American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position




Estimation of the Yield Stress of Cement Pastes from Electrical Resistivity Measurement

1School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, China

2State Key Laboratory of Silicate, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070, Wuhan, China

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 125-132
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mbujje Joel Webster, Wei XiaoSheng, Makorogo Javilla Barugahare. Estimation of the Yield Stress of Cement Pastes from Electrical Resistivity Measurement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):125-132. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Mbujje  Joel Webster, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, China. Email:


This study proposes a continuous method for predicting the yield stress development from mixing until the final setting point. Samples prepared with water to cement ratios (w/c) of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4 are tested using a vane in cup rheometer, a Vicat needle and a non contact electrical resistivity machine (NC-ERM). Times corresponding to the initial yield stress (ta), a dramatic increase in the yield stress (tb), a maximum torque reading on the rheometer (tc), an initial setting (td) and a final setting (te) on the yield stress-time (τ(t)-t) curve are correlated with the time at a point of inflexion (tP) on the bulk resistivity-time (ρ(t)-t) curve. A quantitative relationship developed between the yield stress and electrical resistivity shows a good agreement with experimental data.



[1]  Banfill, P., Rheology of fresh cement and concrete. Rheology reviews, 2006. 2006: p. 61.
[2]  Roussel, N., C. Stefani, and R. Leroy, From mini-cone test to Abrams cone test: measurement of cement-based materials yield stress using slump tests. Cement and Concrete Research, 2005. 35(5): p. 817-822. 11.
[3]  Bahurudeen, A., et al., Development of sugarcane bagasse ash based Portland pozzolana cement and evaluation of compatibility with superplasticizers. Construction and Building Materials, 2014. 68: p. 465-475.
[4]  Baldino, N., et al., Rheological behaviour of fresh cement pastes: Influence of synthetic zeolites, limestone and silica fume. Cement and Concrete Research, 2014. 63: p. 38-45.
[5]  Bouvet, A., E. Ghorbel, and R. Bennacer, The mini-conical slump flow test: Analysis and numerical study. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(10): p. 1517-1523.
Show More References
[6]  Benaicha, M., et al., Marsh cone coupled to a plexiglas horizontal channel: Rheological characterization of cement grout. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 2015. 45: p. 234 126-134.
[7]  Guria, C., R. Kumar, and P. Mishra, Rheological analysis of drilling fluid using Marsh Funnel. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2013. 105: p. 62-69.
[8]  Hallal, A., et al., Combined effect of mineral admixtures with superplasticizers on the fluidity of the blended cement paste. Construction and Building Materials, 2010. 24(8): p. 1418-1423.
[9]  Jimma, B.E. and P.R. Rangaraju, Film-forming ability of flowable cement pastes and its application in mixture proportioning of pervious concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 2014. 71: p. 273-282.
[10]  Ferraris, C.F., K.H. Obla, and R. Hill, The influence of mineral admixtures on the rheology of cement paste and concrete. Cement and concrete research, 2001. 31(2): p. 245 245-255.
[11]  Williams, D.A., A.W. Saak, and H.M. Jennings, The influence of mixing on the rheology of fresh cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research, 1999. 29(9): p. 1491-1496.
[12]  Cardoso, F.A., et al., Parallel-plate rotational rheometry of cement paste: Influence of the squeeze velocity during gap positioning. Cement and Concrete Research, 2015. 75: p. 250 66-74.
[13]  Lootens, D., et al., Yield stress during setting of cement pastes from penetration tests. Cement and Concrete Research, 2009. 39(5): p. 401-408.
[14]  Sleiman, H., A. Perrot, and S. Amziane, A new look at the measurement of cementitious paste setting by Vicat test. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(5): p. 681-686.
[15]  Sonebi, M., M. Lachemi, and K.M.A. Hossain, Optimisation of rheological parameters and mechanical properties of superplasticised cement grouts containing metakaolin and viscosity modifying admixture. Construction and Building Materials, 2013. 38: p. 126-138.
[16]  Liao, Y. and X. Wei, Penetration resistance and electrical resistivity of cement paste with superplasticizer. Materials and structures, 2014. 47(4): p. 563-570.
[17]  Ferraris, C.F., Measurement of the rheological properties of high performance concrete: state of the art report. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH-NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, 1999. 104(5): p. 461-478.
[18]  Amziane, S., Setting time determination of cementitious materials based on measurements of the hydraulic pressure variations. Cement and Concrete Research, 2006. 36(2): p. 295-304.
[19]  Li, Z. and W. Li, Contactless, transformer-based measurement of the resistivity of materials. 2003, Google Patents.
[20]  Liu, Z., et al., An analytical model for determining the relative electrical resistivity of cement paste and C–S–H gel. Construction and Building Materials, 2013. 48: p. 647-655.
[21]  Wei, X., L. Xiao, and Z. Li, Prediction of standard compressive strength of cement by the electrical resistivity measurement. Construction and Building Materials, 2012. 31: p. 341-272 346.
[22]  Xiao, L. and Z. Li, Early-age hydration of fresh concrete monitored by non-contact electrical resistivity measurement. Cement and Concrete Research, 2008. 38(3): p. 312-319.
[23]  Struble, L.J. and W.-G. Lei, Rheological changes associated with setting of cement paste. Advanced Cement Based Materials, 1995. 2(6): p. 224-230.
[24]  Bîrlea, N.-M.C. and E.N. Culea. Electrical methods for testing building and construction materials. in First International Conference for PhD students in Civil Engineering, CE-280 PhD. 2012.
[25]  Villagrán Zaccardi, Y., et al., Influence of temperature and humidity on Portland cement mortar resistivity monitored with inner sensors. Materials and corrosion, 2009. 60(4): p. 283 294-299.
[26]  Li, Z., X. Wei, and W. Li, Preliminary interpretation of Portland cement hydration process using resistivity measurements. ACI Materials Journal, 2003. 100 (3).
[27]  Amziane, S. and C.F. Ferraris, Cementitious paste setting using rheological and pressure measurements. ACI materials journal, 2007. 104 (2).
[28]  Brookfield. [cited 2015 10-September]; Available from:
[29]  Bentz, D.P. and C.F. Ferraris, Rheology and setting of high volume fly ash mixtures Cement and Concrete Composites, 2010. 32(4): p. 265-270.
[30]  Sant, G., C.F. Ferraris, and J. Weiss, Rheological properties of cement pastes: a discussion of structure formation and mechanical property development. Cement and concrete Research, 2008. 38(11): p. 1286-1296.
[31]  Roussel, N., et al., Steady state flow of cement suspensions: A micromechanical state of the art. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(1): p. 77-84.
[32]  Roussel, N. and F. Cussigh, Distinct-layer casting of SCC: The mechanical consequences of thixotropy. Cement and Concrete Research, 2008. 38 (5): p. 624-632.
[33]  Xiao, L. and Z. Li, New understanding of cement hydration mechanism through electrical resistivity measurement and microstructure investigations. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 2009. 21(8): p. 368-373.
[34]  Li, Z., Advanced concrete technology. 2011: John Wiley & Sons.
[35]  Saak, A.W., Characterization and modeling of the rheology of cement paste: With applications toward self-flowing materials. 2000.
[36]  Bui, D., J. Hu, and P. Stroeven, Particle size effect on the strength of rice husk ash blended gap-graded Portland cement concrete. Cement and concrete composites, 2005. 27(3): p. 357-366.
Show Less References


Physical, Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Limestone High Performance Concrete

1Unity of research: Materials - Processes and Environment, Boumerdes University, Algeria

2Laboratory of Construction & Environment, ENP- Algiers, Algeria

3Laboratory of Materials Engineering of Brittany, UBS, French

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 133-141
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Chaid, A. Bali, A. PERROT, M. Mansour. Physical, Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Limestone High Performance Concrete. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):133-141. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-4.

Correspondence to: R.  Chaid, Unity of research: Materials - Processes and Environment, Boumerdes University, Algeria. Email:


The production of a high performance concrete (HPC) has expanded the scope use of concrete exposed to aggressive environments, thanks to the limited porosity, the durability, the rheological, physical and mechanical properties with the respect remarkable to a conventional concrete. The objective of this study is to develop a HPC incorporating finely ground limestone. The results show that the substitution of one part of cement by limestone contributes more to the improvement of physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of concrete. The couple cement/limestone contributes significantly to a densification of the matrix unlike when the cement is not substituted by addition. The survey also shows that the limestone does not fall into any chemical reaction. However, the development of resistance (physical phenomenon), obviously depends on the quality of hydrates supplied by the hydration, but also how these hydrates are assembled, their arrangement in space and their connections.



[1]  Chaid R., Jauberthie R. et Rendell F., Influence of a natural pozzolana on the properties of high performance mortar, Indian Concrete Journal, volume 78, number 8, August 2004, p 22-26.
[2]  Caré S., Linder R., Baroghel Bouny V., De Larrard F. et Charonnat Y., Effect des additions minérales sur les propriétés d’usage du béton - Plan d’expérience et analyse statique, LCPC, Ouvrages d’art OA 33, 2002.
[3]  Gözde İ-S., Oğuzhan Ç. & Kambiz R., Microstructure of 2 and 28-day cured Portland limestone cement pastes, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 289-294.
[4]  Tarun R. Naik, Fethullah Canpolat and Yoon-moon Chun, Limestone powder use in cement and concrete, Report No. CBU-2003-31, REP-525, July 2003, Center for By-Products Utilization.
[5]  Thongsanitgarn P., Wongkeo W., Sinthupinyo S. and Chaipanich A., Effect of Limestone Powders on Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Portland-Limestone Cement Pastes. TIChE International Conference, at Hatyai, Songkhla Thailand, November 10 - 11, 2011.
Show More References
[6]  Dale P. Bentz, Edgardo F. Irassar, Brooks Bucher, W. Jason Weiss, Limestone Fillers to Conserve Cement in Low w/cm Concretes: An Analysis Based on Powers’ Model. Concrete International, 31(11) and (12), 41-46 and 35-39, 2009.
[7]  Rana Burhan Abdurrahman Alshahwany, Effect of partial replacement of sand with limestone filler on some properties of normal concrete, Al-Rafidain Engineering, Vol.19, No.3, p. 37-48, June 2011.
[8]  Tosun K., Felekoğlu B., Baradan B. and Altun İ. A., Portland Limestone Cement Part I - Preparation of Cements, Teknik Dergi Vol. 20, No. 3 July 2009, pp:4717-4736.
[9]  Morin R., Haddad G. et Aïtcin P-C., Des structures en béton à haute performance sans fissures, journée d’information : ciments, bétons et adjuvants, Alger, mars 2004.
[10]  Jensen O-M et Hansen P-F., Autogenously deformation and change of the relative humidity on silica fume – modified cement paste, ACI Material journal, vol. 93, n° 6, November - December 1996, p. 539-543.
[11]  Proust F., évaluation du fluage total des bétons à partir d’essais sous charge de durée réduite, Annales du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, n°1, juin - juillet 2003, p. 22.
[12]  Viehland D. et Xu Z., Observation of a Mesostructure in Calcium Silicate Hydrate Gels of Portland Cement, Physique Revue, Let 77, 1996, p. 952-955.
[13]  Viehland D., Yuan L-J. et Xu Z., Structural Studies of Jennite and 1.4 nm Tobermorite: Disordered Layering along the [100] of Jennite, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 80, issue 12, Dec 1997, p. 3021-3028.
[14]  Chaid R., BALI A. and Mesbah H-A., Chemical resistance of HPC preserved in the sulphatic water, 12th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, held on July 8-13, Montréal 2007, Québec, Canada.
[15]  Hafez E., Abd Elmoaty M. & Basma M., Effect of filler types on physical, mechanical and microstructure of self compacting concrete and Flow-able concrete, Alexandria Engineering Journal (2014)53, 295–307.
[16]  Grandet J., Ollivier J-P., nouvelle méthode d’étude des interfaces ciment -granulats, 7ième Congres International de des Ciments, vol. 3, VII, 1980, p. 85-89.
[17]  Liu Shuhua and Yan Peiyu, Effect of limestone powder on microstructure of concrete, journal of wuhan university of technology-mater. Sci. Ed., Vol. 25 N°2, p. 328-331, Apr. 2010.
[18]  Hamid S-A., Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, n° 154, 1981, p. 189.
[19]  Taylor H-W., chemistry of cement hydratation, In: 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Edited by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986, vol. 1, p. 82-110.
[20]  Aïtcin P-C., Les bétons à hautes performances, Journée d’information : ciments, bétons, adjuvants, Alger, mars 2004.
Show Less References


Assessing Distress Cause and Estimating Evaluation Index for Marine Concrete Structures

1Department of Civil and Environmental engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA

2Department of Construction Management, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA

3Department of maritime technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

4Concrete technology and durability research center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 142-152
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Masoud Dehghani Champiri, Shahin Sajjadi, S. Hossein Mousavizadegan, Faramarz Moodi. Assessing Distress Cause and Estimating Evaluation Index for Marine Concrete Structures. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):142-152. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-5.

Correspondence to: Masoud  Dehghani Champiri, Department of Civil and Environmental engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Email:


Marine concrete structures may be affected with wide varieties of distresses where they may have different severity and extent. A periodic inspection program should be drawn to assess the structure condition and to specify the maintenance strategies. These inspections are carried out with several destructive and non-destructive tests which are very expensive. This paper tried to classify concrete distresses in the marine environment first and then, provided an evaluation method using an expert system. An extensive literature review, interviews with expert supervisors and a national survey were used to develop this expert system which is capable of determining the health index for concrete structures in marine environment. This marine structure condition index (MSCI) can be applied to assess the structural condition with a visual supervision and elementary measurements. The index is based on expert views with respect to the type, severity and extent of distresses. The specified index provides some appropriate maintenance strategies for the structure. Case studies showed that the proposed method gives better results and removed some deficiencies of some exiting approaches like what US Army Corps of Engineers suggested before.



[1]  Joshaghani, M. S., Raheem, A. M., and Mousavi M.M. R., “Analytical Modeling of Large-Scale Testing of Axial Pipe-Soil Interaction in Ultra-Soft Soil,” American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 4(3): 98-105, 2016.
[2]  Raheem, A. M., and Joshaghani, M. S., “Modeling of Shear Strength-Water Content Relationship of Ultra-Soft Clayey soil,” International Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp. 537-545, 2016.
[3]  Sandvik, K., Eie, R., &Advocaat, J.D., “A new challenge,” in XIV National Conference on Structural Engineering, Acapulco Offshore Structures, Norway, 2004.
[4]  Champiri, M. D., Mousavizadegan, S. H., & Moodi, F., “A decision support system for diagnosis of distress cause and repair in marine concrete structures,” Computers and Concrete, Vol. 9, Issue 2, Pages 99-118, 2012.
[5]  Champiri, M. D., Mousavizadegan, S. H., & Moodi, F., “A fuzzy classification system for evaluating the health condition of marine concrete structures,” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, Vol. 10, Issue 3, Pages 95-109, 2012.
Show More References
[6]  Cabrera, J.G., Kim, K.S., & Dixon, R., “COBDA: An Expert System for the Assessment of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges,” in Developments in Artificial Intelligence for Civil and Structural Engineering, Edited by B. H. V. Topping, Civil Comp Press, 151-157, 1995.
[7]  USACE, REMR Management Systems for Civil Works Structures, U.S Army Corps of Engineers, REMR Technical Note OM-MS-1.1, USA, 1996.
[8]  Miyamoto, A., Kawamura, K. and Nakamura, H., “Bridge Management System and Maintenance Optimization for Existing Bridge,” in International Conference on Computer Aided Design and Machine Learning, Oxford, England, 1999.
[9]  Moodi, F., “Integration of Knowledge Management and Information Technology into the Repair of Concrete Structures: An Innovative Approach,” The International Journal of Information Technology in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (IT-AEC), 2(3), CICE, UK, 2004.
[10]  Yehia, S., Abudayyeh, O., Fazal, I., & Randolph, D., “A decision support system for concrete bridge deck maintenance,” Advances in Engineering Software, 202-210, 2008.
[11]  Tarighat, A., & Miyamoto, A., “Fuzzy concrete bridge deck condition rating method for practical bridge management system,” Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier, 36(10), 12077-12085, 2009.
[12]  Ramezanianpour, A.A., Shahhosseini, V., & Moodi, F., “A fuzzy expert system for diagnosis assessment of reinforced concrete bridge decks,” International journal of Computers and Concrete, 281-303, 2009.
[13]  Beizaee, S., Willam, K., Xotta, G., Mousavi R., “Error Analysis of Displacement Gradients via Finite Element Approximation of Digital Image Correlation System,”in 9th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-9), 2016.
[14]  Willam, K., Mohammadipour, A., Mousavi, R., and Ayoub, A. S., “Failure of unreinforced masonry under compression,” in Proceedings of the Structures Congress, pages 2949-2961, 2013.
[15]  Sajedi, S., & Huang, Q., “Probabilistic prediction model for average bond strength at steel–concrete interface considering corrosion effect,” Engineering Structures, 99, 120-131, 2015.
[16]  Sajedi, S., & Huang, Q., “Time-dependent reliability analysis on the flexural behavior of corroded RC beams before and after repairing,” Structures Congress, ASCE, 1470-1481, 2015.
[17]  Sajedi, S., Huang, Q., and Miran, S.A., ”Reliability-Based Life-Cycle-Cost-Analysis of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Substructures Considering Patch Repair”, in NACE Corrosion Risk Management Conference, Houston, TX, Paper No. RISK16-8732, 2016.
[18]  Sajedi, S. and Huang, Q., ”Load-Deflection Behavior Prediction of Intact and Corroded RC Bridge Beams with or without Lap Splices Considering Bond Stress-Slip Effect”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE. 2016.
[19]  Kim, Y.M., Kim, C.K., & Hong, S.G., “Fuzzy set based crack diagnosis system for reinforced concrete structures,” Computers & Structures, Elsevier, 85(23-24), 1828-1844, 2007.
[20]  Kim, Y.M., Kim, C.K., & Hong, S.G., “Fuzzy based state assessment for reinforced concrete building structures,” Engineering Structures, 28(9), 1286-1297, 2006.
[21]  Marzouk, M.M., Abdel Hamid, S.N., & Ibrahim, M.E., “An automated system for repairing defects in reinforced concrete elements,” in 12th international colloquium on structural and geotechnical engineering (ICSGE), Cairo, Egypt, 2007.
[22]  Chan, P.P.F., An expert system for diagnosis of problems in reinforced concrete structures (M.Sc. Thesis). Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia, 1996.
[23]  PCA (Portland Cement Association), Concrete Slab Surface Defects: Causes, Prevention, Repair. Item Code: IS177, 2001.
[24]  Woodson, R. D., “Evaluating concrete in concrete structures,” Concrete Structures, 3-18, 2009.
[25]  Ismail, N., Ismail, A.,& Rahmat, R. A. “Development of expert system for airport pavement maintenance and rehabilitation,” European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X, 35(1), 121-129, 2009.
[26]  Moodi, F., “Investigation of a Management Framework for Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Based on Reusable Knowledge and Inspection,” International Journal of Computers and Concrete, 7(3), 249-269, 2010.
[27]  USACE, Engineering and Design: Evaluation and Repair Concrete Structures, U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Manual 1110-2-2002, USA, 1995.
[28]  ACI, Causes, Evaluation, and Repair of Cracks in Concrete Structures. American Concrete Institute, ACI committee 224, ACI 224-1R-07, USA, 2010.
[29]  BSI., Concrete. British Standard Institution, BS 1810 and BS 5328, UK, 2008.
[30]  Yang, G., Zomorodian, M., Belarbi, A., and Ayoub, A., “Uniaxial Tensile Stress-Strain Relationships of RC Elements Strengthened with FRP Sheets.” J. Compos. Constr., 2015.
[31]  Yang, G., Zomorodian, M., Belarbi, A., and Ayoub, A., “Behavior of FRP-Reinforced Concrete Element under Shear: Experimental and Analytical Investigations”, in Proceedings of the Structures Congress, 1879-1890, 2013.
[32]  Mohammadipour, A., and Willam, K., “Lattice Approach in Continuum and Fracture Mechanics”, J. Appl. Mech, 83(7), 071003, 2016.
Show Less References