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American Journal of Cancer Prevention

ISSN (Print): 2328-7314

ISSN (Online): 2328-7322

Editor-in-Chief: Nabil Abdel-Hamid




Value of Genetic Incidental Findings Related to Cancer Causing Genes

1Division of Medical Ethics and Humanities, College of Nursing, University of Utah

2Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Texas Medical Branch

3Program in Real Estate, Virginia Tech

4College of Nursing, University of Utah

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016, 4(3), 44-50
doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Erin Rothwell, Sapna Kaul, Kevin J. Boyle, Bob Wong. Value of Genetic Incidental Findings Related to Cancer Causing Genes. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016; 4(3):44-50. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Erin  Rothwell, Division of Medical Ethics and Humanities, College of Nursing, University of Utah. Email:


Purpose: Generation of incidental findings (IFs) from whole genome and exome sequencing raise several questions about the return of IFs to donors in the research setting. One important aspect that is highly understudied is whether individuals from the general public value the return of IFs and what individual characteristics are associated with these values. Methods: We used a willingness to pay (WTP) survey—an economic tool—to evaluate the values individuals place on the information provided by a genetic counseling consultation providing IFs for cancer causing genes. An online survey was administered through ResearchMatch, a national registry, in June 2015. Along with demographics, attitudinal and health-related questions, survey respondents were asked WTP questions to reveal the values for IFs information specifically for cancer causing genes. Results: The average WTP of 94 respondents was $161 (95% CI: $132-202) for a one-time IF consultation for cancer causing genes. Income was significantly associated with WTP. Respondents with annual household incomes ≥$80,000, on average, were WTP $75 more for a counseling consultation in comparison to those with incomes ≤$39,999 raising concerns for the ability to pay for IFs. The strongest predictor of WTP was respondents’ perceptions regarding the importance of genetic health information for preventing diseases. Conclusions: Understanding individuals’ value of information on IFs can help guide policy and normative recommendations. Future research should include individual preferences for return of IFs, explore if return of IFs may be harmful, and evaluate how it may impact subsequent treatment, health-related behaviors, non-health-related behaviors, and healthcare disparity. Implications for Cancer Survivors: This research provides insight into how individuals value identification of genetic related risk for cancer. This has important implications for those who may want to know if they are susceptible for re-occurrence risk and risk of family members.



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Synchronous Primary Malignancies of the Kidney and Colon: A Rare Case

1Molecular Pathology Research Center, Emam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016, 4(4), 51-53
doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mazaher Ramezani, Setareh Afzali, Masoud Sadeghi. Synchronous Primary Malignancies of the Kidney and Colon: A Rare Case. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016; 4(4):51-53. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Sadeghi, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email:


The coexistent diagnosis of colorectal cancer and renal cell carcinoma is rare. We reported a 55-year-old woman with history of recurrent UTI, who was admitted to Urology Clinic with left flank pain for the evaluation of renal stone. Ultrasound examination revealed a homogenous mass measuring 4.7cm with a calcified focus in left kidney. Macroscopic evaluation revealed a renal mass in lower pole, 5cm in maximum diameter with variegated cut surface. The pathology report showed clear cell carcinoma of kidney. The patient had a colonoscopy report of many polyps in the entire length of colon with a clinical impression of familial adenomatous polyposis since last year but with no genetic confirmatory tests Since last year, the pathology report showed well differentiated adenocarcinoma of colon invading to submucosa with no vascular and perineural invasion in the distal margin of colon. In family history, her passed brother had colon cancer and her sister was alive with colon cancer that had a colostomy. In summary, the existence of both kidney and colon cancers occurs more in elderly patients. Also, the existence of colon adenocarcinoma with numerous polyps can be a risk factor for the second malignancy that the physicians must pay attention to this point in their follow-up.



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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis: Rare Case Report

1Cancer Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016, 4(4), 54-56
doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Edris Sadeghi. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis: Rare Case Report. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016; 4(4):54-56. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: Edris  Sadeghi, Cancer Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email:


Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the kidney is an extremely rare entity representing only 0.5-15% of all urothelial cancers. Herein, we reported a rare case of renal cell carcinoma with SCC extended to the pelvis. A 56 year-old female patient referred to the oncology clinic with complaints of pain in the right flank. The CT showed a hypodense renal mass of size approximately 2 × 2.1 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. High grade urothelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma extended to renal capsule, but not pass to perirenal fat. Vascular invasion was present, but perineural invasion was not seen. Ureteral margin was free of tumor. Biopsy showed one hilar lymph node involved with tumor in the near right kidney. A few slightly stones smaller than normal 0.4 × 0.9 cm can be seen in the calyx of the asymptomatic hydronephrosis of left kidney. SCC is one of the rare histological tissues in the kidney and hydronephrosis is the most common complaints in more patients with this malignancy.



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