American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(3), 48-56DOI:
Abstract: The cellular differentiation process involves complex genetic, epigenetic and signaling pathways systems. The analysis of a specific model of cellular differentiation may contribute to understand the global mechanisms. The cellular differentiation process based on the experimental reprogramming of somatic cells (terminally differentiated cells) to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used a study model of cellular differentiation. The cellular differentiation process includes constitutive changes in DNA damage response, chromatin remodeling, nuclear receptors, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis induction, cell adhesion and motility changes, immune recognition, metabolism routes, intercellular communication and in response to environment signals. It also includes the acquisition of changes into specialized cell subphenotypes as changes of shape, overproduction of organelles, suborganelles, control position of the mitotic spindle, preferential-transit signaling pathways and production of biomolecules with specialized functions. Different temporo-spatial genetic/epigenetic gene expression patterns and translational and posttranslational processes have been shown in the reprogramming of somatic cells. We analyze the main phenotype changes from fibroblast to iPSC (in cell cycle and cell adhesion/motility) to come after reprogramming, and use these changes as a model of cellular differentiation process.