You are here:

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)


Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3Geostrat International Services Limited, No.14 Mannila Pepple Street, D-Line, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.O Nwankwoala, A.N. Amadi, T. Warmate, M. O. Jimoh. Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: A.N.  Amadi, Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email:


This study evaluates the sub-soil geotechnical characteristics at the onshore pipeline route at Escravos estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Acquisition of soil samples for geotechnical studies was done by conventional boring method using light shell and auger hand rig. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory using standard analytical procedures. The samples explored showed a profile of very soft greenish dark grey and reddish brown clay formation. All samples observed confirmed this lithostratigraphy except for some of the grab samples. The entire formation generally, presents a low amount of organic content, low shear strength and high carbonate content. The unit weight showed an increase with high carbonate content. The samples gave a high amount of moisture content, higher than the liquid limit which indicates that on loading the pipeline route, the weight of the pipeline will dissipate a large amount of the pore water with a resultant increase in settlement. The pipeline should be placed on slippers pad at designated locations on the seabed along the survey route to avoid excessive settlement. This would distribute the anticipated pressure from the pipeline over a greater area and thus reduce the excessive settlement which is the characteristics of the very soft marine clay encountered in this investigation. The dimensions and bearing capacity of such slippers pads can easily be determined.



[1]  Abam T. K. S. (1999). Dynamics and quality of water resources in the Niger Delta. Proceedings of IUGG 99 Symposium HSS Birmingham) IAHS Publ. No. 259, pp. 429-437.
[2]  Allen, J. R. L. (1965). Late Quatenary Niger Delta and adjacent areas: sedimentary environment and lithofacies. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 49, pp. 549-600.
[3]  Amajor, L. C. and Ofoegbu C. O. (1988). Determination of polluted aquifers by stratigraphically controlled biochemical mapping; Example from the Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Groundwater and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, pp. 62-73.
[4]  Dun,T.S, Anderson L.R. and Keifer (1980). Fundamental of Geotechnical Analysis – John Wiley Publisher, 414 pages.
[5]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O (1981). Preliminary hydrogeochemical investigation of subsurface waters in parts of the Niger Delta. Jour. Min. Geol. 18(1):103-105
Show More References
6]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Akpokodje, E.G (1990). Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Mining Geology, 26(2):279-284.
7]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Odigi, M.I (1983). Water supply problems in the Eastern Niger Delta. Jour. Min. Geol. 26(2):279-279.
8]  Haddou, M.B; Essahlaoui, A; Boujlal, M; Elouali, A; and Hmaidi, A (2013). Study of the geotechnical parameters of the different soils by correlation analysis and statistics in the Kenitra Region of Morocco. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3(2): 51-60.
9]  Niger Delta Environmental Survey (1999) Physical Environment Report on the Hydrology of the Niger Delta.
10]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Oborie, E (2014). Geotechnical Investigation and Characterization of Sub-soils in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(7):75-83.
11]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Warmate, T (2014). Subsurface Soil Characterization of a Site for Infrastructural Development Purposes in D/Line, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(6): 139-148.
12]  Nwankwoala, H.O; Amadi, A.N; Ushie, F.A & Warmate, T (2014). Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 2(4): 130-135.
13]  Osakuni M.U and Abam T.K.S: (2004) Shallow resisitivity measurement for cathodic protection of pipelines in the Nigeri Delta. Environmental Geology Vol. 45. No.6 747-752.
14]  Peck, R.B; Hanson W.E and Thornburn T.H (1973) Foundation Engineering 2nd Edition John Wiley and Sons 514pp.
15]  Short, K. C. and Stauble, A. J. (1967).Outline of Geology of the Niger Delta. American Association of Geologists, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 761-779.
16]  Tomlinson M. J (1999) Foundation Design and Construction 6th Edition, Longman, 536.
Show Less References


A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia. Email:


The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design offers a means of certifying buildings that ensure environmental sustainability. Among the key areas evaluated for the certification is the energy efficiency of the design. Most of the studies selected showed that LEED certified buildings registered energy efficiency benefits. However, a few articles challenged these findings, citing that some LEED certified buildings did not show improvement in energy efficiency compared to non-LEED certified buildings. The disparity in study findings relates to the research design of the documents studied, the design-orientation of the LEED system, differences in occupancy numbers and building energy uses and the disparity in construction periods for the buildings under study.



[1]  Purdey, S. (2012). The Normative Root of the Climate Change Problem. Ethics and the Environment, 17 (2), pp. 75-96.
[2]  Brundtland, G. (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. United Nations General Assembly document A/42/427.
[3]  Zou, W. & Couani, P. (2012). Managing Risks in Green Building Supply Chain. Architectural engineering and Design Management, 8, pp. 143-158.
[4]  USGBC (2013). LEEDS. Retrieved 21June 2013 from
[5]  Melinda, T. (2010). The Question of LEED: Why the Country’s Leading Green Building Certification may be Inherently Flawed. The Envirnomental Magazine, 21 (6), pp. 15-19.
Show More References
6]  Nadine, M. (2009). Building Rating System Requirement Raises Concerns. Engineering News Record, 263 (2), pp. 12-13.
7]  Industrial Engineer (2009). Freshness Counts, Too. IE, 44(12), pp. 14.
8]  Brown, R. (2010). LEEDing to Better Buildings. USA Today Magazine, 139 (2786), p 61.
9]  UNEP (2007). Buildings can play key role in combating climate change. UNEP News Centre. Retrieved on 17 June 2013 from
10]  Nyikos, D., Thai, A., Hicks, M & Leach, S. (2012). To LEED or Not to LEED: Analysis of Cost Premiums Associated With Sustainable Facility Design. Engineering Management Journal, 24 (4), pp. 50-62.
11]  Cho, H., Gowri, K. & Liu, B., 2010. Modelling of Air Infiltration through Door Openings. Washington: US Department of Energy.
12]  Newsham, R., Mancini, S. & Birt, B. (2009). Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but… Energy and Buildings, 41 98), pp. 897-905.
13]  Hedge, A., Rollings, K., & Robinson, J. (2010). Green Ergonomics: Advocating for the Human Element in Buildings, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, pp. 693-697.
14]  Stegal, N. (2004). Cost Implications of LEED Silver Certification for New House Residence Hall at Carnegie Mellon University. Senior Honors Research Project, Carnegie Institute of Technology. Retrieved 18 June 2013 from
15]  Tuhus, M. (2010). The Question of LEED: Why the country’s leading green building certification may be inherently flawed. The Environmental Magazine, 21 (6), pp. 15-19.
16]  Fowler, M., & Rauch, M. (2006). Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report 15858, Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
17]  Johansson, O. (2011). The spatial diffusion of green building technologies: The case of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ) in the United States. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10 (3), pp. 251-266.
18]  DePoy E, Gitlin N. (1993). Introduction to research: multiple strategies for health and human services. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
19]  Mulrow, C. and Cook, D. (1998). Systematic Reviews: Synthesis of Best Evidence for Health Care Decisions. Race: ACP Press.
20]  Tyrer, P. and Freeman, C. (2006). Research Methods in Psychiatry. London: The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
21]  AccessPoint (2013). History of LEED. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
22]  Oxman D. (1994). Systematic reviews: checklists for review articles. BMJ, 309, pp. 648-51.
23]  Turner, C. (2006). LEED building performance in the Cascadia Region: A post occupancy evaluation report. Retrieved 18 June 2013 from
24]  Diamond, R., Optiz, M., Hicks, T., Vonneida, B. & Herrera, S. (2006). Evaluating the energy performance of the first generation of LEED-certified commercial buildings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, pp. 3/41-3/52.
25]  Torcellini, P., Deru, M., Griffith, B., Long, N., Pless, S. & Judkoff, R. (2004). Lessons learned from the field evaluation of six high-performance buildings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency of Buildings, pp. 3-325 to 3-337.
26]  Baylon, D.; Storm, P. (2008). Comparison of commercial LEED buildings and non-LEED buildings within the 2002-2004 Pacific Northwest commercial building stock. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency of Buildings, pp. 4/1 to 4/12.
27]  Turner, C. & Frankel, M. (2008). Energy performance of LEED for New Construction Buildings, Final Report. Washington: US Green Building Council.
28]  Scofield, J. (2009). Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Not really… Energy Build, 41 (12), pp. 897-905.
29]  Menassa, C., Managasarian, S., Asmar, M. & Kirar, C. (2012). Energy Consumption Evaluation of US Navy LEED-Certified Buildings. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 26 (1), pp. 46-53.
30]  Kamal, S. Lawsuit Contrasts LEED Certification and Energy Efficiency. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
31]  Osborn, C. (2006). Statistical Applications for Health Information Management. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
32]  Gershman, J. (2009). Fake Green Labels, Buildings Don’t Save Energy. The New York Post, September 21 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2013 from
33]  Dunn, S., and Makela, E. (2008). Going beyond code: A guide to creating energy efficient and sustainable buildings in the southwest. Boulder: Southwest Energy Efficiency Project.
34]  Khan, K. S., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2003). Systematic Reviews to Support Evidence-based Medicine: How to review and apply findings of healthcare research. London: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
35]  Mendenhall, W., Beaver, R. and Beaver, B. (2013). Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 14th Edition. Boston: Cengage Learning.
36]  USA Today, 2013. In U.S. Building Industry, is it too Easy to be Green? Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
37]  Malin, N. (2008). Lies, Damn Lies, and… (Another Look at LEED Energy Efficiency). Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
38]  Sustainable Business News (2013). Why some NYC buildings are more efficient than LEED-certified ones. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from
39]  Quirk, V. (2012). Where is LEED Leading Us?… And Should We Follow? Retrieved 21 June 2013 from
40]  Seville, C. (2011). How to Cheat at LEED for Homes. Retrieved 21 June 2013 from
41]  Oates, D. & Sullivan, K. (2012). Postoccupancy Energy Consumption Survey of Arizona’s LEED New Construction Population. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management, 138 (6), pp. 742-750.
42]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2013), Minimizing Environmental Impact on World Heritage Sites by Exploiting Green Energy, Journal of Global Intelligence & Policy;Fall2013, Vol. 6 Issue 11, p141Jacobs, M. & Fernández, F. (2009), Alhambra, Frances Lincoln.
43]  Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-zubaidy. (Vol. 3 - Issue 11 (November - 2014)). “Use of Novel Green Energy Design in Sustainable Buildings to Mitigate Effects of Climate Change”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT).
Show Less References