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Article

Biodegradation of Turquoise Blue Dye by Bacillus Megaterium Isolated from Industrial Effluent

1Department of Biotechnology, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

2Department of Biotechnology, Government Science College, K. K. Shastri Educational Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 41-46
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bhoomi Joshi, Khyati Kabariya, Sweta Nakrani, Arif Khan, Farzin M. Parabia, Hiren V. Doshi, Mukund Chandra Thakur. Biodegradation of Turquoise Blue Dye by Bacillus Megaterium Isolated from Industrial Effluent. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):41-46. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-5.

Correspondence to: Mukund Chandra Thakur, Department of Biotechnology, Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. Email: mukundthakur@aribas.edu.in

Abstract

Turquoise blue dye (Remazol Blue BB) is a reactive dye which is used by almost all textile industries. The sample was collected from dye industries near VATVA G.I.D.C. (Gujarat) and adjourning surrounding area. On the basis of colony morphology and certain biochemical tests the strain was identified as Bacillus megaterium species and gave maximum decolourization of turquoise blue dye within 48 hours at pH 7.00 and 37°C in the medium followed by blue M2R, Safranin, Congo red, Malachite green Orange ME2RL and Yellow M8G dyes. This organism can decolourize turquoise blue dye up to a concentration of 5mg/ml but showed maximum dye degradation at 1mg/ml concentration. Glucose (1g%) was found to be the best Carbon source while NH4Cl (1g%) was found as the best Nitrogen source for maximum biodegradation process. The isolated strain is even able to degrade wide range of dyes. Further, there is a need to test this organism at large scale degradation of this dye.

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References

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Article

Determination of Radon and Thoron Concentrations in Different Parts of Some Plants Used in Traditional Medicine Using Nuclear Track Detectors

1Department of Physics (L.P.M.M.), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Sultan Moulay Slimane, Beni-Mellal, Morocco

2Polydisciplinary Faculty (L.I.R.S.T.), University Sultan Moulay Slimane, Beni-Mellal, Morocco

3Department of Biology, Ecology and Environment Laboratory, Faculty of Science Semlalia, University Cadi Ayyad, Morocco


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 34-40
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
L. Oufni, N. Manaut, S. Taj, B. Manaut. Determination of Radon and Thoron Concentrations in Different Parts of Some Plants Used in Traditional Medicine Using Nuclear Track Detectors. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):34-40. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-4.

Correspondence to: L. Oufni, Department of Physics (L.P.M.M.), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Sultan Moulay Slimane, Beni-Mellal, Morocco. Email: oufni@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paper presents results of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) levels in different parts of some selected plants used in Moroccan cooking and traditional medicine. Plant uptake of radionuclide is one of many vectors for introduction of contaminants into the human food chain. Thus, it is critical to understand the soil–plant relationships that control nuclide bioavailability. The radon and thoron concentrations have been determined in the studied samples and their corresponding soils, and that using the technique based on two types of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) LR-115 type-II and CR-39. Transfer factors (TF) of 222Rn and 220Rn from soil to parts of various studied plants have been determined. TF for roots were higher than those for stems and leaves. The radon and thoron activities in the soils have been found varying from 0.87 ± 0.06Bq.kg-1 to 6.20 ± 0.47Bq.kg-1 and from 30 ± 2.30mBq.kg-1 to 195±16mBq.kg-1, respectively. These values are lower in the leaves and stems than those determined in the roots of the studied plants. The aim of this study was to analyze the radon transfer from soil to different compartments of these plants and then to evaluate the radiotoxicity caused by radon in order to contribute to the health risk assessment.

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References

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Article

Technical Report on Reclamation of Small Scale Surface Mined Lands in Ghana: A Landscape Perspective

1Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast. Cape Coast, Ghana


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 28-33
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J.B.K Asiedu. Technical Report on Reclamation of Small Scale Surface Mined Lands in Ghana: A Landscape Perspective. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):28-33. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-3.

Abstract

Small scale mining activities which involve surface mining is an acceptable means of mineral exploitation in Ghana but has serious environmental consequences. Although a number of laws and research papers have been written on restoration after a piece of land has been mined, not much detail is provided on the actual processes involved. This review paper attempts a look at the process of restoration with projections on cost of restoration. Although it is based on activities at a predominantly farming community like Akyem Hemang in the Fanteakwa district of the Eastern region of Ghana, the principles involved will be applicable to other mining communities in the tropics. The paper looks at aspects of surface mining popular in rural areas of Ghana and attempt to explain the process of restoration with suggestions on how to measure success and how to involve affected communities to safe guard and ensure the success of the programme. A licensed concession can be as small as 3acres or as large as 25acres and can be mined for 3-5 years after which the land should be reclaimed to a productive state. The reclamation process, after field establishment should last for at least 5years to determine success. Small scale mining is defined as the use of rudimentary implements as well as the more sophisticated mining operating at a relatively low level of production with limited capital investment. It is carried out in rural farming communities and is popular with itinerant poorly educated people and usually results in severe deterioration to the environment, especially, crop land; posing serious health risks to communities in which it is carried out. The deterioration results from the destruction of vegetal cover and excavation of the overburden to assess the mineral bearing soil. Where farm lands or forested lands have been affected, a combination of natural and artificial reclamation is recommended. The process of reclamation should be planned and begins when topsoil at the mined site is removed to store separately from the subsoil and over-burden at the pre-mining stage. Topsoil however cannot be stored for too long as the quality deteriorates with time. Depending on the depth of excavation, restoration should involve importation and replacement of subsoil to a depth of 600mm - 900mm spread in 150mm layers, and left to settle naturally for a period of 3 -6months. When the land is sufficiently settled, topsoil mixed with manure should be laid over the subsoil to a depth of 150mm minimum after settling. This is followed by sowing of nitrogen fixing leguminous green manure by broadcasting to provide the first blanket of vegetative cover to protect the soil from the direct effect of the elements. Although Crotalaria juncea (Sunnhemp) is highly recommended nitrogen fixing leguminous annual with high biomass production for highly degraded land, other area-specific nitrogen fixing plants can be recommended by the area agricultural extension officer. About 60days after sowing of the green manure cover crop, when it is in bloom, it is smothered and worked into the soil. Seedlings of both local and exotic tree plants can then be established on the land after pegging and holing to 563seedlings per acre. The reclaimed land should be maintained and managed by maintaining a balance between introduced exotic tree seedlings and native sprouted tree seedlings by weeding, staking, and occasional pruning for at least 5years before any assessment for the success of the reclamation can be done. The estimated cost for reclamation of 1acre of mined land excavated to a depth of 900mm is about US$ 52,419.33 (Gh¢101,000), inclusive of 2-3% for maintenance.

Keywords

References

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Article

Harvesting and Supply Chain Analysis of Ethnobotanical Species in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India

1Ecosystem & Environment Management, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal, India


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 20-27
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chandra Prakash Kala. Harvesting and Supply Chain Analysis of Ethnobotanical Species in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):20-27. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-2.

Correspondence to: Chandra Prakash Kala, Ecosystem & Environment Management, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal, India. Email: cpkala@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Realizing the historical importance of central Indian forests in terms of ecological, social and economical perspectives and the present socio-economic changes in the community due to several reasons, the present study was conducted. It aimed at addressing the status of harvesting pattern and supply chain structure of various ethno-botanical species by the tribal communities in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India. The questionnaire surveys were conducted in the villages of buffer zone areas of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve and market places for studying the trends and status of collection, seasons of collection, prices, and supply chain of ethnobotanicals. A total 14 ethno-botanical species were found in active trade, and in majority of cases their gum, fruit and seed were collected. The gum yielding species such as Acacia nilotica, Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens, Terminalia tomentosa and Terminalia arjuna were found to be highly paid species among all traded ethno-botanical species. The trade in ethnobotanicals and market trends seemed quite lucrative to the tribal communities and hence they have started unsustainable harvesting of tradable forest resources to get maximum returns unlike their ancestors. Of the total tradable ethnobotanical species 8 species have qualified to various threat categories of IUCN Red List. The results of this study are further discussed in view of the conservation and management of ethnobotanical species.

Keywords

References

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Article

Dissipation and Residues of Lufenuron in Grape Fruits

1Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Pesticide Residuesand Environmental Pollution Department, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Banha University, Banha, Egypt


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013, 1(2), 17-19
DOI: 10.12691/env-1-2-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Hassan, Nevien Ahmed, Mohamed Arief. Dissipation and Residues of Lufenuron in Grape Fruits. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013; 1(2):17-19. doi: 10.12691/env-1-2-1.

Correspondence to: Ehab Hassan, Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Pesticide Residuesand Environmental Pollution Department, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Email: ehabhassan3006@yahoo.com

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to understand the residue and persistence behavior of lufenuron insecticide in grape fruit samples. The residues were analyzed by HPLC and it dissipated in grape fruit following first order kinetics. The average initial deposit of in grape fruit was observed to be 1.85mg kg-1 at single application rate. The recoveries of lufenuron on grape fruit were observed from 91.97% to 95.25% at fortification levels of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg kg-1. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01mg kg-1. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T1/2) of lufenuron were around 2.79 days. According to the maximum residue limit (MRL) the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of lufenuron on grape was 3 days after the treatment.

Keywords

References

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