American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2013, 1(4), 41-46DOI:
Abstract: Urinary Schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH) infections are serious problems in developing countries owing to climatic, environmental, and behavioral factors of the people that favor transmission. A cross-sectional survey involving 1,232 people aged 5-78 years in two villages in Vingujini Sub-Location, Msambweni District of Coast Province in Kenya was conducted to determine prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and soil transmitted helminths infections. Urine and stool samples were collected from 1,232 people in two villages in Vingujini Sub-Location. The samples were examined for eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and intestinal helminths respectively. Hematuria was determined using urine dip strips. Hemoglobin levels were determined for all participants to establish the relationship between hookworm disease and anemia. The overall occurrence of helminth infections were; 44% for Schistosoma haematobium, 29.6% for hookworm disease, 0.5% for Ascaris and 24.6% for trichuriasis (N = 1,232). Only 32.7% were free from any of the four types of parasitic infections screened. Infection with schistosome was highly correlated with Trichuris infection (r = 0.96, p = 0.006) and also highly correlated with age (f = 95.17, p > 0.01). Infections with Schistosoma haematobium (f = 95.17, p > 0.01), hookworm disease (f = 11.51, p = 0.010) and trichuriasis (f = 26.46, p > 0.01) were also age correlated. High intensities of Schistosoma haematobium were associated with hematuria (f = 639.99, p > 0.01). Prevalence of hookworm disease was not correlated with anemia, but there was a relationship between intensity of hookworm infection and anemia (r = -0.091, P< 0.01). Individuals with heavy and medium intensity of hookworm infections were more likely to suffer from anemia than individuals with low intensities or the non-infected (f = 5.5, p < 0.01). The current study has established high (44%) prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, hookworm (29.6%) and Trichuris (24.6%) infections in Msambweni compared to national prevalence for schistosomiasis (23%), and global prevalence for hookworms (10-20%). Infections with Ascaris were low. Majority of Schistosome infected subjects were also infected with hookworms or at least one STH. The data suggests that measures of intensity are required for increasing effectiveness of current control programs and stresses the need for enhanced public health interventions against these diseases.