Tomono, Y., Katase, E., Ogawa, K., Yano, M., 1999. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids on several cancer cell lines. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63, 896-899.
 
[35]  Bhuvaneswari, V., Nagini, S., 2005. Lycopene: a review of its potential as an anticancer agent. Curr. Med. Chem. Anticancer Agents 5, 627-635.
 
[36]  Srinivasan, V., Spence, D.W., Pandi-Perumal, S.R., Trakht, I., Cardinali, D.P., 2008. Therapeutic actions of melatonin in cancer: possible mechanisms. Integr. Cancer Ther. 7, 189-203.
 
[37]  Fiorentino, A., D’Abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Mastellone, C., Piscopo, V., Caputo, R., Monaco, P., 2008. Isolation and structure elucidation of antioxidant polyphenols from quince (Cydonia vulgaris) peels. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56, 2660-2667.
 
[38]  Zhang, Y., Seeram, N.P., Lee, R., Feng, L., Heber, D., 2008. Isolation and identification of straw berry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56, 670-675.
 
[39]  Mertens-Talcott, S.U., Lee, H., Percival, S.S., Talcott, S.T., 2006. Induction of cell death in Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells by ellagic acid rich fractions from muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia). J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 5336-5343.
 
[40]  Russo, G.L., 2007. Ins and outs of dietary phytochemicals in cancer chemoprevention. Biochem. Pharmacol. 74, 533-544.
 
[41]  Bonfili, L., Cecarini, V., Amici, M., Cuccioloni, M., Angeletti, M., Keller, J.N., Eleuteri, A.M., 2008. Natural polyphenols as proteasome modulators and their role as anticancer compounds. FEBS J. 275, 5512-5526.
 
[42]  Fresco, P., Borges, F., Diniz, C., Marques, M.P., 2006. New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med. Res. Rev. 26, 747-766.
 
[43]  Liu, R.H., 2003. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78, 517-520.
 
Show Less References