World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjar Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 173-182
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4
Open AccessArticle

Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya

Kariithi Samuel Ngure1, , Abwao Stephen Indieka1, Ndung’u John2 and Njau Peter3

1Egerton University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Food Crops Research Centre Njoro, Kenya

3Highland Agri-consult Services Limited, P.O Box 470-20107, Njoro, Kenya

Pub. Date: October 10, 2016

Cite this paper:
Kariithi Samuel Ngure, Abwao Stephen Indieka, Ndung’u John and Njau Peter. Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):173-182. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4

Abstract

Wheat is an important cereal crop in most diets thus its nutritional content is crucial in addressing microelement deficiencies. This study focused on Zn, Fe, phytic acid and resistant starch content and their effect on rheological and organoleptic properties for whole meal flour from Kenyan wheat varieties. Zn and Fe levels ranged from111 to 305 ppm and 26 to 91 ppm, whereas phytic acid and resistant starch levels ranged from 2.66 to 5.05 ppm and 0.37 to 6.03%. Variety and site significantly (p<0.05) influenced iron and resistant starch content, whereas variety and variety × site influenced zinc and phytic acid. Protein and gluten levels ranged between 11.96 to 14.53% and 7.81% to 19.60% respectively. All the varieties recorded high water absorption levels ranging from 72.2% to 80.8%, while DDT ranged from 4.00 to 9.83 minutes. P and L values ranged between 21 to 79 and 16 to 51 mm, external loaf characteristics ranged between 2.2 to 4.3 and 2.13 to 3.70 for taste and aroma. Zinc and protein positively correlated (r=0.69, p<0.05), stability and P (r=0.69 p<0.05) and DDT and stability (0.71 p<0.05). Phytic acid and crust colour (r=0.66 p<0.05), zinc and shape (r=0.78 p<0.05), zinc and acceptability (r=0.77 p<0.05), DDT and shape (r=0.74 p<0.05), aroma and shape (r=0.67 p<0.05) were positively correlated. The results obtained indicate varieties tested contained considerable levels of zinc, iron, resistant starch, low levels of phytic acid and they had no adverse effect on rheological and organoleptic parameters of whole meal flour.

Keywords:
zinc and iron content dough development time rheological organoleptic protein whole meal flour

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Abdelghafor R.F., Mustapha A.I., Ibrahim A.M.H. and Krishnan P.G. (2011). Quality of bread from composite flour of sorghum and hard white winter wheat. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(1):9-15.
 
[2]  Ahrne L., Andersson C.G., Floberg P., Rosen J. and Lingnert H. (2007). Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: steam and falling temperature baking. Journal of Food Science Technology, 40: 1708-1715.
 
[3]  Anjum F.M., Ahmad I., Butt M.S., Arshad M.U. and Pasha I. (2008). Improvement in end use quality of spring wheat varieties grown in different eras. Journal of Food Chemistry, 106(2): 482-486.
 
[4]  Banu I., Georgeta S., Violeta S.I. and Luliana A. (2012). Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality. Journal of Food Technology, 36(1):39-42.
 
[5]  Bekedam E.K, Schols H.A., Boekel M.A.J.S., and Smith G. (2006). High molecular weight melanoidins from coffee brew. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54:7658-7663.
 
[6]  Belderok B., Mesdag J., Donner D.A. (2000). Bread making quality of wheat: A century of breeding in Europe. Kluwer Academic Publisher: Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 30-31.
 
[7]  Birt D.F., Terri B., Suzanne H., Jay-Lin J., James H., Li L., John M., Samuel M., Gregory J.P., Matthew R., Kevin S., Paul S. and Elizabeth M. (2013). Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health. Journal of Advances in Nutrition, 4: 587-601.
 
[8]  Bhupinder, S., Senthil, K.A.N., Singh B.K. and Usha K. 2005. Improving zinc efficiency of cereals under zinc deficiency. Journal of Current Science 88(1):36-44.
 
[9]  Coudray C, Demigne C, Rayssiguier Y (2003). Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans. Journal of Nutrition, 133:1-4.
 
[10]  Crina M., Laura S., Simona M., Stancuta S. and Sevastita M. (2012). Sensory evaluation of bakery products and its role in determining of the consumer preferences. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 18(4):304-306.
 
[11]  Dewettinck K., Van Bockstaele F., Kuhne B., Van de Walle D., Courtens T.M. and Gellynck X. (2008). Nutritional value of bread: influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception. Journal of Cereal Science, 48:243-257.
 
[12]  Febles C.I., Arias, A., Hardisson A., Rodrıguez-Alvare, C. and Sierra A. (2002). Phytic acid level in wheat flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 36:19-23.
 
[13]  Fei D., Junmei W., Saihua Z., Zhenzhen X. and Guoping Z. (2007). Genotypic and environmental variation in phytic acid content and its relation to protein content and malt quality in barley. Journal of Food Chemistry, 105:606-611.
 
[14]  Genc, Y., Humphries, J.M., Lyons, G.H. and Graham, R.D. 2005. Exploiting genotypic variation in plant nutrient accumulation to alleviate micronutrient deficiency in populations. Journal of Trace Elements and Medical Biology 18:319-324.
 
[15]  Gomez-Becerra, H.F., Erdem, H., Yazici A., Tutus, Y., Torun, B., Ozturk, L. and Cakmak, I. 2010a. Grain concentrations of protein and mineral nutrients in a large collection of spelt wheat grown under different environments. Journal of Cereal Science 52: 342-349.
 
[16]  Gomez-Becerra, H, F., Yazici, A., Ozturk, L., Budak, H., Peleg, Z., Morgounov, A., Fahima, T., Saranga, Y. and Cakmak, I. 2010b. Genetic variation and environmental stability of grain mineral nutrient concentrations in Triticum dicoccoides under five environments. Euphytica 171: 39-52.
 
[17]  Gokmen V., Acar O.C., Koksel H. and Acar J. (2007). Effects of dough formula and baking conditions on acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural formation in cookies. Journal of Food Chemistry, 104:1136-1142.
 
[18]  Iwe, M.O. (2002). Handbook of sensory methods. Projoint Communication Services Limited, Enugu, Nigeria, pp.70-72.
 
[19]  Jones, C. and Olson R.K. (2012). Practices to increase wheat grain protein. Montana State University Extension. EBO206. Http:// landresources.montana.edu/soil fertility/ PDF by format/ publication.
 
[20]  Kalnina S., Rakcejeva T., Kunkulberga D. and Galoburda R. (2015). Rheological properties of whole wheat and whole triticale flour blends for pasta production. Journal of Agronomy Research 13(4):948-955.
 
[21]  Kim J.C., Mulla B.P., Selle P.H and Pluske J.R. (2002). Levels of total phosphorus and phytate in three varieties of Western Australian wheat in response to growing region and growing season. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53: 1361-1366.
 
[22]  Koehler P., Kieffer R. and Wieser H. (2010). Effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the chemical and functional properties of wheat gluten III: Studies on gluten films. Journal of Cereal Scence, 51: 140-145.
 
[23]  Kunkulberga D., Klava D., Ruza A., Zirvite I. and Riekstina A. (2007). Development of whole grain products. In: Proceedings of 4 International congresses “Flour-Bread’07”. 6th Croatian congress of cereal technologists, Croatia, p. 300-305.
 
[24]  Liu Z. H., Cheng F. M. and Zhang G.P. (2005b). Grain phytic acid content in japonica rice as affected by cultivar and environment and its relation to protein content. Journal of Food Chemistry, 89:49-52.
 
[25]  Majzoobi M., Farahnaky A., Nematolahi Z., Mohammadi H., and Taghipour A.M.J. (2013). Effect of different levels and particle sizes of wheat bran on the quality of flat bread. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, 15:115-123.
 
[26]  Manthey F.A. and Schorno A.L. (2002) Physical and cooking quality of spaghetti made from whole wheat durum. Journal of Cereal Chemistry, 79:504-510.
 
[27]  Michalska A., Amigo-Benavent M., Zielinski H. and Castillo M.D. (2008). Effect of bread making on formation of Maillard reaction products contributing to the overall antioxidant activity of rye bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 48:123-132.
 
[28]  Mondal A. and Datta A.K. (2008). Bread baking. A review. Journal of Food Engineering, 86:465-474.
 
[29]  Mladenov N., Przulj N., Hristov N., Djuric V and Milovanovic M. (2001). Cultivar by environment interactions for wheat quality traits in semi-arid conditions. Journal of Cereal Chemistry, 78(3): 363-367.
 
[30]  Ortiz-Monasterio, J.I., Palacios-Rojas, E., Meng, E., Pixley, K., Trethowan, R. and Pena, R.J. 2007. Enhancing the mineral and vitamin content of wheat and maize through plant breeding. Journal of Cereal Science 46:293-307.
 
[31]  Philip J.W. and Martin R.B. (2009). Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. Journal of New Phytologist, 182: 49-84.
 
[32]  Pollak L.M., Scott M.P. and Duvick S.A. (2011). Resistant starch and starch thermal characteristics in exotic corn lines grown in temperate and tropical environments. Journal of Cereal Chemists, 88:435-440.
 
[33]  Raboy V., Paola F.G., Kevin A.Y., Sierra D.S., Suewiya G.P., Andrew T.B., Pushpalatha P.N. M., William F.S., and David S.E. (2000). Origin and seed phenotype of maize low phytic acid 1-1 and low phytic acid 2-1. Journal of Plant Physiology, 124: 355-368.
 
[34]  Rao V.K., Mulvaney S.J. and Dexter J.E. (2000). Rheological characterisation of long and short mixing flours based on stress-relaxation. Journal of Cereal Science, 31(2):159-171.
 
[35]  Rastija M., Jurica Jovic., Dario Iljkic., Vlado Kovacevic and Domagoj R. (2014). Response of winter wheat to ameliorative phosphorus fertilization. 49th Croatian and 9th International Symposium on Agriculture, Dubrovnik Croatia, 412-415.
 
[36]  Rohlfing K.A., Pollak L.M. and White P.J. (2010). Exotic corn lines with increased resistant starch and impact on starch thermal characteristics. Journal of Cereal Chemists, 87:190-193
 
[37]  Saleem N., Ahmad M., Wani S.A.., Vashnavi R. and Dar Z.A. (2015). Genotype environment interaction and stability analysis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for protein and gluten contents. Journal of Scientific Research and Essays, 10(7):260-265.
 
[38]  Sanz-Penella J.M., Collas C. and Haros M. (2008). Effect of wheat bran and enzyme addition on dough functional performance and phytic acid levels in bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 48:715-721.
 
[39]  Stathopoulos C.E., Tsiami A.A., David S.J. and Dobraszczyk B.J. (2008). Effect of heat on rheology, surface hydrophobicity and molecular weight distribution of glutens extracted from flours with different bread-making quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 47(2):134-143.
 
[40]  Triboi E., Martre P., Girousse C., Ravel C. and Triboi-Blondel A.M. (2006). Unraveling environmental and genetic relationships between grain yield and nitrogen concentration for wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 25 (2): 108-118.
 
[41]  Tsai P.J., Yu T.Y., Chen S.H., Liu C.C. and Sun Y.F. (2009). Interactive role of colour and antioxidant capacity in caramels. Journal of Food Research International, 42:380-386.
 
[42]  Zhao C.X., He M.R., Wang Z.L., Wang Y.F. and Lin Q. (2009): Effects of different water availability at post anthesis stage on grain nutrition and quality in strong-gluten winter wheat. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 332: 759-764.