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American Journal of Environmental Protection

ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233


Content: Volume 2, Issue 3


Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics

2Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 59-63
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gurmail Singh, B. Singh. Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Trifloxystrobin and Tebuconazole on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):59-63. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Gurmail  Singh, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics. Email:


The study was undertaken to determine the dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on tomato under field conditions and thereby to ensure consumer safety. Three applications of a combination formulation, Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) were made @ 350 and 700 g ha-1 at 7 days intervals. Tomato samples were collected at 0 (1 hr), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on tomato fruits were found to be 0.40 and 0.76 mg kg-1, and that of tebuconazole were 1.56 and 2.76 mg kg-1, at single and double dose, respectively. Half life of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 1.39 and 1.94 days, at single and double doses, respectively, whereas with respect to tebuconazole, these values were 0.93 and 0.78 days. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin, its metabolite CGA321113 and tebuconazole at their detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. Theoretical maximum residues contribution (TMRC) for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were calculated and found to be well below maximum permissible intake (MPI) on tomato at 0-day (1 hr after spraying) for the both the test doses. Thus, the application of combination formulation Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) at the recommended dose on tomatodidnot seem to pose any human health risk.



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Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study

1Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(3), 51-58
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ruchi Pandey, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ram Lakhan Prasad, Ramesh Chandra Murthy. Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Peel: Kinetic, Equilibrium & Thermodynamic Study. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(3):51-58. doi: 10.12691/env-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ramesh  Chandra Murthy, Analytical Chemistry Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, 80- M.G. Road, Lucknow, India. Email:


Cucumis sativus peel (CSP), was investigated as a new adsorbent for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution under several varying conditions such as pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Maximum metal sorption was found to occur at initial pH 5.0. The adsorption capacity of CSP was found to be 28.25mg/g for initial Pb(II) concentration of 25 mg/l at 25°C. The equilibrium data best fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo first-order and pseudo second order mechanism were applied to examine the kinetics of the adsorption. The results showed that kinetic data were followed pseudo second-order model than the pseudo first-order equation. With no loss in the Pb(II) ion removal efficiency, CSP could be regenerated using 1M HNO3 during repeated sorption–desorption cycles and showed recovery of 93.5% for 25mg/l of Pb(II) ion concentration. Comprehensive characterization parameters using FTIR, and SEM were recorded before and after adsorption to explore the number and position of the functional groups available for Pb(II) binding onto adsorbent and changes in surface morphology of the adsorbent.



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