World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 85-93
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan

Pasdar Hussain1, Aijaz Hussain Somoro1, Adil Hussain2, and Muhammad Waqar Arshad2

1Institute of Food and Technology, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan

2Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan

Pub. Date: April 25, 2016

Cite this paper:
Pasdar Hussain, Aijaz Hussain Somoro, Adil Hussain and Muhammad Waqar Arshad. Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):85-93. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4


30 Samples of five poultry meat products including chicken nuggets (S1), chicken fillets (S2), chicken burgers (S3), chicken meatballs (S4) and chicken kababs (S5) were collected from various retailers from Hyderabad market to evaluate quality and safety parameters. All the samples were investigated for pH, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture, ash, fat, protein content, total volatile base (TVB), total viable count (TVC) and coliform count (CC). Results revealed that chicken nuggets, fillets, burgers, meatballs and kababs varied significantly (P≤0.05) for pH, WHC, moisture, ash, fat, protein contents, TVB and CC, and non-significantly (P>0.05) for TVC. Highest pH (6.05) was recorded for meatballs, while lowest pH value (4.90) was recorded for chicken fillets. Among the investigated chicken products meatballs showed highest WHC (48.18%), while lowest was recorded in chicken kababs (27.72%). Moisture content was highest (70%) in meatballs, and lowest in chicken nuggets (62.45%). Maximum ash content (3.13%) was recorded in kababs, and lowest (1.27%) was confirmed in fillets. Fat content was maximum (10.78%) in meatballs, while minimum was recorded in kababs (4.97%). Highest protein level (20.25%) was found in kababs, while meatballs displayed lowest protein level (12.53%). Highest TVB (69.50 mg/100 g) was noted for fillets, while lowest in kababs (17.14 mg/100 g). In the microbiological examination of chicken products Total viable count (TVC) was highest in (7433.33 cfu/g) fillets, while lowest was noted in meatballs (6.43x103cfu/g). The Coliform count (CC) was highest (6.3x103cfu/g) in meatballs, while lowest values were verified in burgers (3.05x103 cfu/g). Total volatile base (TVB) and Total viable count (TVC) was greater in chicken fillets as compared to other products. This clearly indicates unhygienic circumstances at certain stages during manufacturing, processing, handling and storage of chicken meat products.

quality safety poultry meat products physicochemical parameters microbial analysis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Assis, K., Komilus, C. F., Bonaventure, B., and Mohd Shahrol Ridzal, O. Consumption Patterns of Chicken, Beef and Mutton: A Study among Consumers in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Global Journal of Advanced Research. Vol-2, Issue-1 PP. 279-286. 2015.
[2]  Smith, D.M. Functional properties of muscle proteins in processes poultry products. In: Sams, A.R. (Ed.), Poul. Meat Processing. CRC Press, 2001. p. 186.
[3]  Mielnik, M.B., Aaby, K., Rolfsen, K., Ellekjær, R.M., and Nilsson, A. Quality of comminute sausages formulated from mechanically deboned poultry meat. Meat Sci., 61: 73-84. 2002.
[4]  Ismed, I., Huda, N., Noryati, I. Physicochemical and sensory properties of commercial chicken nuggets. Asian J. Food Agro-Indus., 2 (2): 171-180. 2009.
[5]  GOP. 2012. Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2011-2012. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Government of Pakistan, Finance Division (Livestock Wing), Islamabad.
[6]  Altabari, G., AL-Dughaym, A.M. The role of sanitary inspection of meat in relation of food poisoning. The second Annual Scientific Meeting for environment hygiene (meat hygiene), Riyadh. 2000. 180- 203.
[7]  Asghar, A, Gray, J.L., Buckley, A.M., Pearson, A.M., Booren, A.M. Perspectives on warmed-over flavor. Food Technol., 42:102-108. 1988.
[8]  Fautsman, C., Cassens, R.G., Schaefer, D.M., Buege, D.R., Williams, S.N., Scheller, K.K. Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci., 54: 858-862. 1989.
[9]  Gray, J.I., Pearson, A. Rancidity and warmed-over flavour. In. Advances in Meat Research, Vol. 3: Restructured Meat and Poultry Products (Eds. A.M. Pearson and T.R. Dutson). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. NY. Pp. 221-269. 1987.
[10]  Persson, U., Jendteg, S. The Economic Impact of Poultry-Borne Salmonellosis: how much should be spend on prophylaxis? International journal of food Microbiology, 15:207-213. 1992.
[11]  Onibi, G.E., Atibioke, O.O. Influence of dietary oils and cold storage conditions on oxidative stability of pork. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 3(1): 1-8. 2004.
[12]  Raharjo, S., Sofos, J.N. Methodology for measuring malonaldehyde as a product of lipid peroxidation in muscle tissues: A review. Meat Sci., 35: 145-169. 1993.
[13]  Shahidi, F. Flavor of meat and meat products. London: 1997. BAP.
[14]  Townsend, W.E., Ackerman, S.A., Witnauer, L.P., palm, W.E. and Swift, C.E. Effects of types and levels of fat and rates and temperatures of comminution on the processing and characteristics of frankfurters. J. Food Sci. 36:261-265. 1971.
[15]  Waldroup, A.L. Contamination of raw poultry with pathogen. World Poul. Sci., 52: 7-25. 1996.
[16]  Goncalves, A.C., Almeida, R.C.C., Alves, M.A.O., and Almeida, P.F. Quantitative investigation on the effect of chemical treatments in reducing Listeria monocytogenes populations on chicken breast meat. Food control. In press. 2004.
[17]  Codex Alimentarius Commission, Committee on Food Hygiene (1991). Draft principles and application of the Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System. : Alinorm 93/13 Appendix VI Food and Agriculture Organisation World Health Organisation.
[18]  United State Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2000. Focus on Chicken. Retrieved August 19, 2005, from United State Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection
[19]  Tompkin, R.B. Indicator organisms in meat and poultry products. Food Technol., 37 (6): 107-110. 1983.
[20]  Altabari, G., Al-Dughaym, A.M. The role of sanitary inspection of meat in relation of food poisoning. In: The Second Annual Scientific Meeting for Environment Hygiene (Meat Hygiene), Riyadh, 2002; pp. 180-203.
[21]  Kozačinski, L., Hadžiosmanović, M., and Zdolec, N. Microbiological quality of poultry meat on the Croatian market. Veterinarski Arhiv, 76 (4), 305-313, 2006
[22]  Mulder, R.W. Decontamination of broiler carcasses. Misset World Poult. 11 (3), 39-40. 1995.
[23]  Aulik, J.H., Mourer, A.J. Lactic acid bacteria in poultry products. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev. 6 (3), 1415-1418. 1995.
[24]  Murugkar, H.V., Sherikar, A.T., Paturkar, A.M., Tarwate, B.G. Studies on the Microbiological Quality of Meat Products with Special Reference to the Bacterial Flora of Public Health Implications. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 4 (2): 91-97. 1993.
[25]  Perlo, F., Bonato, P., Teira, G., Fabre, R., Kueider, S. Physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken nuggets with washed mechanically deboned chicken meat: Research note. Meat Sci. 72 (4):785-788. 2005.
[26]  AL-Dughaym, A.M., and Altabari, G.F. Safety and quality of some chicken meat products in Al-Ahsa markets-Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci. 17(1): 37-42. 2009.
[27]  Mohammed, N.H. Study of some chemical, physical, sensory and bacteriology characteristics of canned chicken meat imported to Sulaymaniyah markets, Iraq. International Journal of nutrition and Metabolism. Vol. 5(7), pp. 128-133. 2013.
[28]  Tománková, J., Bořilová, J., Steinhauserová, I., Gallas, L. Volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of the freshness of poultry meat packaged in a modified atmosphere. Czech J. Food Sci., 30: 395-403.2012.
[29]  Ockerman, H.W. Quality control of Post-Mortem Muscle Tissue Dept of Animal Sciences. The Ohio State University; Columbus, OH, USA. 1985.
[30]  Wardlaw, F.B., Mccaskill, L.H., and Acton, J.C. Effect of postmortem muscle changes on poultry meat loaf properties. J. Food Sci., 38: 421-423. 1973.
[31]  AOAC. Meat and Meat Products. In: Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Arlington, VA. 2000.
[32]  Kirk, R.S., and Sawyer. R. Pearson’s Composition and Analysis of foods. Longman Scientific and Technical. Harllow. Essex. 1991.
[33]  IDF. 1991. Enumeration of microorganism in milk and milk products. Colony counts at 300C. In: International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
[34]  Karna, B.K.L., Emata O.C., Barraquio, V.L. Lactic acid and probiotic bacteria from fermented and probiotic dairy products. Science Diliman, 19(2): 23-24. 2007.
[35]  Duncan, D.B. (1955).Multiple range and multiple “F” test. Biometrics, 11: 1-12.
[36]  Barbut, S. Problem of pale soft exudative meat in broiler chickens. Br. poult. Science, 38:355-358. 1997.
[37]  Zhuang, H., Bowker, B.C., Buhr, R.J., Bourassa, D.V., and Kiepper, B.H. Effects of broiler carcass scalding and chilling methods on quality of early deboned breast fillets. Poult. Science, 92 (5): 1393-1399. 2013.
[38]  Thomsen, H.H., and Zeuthen, P. The influence of mechanically deboned meat and pH on the water-holding capacity and texture of emulsion type meat products. Meat Sci. 22 (3): 189-201. 1988.
[39]  Mittal, G.S., and Barbut, S. Effects of carrageenans and xanthan gum on the texture and acceptability of low fat frankfurters. J. Food. Pro and Pre. 18: 201-216. 1994.
[40]  Kumar, P.R., and Rani, S.M. Chemical composition of chicken of various commercial brands available in market. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Volume 7, Issue 7 Ver. III, PP 22-26 2014.
[41]  Ngadi, M., Li, Y., Oluka, S. Quality changes in chicken nuggets fried in oils with different degrees of hydrogenatation. LWT, 40. 1784-1791. 2007.
[42]  Boulianne, M., and King, A.J. Biochemical and color characteristics of skinless and boneless pale chicken breast. Poultry Science, 74:1693- 1698. 1995.
[43]  Xiong, Y.L., Ho, C.T, Shahidi, F. Quality characteristics of muscle foods. In: (eds.). Quality Attributes of Muscle Foods. Pp. 1-10. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, NY. 1999.
[44]  Rey, F.J., Martínez, L.C., Urrea, A. Comparative study of the physicochemical characteristics of an economic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat product and an economic Beef (Bos indicus) meat product with incorporation of bovine hemoglobin in powder in both formulations. Procedia Food Science. 1, 1589-1592. 2011.
[45]  Field, R.A. Mechanically deboned red meat: properties, problems and utilization of mechanically deboned muscle tissue. Food Technology. 30(9): 38. 1976.
[46]  Valsta, L.M., Tapanainen, H., and Mannisto, S. Meat fats in nutrition, In. Meat Sci, Vol.70: p 525-530. 2005.
[47]  Swierczewska, A.E., Niemiec, J., Mroczek, J.,Siennicka, A. Grzybowska, A., and Grochalska, D. Zesz. Nauk, PTZ Chow I hodaowla Drobiu, Vol 49: p 365-375. 2000.
[48]  Castellini, C., Mugnai, C., and Dal Bosco, A. Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality. S. Afr. j. anim. science, vol.42 no. 4. 2012.
[49]  Giese, J. Fats, oils and fat replacers. Food Technology. 50(4): 78-83. 1996.
[50]  Jimenez, C.F. Technologies for developing low-fat meat products. Trends in Food Science and Technology.7:41 48. 1996.
[51]  Bogosavljevic-Boskovic, S., Mitrovic, S., Djokovic, R., Doskovic, V., Djermanovic, V. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing system. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(20):9069-9075. 2010.
[52]  Barteczkso, O., and Lasek, O. Effect of varied protein and energy contents in mixture on meat quality of broiler chicken. Slovak J.Anim.Science, 41(4):173-178. 2008.
[53]  Romans, J.R., Ziegler, P.T. The Meat We Eat. The Interstate Printers & Publishers, Inc. 1977; U.S.A.
[54]  Thomas, S., Corden, M. Metric Tables of Composition of Australian Foods. Government Publishing Service. Canberra. Pages1-14. 1977.
[55]  Kenawi, A.M., Abdel-Aal, A.H., Abbas, M.H. Effect of Packaging Materials and Treatments on the Shelf Life of Chicken Breast Treated With Antimicrobial Agents and Stored Under Refrigerated Condition. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 23 (5-6), p 141-154, 2007.
[56]  Vinci, G. and Antonelli, L.M. Biogenic amines: quality index of freshness in red and white meat. Food Control. 13:519-524. 2002.
[57]  Jay, J.M. Modern Food microbiology. 4th Ed. Pp.199-233. 1992; Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY.
[58]  Byun, J. S., Min, S.J., Kim, S.I., Kim, W.J., Chung, S.M., and Lee, M. Comparison of indicators of microbial quality of meat during aerobic cold storage. J. Food Prot. 66:1733-1737. 2003.
[59]  Altabari, G. Enterotoxigenic Characteristics of Strains of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Sources Influence of Specific Factors on Survival and Growth. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sarajevo University. 1984.
[60]  EL-Khateib, T., Abd El-Rahman, H., Hamdy, M., Lotfi, A. Poultry meat products in Egypt ‘‘Proximal chemical composition and microbiological quality. Fleisch wirtsch 68 (6), 756-757. 1988.
[61]  Ismail, S.A.S., Deak, T., Abd El-Rahman, H.A.M., Yassien, A.M., Beuchat, L.R.. Presence and changes in populations of yeasts on raw and processed poultry products stored at refrigeration temperature. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 62, 113-121. 2000.
[62]  Sengupta, R., Das, R., Ganguly, S., and Mukhopadhayay, K.S. Survey on microbial quality of chicken meat in Kolkata, India. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied Microbiology.1 (3): 32-33. 2011.
[63]  Sharaf, M.E., and Sabra, M.S. Microbiological Loads for Some Types of Cooked Chicken Meat Products at Al-Taif Governorate, KSA. World Applied Sciences Journal. 17 (5): 593-597, 2012.