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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016

Article

A Comparative Analysis of Codes Prediction of Shear Resistance in Beams without Shear Reinforcement

1Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, UK

2Department of Building and Quantity Surveying, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 34-38
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ofonime A. Harry, Ifiok E. Ekop. A Comparative Analysis of Codes Prediction of Shear Resistance in Beams without Shear Reinforcement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):34-38. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-6.

Correspondence to: Ofonime  A. Harry, Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, UK. Email: o.harry@ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Shear provisions in codes are based on empirical equations derived from experimental test results without any rational theory to explain its behavior. Some of these expressions, for example BS 8110, ACI 318 and Eurocode 2 takes into account the effect of reinforcement ratio, effective depth and concrete compressive strength while Canadian code considers the shear strength to be a function of concrete compressive strength only. The new Model code 2010 considers the shear strength of beams as a function of longitudinal strain in the web. This brings about disparity in shear strength prediction from different codes. This paper examines the accuracy of shear strength predictions in beams without shear reinforcement. The study involves a comparative analysis of shear strength predictions from five different codes: BS 8110, Eurocode 2, Canadian code, ACI code 318 and Model code 2010. A total of 435 experimental test results from database of shear critical beams in literature were used for the study. The results shows that Model code 2010 shear strength prediction is the most conservative among the five codes shear provisions considered in this study. This may be due to the assumed linear elastic state of the flexural reinforcement at the point of failure in shear. BS 8110 and Eurocode 2 predictions gave the least variation compared to other codes predictions. The highest number of unsafe shear strength predictions was obtained from Canadian code followed by prediction s from ACI 318.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Sudheer Reedy L., Ramana Rao V., and Gunneswara Rao D., ‘Shear Resistance of High Strength Concrete Beams Without Shear Reinforcement’, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 101-113, 2010.
 
[8]  S. H. Ahmad, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, and S. Fareed, ‘Shear Predictions of Eurocode EC2’, American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 43-46, 2013.
 
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Article

A Review on Recycled Aggregates for the Construction Industry

1Department of Civil Engineering, KIET, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Department of Civil Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 27-33
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yasir Karim, Zubair Khan, Mohammad S. Alsoufi, Mohammed Yunus. A Review on Recycled Aggregates for the Construction Industry. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):27-33. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  Yunus, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA. Email: yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The essence of modern development is closely linked with conservation of natural resources by preventing environmental degradation as construction materials are increasingly judged by their ecological characteristics. Concrete, the most versatile material for construction, is playing a significant role in the growth of infrastructural and industrial segments but it has been claimed that concrete is not an environmentally-friendly material due to its destructive resource consuming nature and the possibly severe environmental impact after its use. It will, however, remain the major construction material being used worldwide. In order to study closely and in brief related studies in the field of recycling of hardened concrete or the use of recycled aggregates this literature review was carried out. Recycled aggregates are still not conventionally used in the construction industry but still a lot of work has been done on recycling of hardened concrete and continuous improvements are required to optimize this. Some of the research studies on the properties, uses, shortcomings and behavior of recycled aggregate have also been highlighted.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Lin Yong-Huang, Tyan Yaw- Yuan, Chang Ta-Peng and Chang Ching-Yun, “An Assessment of Optional Mixture For Concrete Made With Recycled Concrete Aggregates” Cement and Concrete Research, 34. 1373-1380. 2004.
 
[3]  Levy Salomon M. and Helene Paulo, “Durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: A Safe Way to Sustainable Development” Cement and Concrete Research, 34. 1975-1980.2004.
 
[4]  Xiao Jianzhuang, Li Jiabin and Zhang Ch., “Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Under Uniaxial Loading” Cement and Concrete Research, 35. 1187-1194.2005.
 
[5]  Tam Vivian W.Y., Gao, X. F. and Tam C.M., “Micro structural Analysis of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Produced from Two Stage Mixing Approach” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 35. 1195-1203.2005.
 
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[7]  Tu Tsung-Yueh, Chen Yuen-Yuen and Hwang Chao-Lung, “Properties of HPC With Recycled Aggregates” Cement and Concrete Research, 36. 943-950. 2006.
 
[8]  Rahal Khaldoum, “Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregate”, Building and Environment, 42. 407-415. 2007.
 
[9]  Almeida Numo, Branco Fernando, Brito Jorge de and Santos Roberto, “High Performance Concrete With Recycled Stone Slurry ,” Cement and Concrete Research, 37. 210-220. 2007.
 
[10]  Vivian W. Y. Tam , C. M. Tam, Y. Wang, “Optimization on Proportion for Recycled Aggregate in Concrete Using Two-stage Mixing Approach” Construction and Building Materials, 21. p.p. 1928-1939. 2007.
 
[11]  Fonteboa B.G. and Abella F.M., “Concretes With Aggregates From Demolition Waste and Silica Fume. Materials and Mechanical Properties” Building and Environment, 43. 429-437. 2008.
 
[12]  Vivian W.Y. Tam, C.M. Tam, “Diversifying Two Stage Mixing Approach (TSMA) for Recycled Aggregate Concrete: TSMAs and TSMAsc” Construction and Building Materials, 22. 2068-2077. 2008.
 
[13]  Vivian W.Y. Tam, X. F. Gao, C.M. Tam, C.H. Chan, “New Approach in Measuring Water Absorption of Recycled Aggregates” Construction and Building Materials, 22. 364-369. 2008.
 
[14]  Cachim Paulo B., “Mechanical Properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, 23. 1292-1297. 2009.
 
[15]  Yong, P.C and Teo, D.C.L, “Utilization of recycled aggregate as coarse aggregate in concrete”, UNIMAS E-Journal of civil engineering, 1. August 2009.
 
[16]  Katkhuda H., Hanayneh B. and Shatarat N., “Influence of Silica Fume on High Strength Lightweight Concrete”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 58. 2009.
 
[17]  Berndt, M.L., “Properties of Sustainable Concrete Containing Fly Ash, Slag and Recycled Concrete Aggregate” Construction and Building Materials, 23. 2606-2613. 2009.
 
[18]  Sami W. Tabsh, Akmal S. Abdelfatah “Influence of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Strength Properties of Concrete” Construction and Building Materials, 23. 1163-1167. 2009.
 
[19]  M. casuccio, M.C. Torrijos, G. Giaccio, R. Zerbino “Failure Mechanism of Recycled Aggregate Concrete” Construction and Building Materials, 22. 1500-1506. 2009.
 
[20]  Jiusu Li, Hanning Xiao, Yong Zhou, “Influence of Coating Recycled Aggregate Surface with Pozzolanic Powder on Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete” Construction and Building Materials, 23. 1287-1291. 2009.
 
[21]  Kou Shi-Cong, Poon Chi-Sun, “Properties of Concrete Prepared with Crushed Fine Stone, Furnace Bottom Ash and Fine Recycled Aggregate as Fine Aggregates” Construction and Building Materials, 23. 2877-2886. 2009.
 
[22]  A. K. Padmini, K. Ramanurthy, M. S. Mathews, “Influence of Parent Concrete on the Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete” Construction and Building Materials, 23. 829-836. 2009.
 
[23]  Cabral Antonio E.B., Schalch V., Molin Denise C.C. and Ribeiro Jose L.D., “Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, 24. 421-430. 2010.
 
[24]  Kong D., Lei T., Zheng J., Ma Chengchang Jiang J. and Jiang J., “Effect & Mechanism of Surface -Coating Pozzalanics Materials around Aggregate on Properties and ITZ Microstructure of Recycled Aggregate Concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, 24. 701-708. 2010.
 
[25]  Ahmaruzzaman M., “A Review on the Utilization of Flyash”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 36. 327-363. 2010.
 
[26]  Torkittikul P. and Chaipanich A., “Utilization of Ceramic Waste as Fine Aggregate Within Portland Cement and Fly ash Concretes”, Cement & Concrete Composites, 32. 440-449. 2010.
 
[27]  Soutsos Marios N., Tang K. and Millard S.G., “Concrete Building Blocks made With Recycled Demolition Aggregate”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol-Article in Press.2010.
 
[28]  Debieb F., Courard L., Kenai S. and Degeimbre R., “Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete using Contaminated Recycled Aggregates”, Cement & Concrete Composites, 32. 421-426. 2010.
 
[29]  Rao M.Chakradhara, Bhattacharyya S.K. and Barai S.V., “Behaviour of Recycled Aggregate Concrete under Drop Weight Impact Load”, Construction and Building Materials, 25. 69-80. 2010.
 
[30]  A. E. Sayed and Rabiee Ali Sadeek Mohamed “Recycling of Crushed Demolished Concrete in Structures” Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 4. 65-69. 2010.
 
[31]  Murali, G, Vivek, C.M., “International Journal of Engineering Research and Application”, 2(2). March-April 2012.
 
[32]  Dina M. Sadek and Mohamed M. El Attar, “Development of High-Performance Gree Concrete Using Demolition and Industrial Wastes for Sustainable Concretion” Journal of American Science, 4. 120-131. 2012.
 
[33]  Patrick L. Maier, Stephan A. Durhan, “Beneficial Use of Recycled Materials in Concrete Mixtures” Construction and Building Materials, 29. 428-437. 2012.
 
[34]  Wai Hoe Kwan, Mahyuddin Ramli, Kenn Jhun Kam, Mohd Zailan Sulieman, “Influence of the Amount of Recycled Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Design and Durability Properties”, Construction and Building Materials, 26. 565-573. 2012.
 
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Article

Comparative Elemental Analysis of Rice Husk Ash Calcined at Different Temperatures Using X-ray Flourescence (XRF) Technique

1Department of Civil Engineering University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Civil Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 23-26
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Taku J. K, Amartey Y. D, Kassar T. Comparative Elemental Analysis of Rice Husk Ash Calcined at Different Temperatures Using X-ray Flourescence (XRF) Technique. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-4.

Correspondence to: Taku  J. K, Department of Civil Engineering University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Email: kumataku@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the calcination temperature of rice husk on the pozzolanic properties of the resulting rice husk ash (RHA) especially its silica content was investigated. Rice husk was collected from a rice milling plant and washed to remove sand and other impurities, beneficiated using the water beneficiation method and calcined at temperatures of 400, 500, 600, 700and 800°C, respectively for three hours. Samples were taken for XRF analysis, setting time determination and specific gravity test. The result of XRF analysis revealed that RHA calcined at temperatures between 400°C and 800°C contains more than 70% silica as stipulated by ASTM C618 for pozzolanas. The silica content though varies slightly with different calcination temperature of the rice husk ash. Also, calcination removed impurities present in the rice husk. Besides that, the specific gravity of RHA decreases with increasing calcination temperature from 2.00 at 400°C to 1.05 at 800°C. Setting times of RHA mortars at 15% replacement of OPC with RHA shows no definite pattern with increasing temperature. However, the initial and final setting times of OPC-RHA mortars at all calcination temperatures were higher than that of OPC mortar. As a whole, calcination improves the silica content of rice husk ash for use as a pozzolana as well as removes mineral impurities that may affect the pozzolanic properties of the rice husk ash.

Keywords

References

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Article

Profitability Optimization of Construction Project Using Genetic Algorithm Cash Flow Model

1Construction Engineering &Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 12-22
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ismail M. Basha, Ahmed H. Ibrahim, Ahmed N. Abd El-Azim. Profitability Optimization of Construction Project Using Genetic Algorithm Cash Flow Model. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):12-22. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ahmed N. Abd El-Azim, Construction Engineering &Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Email: eng_ahmednagy1@yahoo.com

Abstract

Cash issues are various and complicated. The contractor starts with a forecast for the flow of the cash through the lifetime of the project. Cash shortages can lead to project failure and business bankruptcy. Researchers have studied cash flow in the context of project delay, business failure, and forecasting. However, negative cash flow trends and patterns themselves are not closely examined despite the amount, duration and distribution of negative cash flow are critical factors in construction performance. This study investigates cash flow management and profit optimization by reducing the extent and amount of negative cash flow on the construction projects and completes the project as scheduled by rescheduling construction activities based on the minimum cash flow availability. The study utilizes genetic algorithm’s technique to devise finance-based schedules that minimize project negative cash flow and profit optimization by identifying the amount and timing of individual inflow or outflow at the end of each period. The study also presents a case study project to illustrate the capability of the proposed model and adopts various constraints, including project profit and due dates, for scenario analysis. The analysis result demonstrates that minimizing negative flow ensures smooth financial pressure by properly shifting activities, and assigning due dates for projects helps planners avoid project duration extension while maximizing overall project profit.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Elazouni, M. A., and Gab-Allah A. A. 2004. Finance-based scheduling of construction project using integer programming. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130(1): 15-24.
 
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Article

Application of ZLD Automaticly Continuous Launching System in the Construction of Prestressed Concrete Composite Box-girder Bridge with Corrugated Steel Webs

1Liuzhou OVM Engineering CO., Ltd., Liuzhou, Guangxi, China


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 6-11
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dou Yong-zhi, Sun Chang-jun, Wei Fu-tang. Application of ZLD Automaticly Continuous Launching System in the Construction of Prestressed Concrete Composite Box-girder Bridge with Corrugated Steel Webs. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Dou  Yong-zhi, Liuzhou OVM Engineering CO., Ltd., Liuzhou, Guangxi, China. Email: douyongzhi2005@163.com

Abstract

The incremental launching construction method firstly is applied to the prestressed concrete composite girder bridge with corrugated steel webs and the bridge belongs to Zhengzhou Longhai Road Fast Track Project at Chang-zhuang reservoir in domestic. Under this background, ZLD automaticly continuous launching system is applied to the prestressed concrete composite girder bridge with corrugated steel webs and the construction scheme design, related construction technology and key points is introduced. Engineering practice shows that the advantage is synchronous control, automation, flexible construction, the force of incremental launching can be adjusted according to level of reaction force and deformation at the pier top. The construction efficiency, safety and reliability is improved for launching engineering, and it has a wide application prospect.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wang Wei, Zhang Jian-dong, Duan Hong-jie, Liu Duo, “Development and status of composite structure bridge with corrugated steel webs on board,” Modern transportation technology (in China), 8 (6). 31-33, 52. December. 2011.
 
[2]  Li Guang-hui, Zhang Jian-xun, “Incremental launching technique for construction of PC box-shaped girder bridge with corrugated steel web,” Construction technology (in China), 39(7). 118-120. July. 2010.
 
[3]  Wei Fu-tang, Xie Yong-hong, Wei Yong-sheng, “Application of YDCLD automatic continous launching system in incremental launching construction,” Highway (in China), (2). 29-34. February. 2001.
 
[4]  Dong Qi-jun, “Jacking construction of a continuous steel box beam,” Construction technology (in China), 34 (5). 20-22. May. 2005.
 
[5]  Ren Ming-fei, Liu Xiao-xia, “Design and construction of prestressed concrete launching continuous grider in the flat curve for Dong Hai Bridge,” Prestress technology (in China), (2). 17-21, 34. April. 2005.
 
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[6]  Li Yan-zhe, Cai Hong-zhen, “Design and innovation on the incremental launching construction method for the Taohuayu Yellow River Bridge,” Construction technology (in China), 42(11). 69-72, 91. November. 2013.
 
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Article

Effect of Aggregate Content on the Concrete Compressive Strength - Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationship

1Professor of civil engineering, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq

2Civil engineer, Hawler Construction Labs, Erbil, Iraq


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bayan S. Al-Nu’man, Bestoon R. Aziz, Sabr A. Abdulla, Sirwan E. Khaleel. Effect of Aggregate Content on the Concrete Compressive Strength - Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationship. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Bayan  S. Al-Nu’man, Professor of civil engineering, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq. Email: bayan.salim@ishik.edu.iq

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and the compressive strength of concrete. The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with varied aggregate contents from 1000 to 1400 kg/m3. The specimens were made and tested at the Hawler Construction Laboratories (HCLabs) in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The UPV measurement and compressive strength tests were carried out at the concrete age of 28 days. The experimental results show that the relationship between UPV and the compressive strength of concrete is significantly influenced by the coarse aggregate content. Relationships are established for the range of contents of coarse aggregates and discussed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Lin,Y., Kuo, S-F, Hsiao C., Lai, C-P “Investigation of Pulse Velocity- Strength Relationship of hardened Concrete” ACI Materials Journal, V. 104, No. 4, July.-Aug. 2007 , pp. 344-350.
 
[2]  Tanigawa, Y.; Baba, K.; and Mori, H., “Estimation of Concrete Strength by Combined Nondestructive Testing Method,” In-Situ/ Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, SP-82, V. M. Malhotra, ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1984, pp. 57-76.
 
[3]  Sturrup, V. R.; Vecchio, F. J.; and Caratin, H., “Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength,” In-Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, SP-82, V. M. Malhotra, ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1984, pp. 201-227.
 
[4]  Lin, Y.; Changfan, H.; and Hsiao, C., “Estimation of High- Performance Concrete Strength by Pulse Velocity,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, V. 20, No. 6, 1998, pp. 661-668.
 
[5]  Lin, Y.; Lai, C. P.; and Yen, T., “Prediction of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) in Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, V. 100, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 2003, pp. 21-28.
 
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[6]  Iraqi Specification IOS 45-1984.
 
[7]  ACI 211.1 – Reapproved 2009, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete, an ACI Standard Reported by ACI Committee 211, 38pp.
 
[8]  Tarun R. Naik, V. Mohan Malhotra and John S. Popovics, “The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method” in the Handbook of Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, Chapter 8, 2004.
 
[9]  Bayan S. Al-Nu’man, Bestoon R. Aziz, Sabr A. Abdulla, and Sirwan E. Khaleel, “Compressive Strength Formula for Concrete using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 26 Number 1- August 2015, pp. 9-13.
 
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