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International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576


Content: Volume 1, Issue 3


Radon Concentration in Some Building Materials in Using CR-39 Track Detector

1Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, Iraq

2Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2013, 1(3), 73-76
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laith A. Najam, Nada F. Tawfiq, Rana Hesham Mahmood. Radon Concentration in Some Building Materials in Using CR-39 Track Detector. International Journal of Physics. 2013; 1(3):73-76. doi: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: Laith A. Najam, Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, Iraq. Email:


The building materials are the sources of radon gas in the indoor air. The determination of radon and its progeny was performed by passive detection technique. Fifteenth commonly building construction materials used in were studied for radon concentration using the "sealed can technique" and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The result of radon concentrations in the selected building materials ranges from 121.95Bq/m3 in Iraqi natural building stone, Iraqi Kashi and Egyptian ceramics to 383.3Bq/m3 in Turkish red granite. The radon surface exhalation rate and mass exhalation rate were ranged from 0.72Bq.m-2.h-1, 2.3 Bq.m-2.h-1, respectively.



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Inversion of the Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Paradigm Demystifies the Protein Folding and Self-Assembly of Problems

1Department of Physical Chemistry The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

International Journal of Physics. 2013, 1(3), 66-71
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arieh Ben-Naim. Inversion of the Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Paradigm Demystifies the Protein Folding and Self-Assembly of Problems. International Journal of Physics. 2013; 1(3):66-71. doi: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: Arieh Ben-Naim, Department of Physical Chemistry The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Email:


The idea that the hydrophobic effect is the major driving force for processes such as protein folding and protein-protein association has prevailed in the biochemical literature for over half a century. It has recently become clear that the evidence in favor of the hydrophobic paradigm has totally dissipated. The dominance of the hydrophobic effect has been reduced into nothing but a myth. On the other hand, the new paradigm based on a host of hydrophilic effects has emerged. This new paradigm offers simple and straightforward answers to the long sought problems of protein folding and protein-protein association.



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Is Red Shift-An Index of Galactic ‘Atomic Light Emission’ Mechanism?

1Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri, Hyderabad, AP, India

2Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, AP, India

3Department of Mathematics and Comp. Science & Engg, Guntur Engg. College, Guntur, AP, India

International Journal of Physics. 2013, 1(3), 49-64
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B. V. S. T. Sai. Is Red Shift-An Index of Galactic ‘Atomic Light Emission’ Mechanism?. International Journal of Physics. 2013; 1(3):49-64. doi: 10.12691/ijp-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: U. V. S. Seshavatharam, Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri, Hyderabad, AP, India. Email:


By highlighting the major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper, an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. With reference to the valuable opinion of Edwin Hubble, redshift can be related to a new atomic phenomenon. If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking, redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The authors propose the following: During cosmic evolution, an ‘aged’ hydrogen atom emits an energetic photon. As the age of the hydrogen atom increases, it emits photons with increased quanta of energy and thus past light quanta emitted from an old galaxy will have less energy and show a red shift with reference to our galaxy. During its journey light quanta will not lose energy and there will be no change in the light’s wavelength. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. The possible assumptions are: 1) at any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) In atomic and nuclear physics, atomic gravitational constant (GA) is squared Avogadro number times the Newton’s gravitational constant and is discrete as, where n =1,2,3.4) Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, . Ratio of classical force limit and the imaginary electroweak force magnitude is Avogadro number is discrete and thus the imaginary electroweak force is discrete and can be expressed as (FI / n2) and it seems to be more fundamental than the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. 6) Discrete imaginary electroweak force may be the responsible force for revolving electron’s discrete total energy in hydrogen atom. 7) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 8) It can be suggested that, fermion and its corresponding boson mass ratio is not unity but a value close to This idea can be applied to quarks, leptons, proton and the charged Higgs fermion. One can see “super symmetry” in low energies as well as high energies.



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