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Article

Using Water with Oil Immersion Lens to Detect Malaria Parasite in Blood Film and Making a Comparison between Oil and Water Method

1Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, The National Ribat University


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 122-124
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hiba Siddig Ibrahim, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi. Using Water with Oil Immersion Lens to Detect Malaria Parasite in Blood Film and Making a Comparison between Oil and Water Method. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):122-124. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Hiba  Siddig Ibrahim, Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, The National Ribat University. Email: hibasiddig55@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Oil immersion lens it is one of the microscope lenses that used in medical laboratory filed. It is used to magnify the smallest things and for detection of some important infectious diseases such as bacteria, parasite, anemia’s and bone marrow films, but uses lens alone without oil makes the image imperfect and unclear, so to make a better image scientists were used oil with these lenses (immersion oils lens) to avoid bending of light . Objectives: The main aim of this study is to be used distill water with oil immersion lens instead of synthetic oil to detect malaria parasite to low cost of using synthetic oil especially in faraway places due to difficulties of paying synthetic oil and also to be arrived to rural area, and so on to be used with other tests, beside avoiding using impurity oil due to the comment of D/ Fahad Awad (National Coordinator for Malaria Program), against using sesame oil especially in some laboratories at Al Gedaraf State, see Aray Alaam newspaper 5th December, 2013. Methodology: In this study a total of 200 subjects were included. A 3 drops from capillary blood samples were collected in clean dry dust free slides after disinfectant the 3ed or 4th finger for adult and the big toe hand or foot for child with 70% alcohol to make a thick blood films, or Aliquots of 2.5 ml of venous blood were collected by venous puncture after disinfectant the site of collection and the collected blood was drawn into EDITA containers to make thick blood films as above. The films were lets to dry by air, staining with Giemsa stain for 10 minute and then examined for the first times with DW with objective lens and for the second times with synthetic oil. Results: There were no differences between using oil or distill water (DW) for detection of malaria parasite by both techniques (100%), unless the high quality of oil image (100%), when comparing with distill water (DW) image (90%), due to variation in numerical aperture (NA) between both techniques. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study we can used distill water (DW) but with caution to detect malaria parasite by 90% when compared with oil 100% in case of poverty areas to low cost of using synthetic oil, and so on the image quality can arrives (99.5%) if do it in proper way.

Keywords

References

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Article

Biotic Relationships: Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Nosocomial Pathogens

1Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL 36082


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 118-121
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tejpreet Chadha. Biotic Relationships: Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Nosocomial Pathogens. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):118-121. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Tejpreet  Chadha, Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL 36082. Email: tchadha@troy.edu

Abstract

The strong selective pressure exerted by excessive use of antibiotics in the last decades has increased the acquisition of resistance genes by horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the diversification of microorganisms by influencing traits such as metabolic potential of a bacterial cell, antibiotic resistance, symbiosis, fitness, and adaptation. The study of biotic relationships helped to examine how they may contribute to virulence such as transfer of toxin genes, antibiotic resistance genes. The current study examines the pattern of distribution of Ambler (molecular) classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, D) that provides a basic understanding and an initial assessment of resistance genes that may have a different role in the natural environment in free living and symbiotic nosocomial pathogens. The distribution of the four different Ambler (molecular) classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, and D) differs among different bacterial species. The results from absolute abundance data showed prevalence of class B β-lactamases was highest in free living and lowest in symbiotic bacterial species. Interestingly, class D β-lactamases was absent in symbiotic bacterial species. However, relative abundance class D β-lactamases was lowest for free-living bacterial species. The prevalence of class B β-lactamases based upon the total number of sequences checked predominated in pathogens that are free living when compared to other Ambler classes of β-lactamases. The study of biotic relationships helps to understand what selective or stimulatory pressures are driving the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. In the future, this may help to design effective strategies for preventing further increases in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

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References

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Article

Synergistic Bio-preservative Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves and Sacoglottis Gabonensis Stem Bark on Palm Wine from Elaeis Guineensis and Raphia Hookeri from Uturu, Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 113-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwuakor Chijioke .E, Ukaegbu-Obi K.M. Synergistic Bio-preservative Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves and Sacoglottis Gabonensis Stem Bark on Palm Wine from Elaeis Guineensis and Raphia Hookeri from Uturu, Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):113-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Onwuakor  Chijioke .E, Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: chijiokeonwuakor@gmail.com

Abstract

The synergistic bio-preservative effects of leaves and stem bark of Vernonia amygdalina and Sacoglottis gabonensis respectively on two (2) palm wine types namely, Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri from Uturu-Nigeria was evaluated. The microbiological and biochemical changes of the palm wine brands were determined. R. hookeri brands were found to support more heterotrophic and coliform populations than the E. guineensis, while the later contained more yeast species. Identification of isolated species revealed the presence of Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Brevibacterium sp. and Saccharomyces sp. from E. guineensis and R. hookeri. Moreso, heterotrophic counts and pH were observed to decrease as the fermentation time progressed. The combination of both V. amygdalina and S. gabonensis as preservatives lowered the bacterial and fungal load compared to the control and individual plant preservatives and reduced the rate of CO2 emission as well as keeping the pH fairly constant.

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References

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Article

Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus in Health Care Workers in Benghazi Hospitals

1Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya

2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, Libya


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 110-112
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nadia. E. Al-Abdli, Saleh.H. Baiu. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus in Health Care Workers in Benghazi Hospitals. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):110-112. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Nadia.  E. Al-Abdli, Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Email: batul.gr155@gmail.com

Abstract

This study was aimed to determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates in hospitals of Benghazi, Libya. The study was conducted in the period between April 2013 and August 2013 on HCWs from ten hospitals in Benghazi-Libya. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of HCWs were cultured and identified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), coagulase - negative staphylococci (CoNS) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton Agar using disc diffusion method. Of the 472 HCWs, (47.5%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, (21.4%) for MRSA and (26.1%) for MSSA, (36.4%) of CoNS. The highest carriage rate for S. aureus was in Physician (30.6%) followed by nurses (20.4%), helpers (22.9%) and technicians (10.9%). Almost all of the isolates showed high resistance against penicillin (97.5%) and ampicillin (98.2%). The lowest resistance recorded was for augmentin (14.2%), gentamycin (7.1%), clindamycin (7.5%) ciprofloxacin (3.2%) and vancomycin (2.1%). Most of isolated strains were susceptible to rifampicin (98.9%). The emergence of resistant strains of S.aureus should be prevented by controlling the amount of antibiotics used in and out of hospitals. Also, better control measures of nosocomial infection must be established.

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References

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