Journal of Atmospheric Pollution
ISSN (Print): 2381-2982 ISSN (Online): 2381-2990 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ki-Hyun Kim
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2019, 7(1), 14-18
DOI: 10.12691/jap-7-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Emission Levels of Passenger Transport Modes in Sri Lanka

Konara K.M.T.N.1, , Samarasekara G.N.2, Thushara Chaminda G.G3 and Surendra Perera4

1B.Sc in Civil Engineering, Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology (SLIIT), Sri Lanka

2B.Sc. Eng. (Hons.) (Moratuwa), M.Eng. (Saitama), PhD. (Saitama), University of Sri Jayawardenepura, Sri Lanka

3B.Sc. Eng (Hons). (Peradeniya), M.Eng. (AIT), PhD. (Tokyo), University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka

4B.Sc. Eng. (Peradeniya), Operations Head, CleanCo Lanka Limited, Sri Lanka

Pub. Date: February 10, 2019

Cite this paper:
Konara K.M.T.N., Samarasekara G.N., Thushara Chaminda G.G and Surendra Perera. Comparison of Emission Levels of Passenger Transport Modes in Sri Lanka. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2019; 7(1):14-18. doi: 10.12691/jap-7-1-2


During last eight years’ total vehicle population in the country has been doubled according to the statistics of Department of motor traffic resulting in an increase of emissions. Road transportation have the highest vehicular emissions in terms of Greenhouse gases (GHG) in Sri Lanka. In a global perspective the emissions of multi modal vehicle fleet stand at 61%, 24%, 6%, 6% and 3% of GHG’s emits from buses, private vehicle, railways, para-transits and trucks respectively. According to the Sri Lankan department of motor traffic statistics, motor bicycles, motor tricycles and motor cars are the highly used vehicle types in Sri Lanka. In moving towards emission reduction through modal shifts to reduce, it is required to quantify the potential emission reduction gained through different modal shifts. Using the vehicle emission database, this research attempts to quantify emission reductions gained through different transportation strategies. All vehicle emissions were measured emissions per maximum seat occupancy in order to find per capita emissions in each vehicle category. It was found that motor bicycles (4.3% v/v per seat of CO2 & 850 ppm per seat of HC) and motor tricycles (300% v/v per seat of CO) have the highest emission rates per passenger. Dual purpose vehicles (1.25% v/v per seat of CO2) and buses were identified as the lowest emitters. Motor cars have slightly high emission levels comparative to buses. (350 ppm per seat of HC & 1.75% v/v per seat of CO2). But still motor cars can be identified as a better mode than motor cycles and motor tricycles. Results of this study can be used to identify potential vehicle shifts which can be implemented to reduce emission growth in the country.

greenhouse gases vehicle emissions vehicle shifts

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  F. Asif, C. S. Weaver and M. P. Walsh, “Air Pollution from motor vehicles : Standards and Technologies for Controlling Emissions,” World Bank, Washington D.C, 1996.
[2]  O. Ileperuma, “Environmental Pollution in Sri Lanaka: A Review,” 2001.
[3]  University of Peradeniya, Stakeholder Dialogue on Development of Fuel Quality and Emission Standard road map for Managing Air Quality in Sri Lanka, University of Peradeniya, 2014.
[4]  C. F. Pardo, Y. Jiemian, Y. Hongyuan and C. R. Mohanty, “Shanghai Manual – A Guide for Sustainable Urban Development in the 21st Century,” in Sustaiable urban transport, 2010.
[5]  A. S. Kumarage, “Sustainable transport policies in Sri Lanka,” Colombo, 2011.
[6]  T. Chaminda, G. Smarasekara, G. Rathnayaka and R. Madushanka, “Transport Sector Emissions in Sri Lanka: Emission,” IESL.
[7]  K. Lakruwan and T. Weerasinghe, “A study of petrol vehicle emission levels in Sri Lanka,” 2013.
[8]  K. Konara, G. Samarasekara, G. Chaminda Tushara, S. Perera and A. Dissanayaka, “Development of a formula to quantify emissions generated from diesel vehicles in Sri Lanka,” in ACEPS 2017, Galle, 2017.
[9]  Manooj.R, “Sustainability evaluation of Electric cars focusing on energy utilization and emission factor Variation Of Hybrid Cars,” University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, 2016.
[10]  S. Potter, “Transport energy and emissions: Urban public transport,” Department of Design and Innovation, Faculty of Technolgy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Great Britain, 2015.