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Article

Development and Impact of the Egyptian Climatic Conditions on Flexible Pavement Performance

1Graduate Student, Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(3), 115-121
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maha A. Elshaeb, Sherif M. El-Badawy, El-Sayed A. Shawaly. Development and Impact of the Egyptian Climatic Conditions on Flexible Pavement Performance. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(3):115-121. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Sherif  M. El-Badawy, Graduate Student, Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Email: sbadawy@mans.edu.eg

Abstract

Pavements are subject to environmental conditions, which affect the performance of both flexible and rigid pavements. The current flexible pavement design system in Egypt relies primarily on the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Design Guide. The method has many limitations. One of the serious limitations is the empirical drainage layer coefficients. These coefficients in addition to the seasonal variation of the roadbed resilient modulus are the only environmental consideration in the method. The newly AASHTO released production version of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) which is called AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design was developed to overcome the limitations inherent in the AASHTO 1993 method. Unlike the AASHTO 1993 method, Pavement ME Design method considers the variation in moisture and temperature on the mechanical properties of the pavement layers. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop the climatic data to facilitate the implementation of Pavement ME Design in Egypt and study its influence on the pavement performance. Pavement ME required climatic data which are the hourly air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sunshine and relative humidity were collected for 16 climatic locations distributed all over Egypt for four years. The quality of the data was checked and verified and the data was transformed to the format required by the software. A typical flexible pavement section was simulated using the ME design at the 16 different climatic locations and the performance predicted using the ME Design was analyzed. The performance indicators predicted by Pavement ME are rutting, alligator fatigue cracking, longitudinal cracking, thermal cracking, and International Roughness Index (IRI). Results showed that the pavement performance is significantly affected by the change in the climatic data. As expected, for Egypt, the most significant influence was on the predicted rutting of the Asphalt layer.

Keywords

References

[1]  Li, Q., Mills, L., McNeil, S., and Attoh-Okine, N., (2012) “Exploring the Impact of Climate Change On Pavement Performance And Design,” Presented at the Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting.
 
[2]  Huang, Y. H. (2004), Pavement Analysis and Design, Gourshetty Raju, 2004, Second Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
 
[3]  ARA, Inc., ERES Consultants Division. (2004). “Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures, NCHRP 1-37A Final Report,” ERES Consultants Division, Transportation research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
 
[4]  American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials, (2008). Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide: A Manual of Practice. Interim Edition, Washington, D.C. American Association of Highways and Transportation Officials.
 
[5]  Bayomy, F., El-Badawy, S., and Awed, A., May. 2012. “Implementation of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavements in Idaho,” (Report No. FHWA-ID-12-193). ITD Project RP 193, NIATT Project KLK557. National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho: U.S.
 
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[6]  Saha, J., Nassiri S., Bayat, A., and Soleymani, H., “Evaluation of the Effects of Canadian Climate Conditions on the MEPDG Predictions for Flexible Pavement Performance,” International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 15 (5). 392-401. May. 2014
 
[7]  Meagher, W., Daniel, J. S., Jacobs, J., and Linder E., “ Method for Evaluating Implications of Climate Change for Design and Performance of Flexible Pavements,” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2 (2305). 111-120. 2012
 
[8]  Byram, D., Xiao, D. X., Wang, K., C. P., and Hall, Kevin, (2012). “Sensitivity Analysis of Climatic Influence on MEPDG Flexible Pavement Performance Predictions,” Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, TRB, The National Academies, Washington, DC.
 
[9]  Zaghloul, S., Ayed, A., AbdEl Halim, A., Vitillo N., and Sauber R. “Investigations of Environmental and Traffic Impacts on Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Predictions,” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, (1967). 148-159. 2006.
 
[10]  Darter, M., L. Titus-Glover, and H., Von Quintus. Implementation of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Utah: Validation, Calibration, and Development of the UDOT MEPDG User’s Guide. Report No. UT-09.11, Applied Research Associates, Inc., 2009.
 
[11]  Von Quintus, H. and J. Moulthrop. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models for Montana: Volume I Executive Research Summary. FHWA/MT-07-008/8158-1 Final Report, 2007.
 
[12]  Souliman, M. Calibration of the AASHTO MEPDG for Flexible Pavements for Arizona Conditions. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, Master’s Thesis, 2009.
 
[13]  Li, J., L. Pierce, and J. Uhlmeryer. “Calibration of Flexible Pavement in Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide for Washington State.” Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2095 (2009): 73-83.
 
[14]  Ley Y., Kadam, S., Frazier, R., Robertson, B., and Riding, K. “Development and Implementation of a Mechanistic and Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) for Rigid Pavements,” Annual Report for FY 2009, ODOT SPR Item Number 2208, 2009.
 
[15]  Delgadillo, R., Wahr, C., Garcia, G., Osorio, L., and Salfate, O. (2014) “Generating Hourly Climatic Data from Available Weather Information for Pavement Design,” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.
 
[16]  Dezotepe, G., and Ksaibati, K., “The Effect of Environmental Factors on the Implementation of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide,” Wyoming Technology Transfer Center, 2011.
 
[17]  Breakah, T., Williams, R., Herzmann, D., and Takle, E., “Effects of Using Accurate Climatic Conditions for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design,” J. Transp. Eng., 137 (1), 2011, pp. 84-90.
 
[18]  Heitzman, M., Timm, D., Herzmann, D., Takle, G., and Traux, D. (2011). “Developing MEPDG Climate Data Input Files for Mississippi,” FHWA/MS—RD- DOT-11-232 Final Report, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 38762-9546.
 
[19]  Egyptian Meteorological Authority: http://ema.gov.eg, Accessed September 2013.
 
[20]  World Weather Online: http://www.worldweatheronline.com, Accessed January 2014.
 
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Article

Influence of the Density of Water on the Dynamic Behavior of Square Tension Leg Platform

1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 122-129
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hala M. Refat, Amr R. El-gamal. Influence of the Density of Water on the Dynamic Behavior of Square Tension Leg Platform. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):122-129. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Hala  M. Refat, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt. Email: hala.abusafa@bhit.bu.edu.eg

Abstract

tension-leg platform (TLP) or extended tension leg platform (ETLP) is a vertically normally used for the offshore production of or , and is particularly suited for water depths greater than 300 meters and less than 1500 meters. The platform is permanently moored by means of tethers or tendons grouped at each of the structure's corners. A group of tethers is called a tension leg. A feature of the design of the tethers is that they have relatively high (low ), such that virtually all vertical motion of the platform is eliminated. This allows the platform to have the production on deck (connected directly to the subsea wells by rigid risers), instead of on the . This allows a simpler and gives better control over the production from the or , and easier access for down whole intervention operations. In this paper a numerical study for a square TLP using modified Morison equation was carried out in the time domain with water particle kinematics using Airy’s linear wave theory to investigate the effect of changing water density on the mass matrix of TLP's and the dynamic behavior of TLP's. The effect was investigated for different parameters of the hydrodynamic forces such as wave periods, and wave heights. The numerical study takes into consideration the effect of coupling between various degrees of freedom. The stiffness of the TLP was derived from a combination of hydrostatic restoring forces and restoring forces due to cables. Nonlinear equation was solved using Newmark’s beta integration method. Only uni-directional waves in the surge direction was considered in the analysis.

Keywords

References

[1]  Abou-Rayan, A.M., Seleemah, A., and El-gamal, A.R., "Response of Square Tension Leg Platforms to Hydrodynamic Forces", Ocean Systems Engineering, Vol. 2 (2), 2012, pp. 115-135.
 
[2]  Ahmed, S., Bhaskar sengupta, A. Ali, "Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Tension Lrg Platform Tether under Offshore Environmental Conditions", Ocean Engineering, Vol.30, 1990, pp. 232-241.
 
[3]  Chan K. Yang, M. H. Kim, 2010, "Transient Effects of Tendon Disconnection of a TLP by Hull-Tendon –Riser Coupled Dynamic Analysis", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 37, 2010, pp. 667-677.
 
[4]  Jain, A. K., "Nonlinear Coupled Response of Offshore Tension Leg Platforms to Regular Wave Forces", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 24, 1997, pp. 577-592.
 
[5]  Pauling, J. R, Horton, E.E., "Analysis of the Tension Leg Stable Platform", In: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, OTC NO. 1263, 1970, pp. 379-390.
 
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[6]  Kurian, V.J., Gasim, M.A., Narayanan, S.P., Kalaikumar, V., "Parametric Study of TLPs Subjected to Random Waves", ICCBT-C-19, pp. 213-222, 2008.
 
[7]  Low, Y. M., "Frequency domain analysis of a tension leg platform with statistical linearization of the tendon restoring forces", Marine Structures, Vol. 22, 2009, 480-503.
 
[8]  Xiaohui Zeng, Yang Liu, Xiaopeng Shen, Yingxiang Wu, "Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Tension Leg Platform", In: proceeding of the Sixteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference San Francisco, California, USA, May 28-June 2, 2006, pp.94-100.
 
[9]  R.A. Khan, N.A. Siddiquia, S.Q.A. Naqvi, S. Ahmad," Reliability analysis of TLP tethers under impulsive loading", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Volume 91, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 73-83.
 
[10]  Amir Hossein Razaghian, Mohammad Saeid Seif, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour, "Investigation of tendons and TLP behavior in damaged condition ", International journal of maritime technology, Volume 9, Number 18 (5-2014). 23-34.
 
[11]  Rahim Shoghi, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour," An approximate method for the surge response of the tension leg platform", Journal of Marine Science and Application, March 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 99-104.
 
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Article

Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3Department of Geosciences, Akwa Ibom University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria

4Geostrat International Services Limited, No. 14 Mannila Pepple Street, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 130-135
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwankwoala H.O., Amadi A.N., Ushie F.A., Warmate T.. Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):130-135. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A.N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in Akenfa in Yenagoa, Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Three (3) geotechnical boreholes were drilled at the site to obtain baseline data on geotechnical properties of the soil and water level monitoring, the boreholes were advanced with the use of a cable percussion boring rig and were terminated to a maximum depth of 30m. The particle size distributions of a number of representative samples of the cohesionless soils were determined by sieve analysis. The results show that the samples are low to medium plasticity silty clay. The lithology revealed intercalations of clay and sand in thin layers to a depth of 2.0 m below the existing ground level. Underlying this clay is a stratum of loose to medium dense sand and dense sand. The sand is well sorted grading from fine to medium as the borehole advances. The laboratory analysis showed that the silty clay has undrained shear strength of 48 kPa. The loose sand has a maximum SPT (N) value of 12 while the medium dense sand has maximum SPT (N) value of 28. Considering the nature of the civil structures to be sited in the area, it is anticipated the load and the moderate compressibility of this near surface silty clay and the underlying loose silty sand be supported by means of raft foundation founded within the clay layer. It is recommended that studies on the geotechnical characteristics of the area be carried out as it provides valuable data that can be used for foundation design and other forms of construction for civil engineering structures in order to minimize adverse effects and prevention of post construction problems.

Keywords

References

[1]  Amadi, A.N; Eze, C.J; Igwe, C.O; Okunlola, I.A. and Okoye, N.O (2012). Architect’s and geologist’s view on the causes of building failures in Nigeria. Modern Applied Science, Vol. 6 (6): 31-38.
 
[2]  Amadi, A. N; Olasehinde, P. I; Okunlola, I. A; Okoye, N. O. and Waziri, S (2010). A multidisciplinary approach to subsurface characterization in Northwest of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences, 3 (1), 74-83.
 
[3]  ASTM (1979). Annual Book of America Society for Testing and Materials Standards, 1289, Philadelphia, ASTM Tech. Publ. 630pp.
 
[4]  British Standard Methods of Test for soils for Civil Engineering Purposes. B.S 1377: Part 2, 1990. Published by the British Standards Institution, pp 8-200.
 
[5]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Akpokodje, E.G (1990). Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Mining Geology, 26 (2): 279-284.
 
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[6]  Haddou, M.B; Essahlaoui, A; Boujlal, M; Elouali, A; and Hmaidi, A (2013). Study of the geotechnical parameters of the different soils by correlation analysis and statistics in the Kenitra Region of Morocco. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3 (2): 51-60.
 
[7]  Merki, J.P. (1970). Structural Geology of the Cenozoic Niger Delta. African Geology. University of Ibadan Press. pp 251-268.
 
[8]  Murat, R.C (1970). Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.T J and Whiteman, A.J (eds.). African Geology, University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 251-266.
 
[9]  Ngah, S.A and Nwankwoala, H.O (2013). Evaluation of Geotechnical Properties of the Sub-soil for Shallow Foundation Design in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria. The Journal of Engineering and Science, Vol. 2 (11): 08-16.
 
[10]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Warmate, T (2014). Geotechnical Assessment of Foundation Conditions of a Site in Ubima, Ikwerre Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD) 9 (8): 50-63.
 
[11]  Oke, S. A and Amadi, A. N (2008). An Assessment of the Geotechnical Properties of the Subsoil of parts of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Gidan Kwano Campus, for Foundation Design and Construction. Journal of Science, Education and Technology, 1 (2), 87-102.
 
[12]  Oghenero, A.E; Akpokodje, E.G and Tse, A.C (2014). Geotechnical Properties of Subsurface Soils in Warri, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 4 (1): 89-102.
 
[13]  Reyment, R.A (1965). Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria, University of Ibadan Press, p 133
 
[14]  Short, K. C. and Stauble, A. J. (1967). Outline of Geology of the Niger Delta. American Association of Geologists, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 761-779.
 
[15]  Youdeowei, P.O and Nwankwoala, H.O (2010). Assessment of some geo-environmental problems associated with road construction in the Eastern Niger Delta. Afr. J. Environ. Pollut. Health, Vol. 8 (1): 1-7.
 
[16]  Youdeowei, P.O and Nwankwoala, H.O (2013). Suitability of soils as bearing media at a freshwater swamp terrain in the Niger Delta. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, Vol. 5 (3): k58-64.
 
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Article

The Impact of Deep Foundations of Building Structures on the Neighbouring Buildings – a Static Analysis

1Institute of Civil Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Białystok, Poland


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 136-142
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Czesław Miedziałowski, Damian Siwik. The Impact of Deep Foundations of Building Structures on the Neighbouring Buildings – a Static Analysis. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):136-142. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Damian  Siwik, Institute of Civil Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Białystok, Poland. Email: d.siwik@o2.pl

Abstract

Deep foundations of buildings and their impact on neighbouring buildings is one of the most important issues when planning a new facility. Whereas, the analyses of the threats often come down only to a simplified evaluation of the building subsidence and to comparing them with the limit values. The paper presents the methodologies for using the subsidence surface of the land behind the housing wall of the excavation to assess the impact of additional displacements on the technical condition of facilities, through the determination of the distribution and the values of stresses in the estimated structure.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bloodworth A.G.: Three-dimensional analysis of tunnelling effects on structures to develop design methods, PhD thesis, University of Oxford, 2002.
 
[2]  Bloodworth A.G., Houlsby G.T., Burd H.J., Augarde C.E.: Three-dimensional modelling of the interaction between buildings and tunnelling operations, Response of buildings to excavation-induced ground movements. Proceedings of the international conference held at Imperial College, London, UK, 2003, 189-199.
 
[3]  Cudny M., Popielski P.: Analysis of excavation-induced deformation with different soil models, Task Quarterly 14, No 4, 339-362.
 
[4]  Dinakar K. N., Prasad S. K.: Effect of deep excavation on adjacent buildings by diaphragm wall technique using PLAXIS, OSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), 26-32.
 
[5]  Hou Y., Wang H., Wang J.: Numerical study of damage potential in buildings due to excavations, Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science), Vol. 15, No 2, 2010, 147-152.
 
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[6]  Horodecki G.A., Dembicki E.: Impact of deep excavation on nearby urban area, Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Madrid/Spain, Millpress Science Publ., 575-580.
 
[7]  Ilichev V. A., Nikiforova N. S., Koreneva E. B.: Method for calculating bed deformations of buildings near deep excavations, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 43, No 6, 2006, 189-196.
 
[8]  Jen L.C.: The design and performance of deep excavations in clay, PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998.
 
[9]  Korff M.,: Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soil, Deltares, 2009.
 
[10]  Kotlicki W., Wysokiński L.: Security building in the vicinity of deep excavations, Building Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland, 2002 (in Polish).
 
[11]  Liu G.: Numerical modelling of damage to masonry buildings dut to tunneling, PhD thesis, University of Oxford, 1997.
 
[12]  Michalak H.: Deep foundations buildings and ground and building displacement in the neighborhood, Geoengineering-roads, bridges, tunnels, 04/2008, 66-76 (in Polish).
 
[13]  Michalak A., Szulborski K., Woźniak M.: Security and monitoring of objects in the vicinity of deep excavations, XXIV National Labor Designer Design Workshops, Wisla, 2009, 229-264 (in Polish).
 
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[16]  Popa H.: Deep excavations in urban areas-influence on the neighbouring existing structures; numerical modelling and measurements, Scientific Journal-Series: Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering, No 1, 2010, 19-31.
 
[17]  Siemińska-Lewandowska A.: Deep excavations. Design and construction, Publisher of Communications and Communications, Warsaw, 2010 (in Polish).
 
[18]  Siwik D., Miedziałowski Cz.: Influence of deep building foundation on exsisting buildings Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013, 61-68 (in Polish).
 
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[20]  Thumann V.M.: Three dimensional ground deformation analysis of deep excavation adjacent to railway embankment in the city of Rotterdam, Plaxis Practice, 6-9.
 
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Article

Finite Element Analysis for the Modelling of Building Structures in Three Dimensional Schemes

1Facultyof Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Bialystok, Poland

2PopeJohn II State School ofHigher Education, BialaPodlaska, Poland


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 143-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Czeslaw Miedzialowski, Joanna Kretowska. Finite Element Analysis for the Modelling of Building Structures in Three Dimensional Schemes. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):143-148. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Joanna  Kretowska, PopeJohn II State School ofHigher Education, BialaPodlaska, Poland. Email: j.kretowska@kmb.pb.edu.pl

Abstract

Three-dimensional analysis of building structure is a very complex problem and solution of this problem is often obtained via finite element method.The paper presents a set of finite elements used for the modelling of building structures taking into account soil-structures interaction. Finite elements of the structure are derived by using beam schemes including Timoshenko type beam. The finite elements descriptions are completed by plate state. The way of elements connections and the global system of equations are also defined. The finite elements of wall panels, floor slabs, joints ant contact type subsoilproposed in this study significantly reduce the number of unknowns. Two computational examples proved the efficiency and the computing possibilities of the presented model.

Keywords

References

[1]  H.S. Kim, D.G. Lee, “Analysis of shear wall with openings using super elements,” Engineering Structures, 25. 981-991. 2003.
 
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[3]  H.S. Kim, D.G. Lee, Ch. K. Kim, “Efficient three-dimensional seismic analysis of a high-rise building structure with shear walls,” Engineering Structures, 27. 963-976.2005
 
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[5]  MiedziałowskiCz, “Three dimensional modelling wall structures for buildings,” Archives of Civil Engineering, XLI (2), 195-212. 1995.
 
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[11]  Zienkiewicz O. C., Taylor R. L. The finite element method, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.
 
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Article

A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA

2School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 149-159
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vahid Balali, Banafsheh Zahraie, Abbas Roozbahani. A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):149-159. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Vahid  Balali, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA. Email: balali2@illinois.edu

Abstract

Introduction of new structural systems into construction industry has created a competitive environment wherein selecting the most appropriate structural system has become increasingly difficult. Some structural systems have priority over others due to their unique features,as well as the special requirements of various construction projects. The structural system’s selection process is intended to show the trade-off among different alternatives when evaluated by technical and nontechnical professionals and maximize the agreement between all interested parties. This paper addresses how the best system can be selected using AHP and PROMETHEE family of multiple criteria decision-making techniques. These techniques have been utilized in this study for selecting the appropriate structural system among 3D Panel with light walls in building frames, LSF, ICF, Tunnel Formwork system, and Tronco in a low rise multi-housing project in Iran. A questionnaire has been designed to collect engineering judgments and experts’ opinions on various parameters such as weight of different criteria. The team of experts who has cooperated in this research includes engineers and managers of consultants, contractors, and owners who are involved in different low rise multi-housing projects in Iran. A comparison between the two techniques has been carried out based on the consistency of the results, the required amount of interactions with the decision-makers, and ease of understanding. For the case study of this research, 3D Panel with light walls in building frames has been selected as the most appropriate structural system. The PROMETHEE II has been selected as the preferred method for the appropriate structural system selection process since its results are consistent, easy to understand, and require less information from decision-makers compared to AHP.

Keywords

References

[1]  V. Balali, B. Zahraie, A. Hosseini, A. Roozbahani, Selecting appropriate structural system: Application of PROMETHEE decision making method, 2nd International Conference on Engineering Systems Management and Its Applications (ICESMA), Sharjah, UAE., 2010, pp. 1-6.
 
[2]  M. Golabchi, H. Mazaherian, “New Architectural Technologies., University of Tehran Press., Tehran, Iran, 2010.
 
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[17]  J. San Cristobal, Critical Path Definition Using Multicriteria Decision Making: PROMETHEE Method, Journal of Management in Engineering 29 (2) (2013) 158-163.
 
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[25]  J.P. Brans, Lingenierie de la Decision. Elaboration DinstrumentsDaide a la Decision, Methode PROMETHEE In: Nadeau, R., Landry, M. (Eds.), Laide a la Decision: Nature, Instruments et Perspectives Davenir., de Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, 1982, pp. 183-214.
 
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[29]  V. Podvezko, A. Podviezko, Dependence of multi-criteria evaluation result on choice of preference functions and their parameters, Technological and Economic Development of Economy 16 (1) (2010) 143-158.
 
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Article

The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement

1Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India

2Department of Applied Mechanics, SVNIT, Surat, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 160-166
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. P. Kadam, Y. D. Patil. The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):160-166. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: M.  P. Kadam, Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India. Email: kadammadhav@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of sieved coal bottom ash as a substitute for natural sand on the properties of concrete, when an extra 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% weight of cement was added. First, M-35 grade concrete was casted and tested; using a fixed percentage of 70% sieved coal bottom ash and 30% natural sand. The water cement ratio was maintained at 0.45. Then various tests including compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, density and water permeability were performed on the sieved coal bottom ash concrete. The results were compared with the control concrete and the percentage variations in strength were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. The results indicate a considerable increase in strength when 20% extra cement was added with the weight of cement.

Keywords

References

[1]  Aggarwal P., Aggarwal Y, Gupt S.M., Effect of bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (building and housing), 2007, Vol. 8, no. 1 Pages 49-62.
 
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[4]  DIN 1048 (part-5): German Standard for determination of Permeability of Concrete.
 
[5]  H.K. Kim, H.K. Lee, Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 2011, Vol. 25, pp. 1115-1122.
 
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[6]  IS 2386-1963(part-III) Method for test for aggregates for Concrete
 
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[13]  Mohd Syahrul Hisyam bin Mohd Sani, Fadhluhartini bt Muftah, Zulkifli Muda, The Properties of Special Concrete Using Bottom Ash (WBA) as Partial Sand Replacement, International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology, 2010, Vol.2, pp. 65-76.O.
 
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Article

The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams

1Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran

2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran

3Doctor of civil engineering structures, an associate professor and head of University of Science and Technology


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 167-173
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Elyas behradimehr, afshin mansouri, babak aminnejad, mohammad ali barkhordari bafghi. The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):167-173. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Elyas  behradimehr, Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran. Email: bakhsat_engineer@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this research, the effective parameters in stability of concrete gravity dams in the form of case study on three important dams: Blue stone; Folsom; and Pine Flat, are investigated. Typically, cognition and understanding of effective parameters in stability and knowing the role of each them, in designing new dams, could be very helpful. Concrete gravity dams (which are surveyed in this research) have their strength and stability because of their weight. The shape of their section are triangle and commonly, The base of the triangle is greater than the dam is stable, the more stable dam is. Also, in this investigation we are going to study the horizontal displacement called sliding of dam’s bottom, in contact with foundation by ABAQUS software. The sliding displacement has no considerable change in each of the three nodes on heel and toe, and also in middle part of dam, and eventually is equal in each three and all parts of the dam’s bottom and foundation. With choosing three nodes on the dam’s bottom and similar nodes on the foundation, and with differentiating horizontal displacements of these nodes with each other, the relative displacements of dam are obtained. With using these displacements acquired from ABAQUS software in RS-DAM software, we show them as time series graph and relative displacement. Whenever this graph has a jump with the increase of earthquake PGAs (end of the graph moves away from the starting point of it), dams is considered as unstable.

Keywords

References

[1]  Lo, K.Y. and Ogawa, T. “The Evaluation of Existing Concrete Dams on Rock Foundations and Remedial Measures”, International Commission on Large Dams, 1991.
 
[2]  Chavez, J. W. and Fenves G. L. “Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, 865-875, 1995.
 
[3]  Horyna, T. “Reliability Analysis of Base Sliding of Concrete Gravity Dam Subjected to Earthquake”, University of British Columbia, 1999.
 
[4]  Ruggeri, G. “Working Group on Sliding Safety of Existing Dam”, Final Report, ICOLD European Club, 2004.
 
[5]  Ftima, M. B. and Leger, P. “Seismic Stability of Cracked Concrete Dams Using Rigid Block Models”, 2006.
 
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[6]  11- Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[7]  Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with1 Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[8]  US Ar my Corps of Engineers (USACE), "Roller-Compacted Concrete, EM 1110-2-2006, 2000.
 
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Article

Hydration and Strength Behavior of Sugarcane-Baggase Ash Concrete Using Electrical Resistivity Measurement

1Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

2Civil Engineering Department, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina State , Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 174-176
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muazu Bawa Samaila, Wei Xiaosheng, Ashhabu Elkaseem. Hydration and Strength Behavior of Sugarcane-Baggase Ash Concrete Using Electrical Resistivity Measurement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):174-176. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Muazu  Bawa Samaila, Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Email: muazubawaf@yahoo.com

Abstract

Electrical resistivity method was adopted in monitoring the hydration of concrete containing different percentage of baggase ash. It has been discovered that the bulk electrical resistivity is a function of the solution electrical resistivity and porosity. Two model components were suggested where the solution resistivity was dominated by bulk resistivity at early age then by porosity at later age. The result found that the pore discontinuity occurs faster with increasing baggase ash quantity up to 20% then started declining meaning that 20% is within the optimum range of the baggase ash quantity to be used and this is similar to the results obtained from compressive strength, setting time tests.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Zongjin, L., Lianzhen, X., and Xiaosheng, W., “Determination of concrete setting time using electrical resistivity measurement,” Journal of materials in civil engineering, 19 (5), 423-427. May 2007.
 
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[7]  Zongjin, L., Xiaosheng, W, and Wenlai, L., “Preliminary interpretation of Portland cement hydration process using resistivity measurements,” Material Journal, American Concrete Institute, 100 (3): 253-257. June 2003.
 
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Article

Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(6), 177-185
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(6):177-185. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia. Email: mkaddory@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paper examines the possible efficacy of HPWS (High-Performance Work System) in optimizing the risk-preparedness and disaster management of the World Heritage Sites (WHS), using Alhambra Palace, Spain, as the test site. Most of the WHSs are vulnerable to various types of risks, and the UNESCO has set a stringent standard for their maintenance, failing which any WHS will lose its title. The paper has a goal of finding a common risk-preparedness and disaster management solution that would enable all WHSs to conform to the maintenance standard set by the UNESCO. A test survey conducted on Alhambra site WHS which chosen as a case study of World Heritage Sites under UNESCO, the feedback shown that it is possible to exploit HPWS to optimize the risk-preparedness and disaster management systems of all World Heritage Sites and conform to the UNESCO Guidelines.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNESCO, (2009). Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction at World Heritage Properties: the Olympia Protocol for International Cooperation. [online]. Available at http://www.iaaconservation.org.il/images/files/pdf_docs/Olympia_Protocol.pdf.
 
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[5]  Wright, P and Guthrie, J. (2005). Labor productivity and HRM. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), pp. 137-174.
 
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