ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

You are here

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 4, 2016

Article

Estimation of the Yield Stress of Cement Pastes from Electrical Resistivity Measurement

1School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, China

2State Key Laboratory of Silicate, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070, Wuhan, China


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 125-132
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mbujje Joel Webster, Wei XiaoSheng, Makorogo Javilla Barugahare. Estimation of the Yield Stress of Cement Pastes from Electrical Resistivity Measurement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):125-132. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Mbujje  Joel Webster, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, China. Email: mbujje@gmail.com

Abstract

This study proposes a continuous method for predicting the yield stress development from mixing until the final setting point. Samples prepared with water to cement ratios (w/c) of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4 are tested using a vane in cup rheometer, a Vicat needle and a non contact electrical resistivity machine (NC-ERM). Times corresponding to the initial yield stress (ta), a dramatic increase in the yield stress (tb), a maximum torque reading on the rheometer (tc), an initial setting (td) and a final setting (te) on the yield stress-time (τ(t)-t) curve are correlated with the time at a point of inflexion (tP) on the bulk resistivity-time (ρ(t)-t) curve. A quantitative relationship developed between the yield stress and electrical resistivity shows a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords

References

[1]  Banfill, P., Rheology of fresh cement and concrete. Rheology reviews, 2006. 2006: p. 61.
 
[2]  Roussel, N., C. Stefani, and R. Leroy, From mini-cone test to Abrams cone test: measurement of cement-based materials yield stress using slump tests. Cement and Concrete Research, 2005. 35(5): p. 817-822. 11.
 
[3]  Bahurudeen, A., et al., Development of sugarcane bagasse ash based Portland pozzolana cement and evaluation of compatibility with superplasticizers. Construction and Building Materials, 2014. 68: p. 465-475.
 
[4]  Baldino, N., et al., Rheological behaviour of fresh cement pastes: Influence of synthetic zeolites, limestone and silica fume. Cement and Concrete Research, 2014. 63: p. 38-45.
 
[5]  Bouvet, A., E. Ghorbel, and R. Bennacer, The mini-conical slump flow test: Analysis and numerical study. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(10): p. 1517-1523.
 
Show More References
[6]  Benaicha, M., et al., Marsh cone coupled to a plexiglas horizontal channel: Rheological characterization of cement grout. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 2015. 45: p. 234 126-134.
 
[7]  Guria, C., R. Kumar, and P. Mishra, Rheological analysis of drilling fluid using Marsh Funnel. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2013. 105: p. 62-69.
 
[8]  Hallal, A., et al., Combined effect of mineral admixtures with superplasticizers on the fluidity of the blended cement paste. Construction and Building Materials, 2010. 24(8): p. 1418-1423.
 
[9]  Jimma, B.E. and P.R. Rangaraju, Film-forming ability of flowable cement pastes and its application in mixture proportioning of pervious concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 2014. 71: p. 273-282.
 
[10]  Ferraris, C.F., K.H. Obla, and R. Hill, The influence of mineral admixtures on the rheology of cement paste and concrete. Cement and concrete research, 2001. 31(2): p. 245 245-255.
 
[11]  Williams, D.A., A.W. Saak, and H.M. Jennings, The influence of mixing on the rheology of fresh cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research, 1999. 29(9): p. 1491-1496.
 
[12]  Cardoso, F.A., et al., Parallel-plate rotational rheometry of cement paste: Influence of the squeeze velocity during gap positioning. Cement and Concrete Research, 2015. 75: p. 250 66-74.
 
[13]  Lootens, D., et al., Yield stress during setting of cement pastes from penetration tests. Cement and Concrete Research, 2009. 39(5): p. 401-408.
 
[14]  Sleiman, H., A. Perrot, and S. Amziane, A new look at the measurement of cementitious paste setting by Vicat test. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(5): p. 681-686.
 
[15]  Sonebi, M., M. Lachemi, and K.M.A. Hossain, Optimisation of rheological parameters and mechanical properties of superplasticised cement grouts containing metakaolin and viscosity modifying admixture. Construction and Building Materials, 2013. 38: p. 126-138.
 
[16]  Liao, Y. and X. Wei, Penetration resistance and electrical resistivity of cement paste with superplasticizer. Materials and structures, 2014. 47(4): p. 563-570.
 
[17]  Ferraris, C.F., Measurement of the rheological properties of high performance concrete: state of the art report. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH-NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, 1999. 104(5): p. 461-478.
 
[18]  Amziane, S., Setting time determination of cementitious materials based on measurements of the hydraulic pressure variations. Cement and Concrete Research, 2006. 36(2): p. 295-304.
 
[19]  Li, Z. and W. Li, Contactless, transformer-based measurement of the resistivity of materials. 2003, Google Patents.
 
[20]  Liu, Z., et al., An analytical model for determining the relative electrical resistivity of cement paste and C–S–H gel. Construction and Building Materials, 2013. 48: p. 647-655.
 
[21]  Wei, X., L. Xiao, and Z. Li, Prediction of standard compressive strength of cement by the electrical resistivity measurement. Construction and Building Materials, 2012. 31: p. 341-272 346.
 
[22]  Xiao, L. and Z. Li, Early-age hydration of fresh concrete monitored by non-contact electrical resistivity measurement. Cement and Concrete Research, 2008. 38(3): p. 312-319.
 
[23]  Struble, L.J. and W.-G. Lei, Rheological changes associated with setting of cement paste. Advanced Cement Based Materials, 1995. 2(6): p. 224-230.
 
[24]  Bîrlea, N.-M.C. and E.N. Culea. Electrical methods for testing building and construction materials. in First International Conference for PhD students in Civil Engineering, CE-280 PhD. 2012.
 
[25]  Villagrán Zaccardi, Y., et al., Influence of temperature and humidity on Portland cement mortar resistivity monitored with inner sensors. Materials and corrosion, 2009. 60(4): p. 283 294-299.
 
[26]  Li, Z., X. Wei, and W. Li, Preliminary interpretation of Portland cement hydration process using resistivity measurements. ACI Materials Journal, 2003. 100 (3).
 
[27]  Amziane, S. and C.F. Ferraris, Cementitious paste setting using rheological and pressure measurements. ACI materials journal, 2007. 104 (2).
 
[28]  Brookfield. [cited 2015 10-September]; Available from: http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/download/files/RSBro.pdf.
 
[29]  Bentz, D.P. and C.F. Ferraris, Rheology and setting of high volume fly ash mixtures Cement and Concrete Composites, 2010. 32(4): p. 265-270.
 
[30]  Sant, G., C.F. Ferraris, and J. Weiss, Rheological properties of cement pastes: a discussion of structure formation and mechanical property development. Cement and concrete Research, 2008. 38(11): p. 1286-1296.
 
[31]  Roussel, N., et al., Steady state flow of cement suspensions: A micromechanical state of the art. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010. 40(1): p. 77-84.
 
[32]  Roussel, N. and F. Cussigh, Distinct-layer casting of SCC: The mechanical consequences of thixotropy. Cement and Concrete Research, 2008. 38 (5): p. 624-632.
 
[33]  Xiao, L. and Z. Li, New understanding of cement hydration mechanism through electrical resistivity measurement and microstructure investigations. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 2009. 21(8): p. 368-373.
 
[34]  Li, Z., Advanced concrete technology. 2011: John Wiley & Sons.
 
[35]  Saak, A.W., Characterization and modeling of the rheology of cement paste: With applications toward self-flowing materials. 2000.
 
[36]  Bui, D., J. Hu, and P. Stroeven, Particle size effect on the strength of rice husk ash blended gap-graded Portland cement concrete. Cement and concrete composites, 2005. 27(3): p. 357-366.
 
Show Less References

Article

Durability and Fire Resistance of Laterite Rock Concrete

1Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Civil Engineering, Auchi Polythechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 117-124
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ephraim M. E., Adoga E.A., Rowland-Lato E. O.. Durability and Fire Resistance of Laterite Rock Concrete. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):117-124. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: Rowland-Lato  E. O., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email: rowlandlato@yahoo.com

Abstract

The ability of a structure to retain its structural integrity in adverse conditions of weather and fire out break depends on its durability and fire resistance. This research work investigated these indispensable properties in Laterite Rock Concrete to assess its usability structural concrete. Durability was investigated in terms of water absorption, density, shrinkage and fire resistance. Fire resistance test was carried out using direct fire test. Two mix proportions: 1:2:4 and 1:1½:3 were tested at optimum water/cement ratio of 0.6 and 0.55 for 1:2:4 and 1:1½:3 mixes respectively. From the results, it is concluded that the concrete is durable, environmentally compatible and possesses high fire resistance properties, having satisfied the relevant codes requirements. The 1:2:4 and 1:1½:3 conform to the specifications for grades 15 and 20 correspondingly. Recommendations include specifications for designing structural elements using the Laterite Rock Concrete.

Keywords

References

[1]  Akpokpodje, E.G; Hudec P. (1992) Properties of concretionary Laterite gravel concrete. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology. No. 46 Paris 1992 Pp. 45-50.
 
[2]  American Concrete Institute (1994) Cement Terminology Manual of Concrete Practice Part 1: Materials and general properties of concrete pp. 68, AC1116R-90 (Detroit Michigan, 1994).
 
[3]  American Concrete Institute (1994): Prediction of Creep Shrinkage, and Temperature effects in concrete structures. ACI manual of Concrete practice Part 1: materials and General Properties 47pp. ACI 209R-92 (Detroit Michigan 1994).
 
[4]  American Society for Testing and Materials (1993) Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates. ASTMC 125-93.
 
[5]  British Standard Institution (1993a) Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete, London, BS 882:1992.
 
Show More References
[6]  British Standard Institution (1992) Guide to Durability of Buildings and Building Elements, Products and Components BS7543:1992 BSI London, England.
 
[7]  British Standard Institution (1997) Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Concrete BS8110 London England 1997.
 
[8]  British Standards Institution (2001) Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity of Concrete BSEN 2006 Feb 2001: English version of the Eurocode.
 
[9]  British Standard Institution (2001) Test for Fresh Concrete BSEN12350 Part 2 2001 English version of Euro code.
 
[10]  Brooks, J.J. (1989): Influence of Mix proportions, Platicizers and Super plasticizers on Creep and drying Shrinkage of Concrete Magazine of Concrete Research 41 No. 148, pp. 145-154 (1989).
 
[11]  Castillo C. and Duranni A.J. (1990): Effect of Transient High temperature on High-Strength Concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 87, No. 1pp. 47-53 (1990).
 
[12]  CEN (2002) EN 13501–1.Fire classification of construction products and building elements – Part 1: Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests. CEN, Brussels, Belgium.
 
[13]  David N. Bilow, Mahmoud E. Kamara Fire and Concrete Structures 2008 ASCE Structures 2008: Crossing Borders.
 
[14]  Ephraim M. E., Adoga E.A., and Rowland-Lato E. O., “Strength of Laterite Rock Concrete.” American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, vol. 4, no. 2 (2016): 54-61.
 
[15]  Franklin J. A. and Chandra R. (1992): The Slake Durability Test, International Journal of Rock Mechanic. Min. Sci. Vol. 9, pp. 325-341 Pergamon Press – London.
 
[16]  Glanville, I. and Neville A (Education) (1997) Prediction of Concrete Durability: proceedings of States 21st Anniversary Conference. The Geological Society, London, 16 Nov. 1995, EFN Spon London, England.
 
[17]  Hohberg, T. Miller C.H.,Schiessl P. (1996)Environmental Compatibility of Cement Based Materials: Summary of state-of-the art report of the German Committee for Reinforced Concrete (Daf 5th) in Beton pp. 156-160.
 
[18]  Ilangovana, R., Mahendrana, N. & Nagamanib K. (2010). Strength and durability of concrete containing quarry dust as fine aggregate. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3, 5, 1819-1828.
 
[19]  INTEMAC (2005). Fire in the Windsor Building, Madrid. Survey of the fire resistance and residual bearing capacity of the structure after fire, Notas de nformación Técnica (NIT), NIT-2 (05), (Spanish and English). Intemac (Instituto Técnico de Materiales y Construcciones), Madrid, Spain. 35 pp.
 
[20]  Khoury G. (2000). Effect of fire on concrete and concrete structures, Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, Vol. 2, pp. 429-447.
 
[21]  Lennon T (2004). Fire safety of concrete structures: background to BS 8110 fire design, Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, UK. 41 pp.
 
[22]  Madu R. M. (1980) The Performance of Laterite Stones as Concrete Aggregates and Road Chipping. Materials and Structures Vol. 13 Number .
 
[23]  Neville A.M. (1996) Properties of Concrete 4th edition ELBS Longman London.
 
[24]  Raju Krishna N. Ramakrishna R. (2006) Properties of Laterite Aggregate concrete Materials and Structures. Vol. 5 available online Aug. 11-2006.
 
[25]  Samra R. M. (1995) New Analysis for Creep Behavior in Concrete Columns American Journal of Structural Vol. 121 No. 3, pp. 399-406, (March 1995).
 
[26]  Sjostrum et al (1996): Durability of Building Materials and Components, Prediction, Degradation and Materials, Proceedings of the seventh international conference on Durability of Building materials and Components. 7 DBMC held in Stockholm, Sweden 18-23 May 1996, Vol. 1 may 1996 E&FN spon, London, England.
 
[27]  Snowdowm C. and Edwards, A. G. (1962): The Moisture Movement of Natural Aggregates and its Effects on Concrete. Magazine of concrete Research; 14 No. 41.
 
[28]  Udoeyo, Felix, F. Udeme H. Iron and Obasi Odim (2006) Strength performance of laterized concrete. Construction and building materials Vol. 20, issue 10 Dec. 2006 pp. 1057-1062.
 
Show Less References

Article

Assessment of Turbo and Multilane Roundabout Alternatives to Improve Capacity and Delay at a Single Lane Roundabout Using Microsimulation Model Vissim: A Case Study in Ghana

1Graduate student Civil Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Civil Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(4), 106-116
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Osei Kwame Kwakwa, Charles Anum Adams. Assessment of Turbo and Multilane Roundabout Alternatives to Improve Capacity and Delay at a Single Lane Roundabout Using Microsimulation Model Vissim: A Case Study in Ghana. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(4):106-116. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Charles  Anum Adams, Civil Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: carladams1702@yahoo.com

Abstract

A single lane roundabout characterized by long queues during morning and evening peak periods was chosen as our study site. The objective of this study was to 1) Model and calibrate the vissim simulation model for the roundabout and 2) to model roundabout alternatives to improve capacity and assess the delay. A two hour video data collection was undertaken on a typical morning peak from which the traffic demand and turning movement data were extracted. The vissim micro simulation model was calibrated using the west approach as the target and the analysis was done for the existing single lane roundabout. A Turbo roundabout and a conventional double lane roundabout alternatives were also assessed. The capacity of the single lane roundabout was estimated as 2990 pcu/h and was performing at an ICU level of service H. Average Delay on the west approach was 232 seconds. The intersection capacity was 4392 pcu/h when the turbo roundabout alternative was assessed. Westbound vehicles experienced average delay of 87 seconds (inner lane) and 74 seconds (outer lane). The capacity of the conventional double lane roundabout was estimated to be 3690 pcu/h. The turbo roundabout concept will deliver a comparatively higher capacity and could be the most effective alternative to reduce congestion and delay.

Keywords

References

[1]  Hoek, R. M. (2013). Signalized Turbo Roundabouts. A Study into the Applicability of Traffic Signals on Turbo Roundabouts. http://www.google.com.gh/url?q=http://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:02336af2-6a7c-4600-b8d4- ec410eceabac/MasterThesis_RogierHoek.pdf&sa=U&ved=0CAsQFjAAahUKEwiN7MnPiNPIAhUK 2xoKHfIGCOI&usg=AFQjCNH3zRL4Fmoe2FXseNXV9-ShraUT3Q, accessed on 01/01/2015.
 
[2]  Fortuijn, L. G. H. (2009a): Turbo Roundabouts: Design Principles and Safety Performance. Transportation Research Record, 2096.
 
[3]  Transportation Research Board: Highway Capacity Manual, 2000.
 
[4]  Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation, and Washington, D.C.: Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. FHWA-RD-00-067, 2000
 
[5]  Silva, A. B., Santos, S. and Gaspar, M. (2013). Turbo-roundabout use and design. CITTA 6th Annual Conference on Planning Research RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY.
 
Show More References
[6]  DHV Group and Royal Haskoning (2009). Roundabouts - Application and design, a practical manual. Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management.
 
[7]  Forrest, P. L. and Kendal, G. R. (2014). Design and Implementation of the R102 – Zululand University Turbo Roundabout in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.
 
[8]  Vasconcelos, A. L. P., A. Bastos Silva, and Á. J. M. Seco (2012) Capacity of normal and turbo roundabout: comparative analysis 2012.
 
[9]  Giuffrè, O., Guerrieri, M. and Granà, A. (2012). Conversion of Existing Roundabouts into Turbo-Roundabouts: Case Studies from Real World. Aug. 2012, Volume 6, No. 8 (Serial No. 57), pp. 953–962 Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA.
 
[10]  Campbell, D., Jurisich, I. and Dunn, R. (2012). Improved multi-lane roundabout designs for urban areas. NZ Transport Agency research report 476. 284pp.
 
[11]  Yperman, I. and Immers, L. H. (2003). Capacity of a turbo-roundabout determined by micro-simulation .Presented at 10th World Congress on ITS, Madrid, Spain.
 
[12]  Akcelik, R. (2005). Roundabout model calibration issues and a case study.TRB National Roundabout conference, vail, Colorado, USA.
 
[13]  Hummer, J. E. (2004). Handbook of Transportation Engineering. The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2004.
 
[14]  Bulla, L. A. and Castro, W. (2011). Analysis and Comparison between Two-Lane Roundabouts and Turbo Roundabouts Based on a Road Safety Audit Methodology and Micro- simulation: A Case Study in Urban Area, 2011.
 
[15]  Mauro, R. and Branco, F. (2010). Comparative Analysis of Compact Multilane Roundabouts and Turbo Roundabouts. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 4, 2010.
 
[16]  Rodegerdts L., Blogg M., Wemple E., Myers E., Kyte M., Dixon M., Carter D. (2007). Roundabouts in the United States. Washington, D.C., USA: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, NCHRP Report 572, 2007.
 
[17]  Engelsman, J. C., and M. Uken (2007). Turbo roundabouts as an alternative to two lane roundabouts. Presented at 26th Annual Southern African Transport Conference, South Africa.
 
[18]  Fortuijn, L. G. H. (2009b): Turbo roundabouts. Estimation of capacity. Transportation Research Record, 2130.
 
[19]  FHWA (2007). Traffic Analysis Toolbox Volume IV: Guidelines for Applying CORSIM Microsimulation Modeling Software. PUBLICATION NO. FHWA-HOP-07-079 JANUARY 2007.
 
[20]  GHA,(1991) Road Design Guide, Ghana Highway Authority, Ministry of Roads and Highways.
 
[21]  Adams, C.A., and Obiri-Yeboah, A., (2008). Saturation flows and passenger car equivalent values at signalized intersections on urban arterial roads in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Proceedings of the International Conference on the best practices to Relieve Congestion on Mixed-Traffic Urban Streets in Developing Countries, IIT Madras, Chennai, India. September 2008.pp 13-19.
 
[22]  Planung Transport Verkehr AG (2011). VISSIM 5.30-05 User Manual.
 
Show Less References