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American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 2 (2015)


Simplified Parametric (Phenomenological) Model of Creep of Concrete in Direct Tension

1Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(2), 52-58
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ephraim M. E., Rowland-Lato E. O.. Simplified Parametric (Phenomenological) Model of Creep of Concrete in Direct Tension. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(2):52-58. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Rowland-Lato  E. O., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email:


An analytical model based on the experimental trend of the creep deformation of concrete in direct tension is developed. The model is calibrated for normal and high strength concretes and the results show close agreement with experimental data. The inclussion of the stress level is a unique feature of the model and presents a prospect for predicting concrete deformation for any regime of loading. The model confirm that the creep strain of concrete in tension are non-linear right frm the begining of loading therby ruling out the applicability of the principle of superposition The model presents a means for incorporating the nonlinearlity of creep into other predictive models of concrete.



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Comprehending Vernacular Architecture in the Architectural Educational System in Iran

1Department of Architecture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(2), 45-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
MohammadMoein Masrour, MohammadJaffar Karbaschi. Comprehending Vernacular Architecture in the Architectural Educational System in Iran. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(2):45-51. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: MohammadMoein  Masrour, Department of Architecture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran. Email:


Architectural studies in Iranian universities are based on models and educational system as well as a good understanding of vernacular architecture. Unfortunately, in spite of its strong and efficient practical background throughout Iran, vernacular architecture has not yet acquired its true position in academic architecture since its scientific and practical aspects have not been sufficiently studied. Correct understanding of vernacular architecture can familiarize students of architecture with the all important global problems, namely, introducing architectural solutions in the design and construction of buildings for the purpose of reducing environmental problems, as well as making clear the role of sustainability factors in presenting new ideas for building. In this article, the reason for, as well as methods, of architectural education based on vernacular architecture was investigated. For this purpose, by focusing special attention on vernacular architectural design as well as educational methods based on traditional and modern principles, the authors presented an educational model for vernacular architecture. Library studies were used to gather the necessary information. The research findings showed that architects and students alike need to acquire an understanding of vernacular architecture with regard to Islamic architecture and historical studies, various practical and workshop designs for spatial elements, performance of vernacular architecture in traditional structure and culture, and fundamental modernistic movement theories of vernacular architecture. The obtained results indicate that correct definitions and proper understanding of performance, description of relevant principles, and reconstruction of traditional architecture technology are essential elements in vernacular architectural education.



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Levee Breaching Process of a River and Disaster Risk on Floodplain

1School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Japan

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(2), 39-44
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Serazul Islam, Tetsuro Tsujimoto. Levee Breaching Process of a River and Disaster Risk on Floodplain. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(2):39-44. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Md.  Serazul Islam, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Email:


Small-scale laboratory experiments and same scenario numerical analyses were conducted to understand levee breaching phenomena and subsequent disasters risk in floodplain focusing on the effects of the relative height of river bed to the floodplain and the bed materials. In the present study, the area including river, levee and floodplain has been reproduced in both experiment and numerical simulation because not only the behavior of levee but also the phenomena in river and floodplain are intimately related to one another. As a result the followings have been clarified: Higher bed level brings more rapid propagation of the levee breach and widening with more inundation and sediment deposition on the floodplain. River bed degradation in the upstream of the levee breaching point may cause further risk of breach. While as for the effect of bed materials, it has exposed that the finer materials has higher risk not only by more deposition on the floodplain but also by remarkable river bed degradation.



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