World Journal of Environmental Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2372-3076 ISSN (Online): 2372-3084 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjee Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 6-11
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-2-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Major Nutrients and Their Stoichiometry over 45 Years (May 1963-May 2008) at the Northern and Southern Basin of Lake Biwa, Japan

Asheesh Shrivastava1, 2,

1National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR), Mumbai Zonal Lab, Mumbai, India

2Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Pub. Date: September 10, 2014

Cite this paper:
Asheesh Shrivastava. Major Nutrients and Their Stoichiometry over 45 Years (May 1963-May 2008) at the Northern and Southern Basin of Lake Biwa, Japan. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2014; 2(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/wjee-2-1-2

Abstract

On the basis of the chemical components found in Lake Biwa, Japan from May 1963 to May 2008, the vertical variation (0~70 m depth) of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Northern Basin (Ie-1) were evaluated. Similarly, TP and TN concentrations were also discussed at the surface of the Southern basin (Nb-5). It was concluded that the second stage nutrient concentrations had decreased compared to Northern basin due to increased macrophyte growth, improvement in inflow river waters and implementation of laws. The long term variations in the TN/TP ratios were also discussed in relation to propagation of plankton. The lower TN/TP ratios observed in the Northern and Southern Basins waters were well coincident with the more frequent and denser propagation of N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Recently, the TN/TP ratios have shown a tendency of increase in Southern Basin suggesting a first sign for the restoration of water.

Keywords:
lake biwa total phosphorus total nitrogen vertical distribution long term trends

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Hori, T., Sugiyama, Y., Kanao, M., Nagai, M., Taniguchi, N., Sugiyama, M., Fujinaga, T., Jpn. J. Limnol. 57 (1996) 183-197.
 
[2]  Sudo, M., Okubo, T., Kunimatsu, T., Ebise, S. Nakamura, M., Kaneki, R., Lakes & Reservoirs: Res. and Manage. 7 (2002) 301-308.
 
[3]  Kumagai, M., Nakanishi, M., Hashitani, H., Seike, Y., Vincent, W., Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. l26 (1997) 508-511.
 
[4]  Shiga Prefecture Government. White paper on the Environment of Shiga Prefecture. Shiga Prefecture Government, Otsu (in Japanese) 2008.
 
[5]  Nakanishi, M., Sekino, T., Geo J. 40 (1996) 63-67.
 
[6]  Horiuchi, M., Fukamachi, K., Oku, H., Landscape Ecol. Eng. 7 (2011) 217-222.
 
[7]  Aota, Y., Kumagai, M., Ishikawa, K., J. Limnol. 62 (2003) 42-48.
 
[8]  Rimmer, A., Aota, Y., Kumagai, M., Limnol. Oceanogr. 50 (2005) 147-157.
 
[9]  Nagare, H., Somiya, I., Fujii, S., Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, 2008, pp. 231-236.
 
[10]  Hori, T., Sugiyama, M., Fujinaga, T., Human Environ. Stud. 1 (1992) 23-41.
 
[11]  APHA, AWWA, WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 12th ed, 1965, pp. 230-236.
 
[12]  Hori, T., Kanada, Y., Fujinaga, T., Bunseki Kaga. 31 (1982) 592- 597.
 
[13]  Koyama, M., Hori, T., Kitayama,Y., Instr. Anal. Res. Center Repts. 2 (1976) 11-14.
 
[14]  APHA, AWWA, WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 13th ed, 1971b, pp. 244-247.
 
[15]  Koyama, M., Kagaku seibun no henka (Variation of chemical components) In: Biwako no dotai (Dynamics of Lake Biwa), Jiji Press, Jpn, 1974, pp. 109-135.
 
[16]  Hsieh, C. H., Sakai, Y., Ban, S., Ishikawa, K., Biogeosci. 8 (2011) 1383-1399.
 
[17]  Sohrin, Y., Tateishi, T., Mito, S., Matsui, M., Maeda, H., Hattori, A., Kawashima, M., Hasegawa, H., Lakes & Reservoirs: Res. and Manage. 2 (1996) 77-87.
 
[18]  Shrivastava, A., Environmental chemistry of Lake Biwa, Japan: General trend in the changes of water quality judged from the long- term variation and the characteristics distribution of nutritious elements. PhD thesis, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, (2010).
 
[19]  Oonishi, Y., Imasato, N., Contributions Geophys. Inst. 14 (1974) 11-19.
 
[20]  Tezuka, Y., Jpn. J. Limnol. 46 (1985) 239-246.
 
[21]  Shiga Prefecture Government Environmental Policy Division. Environmental of Shiga Prefecture - A guideline. Shiga Prefecture Government Environmental Policy Division, Otsu, (in Japanese) 2001.
 
[22]  Yoshimura, C., Omura, T., Furumai, H., Tockner, K., River Res. Appl. 21 (2005) 93-112.
 
[23]  Imamoto, H., Oikawa, T., Omura, T., Oda, M., Washitani, I., Ecol. Civil Eng. 2 (2006) 121-132.
 
[24]  Lake Biwa Research institute (LBRI). Lake memorial volume of Lake Biwa Research Institute, 2005, (in Japanese) pp. 397.
 
[25]  Hamabata, E., Kobayashi, Y., Lakes and Reservoirs Res. and Manag. 7 (2002) 331-338.
 
[26]  Haga, H., Nippon Suisan Gakki 74 (2008) 892-894.
 
[27]  Moss, B., The Broads. The people‚Äôs wetland. The New Naturalist. Harper Collins Publishers, London, 2001.
 
[28]  Nakai, K., Inoue, Y., Hosomi, M., Murakami, A., Water Sci. Tech. 39 (1999) 47-53.
 
[29]  Faafeng, B.A., Mjelde, M., Clear and turbid water in shallow Norwegian lakes related to submerged vegetation. In : The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds Jeppensen E, Sondergaard M, Sondergaard M and Chistoffersen K). Springer- Verlag, New York, 1998, pp. 361-368.
 
[30]  Taguchi, K., Nakata, K., Ecol. Modell. 220 (2009) 2255-2271.
 
[31]  Shiga Prefecture Government. White paper on the Environment of Shiga Prefecture. Shiga Prefecture Government, Otsu, (in Japanese) 2006.
 
[32]  Danger, M., Daufresne, T., Lucas, F., Pissard, S., Lacroix, G., Oikos 117 (2008) 1741-1751.
 
[33]  Pearsall, W.H., J Ecol. 20 (1932) 241-262.
 
[34]  Schindler, D.W., Science 46 (1977) 260-262.
 
[35]  Smith, V. H., Science 221 (1983) 669-671.
 
[36]  Tilman, D., Resource competition and community structure. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, NJ, 1982.
 
[37]  Nakanishi, M., Mitamura, O., Matsubara, T., Jpn. J. Limnol. 51 (1990) 185-189.
 
[38]  Okamura, T., Long-term changes in the water quality of Lake Biwa Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, 2008, pp. 176-183.
 
[39]  Tezuka, Y., Nakano, S., Jpn. J. Limnol. 54 (1993) 85-90.
 
[40]  Ishikawa K., Kumagai, M., Vincent, W.F., Tsujimura, S., Nakahara, H., Limnol. 3 (2006) 87-96.
 
[41]  Tsugeki, N.K., Urabe, J., Hayami, Y., Kuwae, M., Nakanishi, M., J. Paleolimnol. 44 (2010) 69-83.
 
[42]  Ichise, S., Wakabayashi, T., Fujiwara, N., Mizushima, K., Ito, M., Rept. Shiga Pref. Inst. Pub. Hlth. Environ. Sci. 36 (2001) 29-35.
 
[43]  Shiga Prefecture Government. White paper on the Environment of Shiga Prefecture. Shiga Prefecture Government, Otsu (in Japanese) 2001.
 
[44]  Nakanishi, M., Nozaki, K., Kagami, M., Kohmatsu, Y., Trans. Res. Inst. Oceanochem. 14 (2001) 104-111.