American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 76-79DOI:
Abstract: Grain amaranthus in its ordinary state may be modified by germination to perform extraordinary role as emulsifier for our fast- growing food industry with a concomitant increase in food production to satisfy the ever-increasing population of the world with its associated food insecurity. Hence, this study aimed at determining the optimum germination temperature for the maximum improvement of the functional properties of grain amaranthus with the view of using this as an emulsifier in food processing. The dry grains were germinated at 30oC, 32oC, 34oC, 36oC, 38oC, 40oC and designated as T30, T32, T34, T36, T38, T40 respectively and T00 for the negative control. The water and oil absorption capacities (WAC and OAC) were determined by centrifuging the samples in water and then groundnut oil . The emulsifying capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES) were determined by homogenizing the samples in groundnut oil and later centrifuging. Result was expressed as mean and Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were was used for comparison. The WAC increased from 107.58% in T00 to 118.97% in T30 with the peak value of 124.94% in T40. The OAC increased from 31.07% in the negative control to 33.13% in T30 with the peak value of 35.96% in T38. The emulsifying capacity was 2.0 1% in T00 and increased to 24.63% in T30. This property increased with increase in germination temperature to the maximum value of 31.17% in T40. The emulsion stability ranged between 1.20% in T00 to 2.31% in T36. Foam capacity in the negative control was zero and in T30 was 3.99% while the peak value was 8.45% in T32. The Hydrophile:Lipophile Balance (HLB) ranged between 3.28 in T38 to 4.16 in T40 which was higher than that of standard emulsifier, lecithin, with the value of 4.0. This shows that germinated grain amaranth may exhibit the same or even better emulsifying properties than lecithin which is a universal emulsifier even though it may not exert appreciable foaming properties where this is required.