ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajcea

Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal

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Currrent Issue: Volume 5, Number 2, 2017

Article

Sustainable Construction – Use of Blended Cements in High-Performance Concrete Pavements

1Ex Faculty/ Head of Civil Engineering Department, NUST, Risalpur, Pakistan

2Presently Senior Consulting Engineer, Black & Veatch, Toronto, Canada

3MSc Structural Engineering, City University, London, UK


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(2), 47-50
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T. Kibriya, L. Tahir. Sustainable Construction – Use of Blended Cements in High-Performance Concrete Pavements. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017; 5(2):47-50. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-3.

Correspondence to: T.  Kibriya, Ex Faculty/ Head of Civil Engineering Department, NUST, Risalpur, Pakistan. Email: t_kibriya@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study aimed at evaluating the properties of high performance concrete pavements made from blended cements using agricultural wastes i.e. rice husk ash, Portland cement, natural aggregates and sand. Large quantities of agricultural wastes like rice husk are generated from rice processing units worldwide. Rice husk ash blended with Portland cement has proved to improve cement strength as well as durability however its use in high performance concrete pavements has not been investigated to-date. Keeping in view the typical problems of pavements mainly due to dynamic loading, larger exposed surfaces, use of deicing chemicals, effects of groundwater containing sulphates etc, wide ranging investigations covering most aspects of mechanical behavior, permeability and durability aspects including sulphate and chloride resistance and shrinkage were carried out for various mixes for compressive strengths of 60N/mm2 and 80N/mm2. Compressive strengths of concrete specimen with blended cements were observed to be higher by about 5 to 10% than the control specimen, higher values for concrete with 75% Portland cement blended with 25% rice husk ash whilst lower values correspond to concrete with 50% Portland cement blended with 50% rice husk ash. Similarly, higher flexural strength, improved moduli of elasticity, higher density, lower permeability, improved sulphate and chloride resistance and reduced shrinkage were observed. Better strengths and improved durability of such pavement concretes is likely to make it a more acceptable material for major road construction projects.

Keywords

References

[1]  Damer S.A., Rice husk ash as a pozzolanic material, M. Eng. Thesis No.953, AIT, Bangkok, 1976.
 
[2]  Raja Muhammad P.M., The planning and development of rice husk cement projects, ESCAP/RCTT Follow-up workshop on rice husk cement, Alor Star, Malaysia, October, 1977.
 
[3]  Loo, Y.C., Nimityongskul, P., Karasudhi, P., Economical Rice Husk Ash Concrete, CIB Journal, August, 1984.
 
[4]  Kibriya, T., The Properties of Concrete with Crushed Brick Coarse Aggregates, Dissertation submitted for fulfilling requirement of Ph.D., City University, London, U.K., 1991.
 
[5]  Kibriya, T. and Speare, P.R.S., The use of crushed brick coarse aggregates in concrete, International Congress on “Concrete in the Service of Mankind” 24 – 28 June, 1996, Dundee, Scotland.
 
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[6]  Kibriya, T., Durability of concrete with crushed bricks coarse aggregates, 8th Islamic Countries Conference on Statistical Sciences, December 21 to 24, 2002, University of Bahrain, Bahrain.
 
[7]  Teychenne, D.C, Franklin, R.E. and Erntroy, H.C., Design of normal concrete mixes, (Replacement to Road Note.4), Department of Environment - Transport and Road Research Laboratory, London, 1988(Revised).
 
[8]  Nawy, Edward. G., Fundamentals of High Strength High Performance Concrete, Longman, 1996.
 
[9]  ACI Compilation # 32, High Performance Concrete.
 
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Article

Response of Domestic Damascene Architectural Elements to the Climatic Factors between the Traditional and Modern Times

1Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(2), 40-46
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hiba. A. Alhawasli, Zeinab B. Farhat. Response of Domestic Damascene Architectural Elements to the Climatic Factors between the Traditional and Modern Times. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017; 5(2):40-46. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-2.

Correspondence to: Hiba.  A. Alhawasli, Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email: alhawaslih@gmail.com

Abstract

The climatic factors (temperature, humidity, earth geology, wind speed and direction, solar radiance) are considered one of the most important effects on any site prepared for construction. Thus, these factors are studied before suggesting any schematic regulations and plans for its influence on the building form, allocation, materials options, and suitable green cover, and the functional distribution between parts. This study is trying to analyze the effects of climatic and regional factors on the design elements of the domestic architecture of Damascus. We are going to select different cases of traditional houses that evolved and transformed through several transitions of history. Then we will analyze these transformations and the extent of the response and maintenance of respecting climatic conditions. Research method is descriptive and interpretative. For literature review the descriptive method is used and analyzing of cases is done by interpretative method. Samples are selected from saurian traditional and modern hoses. Building materials, shape of spaces and opening are studied variables in this study. Comparative method is used for comparison of mentioned variables in related to climate factors. The result of study shows that the traditional house in Damascus is considered a reflection of serious attempts in the environmental design which is compatible with regional climate. New buildings completely ignored climate closed central space, called (the sofa) replaced the interior courtyard within the traditional dwelling, with a deficit of this space to insuring sufficient light and air inside the building. Also it relied on those structural materials of medium or high energy content, such as cement, glass and aluminum, which are widely used today in constructing modern residential buildings, despite the lack of suitability of climate in the region. This was accompanied by the excessive use of heaters and air-conditioners to achieve the thermal comfort inside the building, without considering the amount of energy consumed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Qusaybati, Nada, Impact of the Environment Built on Environmental and Urban, 2013.
 
[2]  Balance (Case Study: Damascus), El-Tawassol Revue, 63(14).
 
[3]  Jawhar, Jamal & Ahmad Y. Shawali, the Appropriate Design Limits for Guiding Energy Consumption in Domestic Building, 2011, University of Al-Baeth Magazine. 33(11). 27.
 
[4]  Kamal M. A., 'Learning from the Past: Climatic Appropriateness in Traditional Domestic Architecture of Lucknow in summer', Heritage 2011, International Conference on Conservation of Architecture, Urban Areas, Nature & Landscape, 13-15 March, Amman.
 
[5]  Kamal M. A., 'The Study of Thermal Mass as a Passive Design Technique for Building Comfort and Energy Efficiency', 2011, Journal of Civil Engineering & Architecture, U.S.A., 5(1). 84-88.
 
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[6]  Meda Corpus Program, Middle East Cultural Architecture - Urban House with Courtyard , 2004, European Union: Syria
 
[7]  Mikhael, Salwa, Arab Architects Peculiarity and Role in Solving Domestic Architecture Problems, 2004, Damascus University Magazine for Engineering Sciences. 20(2), 28.
 
[8]  Shinyara, Paul, (Not Published), Studies in the Environment and its Impact on Architecture and Urbanism.
 
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Article

Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns

1Ex Faculty/ Head of Civil Engineering Department, NUST, Risalpur, Pakistan

2Presently Senior Consulting Engineer, Black & Veatch, Toronto, Canada


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(2), 35-39
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T. Kibriya. Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017; 5(2):35-39. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-2-1.

Correspondence to: T.  Kibriya, Ex Faculty/ Head of Civil Engineering Department, NUST, Risalpur, Pakistan. Email: t_kibriya@yahoo.com

Abstract

Recent advancements in the availability of higher strength steels, better coating materials for protection and high strengths/performance concretes have expanded the scope of concrete filled steel composite columns with wide ranging applications in various structural systems with ease of construction, highly increased strengths and better performance. This experimental study is carried out on the behavior of short, concrete filled steel tubular columns axially loaded in compression to failure. Three dimensional confinement effect of concrete along with support provided by concrete to the thin walls of steel tube to prevent local buckling had a composite effect on the strength of the composite column increasing the compressive strengths by almost 300 to 400%. In addition to the concrete core, the parameters for the testing were shape of the steel tube and its diameter-to-thickness ratio. It has been observed that ultimate strength of concrete filled steel tubes under concentric compression behavior is considerably affected by the thickness of the steel tube, as well as by the shape of its cross section. Confining effect in circular CFST columns improves their strength, appreciably. The axial load-deformation behavior of columns is remarkably affected by the cross-sectional shape, diameter/width-to-thickness ratio of the steel tube, and the strength of the filled concrete. The load deformation relationship for circular columns showed strain-hardening or elastic perfectly plastic behavior after yielding.

Keywords

References

[1]  Georgios Giakoumelis and Dennis Lam “Axial capacity of circular concrete-filled tube columns, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 60 (2004) 1049-1068.
 
[2]  Lin Hai Han, Zhong Tao and Wei Liu in “Effects of Sustained Load on Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Steel Columns” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, September 2004).
 
[3]  C.S. Huang, Y.K. Yeh, G.Y. Liu, H.T. Hu, K.C. Tsai, Y.T.Weng, S.H. Wang and M.H.Wu “Axial load behavior of stiffened concrete-filled steel columns, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, September 2002.
 
[4]  Martin D. O’ Shea, “Design of Circular Thin-Walled Concrete Filled Steel Tubes”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, November 2000.
 
[5]  Kenji Sakino, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Shosuke Morino and Isao Nishiyama, “Behavior of Centrally Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Short Columns”. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, February 2004.
 
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[6]  Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures.
 
[7]  LRFD Manual of Steel Construction third edition 2001.
 
[8]  Mathias Johansson and Kent Gylltofl “Mechanical behavior of circular steel-concrete composite stub columns” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, August 2002.
 
[9]  Lin-Hai Han and You-Fu Yang “Cyclic performance of concrete-filled steel CHS columns under flexural loading” Journal of Constructional Steel Research 61 (2005) 423-452.
 
[10]  Kibriya, T. & Baig, N. “Performance of composite concrete columns with steel casing” Proceedings of IV Regional Conference on Civil Engineering Technology, ASCE/ESIE 7-9 June, 2005, Cairo, Egypt.
 
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