Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
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Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2015, 3(2), 24-30
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-3-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Cancer and Non-cancer Risks Associated With Heavy Metal Exposures from Street Foods: Evaluation of Roasted Meats in an Urban Setting

Michael Bamuwamye1, 2, Patrick Ogwok1, and Vivian Tumuhairwe3

1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyambogo University, P. O. Box 1, Kyambogo, Uganda

2Ministry of Health, Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Institute (NCRI), P. O. Box 4864, Kampala, Uganda

3AgroWays (U) Ltd, Plot 34-60 Kyabazinga Way, P.O. Box 1924 Jinja-Uganda

Pub. Date: May 08, 2015

Cite this paper:
Michael Bamuwamye, Patrick Ogwok and Vivian Tumuhairwe. Cancer and Non-cancer Risks Associated With Heavy Metal Exposures from Street Foods: Evaluation of Roasted Meats in an Urban Setting. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2015; 3(2):24-30. doi: 10.12691/jephh-3-2-1

Abstract

Street foods (SF) are important in meeting energy and nutrient requirements for urban populations because of their convenience and low-cost. In contrast, SF represents a major public health risk due to chemical contamination especially with heavy metals. The study aimed at quantifying the levels of heavy metals (HM); lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in street roasted and vended meats (SRVM); estimating daily HM intake; determining the cancer and non-cancer risks associated with HM exposure using probabilistic risk assessment models. Twelve samples of each SRVM (pork, beef, goat and chicken) were randomly purchased on the streets of Kampala and their HM content measured. The cancer and non-cancer risks were estimated using incremental lifetime cancer risk and target hazard quotient (THQ), respectively. Lead, Cd and As content was above maximum limits according to EFSA and WHO, while Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were below prescribed limits. The daily intake of Pb measured in beef and pork was higher than the recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) for both children and adults while that of Cd, As, Cu, Zn and Fe was <TDI. The probability of an adult developing cancer as a result of consuming SRVM over a 70-year lifetime was greater than US EPA management level of 1x10-4 for all the meats. THQ showed potential risk for humans due to the intake of Pb in pork and beef, and As in chicken with respect to children. THQ values also presented Pb, Cd and As as dominant contaminants. The combined non-carcinogenic effect of all metals considered in the study expressed as hazard index (HI) was >1, with values for children higher than those for adults. Regular consumption of SRVM in Kampala is a health risk with respect to Pb, Cd and As.

Keywords:
cancer risk heavy metal street food roasted-meat

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