American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2020, 8(3), 87-92
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-8-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Noncritical Surfaces in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in South Eastern Nigeria

Agbo Ejiofor C.1, Ejinaka Obiora. R.2, Obeta M. Uchejeso3, , Lote-Nwaru Ifeoma E.4, Ibanga Imoh E3 and Dajok D. Godfrey4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia-Nigeria

2Department Parasitology, Federal School of Medical Laboratory Science, Jos-Nigeria

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal School of Medical Laboratory Science, Jos-Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology, Federal School of Medical Laboratory Science, Jos-Nigeria

Pub. Date: May 14, 2020

Cite this paper:
Agbo Ejiofor C., Ejinaka Obiora. R., Obeta M. Uchejeso, Lote-Nwaru Ifeoma E., Ibanga Imoh E and Dajok D. Godfrey. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Noncritical Surfaces in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in South Eastern Nigeria. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2020; 8(3):87-92. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-8-3-2


Background: The presence of biofilm forming Pseudomonas species on noncritical surfaces in various hospital areas are the basis of Healthcare Associated Infections. Justification: The Healthcare associated infections are on the increase, affecting both care givers and patients with many showing resistant to many antibiotics and therefore calls for study for better understanding of the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from noncritical surfaces in the facility. Aim and objectives: The study was to assess the susceptibility of commonly prescribed antibiotics in the south eastern healthcare facility and to be able to educate the staff, students and patients. Methodology: The study used an experimental design carried out in 800 beds capacity Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, and South East Nigeria. These bacteria were isolated using the swab to collect samples for analysis. Samples were collected from different noncritical surfaces surrounding hospitalized patients and equipment in the tertiary healthcare facility. The 450 positive samples out of the 1314 samples collected were analyzed for bacterial isolation and identification using bacterial cultural and microscopic identification techniques, biochemical tests and the Microbact 24E assay. Result: Biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified through crystal violet assay while Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done using agar well diffusion method which was carried out on the isolated biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: The susceptibility showed that biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to Gentamicin and Augmentin, but sensitive to Vancomycin, Azithromycin and Meropenem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has the highest potential to form biofilms and could be recognized as a major agent of nosocomial infections in healthcare facilities in South East. Its notable resistance to some major antibiotics used in those centres calls for an urgent need for caregivers to carry out susceptibility testing before antibiotic prescription.

antimicrobial susceptibility biofilm forming pseudomonas aeruginosa hospital South East-Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Vernon, M.O., Mary, K., Hayden, M. D.,Williams, E. and Trick, M. D. (2006). Chlorhexidine gluconate to cleanse patients in a Medical Intensive Care Unit. Archives of International. Medical Journal. 166(3): 306-312.
[2]  Livornese, L. L., Dias, S. and Samel, C., (1992). Hospital-acquired infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium transmitted by electronic thermometers. Annual International Medical Journal 117:1 12-124.
[3]  Brooks, S., Khan. A. Stoica, D., Griffith, J„ Friedman, L., Mukherji, R., Hameed, R., Schup, N. (1998). Reduction in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and Clostridium difficile infections following change to tympanic thermometers. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 19: 333 336.
[4]  Kamali, E., Jamali, A., Ardebili, A. Ezadi F. & Mohebbi A. (2020). Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance, biofilm forming potential, and the presence of biofilm-related genes among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Res Notes 13, 27 (2020).
[5]  Gurung J, Khyriem AB, Banik A, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B, Bhattacharyya P. (2013). Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med; 17: 214-8.
[6]  Agbo E.C, Achi O.K, Nwachukwu E, Obeta M. U, Obiora E. O, Maduka K. M, Oraekeyi, N.P. (2020). Time Kill Kinetics Study of Commonly Used Disinfectants against Biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia-Nigeria. AJBSR. 7(3). MS.ID.001155.
[7]  Ejinaka O. R., Obeta M.U., Lote-Nwaru, I.E., Agbalaka P.I., Ajik H., Jwanse R.I. (2019). Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility pattern on Staphilococus aureus Isolated from Suya (Roasted meat) and Nunu (Milk) sold in Jos Metropolis. Nigerian Biomedical Science Journal 16(4) 14-18.
[8]  Collins, C.H., Lyne, P. M., Grange J.M. and Falkinham J.O. (2007). Collins and Lyne’s Microbiological methods. 8lh edition. Arnold Publishers-A Member of Hodder headline group London. 455 pages.
[9]  Macfarlane, S. and Dillon J.F. (2007). Microbial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102: 1187-1196.
[10]  Stepanovic, S, Cirkoric, L., Mijac, V. and Svabic-vlaharic. M., (2007). Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogene on plastic surfaces. Letters in Applied Microbiology), 6 (3): 199-250.
[11]  NCCLS, (1997). Guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Assessment Report. 67: 73-78.
[12]  Jenifer M. A. (2001). Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations. Journal of Antimicrobial chemotherapy 48: Supp 1. S1, 5-16.
[13]  Cernohorska, L. and Votava, M. (2004). Antibiotic Synergy against biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Folia Microbiology, 53(1): 57-60.
[14]  Meenakumari, S.,Verma, S.H., Absar, A. and Chaudhary, A.(2011). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an Indian cardiac hospital. Int. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3: 7117-7124.
[15]  Rakgesh, M.R., Govind, L.N., Kalpesh, M., Rosy, P„ Kanu, P. and Vegad, M. M. (2012). Antibiotic resistance pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa species isolated at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmadnbad. National Journal of Medical Research,2: 156-15.
[16]  Gonlugur, U., Bakici, M.Z., Ozdemir, L., Akkurt, I., Icagasioglu, S. and Gultekin F. (2003). Retrospective analysis of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of respiratory isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Turkish University Hospital. Annual Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Therapy, 2: 5-8.
[17]  Masaadeh, H. A. and Jaran, A. S. (2009). Incident of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound Infection. American Journal of Infectious Disease, 5: 1-6.
[18]  Rashid, A., Chowdhury, A., Rahman, H.Z, Begum. S.A. and Muazzam, N. (2007). Infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibiotic resistance pattern of tire isolates from Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Bangladesh, Journal of Medical Microbiology; 1: 48-51.
[19]  Salih, H. A., Abdulbary, M. and Abdul rid a, A.S. (2009). Susceptibility of Pseudomonasa eruginosa isolated from urine to some antibiotics. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 10: 33-36.
[20]  Al-Kabsi, A. M. Mohammed, Y.B., Yusof, M.D. and Shamala, D. S. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance pattern of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malasia. African Journal of Microbiology’ Research, 5(299): 5266-5272
[21]  Poolo, K, (2005). Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,56:20-51
[22]  Tekie, K. (2008). Surgical wound infection in Tikur Anbessa hospital with special emphasis on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unpublished MSc thesis in medical microbiology, Addis Ababa University, Medical Faculty, Ethiopia. Accessed on 31 Oct 2018 from:
[23]  Hagihi, M: Mandi H, Delshad, R., Nezhady, M and Golizade, S. (2010). Antibiotic resistance pattern of E. Cali, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burnt patients. Uremia Iran International Journal of Academic Research, 2: 377-380.
[24]  McDonnell, G. and Russell, A. D. (1999). Antiseptics and Disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clinical Microbiology Review, 12: 147-179
[25]  Donlan, R.M. (2002). Biofilms: Microbial life on surfaces. Journal of Emerging Infectious Disease, 8: 881-890.
[26]  Aneela S. and Rakshanda, B. (2016). Biofilm Formation by Environmental Microbes Isolated from Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, American Science Research Journal for Engineering Technical and Science, 15(1): 240-251.
[27]  Masood, G., and Zahra, A. (2014). Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas Spp. Isolated from Hospital Environment in Tonekabon, North of Iran, Journal of Applied industrial/Environmental Microbiology, 2, (4): 97-101.