American Journal of Public Health Research
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American Journal of Public Health Research. 2020, 8(6), 202-208
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-8-6-4
Open AccessArticle

Awareness, Risk Factors and Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C among Antenatal Attendees in South-southern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional and Hospital-based Study

Victor Omote1, , Henry Awele Ukwamedua2, Nathaniel Bini1, Johnson Etaghene3, Emmanuel Onome Omoviye4 and Mary Obiageli Iloka5

1Department of Laboratory Services, Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

3Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health Asaba, Delta state, Nigeria

4Department of Sales and logistics, ISN Products Nigeria Limited

5Department of Biomedical Analysis, IRGIB-AFRICA University, Republic of Benin

Pub. Date: October 11, 2020

Cite this paper:
Victor Omote, Henry Awele Ukwamedua, Nathaniel Bini, Johnson Etaghene, Emmanuel Onome Omoviye and Mary Obiageli Iloka. Awareness, Risk Factors and Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C among Antenatal Attendees in South-southern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional and Hospital-based Study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2020; 8(6):202-208. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-8-6-4

Abstract

Background: Viral hepatitis was responsible for 1.34 million deaths globally in 2015, a number comparable to deaths caused by tuberculosis and higher than those caused by HIV. Although hepatitis B and C viral infections are major causes of liver cirrhosis or/and hepatocellular carcinoma, knowledge is limited and prevalence underestimated because of poor surveillance programs in most developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness/knowledge, risk factors and prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C amongst antenatal attendees in a secondary health-care facility. Study design: The study was cross-sectional, descriptive and hospital-based. Methods: A total of 218 pregnant women were recruited from the antenatal clinic of Central Hospital Warri using simple random technique after approval from the institutional review board and consent from the participants. They were screened for Hepatitis B and C viral infections using a rapid immune-chromatographic test strip. Samples positive for HBsAg were screened for other HBV biomarkers using a 5 in one test cassette. Result: Of the 218 women screened, 3 (1.4%) were positive for HBsAg while 4 (1.8%) reacted for HCV antibodies. All positive cases for HBsAg were negative for HBeAg and HBsAb, but positive for HBeAb and HBcAb. Age-grade 31-40 gave the highest age-based prevalence 1.92% for HBsAg while participants younger than 20 years had the highest age-based prevalence of 20% (2/10) for HCV. Multiparous women had 2.8% for HBsAg while nulliparous/primiparous participants have the highest HCV antibody prevalence of 3.1%. For other variables measured, self-employed, Secondary school education, lack of HBV vaccination, women who share sharps and participants that engaged the services of quacks for invasive procedures gave the highest prevalence in their respective categories. Conclusion: The prevalence of 1.4% and 1.8% reported by this study for HBV and HCV respectively is relatively low when compared to a previous report for the study region and other Nigerian studies. However, the poor level of awareness/knowledge and high level of exposure to predisposing risk factors among the study population calls for urgent intervention if vision 2030 will be a reality for the study region.

Keywords:
Hepatitis B and C pregnant women awareness risk Factors prevalence Nigeria

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