World Journal of Chemical Education
ISSN (Print): 2375-1665 ISSN (Online): 2375-1657 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjce Editor-in-chief: Prof. V. Jagannadham
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019, 7(3), 196-202
DOI: 10.12691/wjce-7-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Copper Dissoliution in Concentrated Sulfuric Acid

A. Sulcius1, , E. Griskonis1 and N. Zmuidzinaviciene1

1Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania

Pub. Date: May 29, 2019

Cite this paper:
A. Sulcius, E. Griskonis and N. Zmuidzinaviciene. Copper Dissoliution in Concentrated Sulfuric Acid. World Journal of Chemical Education. 2019; 7(3):196-202. doi: 10.12691/wjce-7-3-2

Abstract

When redox reactions are studied in the chemistry course, focus is limited to the use of a series of metal activity, electron or electron-ion balance method, and writing of the reaction equations. Students find the redox reactions that occur during the dissolution of metals in acids difficult. Motivated students should be able to solve four problems while studying redox reactions: 1) indicate oxidizing agent and reducing agent; 2) write correct products forming and balance the redox reaction; 3) calculate the electromotive force E0 of the redox reaction; 4) indicate the thermodynamic possibility of the occurrence of redox reaction by calculating Gibbs energy ΔG0. The proposed improved methodology for studying the reactions of dissolution of metals in acids allows students to systematize and expand knowledge about redox reactions in inorganic chemistry. To improve the assimilation of knowledge about the dissolution of copper in sulfuric acid, mnemonic scheme has been proposed that makes it possible to understand better composition of the products. Copper reacted with concentrated sulfuric acid only when heated and precipitation of black deposit was observed. The amount of black deposit in the acid and on the surface of copper depended on the method and intensity of heating: heating with interruptions or intensive continuous heating. It has been determined, that during copper dissolution in concentrated 96% sulfuric acid two reactions take place (the main and the parallel) and precipitation of black deposit, consisting mainly of Cu2S and a small amount of Cu2O, is observed.

Keywords:
high school/introductory chemistry inorganic chemistry mnemonics/rote learning metals oxidation/reduction reactions

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 10

References:

[1]  Mendeleev, D. I. Collected Works. Volume IX. Gunpowder. L.- M.: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1954.
 
[2]  Tillu, M. M. The action of nitric acid on metals. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30(6), 290.
 
[3]  Pannu, S. S. Nitric acid. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61(2), 174-176.
 
[4]  Jonson, R. L.; Hobson, R.; Weber, J. H. Continuous dissolution of copper by HNO3. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 50(8), 1194.
 
[5]  Sytsma, T. M.; Li, A.; Ganske, J. A. Nitric Acid Acts Upon Copper: Gas Phase Product Analysis of a Historic Reaction Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The Chemical Educator. 2018, 23, 58-63.
 
[6]  Mossotti, V. G. A Simplified algorithm for Temperature Conversions. J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80(12), 1380.
 
[7]  Orsini, G. Exploring Do-It-Yourself Approaches in Computational Quantum Chemistry: The Pedagogical Benefits of the Classical Boys algorithm. J. Chem. Edu. 2015, 92(11), 1853-1859.
 
[8]  Goodwin, A. The use of various schemas to assist science teaching and learning. J. Chem. Edu. 2000, 1(1), 43-47.
 
[9]  Kurushkin, M. Writing Reactions of Metals with Nitric Acid: A Mnemonic Device for Introductory Chemistry Students. J. Chem. Edu. 2015, 92(6), 1125-1126.
 
[10]  Bybee, R.; McCrae, B.; Laurie, R. PISA 2006: An Assessment of Scientific Literacy. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2009, 46(8), 865−883.
 
[11]  Rocard, M.; Csermely, P.; Jorde, D.; Lenzen, D.; Walberg-Henriksson, H.; Hemmo, V. Science Education Now: A Renewed Pedagogy for thee Future of Europe; European Commission: Brusel, 2007; p 28.
 
[12]  Fortus, D.; Dershimer, R. C.; Krajcik, J.; Marx, R. W.; Mamlok-Naaman, R. Design-Based Science and Student Learning. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2004, 41, 1081-1110.
 
[13]  Laredo, T. Changing the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory Manual To Implement a Problem-Based Approach That Improves Student Engagement. J. Chem. Educ. 2013, 90(9), 1151-1154.
 
[14]  DeWit, D. G. Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83(11), 1625-1628.
 
[15]  Eminah, J. A. Reaction between zinc and concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen sulfide. School Science Review. 2009, 91(334), 20−22.
 
[16]  Yang, S. P. How many atomic layers of zinc are in a galvanized iron coating? An experiment for general chemistry laboratory. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84(11), 1792−1794.
 
[17]  Rusek, M.; Benes, P.; Carroll, J. Unexpected discovery: a guided-inquiry experiment on the reaction kinetics of zinc with sulfuric acid. J. Chem. Educ. 2018, 95(6), 1018-1021.
 
[18]  Miecinskas P. Copper dissolution rate as a function of the corroding-surface tilt. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2005, 41(7), 731-735.
 
[19]  Valsyunas, I.; Mechinskas, P.; Yasulaitene, V.; Leinartas, K. Initial stages of the copper corrosion in sulfate-containing solutions. Protection of Metals. 2002, 38(1), 71-77.
 
[20]  Housecrof, C.E.; Sharpe, A. G. Inorganic chemistry, 3rd edition, Pearson, 2008, p. 733.
 
[21]  Petrucci, R. General chemistry. Principles and modern applications, McMillan Publishing Company, New York, 1989, 1042.
 
[22]  Chambers, C.A.; Holliday, K. Modern inorganic chemistry, Butterwoth&Co, Great Britain, 1975, p. 405.
 
[23]  Drozdov, A.A.; Zlomanov, V. P.; Mazo, G. M.; Spiridonov, F. M. Inorganic chemistry, Vol. 3, book 2, (In Russian), Academy, Moscow, 2004, p. 399.
 
[24]  Lidin, P. A.; Molochko, V. A.; Andreyeva, L. L. Chemical properties of inorganic compounds (In Russian), Khimiya, Moscow, 2000, p. 286.
 
[25]  Tromans, D.; Ahmed, T. Active/Passive Behavior of Copper in Strong Sulfuric Acid. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1998, 145920, 601-608.
 
[26]  Kiss, L., Kinetics of Electrochemical Metal Dissolution, Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1988.
 
[27]  Moreira, A.H.; Benedetti, H. V.; Cabot, P.L.; Sumodjo, P.T.A. Electrochemical behaviour of copper electrode in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions. Electrochim. Acta. 1993, 38(7), 981-987.
 
[28]  Tretyakov, Ju. D.; Martinenko, L. I.; Grigoryev, A. N.; Chivadze, A. Yu. Inorganic chemistry. Chemistry of elements, Vol. 2 (In Russian), MGU, Moscow, 2007, p. 670.
 
[29]  Grishina, E. P.; Udalova, A. M.; Rumyantsev, E. M. Anodic oxidation of copper in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2002, 38(9), 1041–1044.
 
[30]  Zumdal, S. S. Chemistry, 3rd edition; Heath and company, 1993.