ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 6, 2016


Effects of Faulty Design Phase on School Buildings Maintenance in Gaza Strip

1Civil Engineering Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

2Buildings Technology Engineering Department, University College of Applied Sciences, Gaza, Palestine

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 199-210
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B.A. Tayeh, Khalid Al Hallaq, Fathi A. Sabha. Effects of Faulty Design Phase on School Buildings Maintenance in Gaza Strip. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):199-210. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: B.A.  Tayeh, Civil Engineering Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine. Email:


The aim of this paper is to identify and rank the design phase faults/errors affecting on the maintenance of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)'s school’s buildings in Gaza Strip, and to propose recommendations for minimizing the future maintenance problem related to the school buildings at Gaza Strip. A survey was conducted to collect the required data were adopted in this study. This study reveals the important factors that leading to defects in the design stage which includes: lack of workshops to discuss construction problems between project parts, Inadequate QA/QC programs during design stage, Lack of auditing and archiving of approved as-built drawing documents electronically after the completion the project. The study recommends several actions to improve maintenance performance of UNRWA's schools in Gaza Strip. The designer must take into account maintenance considerations during the design and supervision stages by choosing of durable materials. The UNRWA should conduct workshops or training courses for designers, supervisor, and maintenance engineers.



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Quantification of Benefits of Steel Fiber Reinforcement for Rigid Pavement

1Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 189-198
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. A. Kamel. Quantification of Benefits of Steel Fiber Reinforcement for Rigid Pavement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):189-198. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: M.  A. Kamel, Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Email:


In the present study, strength parameters of steel fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC) were investigated. Their load carrying capacity and deflection characteristics were also evaluated and compared with those of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC). Three different concrete mixes were chosen. One is of PCC and two mixes are of SFRC with fibers content of 4% and 8% of cement weight. Tests on fresh concrete were conducted like, slump test, compaction factor test and Ve. Be. Test. Other tests were conducted on hardened concrete like, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, indirect tensile strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity. Results leaded to design a SFRC mix with 8% steel fiber content for further tests. Moreover, plate load tests were conducted on pavement model slabs of PCC and SFRC casted and arranged over a prepared subgrade sandy soil in a model tank. Results revealed that the first crack load carrying capacity of SFRC slabs has enhanced by 19%, 15% and 7% for corner, edge and center loading respectively. Also, the failure load has increased for SFRC than for PCC in such a way that it has become 1.13, 1.08 1nd 1.05 for corner, edge and center loadings of the pavement model slabs. Similarly, deflections corresponding to first crack load were also increased for SFRC. A concept was adopted to quantify the benefits of adding steel fibers to PCC in terms of extension of the pavement service life and also in terms of reduction in the concrete thickness for the same service life of both reinforced and unreinforced concrete pavement sections.



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