World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
ISSN (Print): 2474-1426 ISSN (Online): 2474-1434 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjssh Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2019, 5(2), 92-100
DOI: 10.12691/wjssh-5-2-5
Open AccessArticle

Open Defecation Practice and Its Implications in Sub-Saharan Africa

Odafivwotu Ohwo1,

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 26, 2019

Cite this paper:
Odafivwotu Ohwo. Open Defecation Practice and Its Implications in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2019; 5(2):92-100. doi: 10.12691/wjssh-5-2-5

Abstract

Open defecation (OD) is the lowest form of sanitation and its elimination could enhance the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 target. Hence, this study is aimed at the analysis of OD practice and its implications in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study used a descriptive design based on data obtained from the WHO and UNICEF (2017) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) report. Open defecation data of countries in SSA were extracted from the global estimates and used to determine the status of OD in the region. The analysis revealed that OD is still widely practiced in SSA with negative implications on the health and socio-economic wellbeing of the people. Progress towards ending OD in most countries in the region is very slow, in fact, in some countries, the proportion of people practicing OD has increased. For example, from 2000-2015, OD increased by 7% in Djibouti, while it decreased by 53% in Ethiopia. Hence, the t-test analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the proportion of total OD reduction in the region from 2000 to 2015. It was also revealed that OD practice is more prevalent in the rural area than urban area in SSA. The major determinants of OD in SSA are socio-cultural, religious, physical, demographic and economic factors. The study recommends some strategic options which could reduce OD practice in SSA.

Keywords:
open defecation health and socio-economic implications sub-Saharan Africa

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  FWHO & UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines, Geneva: License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO, 2017.
 
[2]  Giné-Garriga, R., Flores-Baquero, Ó, de Palencia, A. J. F & Pérez-Foguet, A. “Monitoring sanitation and hygiene in the 2030 agenda for sustainable development: A review through the lens of human rights”. Science of the Total Environment, 580: 1108-1119. 2017.
 
[3]  Galan, D. I, Kim, S. S & Graham, J. P “Exploring changes in open defecation prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa based on national level indices”. BMC Public Health, 13: 527: 1-12. 2013.
 
[4]  UNICEF. Pneumonia and Diarrhoea - Tackling the Deadliest Diseases for the World’s Poorest Children, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, 2012.
 
[5]  Clasen, T. F, Bostoen, K, Schmidt, W. P, Boisson S, Fung I. C. H, Jenkins, M. W, Scott, B, Sugden S & Cairncross S. Interventions to Improve Disposal of Human Excreta for Preventing Diarrhoea, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6. 2010.
 
[6]  WHO & UNICEF. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water – 2015 Update and MDG Assessment, Geneva: World Health Organization. 2015.
 
[7]  Osumanu, I. K, Kosoe, E. A & Ategeeng, F. “Determinants of open defecation in the Wa Municipality of Ghana: Empirical findings highlighting socio-cultural and economic dynamics among households”. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2019, Article ID 3075840, 10 pages, 2019.
 
[8]  Abubakar, I. R. “Exploring the determinants of open defecation in Nigeria using demographic and health survey data”. Science of the Total Environment: 637-638C: 1455-1465, . 2018
 
[9]  Okullo, J. O, Moturi, W. N & Ogendi, G. M “Open defecation and its effects on the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources in Isiolo County, Kenya”. Environmental Health Insights, Volume 11: 1-8. 2017.
 
[10]  Ameyaw, S & Odame, F. S. “The menace of open defecation and disease in the Nadowli-Kaleo District, Ghana”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 7, Issue 12, 743-749. 2017.
 
[11]  Mara, D. “Elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: A moral imperative for governments and development professionals, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 07.1: 1-12. 2017.
 
[12]  Sample, E. D, Evans, B. E, Camargo-Valero, M.A, Wright, N.G & Leton, T. G. “Understanding the drivers of sanitation behaviour in riverine communities of Niger Delta, Nigeria: the case of Odi and Kaiama communities”. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 6 (3): 491-499. 2016.
 
[13]  Sengupta, S, Verma, R & Kazmi, S Bottom to the Fore: Rural sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 2018.
 
[14]  Coffey, D, Gupta, A., Hathi, P, Khurana, N, Spears, D, Srivastav, N. & Vyas, S. “Revealed preference for open defecation, Economic & Political Weekly, 49, 43. 2014.
 
[15]  Belcher, J.B. “Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison”. Bulletin of Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 12, No. 1: 34-44, View at Google Scholar, 1978.
 
[16]  Cotton, A, Franceys, R, Pickford, J & Saywell, D. On-Plot Sanitation in Low-Income Urban Communities: a Review of Literature, Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. 1995.
 
[17]  Crocker, J, Saywell, D & Bartram, J. “Sustainability of community-led total sanitation outcomes: evidence from Ethiopia and Ghana”. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220 (3), 551-557. 2017.
 
[18]  Sara, S & Graham, J. “Ending open defecation in rural Tanzania: which factors facilitate latrine adoption? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 11(9): 9854-70. 2014
 
[19]  WaterAid. Towards total sanitation: socio-cultural barriers and triggers to total sanitation in West Africa, report, Water Aid, 2009.
 
[20]  Jenkins, M. W & Scott, B. “Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana”. Soc. Sc Med. 64, 2427-2442. 2007.
 
[21]  Kirigia, J. M & Kainyu, L. “Predictors of toilet ownership in South Africa, East African Medical Journal, 77(12): 667-672. 2000.
 
[22]  Roche, R, Bain R & Cumming, O. “A long way to go- estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 Sub-Saharan African countries”. PLoS ONE 12(2): 2017.
 
[23]  O'Reilly, K., Dhanju, R., & Goel, A. “Exploring “The remote” and “the rural”: open defecation and latrine use in Uttarakhand, India. World Development, 93, 193-205. 2017.
 
[24]  Mulenga, J. N., Bwalya, B. B & Kaliba-Chishimba, K. “Determinants and inequalities in access to improved water sources and sanitation among the Zambian households”. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, Vol. 6 No. 8: 746-762. 2017.
 
[25]  WHO & UNICEF (2014) Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation, 2014 Update, Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation report/en/.
 
[26]  Gross, E., & Gunther, I. “Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: health, wealth, or prestige?” Water Resources Research, 50, 8314-8329. 2014.
 
[27]  Pruss-Ustun A, Bos R, Gore F & Bartram J. Safer Water, Better Health: Costs, Benefits and Sustainability of Interventions to Protect and Promote Health, World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/quantifyingehimpacts/publications/saferwater/en/. 2008. Accessed 10 August, 2017.
 
[28]  WHO. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
 
[29]  USAID (2017) West Africa Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Program, Real Impact: West Africa, [Online] Available: [https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/RI_WA_WASH_508.pdf ] Accessed July 30, 2018.
 
[30]  Strunz, E. C, Addiss D. G, Stocks, M. E, Ogden, S, Utzinger, J & Freeman, M. C “Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. PLoS Med. 2014.
 
[31]  Bora R, Sable C, Wolfson J, Boro K & Rao R. “Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India”. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med., 27: 887-91. 2014.
 
[32]  Padhi, B. K., Baker, K. K., Dutta, A., Cumming, O., Freeman, M. C., Satpathy, R., Das, B. S.& Panigrahi, P. “Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women practicing poor sanitation in rural India: a population-based prospective cohort study”. PLoS Med. 12 (7), e1001851. 2015.
 
[33]  Ayalew , A. M, Mekonnen, W. T, Abaya, S. W & Mekonnen, Z. A “Assessment of diarrhea and its associated factors in under-five children among open defecation and open defecation-free rural settings of Dangla District, Northwest Ethiopia” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2018, Article ID 4271915, 8 pages.
 
[34]  WSP (2012) Economic Impacts of Poor Sanitation in Africa, [Online] Available: [https://www.zaragoza.es/contenidos/medioambiente/onu/825-eng- v12.pdf ] Accessed, August 7, 2018.
 
[35]  Corburn J and Hildebrand, C.”Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women’s Health in Nairobi, Kenya”. J Environ Public Health, 1-6. 2015.
 
[36]  Van Houweling E, Hall R P, Sakho D. A, Davis J and Seiss M. “The role of productive water use in women’s livelihoods: evidence from rural Senegal”. Water Alternatives, Vol. 3, No 5: 658-67. 2012.
 
[37]  Federal Ministry of Water Resources. Making Nigeria Open-Defecation-Free by 2025: A National Road Map, Abuja, Nigeria. 2016.