American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajssm Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2015, 3(4), 82-84
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-3-4-3
Open AccessArticle

The First Fatal Incident of Pangration/Pankration

Nikitas N. Nomikos1,

1Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens Greece

Pub. Date: November 17, 2015

Cite this paper:
Nikitas N. Nomikos. The First Fatal Incident of Pangration/Pankration. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2015; 3(4):82-84. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-3-4-3

Abstract

The desire for distinction in conjunction with direct physical contact contributed to conduction of athletic events of high intensity and to cause of sports injuries. Purpose of this research is the identification and analysis of the first fatal incident of pankration in antiquity. The survey classified the pankration in category of ancient writers called heavy events. According to results the range of allowable holds combined with the liberality of movements, make possible the presence of serious injuries (lacerations, bruises, dislocations) and fatalities. Despite the expected high number of fatalities, this research has been found only one reported incident in which the athlete (pankratiast) Arrachion died because the choking hold, who had been implemented. In causing the incident crucial role played the kind of the applied hold in conjunction with the locked anatomical region (larynx), the neck entrapment in the elbow joint and the outcome of the athlete due to hypoxia or anoxia. After a review of literature, the book of Pausanias “’s Excursion”, VIII, 40. 1-2., was identified and analyzed as the text which contains the first fatal injury of pankration in the world history.

Keywords:
sport medicine sport injuries pankration trauma

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  N.Gialouris (1976). The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Athens Publishing Company, pp. 228.
 
[2]  Aristotle. Rhetoric. 1.5.
 
[3]  Aristophanes. Wasps.1191.
 
[4]  Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus project.
 
[5]  Plutarch. Ethics. 638d.
 
[6]  J. Polydefkes. Onomastikos, Γ. 155.
 
[7]  Philostratus, Imagines, 348.
 
[8]  Plutarch. Alcibiades 6.
 
[9]  Drees Ludwig (1968). Olympia. Gods, Artists and Athletes. London. Pall Mall Press.
 
[10]  Pausanias. Greece’s Excursion, VIII, 40. 1-2.
 
[11]  Pausanias. Description of Greece. With an English translation by W. H. S. Jones. In six volumes. III. Books VI–VIII (i–xxi). Pp. 441. London: Heinemann (New York: Putnam), 1933.
 
[12]  Philostratus, Imagines, 819-820.
 
[13]  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions. (Loeb Classical Library No. 256). Arthur Fairbanks (Translator). London: 1931.
 
[14]  Pausanias. Greece’s Excursion, VIII, 40. 1-5.
 
[15]  Nomikos N, (2009). “Sport Injuries during the Athletic Games in Antiquity.” PhD research. Athens. Publication: Nomikos, ISBN 978-960-93-2979-8, p.p. 216.
 
[16]  Gardiner, E. Norman (1955). Athletics of the Ancient World. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p.p. 220-221.
 
[17]  Harris, H. A (1964). Greek Athletes and Athletics. London: Hutchinson, p.p. 108.
 
[18]  Miller, Stephen G. (1991). Arete: Greek Sports from Ancient Sources. Berkeley: University of California Press, p.p. 38.
 
[19]  Brophy, Robert H (1978). "Death in the Pan-Hellenic Games: Arrachion and Creugas." American Journal of Philology 99, p.p: 363-390.
 
[20]  George M. Hollenback (2003). Arrichion’s Last Fight: What Really Happened? Journal of Combative Sport. Http://ejmas.com/jcs/jcsart_hollenback_0903.htm.
 
[21]  Brophy, Robert H (1978). "Death in the Pan-Hellenic Games: Arrachion and Creugas." American Journal of Philology 99, p.p: 381.
 
[22]  Nino Marino, Peter Bruno (1997). Editing Greek Version Panagiotis Baltopoulos. << Sports Medicine. Principles of Primary Care. Cardiorespiratory disease>> USA-ATHENS. Publisher: Mosby, Pashalides, pp. 58.
 
[23]  Giannakis (1979). <<Archaiognosia - Sport-Philosophy>>. Athens. EKPA Publications, pp. 149.
 
[24]  Karyotakis J. (1974). History of heavy fighters. Athens. Karyotakis J. Publication, p 42.