World Journal of Chemical Education
ISSN (Print): 2375-1665 ISSN (Online): 2375-1657 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prof. V. Jagannadham
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016, 4(2), 45-48
DOI: 10.12691/wjce-4-2-3
Open AccessArticle

An Exercise in Sampling: The Effect of Sample Size and Number of Samples on Sampling Error

Juan M. Sanchez1,

1Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, 17003-Girona, Spain

Pub. Date: June 18, 2016

Cite this paper:
Juan M. Sanchez. An Exercise in Sampling: The Effect of Sample Size and Number of Samples on Sampling Error. World Journal of Chemical Education. 2016; 4(2):45-48. doi: 10.12691/wjce-4-2-3


A simple and fast exercise is outlined to show science students the importance of determining the size of a sample and also the quantity of sample in order to minimize sampling error and improve accuracy, and to achieve a desired error.

in the classroom analytical chemistry sampling active learning

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Harris, D.C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis, W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 2007.
[2]  Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., Holler, F.J., Crouch, S.R., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, 2014.
[3]  Christian, G.D., Analytical Chemistry, Wiley, 2004.
[4]  Laitinen, H.A. and Harris, W.E., Chemical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.
[5]  Kratochvil, B., Reid, R.S., Harris, W.E., “Sampling error in a particulate mixture: an analytical chemistry experiment”, Journal of Chemical Education, 57(7), 518-520, 1980.
[6]  Bauer C.F., “Sampling error lecture demonstration”, Journal of Chemical Education, 62(3), 253, 1985.
[7]  Stone, C.A. and Mumaw, L.D., “Practical experiments is statistics”, Journal of Chemical Education, 72(6), 518-524, 1995.
[8]  Salzsieder, J.C., “Statistical analysis experiment for the freshman chemistry lab”, Journal of Chemical Education, 72(7), 623, 1995.
[9]  Vitt, J.E. and Engstrom, R.C., “Effect of sample size on sampling error: an experiment for introductory analytical chemistry”, Journal of Chemical Education, 76(1), 99-100, 1999.
[10]  Ross, M.R., Bacon, D.W., Wolsey, W.C., “A classroom exercise in sampling technique”, Journal of Chemical Education, 77(8), 1015-1016, 2000.
[11]  Hartman, J.R.,” An in-class experiment to illustrate the importance of sampling techniques and statistical analysis of data to quantitative analysis students”, Journal of Chemical Education, 77(8), 1017-1018, 2000.
[12]  Canaes, L.S., Brancalion, M.L., Rossi, A.V., Rath, S., “Using candy samples to learn about sampling techniques and statistical data evaluation”, Journal of Chemical Education, 85(8), 1083, 2008.
[13]  Logue, B.A. and Youso, S.L., “A laboratory exercise to demonstrate the theory and practice of analytical sampling”, Journal of Chemical Education, 87(3), 316-319, 2010.