Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, 7(6), 270-277
DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-6-9
Open AccessArticle

Assessment of the Contamination Level of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soil around Ekeatai River, Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Uwakmfon L. Bassey1, Tochi Ebe1, Peter. N Okeke1, Mbuka-Nwosu Iheoma. E1, Uloma O. Njionye1 and Chris O. Nwoko1,

1Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Pub. Date: December 15, 2019

Cite this paper:
Uwakmfon L. Bassey, Tochi Ebe, Peter. N Okeke, Mbuka-Nwosu Iheoma. E, Uloma O. Njionye and Chris O. Nwoko. Assessment of the Contamination Level of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soil around Ekeatai River, Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019; 7(6):270-277. doi: 10.12691/aees-7-6-9

Abstract

The presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment has been a concern due to risk to human health and the ecosystem. This study was carried out to assess the contamination level of PAHs in the soil around Ekeatai watershed, Eket, Nigeria. Soil samples (0-30cm) were analyzed for the presence of the 16 US-EPA priority PAH and human health risk. The identification and quantification of the PAHs in the soil samples were carried out using the Aligent 7890B GC-FID. The results of the analysis revealed that amongst the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs, seven (7) were detected in the soil samples. The total concentration of PAHs detected in the study area were: fluorene (9.5870mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1.2862mg/kg), pyrene (0.2782mg/kg), acenaphthene (0.1805mg/kg), anthracene (0.1545mg/kg), chrysene (0.1288mg/kg), and fluoranthene (0.0885mg/kg). PAH diagnostic ratio showed possible sources of PAHs to be pyrogenic, petrogenic and petroleum combustion. Benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene detected in the study area are known to be carcinogenic. The BaPTEQ for ΣPAH carcinogen ranged from 0.00013 - 0.13mg BaPTEQ/kg and the BaPTPE calculated in the study area was 0.13mg/kg. The values were lower than the human health-based soil quality guidelines for PAHs based on Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk of the Canadian government.

Keywords:
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons soil physicochemical parameters

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