World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(5), 147-152
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-4
Open AccessArticle

Integrated Application of Mineral Nitrogen and Cattle Manure to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Maize

Lamin B Sonko1, , Joseph Sarkodie-Addo2 and Vincent Logah2

1National Agriculture Research Institute (NARI), Serekunda, The Gambia

2Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Pub. Date: August 17, 2016

Cite this paper:
Lamin B Sonko, Joseph Sarkodie-Addo and Vincent Logah. Integrated Application of Mineral Nitrogen and Cattle Manure to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Maize. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(5):147-152. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-4


Field experiments were conducted at the Plantation Crops Section of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana in 2014 major and minor seasons to study the effect of combining mineral nitrogen at different application times with cattle manure on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of maize. The experiments were factorial in randomized complete block design with four replications. The factors were cattle manure at the rates of 0, 2, 4 and 6 tons/ha; and nitrogen application times as follows: 50% N at 2 weeks after planting and 50% at 4 WAP (NT1), 50% N at 2 WAP and 50% at 6 WAP (NT2), 50% N at 2 WAP and 50% at 8 WAP (NT3) and a control (0 kg N/ha). Results showed that NT2 application increased the nitrogen use efficiency in major and minor seasons more than other application times. The nitrogen use efficiency increased with increase in manure rate, but at a diminishing return. Grain yield was also higher at NT2 and also increased with increase in manure rate. Application of mineral nitrogen at NT2 along with 6 tons/ha cattle manure rate was, therefore, considered best combination for increasing yield of maize in the country.

maize nitrogen cattle manure grain yield nitrogen use efficiency

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Adu, S.V. 1992. Soils of the Kumasi Region, Ashanti Region, Ghana. Soil Research Institute Memoir 8: 73-98.
[2]  Aflakpui, G.K.S., Abdulai, M.S., Berchie, J.N., Ennin, S. and Sallah, P.Y.K. 2005. Maize production guide. Food Crops Development Project, MoFA, CSIR and SARI, 46.
[3]  Asare, D.K., Ayeh, E.O., Amoatey, H.M. and Frimpong, J.O. 2012. Biomass Production by Rain-fed Maize Cultivars in a Coastal Savannah Agro-Ecological Environment. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(3), 286-292.
[4]  Ayoola, O.T. and Makinde, E.M. 2007. Complementary Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Application: Influence on Growth and Yield of Cassava/maize/melon Intercropped with a Relayed Cowpea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(3), 187-192.
[5]  Azeez, J.O. 2009. Effects of N Application and Weed Interference on Performance of Some Tropical Maize Genotypes in Nigeria. Pedosphere, 19(5), 654-662.
[6]  Bandyopadhyay, K.K. and Sarkar, M.C. 2005. Nitrogen use efficiency, 15N balance, and nitrogen losses in flooded rice in an Inceptisol. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36, 1661-1679.
[7]  Birch, C.J., Stephen, K., Mclean, G., Doherty, A., Hammer, G.L. and Robertson, M. J. 2008. Reliability of Production of Quick to Medium Maturity Maize in Areas of Variable Rainfall in North-East Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 326-334.
[8]  Erisman, J.W., Bleeker, A., Galloway, J. and Sutton, M. S. 2007. Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment. Environmental Pollution, 150, 140-149.
[9]  GenStat. 2009. GenStat for Windows, 12th Edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK. Web page:
[10]  Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. and Eshghizadeh, H.R. 2011. Yield Response of Corn to Single and Combined Application of Cattle Manure and Urea. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1200-1208.
[11]  Kramer, A.W., Doane, T.A., Horwath, W.R. and Kessel, C. 2002. Combining fertilizer and organic inputs to synchronize N supply in alternative cropping systems in California. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 91, 233-243.
[12]  Morris, M., Tripp, R. and Dankyi, A.A. 1999. Adoption and Impact of Improved Maize Production Technologies. A Case Study of the Ghana Grains Development Project. Economics Program Paper 99-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
[13]  Mugwe, J., Mugendi, D., Kungu, J. and Mucheru-Muna, M. 2007. Effect of plant biomass, manure and inorganic fertilizer on maize yield in the central highlands of Kenya. Africa Crop Science Journal, 15(3), 111-126.
[14]  Najm, A.A., Hadi, M.R.H.S., Fazeli, F., Darzi, M.T. and Rahi, A. 2011. Effect of Integrated Management of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cattle Manure on the Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield, and Tuber Glycoalkaloids of Agria Potato. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43, 912-923.
[15]  Ncube, B., Dimes, J.P., Twomlow, S.J., Mupangwa, W. and Giller, K.E. 2006. Raising the productivity of smallholder farms under semi-arid conditions by use of small doses of manure & nitrogen: A case of participatory research. Nutrient Cycling in Agro-ecosystems, 77(1), 53-67.
[16]  Obeng-Bio, E., Bonsu, M., Obeng-Antwi, K. and Akromah, R. 2011. Greenhouse assessment of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) using some plant parameters. African Journal of Plant Science, 5(14), 823-828.
[17]  Oppong, A., Bedoya, C.A., Ewool, M.B., Asante, M.D., Thompson, R.N., Adu-Dapaah, H., Lamptey, J.N.L., Ofori, K., Offei, S.K. and Warburton, M.L. 2014. Bulk Genetic Characterization of Ghanaian Maize Landraces using Microsatellite Markers. Maydica, 59, 1-8.
[18]  Ragasa, C., Dankyi, A., Acheampong, P., Wiredu, A.N., Chapoto, A., Asamoah, M. and Tripp, R. 2013. Patterns of Adoption of Improved Maize Technologies in Ghana. Ghana strategy Support Program, working paper 36, 1-27.
[19]  Salvagiotti, F., Castellarin, J.M., Miralles, D.J. and Pedrol, H.M. 2009. Sulfur fertilization improves nitrogen use efficiency in wheat by increasing nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Research, 113, 170-177.
[20]  Sogbedji, J.M., van Es, H.M. and Agbeko, K.L. 2006. Cover Cropping and Nutrient Management Systems for Maize Production in Western Africa. Agronomy Journal, 98, 883-889.
[21]  Whalen, J.K., Chang, C., Clayton, G.W. and Carefoot, J.P. 2000. Cattle Manure Amendments Can Increase the pH of Acid Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 962-966.
[22]  Worku, M., Bänziger, M., Schulte auf’m Erley, G., Friesen, D., Diallo, A.O. and Horst, W.J. 2012. Nitrogen efficiency as related to dry matter partitioning and root system size in tropical mid-altitude maize hybrids under different levels of nitrogen stress. Field Crops Research, 130, 57-67.