World Journal of Environmental Engineering
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World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2017, 5(1), 7-16
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-5-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Rock Fracture Characterization for Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection: A Case from Sites in the Accra-Tema Area, SE Ghana

Amadu Casmed Charles1, , Foli Gordon2 and Abanyie Samuel1

1Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, University for Development Studies (UDS), Navrongo, Ghana

2Department of Geological Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana

Pub. Date: December 13, 2017

Cite this paper:
Amadu Casmed Charles, Foli Gordon and Abanyie Samuel. Rock Fracture Characterization for Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection: A Case from Sites in the Accra-Tema Area, SE Ghana. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2017; 5(1):7-16. doi: 10.12691/wjee-5-1-2

Abstract

In this paper, information on fracture characteristics in representatively selected sites in the Togo Structural Units (TSU) and Dahomeyan Formation in southeastern Ghana is presented. The study area is locatedat the south most edge of the Pan-African Dahomeyide belt, characterised by intense fracturing. Linear and circular scanline mappings, structural geological mapping, and laboratory investigations of rock samples collected from Site 1 (within the TSU), and Site 2 (within the Dahomeyan Formation) were carried out. A total of 1128 fractures were surveyed along a total length of 238 m of scanline at Site 1, and 629 fractures along a total of 156.0 m at Site 2. Fourteen and thirteen circular scanlines were surveyed at Site 1and Site 2 respectively. Statistical analysis of fracture data from the two study sites, and comparing the mean fracture spacing to International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) indicated a close to moderate fracture spacing for the two sites. However, fracturing is more intense in the TSU than the Dahomeyan formation, probably due to the nature of the major rock types, and difference in thickness of the two stratigraphic units. Micro-structural investigation on rock samples also showed mineral grains in the rocks of the TSU are more deformed compared to those of the Dahomeyan. Implications are that, potential for fluid flow and contaminants resulting from waste disposal could travel faster and for wider distances within Site 1 than in Site 2. Site 2 thus, could be a better choice for waste disposal site selection compared to Site 1due to its lesser fractured nature, and the fact that, the Dahomeyan already has natural groundwater quality problems.

Keywords:
waste disposal site selection environmental hydrogeology Accra-Tema area (Ghana)

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