World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Can a Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum: Cruciferae) Seeds be a Poisonous Bait for the Larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts?

N. Al-Fuhaid1,

1Department of Biology, Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, College of Science and Humanities, Kharj, Saudi Arabia

Pub. Date: March 08, 2018

Cite this paper:
N. Al-Fuhaid. Can a Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum: Cruciferae) Seeds be a Poisonous Bait for the Larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts?. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018; 6(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-1


The Crude Extract and powder of Lepidium sativum Linn. seeds were evaluated for a toxicity effect on 5th instar larvae of the Trogoderma granarium beetle by vapor and diet incorporation methods, respectively, as well as the repellent indicators of the powder at concentrations of 2, 0.9, 0.5, and 0.1% (w/w); the toxicity assay of essential oil was evaluated at 20, 15, 10, and 5 µl/L air. The results show that a variety of 5th larvae responses proved the effectiveness, where the essential oil vapors showed a high fumigate toxicity at 28.64 µl/L air, where the LC50 was identified after 72 hours of exposure. Additionally, the powder showed a toxicity effect at the concentrations of 2, 0.9 and 0.5% (w/w), which caused 100 and 96% mortality, respectively, and the LC50 was identified at 0.26% after 10 days of treatment. The exhibited repellent percentages of the powder were weak and at the same time had high acceptance and larval attractivity to the wheat grains treated. The attractive percentage was determined at -53.3% and -66.6% at the lowest and highest applied concentrations of 0.1% and 2% after 72 hours of exposure. The presence of the inverse relationship between the attractive and toxicity properties of the same material (L. sativum seeds) is a promising sign to the safe modeling of toxic baits, which attract and then kill larvae.

Lepidium sativum weak repellent toxic baits attractive properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Rahman, M.A., Mossa, J.S., Al-Said, M.S. and Al-Yahya, M.A., “Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families”, Fitoterapia, 75 (2). 149-161. March 2004.
[2]  Peterka, S. and Schlosser, E., “In vitro activity of glucosinolates against Leptosphaeria maculans in comparison to the glucosinolate content and susceptibility of seedlings of different Brassica spp. [gluconapin, sinigrin, progoitrin, glucobrassicin, nasturtiin]”, Rijksuniversiteit Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent, 54. 439-446. 1989.
[3]  Negahban, M., Moharramipour, S. and Yousefelahi, M., “Efficacy of essential oil from Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of the article”, in Proceedings of the 4th International Iran & Russia Conference, Agricultural and Natural Resources, Shahrekord University, 2004. 261-266.
[4]  Chaubey, M.K., “Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)”, Journal of Oleo Science, 57 (3). 171-179. February 2008.
[5]  Isman, M.B., “Plant essential oils for pest and disease management”, Crop Protection, 19 (8-10). 603-608. September 2000.
[6]  Soujanya, P. L., Sekhar, J. C., Kumar, P., Sunil, N., Prasad, C. V., and Mallavadhani, U. V. “Potentiality of Botanical Agents for the Management of Post-Harvest Insects of Maize: A Review.” Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5 (53). 2169-2184. May 2016.
[7]  Zia-Ul-Haq, M., Shah, M.R., Qayum, M. and Ercisli, S., “Biological screening of selected flora of Pakistan”, Biological Research, 45 (4). 375-379. January 2012.
[8]  Sarwar, M. and Sattar, M., “Appraisal of different plant products against Trogoderma granarium everts to protect stored wheat-a laboratory comparison”, The Nucleus, 49 (1). 65-69. 2012.
[9]  Ageel, A.M., Tariq, M., Mossa, J.S., Al-Yahya, M.A. and Al-Said, M.S., Plant used in Saudi folk medicine: experimental report submitted to the King Abdul Aziz City for science and technology, King Saud University Press, Riyadh, 1987.
[10]  Rehman, N.U., Khan, A.U., Alkharfy, K.M. and Gilani, A.H., “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Lepidium sativum in airways disorders”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012. 596524. October 2012.
[11]  Doke, S.D. and Guha, M., “Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed-an important medicinal source: a review”, Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 4 (1). 69-80. January 2014.
[12]  Chauhan, N.S., Sharma, V., Dixit, V.K. and Thakur, M., “A review on plants used for improvement of sexual performance and virility”, BioMed Research International, 2014. 868062. August 2014.
[13]  Baquar, S.R., Medicinal and poisonous plants of Pakistan, Printas, Karachi, 1989.
[14]  Nadkarni, K.M., Indian materia medica, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976.
[15]  Kimbaris, A.C., Koliopoulos, G., Michaelakis, A. and Konstantopoulou, M.A., “Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens”, Parasitology Research, 111 (6). 2403-2410. September 2012.
[16]  Radwan, H., El-Missiry, M., Al-Said, W., Ismail, A., Abdel, S.K. and Seif-El-Nasr, M., “Investigation of the glucosinolates of Lepidium sativum growing in Egypt and their biological activity”, Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2 (2). 127-132. 2007.
[17]  Maier et al., A process for the preparation of dietary fibre from garden cress seeds. Indian Patent No.242/DEL, 2002.
[18]  Edziri, H., Marzouk, B., Mabrouk, H., Garreb, M., Douki, W., Mahjoub, A., Verschaeve, L., Najjar, F. and Mastouri, M., “Phytochemical screening, butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and anti-inflammatory effect of some Tunisian medicinal plants”, South African Journal of Botany, 114. 84-88. January 2018.
[19]  Hole, B.D., Bell, C.H., Mills, K.A. and Goodship, G., “The toxicity of phosphine to all developmental stages of thirteen species of stored product beetles”, Journal of Stored Products Research, 12 (4). 235-244. December 1976.
[20]  Golob, P. and Hodges, R.J., Study on an outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in Tanzania, Report G162, Tropical Development and Research Institute, London, 1982.
[21]  Kerr, J.A., “Khapra beetle returns”, Pest Control, 49. 24-25. 1988.
[22]  Hinton, H.E., A monograph of the beetles associated with stored products, British Museum (Natural History), London, 1945.
[23]  OEPP/EPPO, “Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 121, Trogoderma granarium”, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 11 (1).1981.
[24]  Honey, S.F., Bajwa, B., Mazhar, M.S. and Wakil, W., “Trogoderma granarium (everts)(Coleoptera: Dermestidae), an alarming threat to rice supply chain in Pakistan”, International Journal of Entomological Research, 5 (1). 23-31. June 2017.
[25]  Khan, A. and Brooks, W., “A chromogenic bioluminescent bacterium associated with the entomophilic nematode Chromonema heliothidis”, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 29 (3). 253-261. January 1977.
[26]  Tripathi, A.K., Prajapati, V., Aggarwal, K.K. and Kumar, S., “Toxicity, feeding deterrence and effect of activity of 1,8-cineole from Artemisia annua on progeny production of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)”, Journal of Economic Entomology, 94 (4). 979-983. August 2001.
[27]  Musa, A.K. and Dike, M.C., “Life cycle, morphometrics and damage assessment of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on stored groundnut”, Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade, 54 (2). 135-142. January 2009.
[28]  Parashar, M.P., Post-harvest profile of black gram, Govt. India, Ministry of Agric. Deptt. Agric. and Coop. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Nagpur, 2006.
[29]  Morison, G.D., “The Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium everts)”, Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, 21. 10-13. 1925.
[30]  Saxena, R.C., Dixit, O.P. and Sukumaran, P., “Laboratory assessment of indigenous plant extracts for anti-juvenile hormone activity in Culex quinquefasciatus”, Indian Journal Medicine Research, 95. 204-206. July 1992.
[31]  Hasan, U.M., Sagheer, M., Ali, Q., Iqbal, J. and Shahbaz, M., “Growth regulatory effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum on developmental stages of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)”, Pakistan Entomologist, 34. 111-115. 2012.
[32]  Alrubeai, H.F., Teimmi, N.K. and Al-Daragi, S.F., “Efficacy of crude extracts of Melia azedarach L. and Azadirachta indica A. Juss in killing nymphs and adults of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)”, Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 22 (1). 47-52. 2004.
[33]  Naworth, J., “Wstepne badania and atraktantami pokarmowymil replentamidla chrzas zezy wolka zbozowego (Sitophillus granarius).” Prace Nauk.IOR, 15. 179-189. 1973.
[34]  Ignatowicz, S. and Wesołowska, B., “Repellency of powdered plant material of the Indian neem tree, the Labrador tea, and the sweet-flag, to some stored product pests”, Polish Entomological Letter, 65 (1,2). 61-67. 1996.
[35]  Abbott, W.S., “A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide”, Journal of Economic Entomology, 18 (2). 265-267. April 1925.
[36]  Ling, A.I., Sulaiman, S. and Othman, H., “Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. essential oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.)”, Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, 3 (2). 1-6. December 2009.
[37]  War, A.R., Paulraj, M.G., Ahmad, T., Buhroo, A.A., Hussain, B., Ignacimuthu, S. and Sharma, H.C., “Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores”, Plant Signaling & Behavior, 7 (10). 1306-1320. October 2012.
[38]  Schmutterer, H. and Ascher, K.R.S., The neem tree: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and other meliaceous plants : sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes, VCH, Weinheim, 1995.
[39]  Jeyasankar, A., Chennaiyan, V. and Chinnamani, T., “Evaluation of five essential plant oils as a source of repellent and larvicidal activities against larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)”, Journal of Entomology, 13 (3). 98-103. March 2016.
[40]  Park, I.K., Park, J.Y., Kim, K.H., Choi, K.S., Choi, I.H., Kim, C.S. and Shin, S.C., “Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) oils against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)”, Nematology, 7 (5). 767-774. July 2005.
[41]  Cetin, H. and Yanikoglu, A., “A study of the larvicidal activity of Origanum (Labiatae) species from southwest Turkey”, Journal of Vector Ecology, 31 (1). 118-122. June 2006.
[42]  Grdiša, M. and Gršić, K., “Botanical insecticides in plant protection”, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 78 (2). 85-93. June 2013.
[43]  Tandon, N. and Yadav, S.S., “Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of medicinal plants/traditional medicine”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 197. 39-45. February 2016.
[44]  Burow, M., Bergner, A., Gershenzon, J. and Wittstock, U., “Glucosinolate hydrolysis in Lepidium sativum-identification of the thiocyanate-forming protein”, Plant Molecular Biology, 63 (1). 49-61. December 2007.
[45]  Gokavi, S.S., Malleshi, N.G. and Guo, M., “Chemical composition of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds and its fractions and use of bran as a functional ingredient”, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 59 (3). 105-111. July 2004.
[46]  Chauhan, K., Sharma, S., Agarwal, N., Chauhan, S. and Chauhan, B., “A study on potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lepidium Sativum (Garden Cress) in Alloxan induced diabetic rats”, American Journal of PharmTech Research, 2. 522-535. 2012.
[47]  Don-Pedro, K.N., “Mechanisms of action of some vegetable oils against Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on wheat”, Journal of Stored Products Research, 25 (4). 217-223. October 1989.
[48]  Sukontason, K.L., Boonchu, N., Sukontason, K. and Choochote, W., “Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae)”, Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 46 (2). 97-101. April 2004.
[49]  Abdelgaleil, S.A.M., Mohamed, M.I.E., Badawy, M.E.I. and El- Arami, S.A.A., “Fumigant and contact toxicities of monoterpenes to Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase activity”, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 35 (5). 518-525. May 2009.
[50]  Richards, A.G., “The chemistry of insect cuticle of the article”, in Rockstein, M. (ed) Biochemistry of Insects, Academic Press, New York, U. S. A., 1978. 205-232.
[51]  Lee, S., Peterson, C.J. and Coats, J.R., “Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects”, Journal of Stored Products Research, 39 (1). 77-85. January 2003.
[52]  Prates, H.T., Santos, J.P., Waquil, J.M., Fabris, J.D., Oliveira, A.B. and Foster, J.E., “Insecticidal activity of monoterpenes against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)”, Journal of Stored Products Research, 34 (4). 243-249. October 1998.
[53]  Lamiri, A., Lhaloui, S., Benjilali, B. and Berrada, M., “Insecticidal effects of essential oils against Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)”, Field Crops Research, 71 (1). 9-15. June 2001.
[54]  Ateyyat, M.A., Al-Mazra'awi, M., Abu-Rjai, T. and Shatnawi, M.A., “Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Lmidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, Journal of Insect Science, 9 (15). 1-6. May 2009.
[55]  Negahban, M. and Moharramipour, S., “Fumigant toxicity of Eucalyptus intertexta, Eucalyptus sargentii and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against stored-product beetles”, Journal of Applied Entomology, 131 (4). 256-261. May 2007.