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American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCEA

Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)

Article

Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3Geostrat International Services Limited, No.14 Mannila Pepple Street, D-Line, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.O Nwankwoala, A.N. Amadi, T. Warmate, M. O. Jimoh. Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: A.N.  Amadi, Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

This study evaluates the sub-soil geotechnical characteristics at the onshore pipeline route at Escravos estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Acquisition of soil samples for geotechnical studies was done by conventional boring method using light shell and auger hand rig. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory using standard analytical procedures. The samples explored showed a profile of very soft greenish dark grey and reddish brown clay formation. All samples observed confirmed this lithostratigraphy except for some of the grab samples. The entire formation generally, presents a low amount of organic content, low shear strength and high carbonate content. The unit weight showed an increase with high carbonate content. The samples gave a high amount of moisture content, higher than the liquid limit which indicates that on loading the pipeline route, the weight of the pipeline will dissipate a large amount of the pore water with a resultant increase in settlement. The pipeline should be placed on slippers pad at designated locations on the seabed along the survey route to avoid excessive settlement. This would distribute the anticipated pressure from the pipeline over a greater area and thus reduce the excessive settlement which is the characteristics of the very soft marine clay encountered in this investigation. The dimensions and bearing capacity of such slippers pads can easily be determined.

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References

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Article

A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia. Email: mkaddory@yahoo.com

Abstract

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design offers a means of certifying buildings that ensure environmental sustainability. Among the key areas evaluated for the certification is the energy efficiency of the design. Most of the studies selected showed that LEED certified buildings registered energy efficiency benefits. However, a few articles challenged these findings, citing that some LEED certified buildings did not show improvement in energy efficiency compared to non-LEED certified buildings. The disparity in study findings relates to the research design of the documents studied, the design-orientation of the LEED system, differences in occupancy numbers and building energy uses and the disparity in construction periods for the buildings under study.

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