World Journal of Chemical Education
ISSN (Print): 2375-1665 ISSN (Online): 2375-1657 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjce Editor-in-chief: Prof. V. Jagannadham
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World Journal of Chemical Education. 2017, 5(3), 94-101
DOI: 10.12691/wjce-5-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Thermochemistry of Acrylamide Polymerization: An Illustration of Auto-acceleration and Gel Effect

Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit1,

1Department of Chemical and Process Engineering Technology, Jubail Industrial College, Jubail Industrial City 31961, Saudi Arabia

Pub. Date: April 21, 2017

Cite this paper:
Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit. Thermochemistry of Acrylamide Polymerization: An Illustration of Auto-acceleration and Gel Effect. World Journal of Chemical Education. 2017; 5(3):94-101. doi: 10.12691/wjce-5-3-3

Abstract

Addition polymerization of alkenes is an exothermic process due to the relief of the bond strain from C-C double bonds (π bonds) in the monomer molecules. Control of exothermic reactions is crucial for preventing runaway reactions/explosions in the industrial setting. This experiment was designed for undergraduate students to demonstrate the exothermic nature of addition (chain-growth) polymerization and to estimate the enthalpy of polymerization using adiabatic calorimetry technique. Acrylamide (AAM) was polymerized using ammonium persulfate (APS) and Tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) as redox initiators at room temperature. The concentration of AAM monomer was varied in the range of 5-25 wt. %, and the heat of polymerization was calculated from the recorded temperature rise (ΔT). The enthalpy of AAM polymerization (∆Hp) was estimated to be ≈ 16.5–19 kcal/ mole, depending on the monomer concentration. Enthalpy of polymerization was increased with increasing the monomer concentration due the auto-acceleration effect, which was clearly observed for solutions with AAM concentrations of ≥ 20 wt. %. The auto-acceleration phenomenon was identified from the fast and non-linear increase in the rate of temperature rise which reached a maximum of (0.5°C/ s) for solutions with AAM of 25 wt. %. For AAM concentrations of ≥ 20 wt. %, the auto-acceleration was accompanied by the polymer gelation (gel effect) due to the formation of the high molecular weight polyacrylamides.

Keywords:
polymer chemistry polymerization enthalpy of polymerization redox polymerization polyacrylamide gel effect auto-acceleration norrish-smith effect runaway reaction solution polymerization

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