American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

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The Early Hydration Characteristics of Portland Cements with Superplasticizer Using Electrical Measurements

1CCCC Fourth Harbor Engineering institute Co., Ltd., Guangzhou, 510230, China

2School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(5), 153-158
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
WANG Shengnian, WEI Xiaosheng, FAN Zhihong. The Early Hydration Characteristics of Portland Cements with Superplasticizer Using Electrical Measurements. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(5):153-158. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: WEI  Xiaosheng, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China. Email:


In this paper, an electrical measurement was applied to investigate the early hydration characteristics of cement paste with different dosages of superplasticizer. The bulk electrical resistivity development curves and the derivative curves were studied. It is found that there are two main peaks and four critical points on the derivative curves. The critical points are used to divide the hydration process into dissolution, setting, acceleration, deceleration and diffusion-controlled periods. The physical meanings of the critical points are identified by the penetration measurement of Vicat device and the heat evolution test. The setting occurred in the second period which provides an alternative method to determine the setting time by the electrical measurement. The results of the bulk electrical resistivity have a positive relation with that of the compression strength. The retardation effect of the superplasticizer is demonstrated by the delayed time for the critical points occurrence and confirmed by the setting time. A rapid method for selecting a suitable dosage of the chemical admixture for construction requirements is proposed.



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In the Eyes of the Beholder: Students’ Degree of Satisfaction with Traditional versus Suite Style Residence Halls

1Department of Architecture, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(5), 159-164
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Azadeh Eshaghi, Fatemeh Khozaei. In the Eyes of the Beholder: Students’ Degree of Satisfaction with Traditional versus Suite Style Residence Halls. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(5):159-164. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Fatemeh  Khozaei, Department of Architecture, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran. Email:


This study aims at comparing the degree of students’ satisfaction in relationship with traditional and suite style residence halls. A sample population of 209 students residing in four traditional and suite style residence halls participated in the survey from April to June 2015. The questionnaire consisted of 15 items. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe some demographic information of the sample. To test the hypothesis, an independent sample t-test was used to analyze the data. Following the data analysis, a series of interviews were conducted with 20 students. The results of quantitative data showed that suite style residents were less satisfied with their housing. Analyzing the interviews revealed that even though the suit style residents had enjoyed a better design, physical condition and maintenance compared to their counterparts from the traditional residence halls, they held higher expectations about the hall environments and felt that reality were short of their expectations.



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Providing an Example of Scheduling Model for Marine Transportation Companies

1Civil Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology

2Maritime Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(5), 165-170
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdollaah Ardeshir, Aliakbar Safaei, Shahryar Abtahi. Providing an Example of Scheduling Model for Marine Transportation Companies. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(5):165-170. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Abdollaah  Ardeshir, Civil Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology. Email:


In this study a scheduling model provided for a given marine transportation company, so that, long term organizational objectives could be achieved through formulated scheduling. We have also evaluated advantages, barriers, and problems existing on the way of goal achievement from different perspectives, in order to improve the organization’s transcendental objectives, make an assessment of various positions, opportunities, and weakness as well as strength points of that organization. First, we present a definition for scheduling and then proceed with necessity of its usage, processes, strategy development, strategy performance and evaluation, and then strategy evolution is processed. Importance and status of strategic management in an organization, and characteristics of strategic scheduling are then investigated. Critical questions of the organization in performing strategic scheduling are answered, and different steps in strategic scheduling approach are presented. Here, scheduling process will be explained according to appropriate analyses depending on the type of organization, strategic scheduling advantages and disadvantages are listed, and finally, an explanation about formulation of scheduling, tactic setting and initialization of operation will be provided, according to aforementioned descriptions.



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